JP2008154198A - Communication system and communication apparatus - Google Patents

Communication system and communication apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2008154198A
JP2008154198A JP2007148671A JP2007148671A JP2008154198A JP 2008154198 A JP2008154198 A JP 2008154198A JP 2007148671 A JP2007148671 A JP 2007148671A JP 2007148671 A JP2007148671 A JP 2007148671A JP 2008154198 A JP2008154198 A JP 2008154198A
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high
frequency
communication
coupling
electric field
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JP2007148671A
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JP4345849B2 (en
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Masanori Washiro
賢典 和城
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Sony Corp
ソニー株式会社
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Priority to JP2007148671A priority patent/JP4345849B2/en
Priority claimed from EP07253160.1A external-priority patent/EP1926223B1/en
Publication of JP2008154198A publication Critical patent/JP2008154198A/en
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To achieve large-capacity transmission using electrostatic coupling by electrostatically coupling couplers of transmitter receivers in a high-frequency band to effectively operate over a wide band. <P>SOLUTION: A coupling electrode and a folded stub are formed on the upper and the lower surfaces of a spacer made of an insulator by electroplating, and the coupling electrode is coupled to a central portion of the stub via a through hole penetrating through the spacer. On a printed board, a signal line pattern led out of a transmission/reception circuit module and a conductor pattern connected to a ground conductor via a through hole penetrating through the printed board are formed. When the spacer is mounted on the printed board, both ends of the stub are connected to the signal line pattern and conductor pattern respectively. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2008,JPO&INPIT

Description

  The present invention relates to a communication system and a communication apparatus that perform large-capacity data communication between information devices, and more particularly, to perform data communication without interference with other communication systems using an electrostatic field or an induction electric field between information devices. The present invention relates to a communication system and a communication apparatus.

  More specifically, the present invention relates to a communication system and a communication apparatus that transmit a UWB communication signal using an electrostatic field or an induction electric field between information devices arranged at an extremely short distance, and is particularly mounted in each information device. The present invention relates to a communication system and a communication apparatus that efficiently transmit a high-frequency signal between couplers and enable large-capacity transmission using an electrostatic field or an induced electric field at a very short distance.

  Recently, when moving data between small information devices such as exchanging data such as images and music with a personal computer, it is possible to use a general-purpose cable such as an AV (Audio Visual) cable or a USB (Universal Serial Bus) cable. The use of a wireless interface is increasing instead of a method using a medium such as a connected data communication or a memory card. According to the latter, it is not necessary to change the connector and route the cable every time data is transmitted, which is convenient for the user. Many information devices equipped with various cableless communication functions have also appeared.

  As a method of transmitting data between small devices without a cable, radio waves that transmit and receive wireless signals using an antenna, such as wireless LAN (Local Area Network) and Bluetooth (registered trademark) communication represented by IEEE 802.11, are used. Communication methods have been developed.

  In addition, a communication method called “ultra-wide band (UWB)”, which has been attracting attention in recent years, uses a very wide frequency band of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, and transmits large-capacity wireless data of about 100 Mbps in a short distance. Therefore, a large amount of data such as a moving image or music data for one CD can be transferred at high speed in a short time.

  The UWB communication has a communication distance of about 10 m from the relationship of transmission power, and a short-range wireless communication system such as PAN (Personal Area Network) is assumed. For example, in IEEE 802.15.3, a data transmission system having a packet structure including a preamble has been devised as an access control system for UWB communication. In addition, Intel Corporation is considering a wireless version of USB (Universal Serial Bus), which is widely used as a general-purpose interface for personal computers, as a UWB application.

  In addition, UWB communication allows data transmission exceeding 100 Mbps without occupying a transmission band of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, and considering the ease of making an RF circuit, 3.1-4. A transmission system using a 9 GHz UWB low band is also actively developed. The present inventors consider that a data transmission system using UWB low band is one of effective wireless communication technologies installed in mobile devices. For example, it is possible to realize high-speed data transmission in a short-distance area such as an ultra-high-speed short-range DAN (Device Area Network) including a storage device.

  Here, if the radio field strength (radio wave intensity) at a distance of 3 meters from the radio equipment is below a predetermined level, that is, a weak radio that is at a noise level for other radio systems in the vicinity, the radio station There is no need to obtain a license (see, for example, Non-Patent Document 1), and the development and manufacturing costs of the wireless system can be reduced. The above-described UWB communication can configure a short-range wireless communication system with a relatively low electric field level from the relationship of transmission power. However, when a UWB communication system is configured by a radio wave communication system that transmits and receives radio signals using an antenna, it is difficult to suppress the generated electric field to such a weak level.

  Many of the conventional wireless communication systems adopt a radio communication system, and propagate signals using a radiation electric field generated when a current is passed through an antenna (antenna). In this case, since a radio wave is emitted from the transmitter side regardless of whether there is a communication partner, there is a problem that it becomes a generation source of an interference radio wave for a nearby communication system. Further, since the antenna on the receiver side receives not only the desired wave from the transmitter but also a radio wave arriving from a distance, it is easily affected by the surrounding interfering radio waves and causes a decrease in reception sensitivity. Further, when there are a plurality of communication partners, it is necessary to perform complicated settings in order to select a desired communication partner. For example, when a plurality of sets of wireless devices perform wireless communication in a narrow range, it is necessary to perform communication by performing division multiplexing such as frequency selection in order to avoid mutual interference. In addition, since radio waves cannot communicate when their polarization directions are orthogonal, it is necessary for the antennas to have the same polarization direction between the transceivers.

  For example, when considering a contactless data communication system at a close distance of several millimeters to several centimeters, the transmitter / receiver is strongly coupled at a short distance, while a signal is transmitted to a long distance to avoid interference with other systems. It is preferable not to arrive. In addition, it is desirable that the devices that perform data communication do not depend on each other's posture (orientation) when they are brought close to each other, and that they are coupled, that is, have no directivity. In addition, in order to perform large-capacity data communication, it is desirable that broadband communication is possible.

  The wireless communication includes a communication method using an electrostatic field or an induction field in addition to the radio wave communication using the radiated electric field. For example, in an existing non-contact communication system mainly used for RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification), an electric field coupling method or an electromagnetic induction method is applied. The static electric field and the induction electric field are inversely proportional to the cube of the distance and the square of the distance with respect to the distance from the source, respectively. Weak wireless is possible, and there is no need to obtain a radio station license. Also, in this type of contactless communication system, the transmission signal attenuates steeply according to the distance. Therefore, when there is no communication partner in the vicinity, a coupling relationship does not occur, so that other communication systems are not disturbed. Further, even when radio waves arrive from a distance, the coupler (coupler) does not receive radio waves, so that it is not necessary to receive interference from other communication systems. In other words, it can be said that contactless / ultra-short-range communication by electric field coupling using an induced electric field or an electrostatic field is suitable for realizing weak wireless.

  A contactless ultra-short-range communication system has several advantages over a normal wireless communication system. For example, when wireless signals are exchanged between devices that are relatively distant from each other, the quality of signals in the wireless section will decrease depending on the presence of surrounding reflectors and the expansion of the communication distance. Therefore, there is no dependence on the surrounding environment, and high quality transmission with a low error rate is possible using a high transmission rate. Also, in the ultra short-range communication system, there is no room for unauthorized devices to intercept transmission data, and it is not necessary to consider prevention of hacking and ensuring confidentiality on the transmission path.

  Further, in radio wave communication, since the antenna needs to have a size that is about one-half or one-fourth of the wavelength λ used, the apparatus inevitably increases in size. On the other hand, there is no such restriction in the ultra short-range communication system using an induction electromagnetic field or an electrostatic magnetic field.

  For example, by forming a communication auxiliary body set in which RFID tags are positioned between a plurality of communication auxiliary bodies, and arranging RFID tags attached to a plurality of products so as to be sandwiched between the communication auxiliary bodies, RFID There has been proposed an RFID tag system that enables stable reading / writing of information even when tags are overlapped (see, for example, Patent Document 1).

  In addition to the apparatus main body and a mounting means for mounting the apparatus main body on the body, the antenna coil and the data communication means for performing data communication with an external communication device through the antenna coil in a non-contact manner. A data communication device using an induction magnetic field in which an antenna coil and data communication means are arranged in an outer case provided in the upper part of the device body has been proposed (see, for example, Patent Document 2). .

  In addition, an antenna coil for data communication with an external device is mounted on a memory card inserted into the portable information device, and an RFID antenna coil is disposed outside the memory card insertion slot of the portable information device. A proposal has been made on a mobile phone having an RFID that secures a communication distance without impairing portability (see, for example, Patent Document 3).

  A conventional RFID system using an electrostatic field or an induction electric field uses a low frequency signal, and therefore has a low communication speed and is not suitable for a large amount of data transmission. In addition, in the case of a communication method using an induction electromagnetic field by an antenna / coil, if there is a metal plate on the back of the coil, communication cannot be performed, and a large area is required on the plane on which the coil is arranged. There are also implementation issues. Further, the loss in the transmission path is large, and the signal transmission efficiency is not good.

  On the other hand, the present inventors transmit radio frequency signals by electric field coupling, that is, as a radio station by an ultra short-range communication system that transmits the UWB communication signal using an electrostatic field or an induction electromagnetic field. We believe that high-speed data transmission considering confidentiality can be realized by a weak electric field that does not require a license. In the UWB communication system using an electrostatic field or an induction field, the present inventors consider that a large amount of data such as a moving image or music data for one CD can be transferred in a short time.

  Here, in the conventional RFID system, it is general that the electrodes (couplers) of the transmitter and the receiver are in close contact with each other, which is not convenient for the user. For this reason, it is considered that a form in which short distance communication is performed with the electrodes separated by about 3 cm is preferable.

  In the capacitive coupling method using a signal in a relatively low frequency band, the distance between the transmitter and receiver electrodes of 3 cm is negligible compared to the wavelength, so the propagation loss between the transmitter and receiver is It won't be a big problem. However, considering transmission of a high-frequency broadband signal such as a UWB signal, a distance of 3 cm corresponds to about a half wavelength for the used frequency band of 4 GHz. Since a propagation loss occurs according to the size of the propagation distance with respect to the wavelength, the distance between the electrodes of the transmitter and the receiver is a length that cannot be ignored compared with the wavelength. For this reason, when transmitting a UWB signal by electrostatic coupling, it is necessary to suppress propagation loss sufficiently low.

  In the technical field of radio description, it is common to apply frequency modulation to a wide band when transmitting a radio signal. In the UWB transmission system, the DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) -UWB system, or the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Diversity), in which the spreading speed of the DS (Direct Spread) information signal is increased to the limit. An OFDM_UWB system that employs a (frequency division multiplexing) modulation system is defined. According to the DSSS method, even if a specific frequency cannot be communicated due to noise, there is an advantage that communication using another frequency is possible and radio waves are not easily interrupted. The OFDM modulation scheme has an advantage that it is resistant to interference and noise even when a plurality of channels are used.

  Even in the ultra short-distance communication system that transmits the UWB communication signal by using the electric field coupling by the electrostatic field or the induction electric field as described above, when the frequency spread method such as DSSS is applied, between the couplers of the transceivers. In addition to producing electrostatic coupling in the high frequency band, it is necessary to design the coupler to operate effectively in the wide band.

  Further, when the coupler is accommodated in the casing of the device, it is assumed that the center frequency is shifted due to the influence of the surrounding metal parts. From this point of view, it is necessary to design the coupler for electric field coupling in advance so as to effectively operate at a wide frequency.

JP 2006-60283 A JP 2004-214879 A JP 2005-18671 A Regulations for Enforcement of the Radio Law (Rule 14 of the Radio Supervision Committee No. 14 of 1951) Article 6 Paragraph 1 1

  An object of the present invention is to provide an excellent communication system and communication apparatus capable of performing large-capacity data communication between information devices by a UWB communication method using a high-frequency broadband signal.

  A further object of the present invention is to provide an excellent communication system and communication apparatus capable of transmitting a UWB communication signal using an electrostatic field (quasi-electrostatic field) or an induced electric field between information devices arranged at an extremely short distance. It is to provide.

  A further object of the present invention is to provide an excellent communication system capable of efficiently transmitting a high-frequency signal between couplers mounted on each information device and enabling large-capacity transmission using an electrostatic field or an induced electric field at a very short distance. An object is to provide a communication device.

  A further object of the present invention is to generate electric field coupling in the high frequency band between the couplers of the transceiver and operate effectively in a wide band, and form a field coupling transmission line that is resistant to noise, enabling large capacity transmission. An object is to provide an excellent communication system and communication apparatus.

The present invention has been made in consideration of the above-described problems. The first aspect of the present invention is a transmission circuit unit that generates a high-frequency signal for transmitting data, and a high-frequency signal that transmits the high-frequency signal as an electrostatic field or an induction field. A transmitter with a coupler;
A high-frequency coupler and a receiver including a receiving circuit unit that receives and processes a high-frequency signal received by the high-frequency coupler;
The high-frequency coupler of the transmitter and the receiver includes a coupling electrode and a resonance unit including a distributed constant circuit for strengthening electrical coupling between the coupling electrodes.
In the communication system, the high-frequency signal is transmitted by electric field coupling between high-frequency couplers facing the transmitter and the receiver.

  However, “system” here refers to a logical collection of a plurality of devices (or functional modules that realize specific functions), and each device or functional module is in a single housing. It does not matter whether or not (hereinafter the same).

  If data such as images and music can be exchanged between personal computers, such as exchanging data with a personal computer, the convenience for the user is enhanced. However, in many wireless communication systems represented by wireless LAN, a radiated electric field generated when a current is passed through an antenna is used, so that radio waves are emitted regardless of whether there is a communication partner. Further, since the radiated electric field attenuates gently in inverse proportion to the distance from the antenna, the signal reaches a relatively long distance. For this reason, it becomes a source of jamming radio waves for nearby communication systems, and the reception sensitivity of the receiver-side antenna also decreases due to the influence of surrounding jamming radio waves. In short, in the radio wave communication system, it is difficult to realize wireless communication limited to a communication partner at a short distance.

  On the other hand, in a communication system using an electrostatic field or an induced electric field, a coupling relationship does not occur when there is no communication partner nearby. In addition, the electric field strengths of the induction electric field and the electrostatic field are steeply attenuated in inverse proportion to the square and the cube of the distance, respectively. That is, an unnecessary electric field is not generated and the electric field does not reach far, so that it does not disturb other communication systems. Further, even when radio waves arrive from a distance, the coupling electrode does not receive radio waves, so that it is not necessary to receive interference from other communication systems. However, this type of conventional communication system uses a low-frequency signal, so the communication speed is low and is not suitable for large-volume data transmission. Further, in the case of a communication method using an induction electromagnetic field, there is a problem in mounting such that a large area is required on a plane on which a coil is arranged.

  On the other hand, in the communication system according to the present invention, a UWB signal is transmitted between a transmitter that generates a UWB signal and a receiver that receives and processes the UWB signal by using a high-frequency coupler that each transmitter / receiver has. It is configured to transmit a signal. The static electric field and the induced electric field are attenuated in inverse proportion to the cube of the distance and the square of the distance, respectively, so that weak radio that does not require a radio station license is possible, and hacking is prevented and confidentiality is ensured on the transmission path. There is no need to consider. In addition, because of UWB communication, ultra-short-distance large-capacity communication is possible, and large-capacity data such as moving images and music data for one CD can be transferred at high speed in a short time.

  Here, in the high frequency circuit, a propagation loss occurs according to the propagation distance with respect to the wavelength. Therefore, when transmitting a high frequency signal such as UWB, it is necessary to suppress the propagation loss sufficiently low.

  Therefore, in the communication system according to the present invention, the transmitter transmits a high-frequency signal transmission path for transmitting a high-frequency signal generated by the transmission circuit unit to an electrode of the high-frequency coupler via an impedance matching unit or a resonance unit. One of the receivers is connected to a high-frequency signal transmission path for transmitting a high-frequency signal to the receiving circuit unit through an impedance matching unit and a resonance unit at approximately the center of the electrode of the high-frequency coupler. It is configured as follows. The impedance matching unit matches the impedance between the high-frequency couplers of the transmitter and the receiver, suppresses the reflected wave between the couplers, and reduces the propagation loss.

  The impedance matching part and the resonance part are intended to suppress impedance by taking impedance matching between the transmitter and receiver electrodes, that is, at the coupling part, and between the transmitter and receiver high frequency couplers. It is configured to operate as a band pass filter that passes through a desired high frequency band.

  The impedance matching unit and the resonance unit can be configured by a lumped constant circuit in which a series inductor and a parallel inductor are connected to a high-frequency signal transmission path, for example. However, since the lumped constant circuit determines constants such as inductance L and capacitance C based on the center frequency, impedance matching is not achieved in a band outside the assumed center frequency, and the operation as designed is do not do. In other words, it works effectively only in a narrow band. Particularly in the high frequency band, the resonance frequency is influenced by the fine structure of the lumped constant circuit portion and the variation of inductors and capacitors having a small value, so that it is difficult to adjust the frequency. In addition, when the impedance matching part and the resonance part are configured with lumped constants, if a small chip inductor is used as the inductor, there is a loss inside the chip inductor, and the propagation loss between the high frequency couplers becomes large. is there.

  Further, when the coupler is accommodated in the casing of the device, it is assumed that the center frequency is shifted due to the influence of the surrounding metal parts. For this reason, it is necessary to design the coupler in advance so as to effectively operate at a wide frequency. When a plurality of devices having a narrow band are arranged, the band of the entire system is further narrowed, so that it is difficult to simultaneously use a plurality of high-frequency couplers in a broadband communication system.

  In addition, when applying a frequency spreading method such as DSSS in an ultra short-range communication system that transmits an UWB communication signal using an electrostatic magnetic field, it is necessary to realize a wide band of the high-frequency coupler.

  Therefore, in the communication system according to the present invention, the high-frequency coupler that performs short-distance communication by electrostatic coupling includes a coupling electrode and an impedance matching unit and a resonance unit for matching impedance between the coupling electrodes. By using a lumped constant circuit instead of a distributed constant circuit, a wide band can be realized.

  The high-frequency coupler is mounted on a printed circuit board as one of the mounting components, similarly to the circuit module constituting the communication circuit unit that processes the high-frequency signal for transmitting data.

  In such a case, the distributed constant circuit can be configured as a stub composed of a conductor pattern disposed on the printed circuit board. A ground is formed on the other surface of the printed circuit board, and a tip portion of the stub may be connected to the ground through a through hole in the printed circuit board.

  The stub has a length approximately one half of the wavelength of the used frequency. Then, the coupling electrode may be disposed at a substantially central position of the stub, which is the maximum amplitude position of the standing wave.

  The coupling electrode can be configured as a conductor pattern deposited on the surface of a spacer made of an insulator. The spacer is a circuit component that is surface-mounted on a printed circuit board. When the spacer is mounted on the printed circuit board, the conductor pattern of the coupling electrode is connected to the stub through a through hole in the spacer. Is connected to the center position. Further, by using an insulator having a high dielectric constant as a spacer, the length of the stub can be made shorter than a half wavelength due to the wavelength shortening effect.

  Further, as described above, the stub has a length of a half wavelength at a use frequency, but by folding, the stub can be accommodated within an occupied area when the spacer is mounted on the printed board. Can do.

  The stub may be configured as a conductor pattern deposited on the other surface of the spacer.

  Here, in the communication method using electrostatic coupling, in order to cause electrostatic coupling between the coupling electrodes of both the transmitter and the receiver, it is necessary to perform delicate alignment between the coupling electrodes. That position must be maintained. As a solution to this type of problem, a configuration in which a plurality of high-frequency couplers are arranged in an array in at least one of the transceivers is conceivable. Since the high-frequency coupler according to the present invention has a wide band for each high-frequency coupler, even if a plurality of high-frequency couplers are used simultaneously in a broadband communication system, It can operate effectively.

  In such a case, it is possible to design a high-frequency coupler that is not coupled to the high-frequency coupler on the communication partner side so that it can be regarded as an open end. The high-frequency signal supplied from the communication circuit unit may be supplied only to the high-frequency coupler that is supplied again to the related high-frequency coupler and is connected to the high-frequency coupler on the communication partner side. At this time, in order to prevent interference between the original signal and the signal reflected back at the open end, the length of the signal line connecting the high frequency couplers is an integral multiple of a half wavelength, or It is desirable that the difference in the length of the signal line between the transmission / reception circuit module and each high frequency coupler is an integral multiple of a half wavelength.

  ADVANTAGE OF THE INVENTION According to this invention, the outstanding communication system and communication apparatus which can perform large capacity | capacitance data communication between information apparatuses by the UWB communication system using a high frequency wideband signal can be provided.

  In addition, according to the present invention, it is possible to provide an excellent communication system and communication apparatus capable of transmitting a UWB communication signal using an electrostatic field or an induced electric field between information devices arranged at an extremely short distance. it can.

  In addition, according to the present invention, excellent communication that efficiently transmits a high-frequency signal between couplers mounted on each information device and enables large-capacity transmission using an electrostatic field or an induction electric field at a very short distance. A system as well as a communication device can be provided.

  In addition, according to the present invention, electric field coupling is generated in the high frequency band between the couplers of the transmitter and the receiver, and the electric field coupling transmission line that operates effectively in a wide band and is resistant to noise can be formed, thereby enabling large capacity transmission. An excellent communication system and communication apparatus can be provided.

  In the communication device according to the present invention, the impedance matching unit and the resonance unit of the high-frequency coupler can be configured as a pattern on the printed circuit board, which is a distributed constant circuit, that is, a stub, and can operate suitably in a wide band.

  Since the high-frequency coupler according to the present invention has a wide band for each high-frequency coupler, even if a plurality of high-frequency couplers are used at the same time by arranging the high-frequency couplers in an array, the communication system is effectively kept in a wide band. Can work.

  Further, according to the present invention, the impedance matching part and the resonance part of the high-frequency coupler can be configured as a pattern on the printed circuit board that is a distributed constant circuit, that is, a stub, but the DC resistance of the conductor pattern on the printed circuit board is small. Therefore, even a high-frequency signal has little loss, and propagation loss between high-frequency couplers can be reduced.

  In addition, according to the present invention, the size of the stub constituting the distributed constant circuit is as large as about one-half wavelength of the high-frequency signal. Therefore, the dimensional error due to manufacturing tolerance is very small compared to the overall length. There is little variation in characteristics. The length of the pattern on the printed circuit board, that is, the size of the stub can be made smaller than the size of the conventional high-frequency coupler by folding the stub under the coupling electrode.

  Other objects, features, and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from more detailed description based on embodiments of the present invention described later and the accompanying drawings.

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

  The present invention relates to a communication system that performs data transmission between information devices using an electrostatic field or an induced electric field.

  According to a communication method based on an electrostatic field or an induced electric field, when there is no communication partner nearby, there is no coupling relationship and no radio waves are emitted, so that other communication systems are not disturbed. Further, even when radio waves arrive from a distance, the coupler does not receive radio waves, so that it is not necessary to receive interference from other communication systems.

  In the conventional radio communication using an antenna, the electric field strength of the radiated electric field is inversely proportional to the distance, whereas in the induced electric field, the electric field strength is inversely proportional to the distance squared, and in the static electric field, the electric field strength is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance. Therefore, according to the communication method based on electric field coupling, it is possible to configure a weak radio having a noise level for other radio systems in the vicinity, and it is not necessary to obtain a license from the radio station.

  An electrostatic field that varies with time may be referred to as a “quasi-electrostatic field”. In this specification, however, the electrostatic field is collectively referred to as an “electrostatic field”.

  Conventional communication using an electrostatic field or an induction field uses a low-frequency signal and is not suitable for transmitting a large amount of data. On the other hand, in the communication system according to the present invention, high-capacity transmission is possible by transmitting a high-frequency signal by electric field coupling. Specifically, by applying a communication method using a high frequency and a wide band, such as UWB (Ultra Wide Band) communication, to the electric field coupling, it is possible to realize weak data and large capacity data communication.

  UWB communication uses a very wide frequency band of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, and can realize high-capacity wireless data transmission of about 100 Mbps despite a short distance. UWB communication is a communication technology originally developed as a radio wave communication method using an antenna. For example, in IEEE 802.15.3, a data transmission method having a packet structure including a preamble as an access control method for UWB communication. Has been devised. In addition, Intel Corporation is considering a wireless version of USB that is widely used as a general-purpose interface for personal computers as a UWB application.

  In addition, UWB communication allows data transmission exceeding 100 Mbps without occupying a transmission band of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, and considering the ease of making an RF circuit, 3.1-4. A transmission system using a 9 GHz UWB low band is also actively developed. The present inventors consider that a data transmission system using UWB low band is one of effective wireless communication technologies installed in mobile devices. For example, it is possible to realize high-speed data transmission in a short-distance area such as an ultra-high-speed short-range DAN (Device Area Network) including a storage device.

  According to the UWB communication system using an electrostatic field or an induced electric field, the present inventors can perform data communication using a weak electric field, and can transfer a large amount of data such as moving images and music data for one CD at high speed. I think it can be transferred in a short time.

  FIG. 14 shows a configuration example of a contactless communication system using an electrostatic field or an induced electric field. The illustrated communication system includes a transmitter 10 that transmits data and a receiver 20 that receives data. As shown in the figure, when the high-frequency couplers of the transceivers are arranged face to face, the two electrodes operate as one capacitor, and as a whole operate like a band-pass filter, the two high-frequency couplers High-frequency signals can be efficiently transmitted between the two. In the communication system shown in the figure, in order to suitably form a transmission path by electric field coupling, sufficient impedance matching is achieved between the high-frequency couplers of the transmitter and receiver, and it operates effectively in a high frequency band and in a wide band. It is necessary to.

  The transmitter / receiver electrodes 14 and 24 of the transmitter 10 and the receiver 20 are disposed to face each other with a spacing of, for example, about 3 cm, and can be coupled to each other. The transmission circuit unit 11 on the transmitter side generates a high-frequency transmission signal such as a UWB signal based on transmission data when a transmission request is generated from a higher-level application, and the signal propagates from the transmission electrode 14 to the reception electrode 24. Then, the receiving circuit unit 21 on the receiver 20 side demodulates and decodes the received high-frequency signal and passes the reproduced data to the upper application.

  According to a communication method using a high frequency and a wide band like UWB communication, it is possible to realize ultrahigh-speed data transmission of about 100 Mbps at a short distance. In addition, when UWB communication is performed by electric field coupling instead of radio wave communication, the electric field strength is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance or the square of the distance, so the electric field strength (radio wave strength) at a distance of 3 meters from the radio equipment is By suppressing the frequency to a predetermined level or less, it is possible to obtain a weak radio that does not require a radio station license, and a communication system can be configured at low cost. In addition, when data communication is performed at an extremely short distance by the electric field coupling method, the signal quality is not deteriorated by the reflecting objects present in the vicinity, and it is not necessary to consider the prevention of hacking and ensuring the confidentiality on the transmission line. There are advantages such as.

  On the other hand, since the propagation loss increases according to the propagation distance with respect to the wavelength, it is necessary to sufficiently suppress the propagation loss when a high-frequency signal is propagated by electric field coupling. In a communication system that transmits high-frequency broadband signals such as UWB signals by electric field coupling, even ultra-short-distance communication of about 3 cm is equivalent to about one-half wavelength for the used frequency band of 4 GHz, so it is ignored. It is a length that cannot be done. In particular, the problem of characteristic impedance is more serious in a high-frequency circuit than in a low-frequency circuit, and the influence of impedance mismatch becomes apparent at the coupling point between the electrodes of the transceiver.

In communication using a frequency in the kHz or MHz band, since the propagation loss in space is small, the transmitter and the receiver are provided with a coupler consisting only of electrodes as shown in FIG. 17, and the coupling portion is simply a parallel plate capacitor. Even in the case of operating as, it is possible to perform desired data transmission. However, in communication using high frequency in the GHz band, since propagation loss in space is large, it is necessary to suppress signal reflection and improve transmission efficiency. As shown in FIG. 18, even if the high-frequency signal transmission path is adjusted to a predetermined characteristic impedance Z 0 in each of the transmitter and the receiver, the impedance matching is performed at the coupling portion only by coupling with a parallel plate capacitor. I can't take it. For this reason, in the impedance mismatching part in a coupling part, a signal is reflected, a propagation loss arises, and efficiency falls.

  For example, even if the high-frequency signal transmission line connecting the transmission circuit unit 11 and the transmission electrode 14 is a coaxial line with 50Ω impedance matching, the impedance at the coupling portion between the transmission electrode 14 and the reception electrode 24 is low. If they are mismatched, the signal is reflected to cause a propagation loss.

  Therefore, as shown in FIG. 13, the high-frequency couplers disposed in the transmitter 10 and the receiver 20 are connected to the plate-like electrodes 14 and 24, the series inductors 12 and 22, and the parallel inductors 13 and 23, respectively. Connected to the transmission line. When such a high-frequency coupler is disposed facing each other as shown in FIG. 19, the two electrodes operate as one capacitor and operate like a band-pass filter as a whole. High-frequency signals can be efficiently transmitted between the two. Here, the high-frequency signal transmission line indicates a coaxial cable, a microstrip line, a coplanar line, or the like.

  Here, if the purpose is simply to perform impedance matching between the electrodes of the transmitter 10 and the receiver 20, that is, the coupling portion, to suppress the reflected wave, each coupler is connected as shown in FIG. 20A. It is not necessary to configure the flat electrodes 14 and 24 and the series inductors 12 and 22 and the parallel inductors 13 and 23 to be connected to the high-frequency signal transmission line, and each coupler is formed as a flat electrode 14 as shown in FIG. 20B. , 24 and a series inductor may be connected to a high-frequency signal transmission line. That is, even when a series inductor is inserted on the high-frequency signal transmission line, when there is a coupler on the receiver side at a very short distance facing the coupler on the transmitter side, the impedance at the coupling portion becomes continuous. It is possible to design as such.

However, in the configuration example shown in FIG. 20B, since the characteristic impedance before and after the coupling portion does not change, the current does not change. On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 20A, when connected to the ground via the parallel inductance before the electrode at the end of the high-frequency signal transmission path, the coupler alone has the characteristic impedance Z 0 on the near side of the coupler. On the other hand, the characteristic impedance Z 1 at the end of the coupler is reduced (that is, Z 0 > Z 1 ), so that it has a function as an impedance conversion circuit, and the output current of the coupler with respect to the input current I 0 to the coupler. I 1 can be amplified (ie, I 0 <I 1 ).

  FIG. 21A and FIG. 21B show how the electric field is induced by electric field coupling between the electrodes in each of the couplers with and without the parallel inductance. From this figure, it can be understood that the coupler is provided with a parallel inductor in addition to the series inductor, thereby inducing a larger electric field and causing strong coupling between the electrodes. When a large electric field is induced near the electric field as shown in FIG. 21A, the generated electric field propagates in the front direction of the electrode surface as a longitudinal wave that vibrates in the traveling direction. This electric wave makes it possible to propagate a signal between the electrodes even when the distance between the electrodes is relatively large.

  Therefore, in a communication system that transmits high-frequency signals such as UWB signals by electric field coupling, the essential conditions for a high-frequency coupler are as follows.

(1) There is an electrode for coupling by an electric field.
(2) There is a parallel inductor for coupling with a stronger electric field.
(3) In the frequency band used for communication, the inductor and capacitor constants are set so that impedance matching can be achieved when the coupler is placed face to face.

As shown in FIG. 19, the band-pass filter composed of a pair of high-frequency couplers whose electrodes face each other has its pass frequency f 0 determined by the inductance of the series inductor and the parallel inductor and the capacitance of the capacitor constituted by the electrodes. can do. FIG. 15 shows an equivalent circuit of a bandpass filter composed of a set of high-frequency couplers. If the characteristic impedance R [Ω], the center frequency f 0 [Hz], the phase difference between the input signal and the passing signal is α [radian] (π <α <2π), and the capacitance of the capacitor constituted by the electrodes is C / 2. The constants L 1 and L 2 of the parallel and series inductances constituting the band pass filter can be obtained by the following equations according to the operating frequency f 0 .

Further, when the coupler alone functions as an impedance conversion circuit, the equivalent circuit is as shown in FIG. In the illustrated circuit diagram, an impedance conversion circuit that converts the characteristic impedance from R 1 to R 2 by selecting the parallel inductance L 1 and the series inductance L 2 in accordance with the operating frequency f 0 so as to satisfy the following equation. Can be configured.

  In this way, in the non-contact communication system shown in FIG. 14, a communication device that performs UWB communication uses the high-frequency coupler shown in FIG. 13 instead of using an antenna in a conventional radio communication device of radio wave communication system. As a result, it is possible to realize ultra-short distance data transmission having unprecedented characteristics.

  As shown in FIG. 19, the two high-frequency couplers whose electrodes are opposed to each other with a very short distance operate as a band-pass filter that passes a signal in a desired frequency band, and a single high-frequency coupler. Acts as an impedance conversion circuit that amplifies the current. On the other hand, when the high-frequency coupler is placed alone in free space, the input impedance of the high-frequency coupler does not match the characteristic impedance of the high-frequency signal transmission path, so that the signal entering from the high-frequency signal transmission path is reflected in the high-frequency coupler. Not radiated outside.

  Therefore, in the non-contact communication system shown in FIG. 14, when there is no partner to communicate with on the transmitter side, radio waves do not flow like an antenna, and the partner to communicate with approaches each electrode. Only when the capacitor constitutes a capacitor, impedance matching is achieved as shown in FIG. 19 so that a high-frequency signal is transmitted.

Here, consider the electromagnetic field generated in the coupling electrode on the transmitter side. FIG. 23 shows an electromagnetic field generated by a minute dipole. In FIG. 24, this electromagnetic field is mapped onto the coupling electrode. As shown in the figure, the electromagnetic field is roughly divided into an electric field component (transverse wave component) E θ that vibrates in a direction perpendicular to the propagation direction and an electric field component (longitudinal wave component) E R that vibrates in a direction parallel to the propagation direction. . In addition, a magnetic field is generated around the minute dipole. The following equation represents the electromagnetic field due to a small dipole, but since an arbitrary current distribution can be considered as a continuous collection of such small dipoles, the electromagnetic field induced thereby has similar properties (for example, (See, "Antenna / Radio Wave Propagation" by Yasuto Mushiaki (Corona, pages 16-18)).

As can be seen from the above equation, the transverse wave component of the electric field includes a component that is inversely proportional to the distance (radiated electric field), a component that is inversely proportional to the square of the distance (induced electric field), and a component that is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance (electrostatic field). ). Further, the longitudinal wave component of the electric field is composed of only a component inversely proportional to the square of the distance (inductive electric field) and a component inversely proportional to the cube of the distance (electrostatic field), and does not include the component of the radiated electromagnetic field. The electric field E R is maximized in the direction in which | cos θ | = 1, that is, in the direction of the arrow in FIG.

In the radio communications are widely used in wireless communication, radio wave emitted from an antenna is a transverse wave E theta oscillating in the perpendicular direction its traveling direction, the radio wave can not communicate with the direction of polarization is orthogonal. In contrast, electromagnetic waves emitted from the coupling electrode in a communication system utilizing an electrostatic field or an induced electric field, in addition to the transverse wave E theta, including longitudinal wave E R which oscillates in the traveling direction. The longitudinal wave E R is also called “surface wave”. Incidentally, a surface wave can also propagate through the inside of a medium such as a conductor, a dielectric material, or a magnetic material.

  Of the transmission waves using an electromagnetic field, those having a phase velocity v smaller than the light velocity c are called slow waves, and those having a larger phase velocity v are called fast waves. The surface wave corresponds to the former slow wave.

In a non-contact communication system, a signal can be transmitted via any component of a radiated electric field, an electrostatic field, and an induced electric field. However, a radiated electric field that is inversely proportional to distance can cause interference to other systems that are relatively far away. Therefore, to suppress the component of the radiation field, in other words, while suppressing the transverse wave E theta comprising the components of the radiation field, the non-contact communication is preferred utilizing longitudinal wave E R not containing component of the radiation field.

From the viewpoint described above, the high frequency coupler according to the present embodiment has the following devices. First, it can be seen from the above-described three equations showing the electromagnetic field that E θ = 0 and the E R component takes a maximum value when θ = 0 °. That is, E θ is maximized in a direction perpendicular to the direction of current flow, and E R is maximized in a direction parallel to the direction of current flow. Therefore, to maximize E R perpendicular front direction with respect to the electrode surface, it is desirable to increase the vertical direction of the current component to the electrode. On the other hand, when the feeding point is offset from the center of the electrode, the current component in the direction parallel to the electrode increases due to this offset. Then, the front direction of the E theta component of the electrode according to the current component is increased. Therefore, in the high-frequency coupler according to the present embodiment, the feeding point substantially at the center position of the electrode as shown in FIG. 16A (described later), is the E R component is set to be maximum.

Of course, not only the radiated electric field but also the static electric field and the induced electric field are generated even in the conventional antenna, and electric field coupling occurs when the transmitting and receiving antennas are brought close to each other. Not right. In contrast, the high-frequency coupler shown in FIG. 13, so as to increase the transmission efficiency create a stronger electric field E R at a predetermined frequency, the electrode and the resonance unit for coupling is formed.

When the high-frequency coupler shown in FIG. 13 is used alone on the transmitter side, a longitudinal wave electric field component E R is generated on the surface of the coupling electrode, but the transverse wave component E θ including the radiation electric field is changed to E R. Since it is relatively small, almost no radio waves are emitted. That is, no disturbing wave to other neighboring systems is generated. Also, most of the signal input to the high frequency coupler is reflected by the electrode and returns to the input end.

On the other hand, when one set of high-frequency couplers is used, that is, when the high-frequency couplers are arranged at a short distance between the transceivers, the coupling electrodes are coupled mainly by a quasi-electrostatic field component to form one capacitor. It works like a bandpass filter and is in a state where impedance matching is achieved. Therefore, most of the signal / power is transmitted to the other party in the passing frequency band, and the reflection to the input end is small. The “short distance” here is defined by the wavelength λ, and corresponds to the distance d between the coupling electrodes being d << λ / 2π. For example, when the use frequency f 0 is 4 GHz, the distance between the electrodes is 10 mm or less.

Also, when placing the EFC medium distance between the transmitter and the receiver are on the periphery of the coupling electrode of the transmitter, the electrostatic field is attenuated, the longitudinal wave electric field E R mainly composed of an induced electric field is generated . Longitudinal wave electric field E R is received by the coupling electrode of the receiver, the signal is transmitted. However, in comparison with the case where both couplers are arranged at a short distance, in the high frequency coupler on the transmitter side, the ratio of the input signal reflected by the electrode and returning to the input end becomes higher. The “medium distance” here is defined by the wavelength λ, the distance d between the coupling electrodes is about 1 to several times larger than λ / 2π, and the distance between the electrodes is 10 to 40 mm when the use frequency f 0 is 4 GHz. At the time.

As already described, in the high frequency coupler shown in FIG. 13, the operating frequency f 0 is determined by the constants L 1 and L 2 of the parallel inductor and the series inductor in the impedance matching unit. It is a general circuit manufacturing method to configure these series inductors 12 and 22 and parallel inductors 13 and 23 with circuit elements that are regarded as lumped constant circuits. However, it is known that a lumped constant circuit has a narrower band than a distributed constant circuit in a high-frequency circuit, and the inductor constant becomes small when the frequency is high, so that there is a problem that the resonance frequency shifts due to variations in the constant.

  Therefore, in the present invention, the high frequency coupler is configured by replacing the lumped constant circuit from the lumped constant circuit and the distributed constant circuit in the impedance matching section and the resonance section, thereby realizing a wide band.

  FIG. 1 shows a configuration example of a high-frequency coupler according to an embodiment of the present invention.

  In the illustrated example, a high-frequency coupler is disposed on a printed circuit board 101 having a ground conductor 102 formed on the lower surface and a printed pattern formed on the upper surface. As the impedance matching section and the resonance section of the high-frequency coupler, a conductor pattern as a distributed constant circuit, that is, a stub 103 is formed instead of the parallel inductor and the series inductor, and is connected to the transmission / reception circuit module 105 via the signal line pattern 104. Yes. The stub 103 is connected to the ground 102 on the lower surface via a through hole 106 penetrating the printed circuit board 101 at the tip, and is short-circuited, and is connected to the coupling electrode 108 via a metal wire 107 near the center of the stub 103. Is done.

  The “stub” in the technical field of electronics is a general term for electric wires with one end connected and the other end not connected or connected to the ground, and is used for adjustment, measurement, impedance matching, filters, etc. Provided on the way.

  The length of the stub 103 is about a half wavelength of the high frequency signal, and the signal line 104 and the stub 103 are formed by a microstrip line, a coplanar line, or the like on the printed circuit board 101. When the length of the stub 103 is a half wavelength and the tip is short-circuited, the voltage amplitude of the standing wave generated in the stub 103 becomes 0 at the tip of the stub, and from the center of the stub, that is, from the tip of the stub 103. It is maximum at a quarter wavelength (see FIG. 2). By connecting the coupling electrode 108 with the metal wire 107 at the center of the stub 103 having the maximum voltage amplitude, a high-frequency coupler with good propagation efficiency can be made.

  Since the impedance matching unit is composed of a stub 103, that is, a distributed constant circuit composed of a conductor pattern on the printed circuit board 101, uniform characteristics can be obtained over a wide band. Can be applied. The stub 103 is a conductor pattern on the printed circuit board 101, and since its direct current resistance is small, there is little loss even for high-frequency signals, and propagation loss between high-frequency couplers can be reduced.

  Since the size of the stub 103 constituting the distributed constant circuit is as large as about a half wavelength of a high-frequency signal, the dimensional error due to manufacturing tolerances is very small compared to the overall length, resulting in variations in characteristics. Hateful.

  FIG. 8 shows a comparison of the frequency characteristics of the high-frequency coupler when the impedance matching unit is composed of a lumped constant circuit and a distributed constant circuit. However, the high-frequency coupler in which the impedance matching unit is configured by a lumped constant circuit, as shown in FIG. 6, a coupling electrode is disposed via a metal wire at the tip of a signal line pattern on a printed circuit board, and a signal line It is assumed that a parallel inductor component is mounted at the tip of the pattern, and the other end of the parallel inductor is connected to a ground conductor through a through hole in the printed circuit board. Moreover, as shown in FIG. 7, the high frequency coupler which comprised the impedance matching part with the distributed constant circuit has a metal wire in the center of the stub formed on the printed circuit board and having a length of a half wavelength. It is assumed that a coupling electrode is provided and the stub is connected to the ground conductor at the tip thereof through a through hole in the printed circuit board. It is assumed that each high frequency coupler is adjusted so that the operating frequency is around 3.8 GHz. 6 and 7, a high frequency signal is transmitted from the port 1 to the port 2 by the microstrip line, and each high frequency coupler is disposed in the middle of the microstrip line. The frequency characteristic is measured as a transfer characteristic from the port 1 to the port 2, and the result is shown in FIG.

Since the high-frequency coupler can be regarded as an open end when it is not coupled with other high-frequency couplers, the high-frequency signal input from the port 1 is not supplied to the high-frequency coupler but is transmitted to the port 2 as it is. Therefore, in the vicinity of 3.8 GHz, which is the operating frequency of the high frequency coupler, the propagation loss S 21 representing the signal intensity transmitted from the port 1 to the port 2 is a large value in either high frequency coupler. However, in the case of the high frequency coupler shown in FIG. 6, the value of S 21 is greatly reduced at a frequency deviating back and forth from the operating frequency. In contrast, it can be seen that the high frequency coupler shown in FIG. 7 maintains good characteristics with a large value of S 21 over a wide frequency band centered on the operating frequency. That is, it can be said that the high-frequency coupler operates effectively in a wide band by configuring the impedance matching unit with a distributed constant circuit.

  In the vicinity of the center of the stub 103, the coupling electrode 108 is connected via the metal wire 107, and it is preferable that the metal wire is connected at the approximate center of the coupling electrode 108. This is because, by connecting a high-frequency transmission line to the center of the coupling electrode, current flows evenly in the electrode, and unnecessary radio waves are not emitted in the direction substantially perpendicular to the electrode surface in front of the electrode (see FIG. 16A). For example, if a high-frequency transmission line is connected at a position offset from the center of the coupling electrode, an unequal current flows in the termination electrode and operates like a microstrip antenna, radiating unnecessary radio waves. (See FIG. 16B).

  Also, in the field of radio wave communication, as shown in FIG. 36, a “capacity loaded type” antenna is widely known in which a metal is attached to the tip of an antenna element to provide a capacitance, and the height of the antenna is shortened. At first glance, the coupler is similar in structure to that shown in FIG. Here, the difference between the coupler used in the transceiver in this embodiment and the capacity loaded antenna will be described.

The capacity loaded antenna shown in FIG. 36 radiates radio waves in the directions B 1 and B 2 around the radiating element of the antenna, but the A direction is a null point that does not radiate radio waves. When the electric field generated around the antenna is examined in detail, the radiation electric field attenuated in inverse proportion to the distance from the antenna, the induced electric field attenuated in inverse proportion to the square of the distance from the antenna, and the distance from the antenna 3 An electrostatic field that decays in inverse proportion to the power is generated. Since the induced electric field and the electrostatic field are attenuated more rapidly depending on the distance than the radiated electric field, only the radiated electric field is discussed in a normal wireless system, and the induced electric field and the electrostatic field are often ignored. Therefore, even the capacitively loaded antenna shown in FIG. 36 generates an induced electric field and an electrostatic field in the direction A, but since it attenuates quickly in the air, it is actively used in radio communication. Absent.

  In the high frequency coupler shown in FIG. 1, the ground conductor 102 is coupled by taking a sufficient height from the stub 103 on the circuit mounting surface of the printed circuit board 101 to the coupling electrode 108 connected via the metal wire 107. The function as a high frequency coupler (that is, the electrostatic coupling action with the high frequency coupler on the receiver side not shown) is ensured by avoiding the electrostatic coupling with the electrode 108 for use. However, if the height from the circuit mounting surface to the coupling electrode 108 is too large, the metal wire 107 connecting the printed circuit board 101 and the coupling electrode 108 acts as an antenna, and unnecessary radio waves are generated by the current flowing through the inside. There is a harmful effect of releasing. In this case, the radiated radio wave due to the behavior as an antenna in the resonance part of the high frequency coupler has a smaller attenuation than the electrostatic field and the induced electric field, so that the electric field strength at a distance of 3 meters from the wireless equipment is less than a predetermined level. It becomes difficult to keep it wireless. Therefore, the length of the metal wire 107 avoids coupling with the ground conductor 102 and sufficiently obtains characteristics as a high-frequency coupler, and radiation of unnecessary radio waves due to current flowing through the metal wire 107 does not increase (that is, The condition is that the resonance portion made of the metal wire 107 does not increase the function as an antenna.

  In the case of a high-frequency coupler in which a parallel inductor and a series inductor are configured by a distributed constant circuit, stub width W, stub length L1, and stub tip (or through) are considered as dimensional parameters that are considered to affect the performance. A distance L2 from the position of the hole 106) to the attachment position of the coupling electrode 108 (or the metal wire 107) can be mentioned.

  As already described, the length of the stub 103 is the size of a half wavelength of the high-frequency signal to be used, and the maximum amplitude of the standing wave is obtained at the mounting position L2 of the coupling electrode 108. It is preferably a quarter wavelength position (see FIG. 2).

Here, the inventors actually measured the propagation loss S 21 for each attachment position L2 of the coupling electrode 108 while changing the distance between the coupling electrodes of the transceiver. However, the size of the coupling electrode of the high frequency coupler is 8 mm × 8 mm, the electrode height (metal wire length) is 3 mm, the substrate dimensions are 20 mm × 20 mm, the thickness is 0.8 mm, and the substrate dielectric constant is Assuming 3.4. The length L1 of the stub was set to a half of the wavelength at the used frequency, and the width W was set to 1.8 mm. FIG. 26 shows the result.

  From FIG. 26, when the mounting position L2 of the coupling electrode 108 is a quarter wavelength, that is, when the standing wave is generated in the short stub of the half wavelength, the coupling is performed at the position where the voltage amplitude becomes maximum. It can be seen that when the working electrode 108 is attached, the coupling between the high-frequency couplers becomes stronger.

In general, metal prevents the antenna from efficiently radiating radio waves, so that a metal such as a ground cannot be disposed in the vicinity of the radiating element of the antenna. On the other hand, in the communication system according to this embodiment, the high frequency coupler does not deteriorate in characteristics even when a metal is disposed on the back side of the coupling electrode 108. Further, by folding the stub and placing it on the substrate, it can be made smaller than a conventional antenna. The field component (longitudinal wave component) E R oscillating in the direction of propagation and parallel orientation because no polarization can be varied orientation to ensure a constant communication quality.

  The antenna transmits a signal via a radiated electric field that attenuates in inverse proportion to the distance. On the other hand, the high-frequency coupler according to the present embodiment transmits a signal mainly through an induction electric field that attenuates in inverse proportion to the square of the distance and an electrostatic field that attenuates in inverse proportion to the cube of the distance. . In particular, when the distance between the electrodes increases, the electric field suddenly decreases the electrical coupling and communication cannot be performed. This is suitable for communication using a weak electric field at a very short distance. means.

27 and 28 show measured values of S parameters when the two high-frequency couplers shown in FIG. 25 are arranged to face each other and the distance between the coupling electrodes is changed. The S parameter includes a VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) corresponding to the reflection characteristic S 11 that is reflected from the signal radiated from the transmission side and returned and the signal radiated from the transmission side reaches the reception side. The propagation loss S 21 is shown in FIG. 27 and FIG. 28, respectively.

  In general, VSWR is recommended to be 2 or less. From FIG. 27, for the high-frequency coupler operating at 4 GHz, when the distance between transmission and reception is 10 mm or less, the VSWR becomes a small value and impedance matching is achieved. At this time, it is considered that the coupling electrodes of the high-frequency coupler are coupled to each other mainly by a quasi-electrostatic field and operate like a single capacitor. On the other hand, when the distance between transmission and reception is 10 mm or more, VSWR takes a relatively large value and impedance matching is not achieved. At this time, it is considered that the two high-frequency couplers transmit and couple signals mainly by a longitudinal wave induction electric field.

Further, it can be seen from FIG. 28 that the propagation loss S 21 becomes smaller as the distance between transmission and reception becomes larger.

Since the high-frequency coupler does not have polarization like an antenna, a certain communication quality can be ensured even if the directions of the high-frequency couplers change (described above). The present inventors, while changing the orientation and relative positional relationship between the high-frequency coupler, tried by actually measuring the propagation loss S 21. Specifically, the high frequency coupler on the transmission side is placed at the position (0, 0) and connected to one port of a known network analyzer, and the high frequency coupler on the reception side is connected to the other port of the network analyzer. Connect to the port. Then, to measure the propagation loss S 21 between EFC when changing the position of the high-frequency coupler on the reception side. The measurement frequency is 4 GHz.

29, the receiving side of the EFC antenna and transmission side of the high-frequency coupler indicates the measured value of the propagation loss S 21 between EFC when orientation was placed so as to be the same (i.e., 0 degrees) Yes. Further, in FIG. 30, only the direction of 90 degrees on the receiving side of the high-frequency coupler is rotated, it shows the results of actual measurement of the propagation loss S 21 between EFC antennas as well. Comparing the two figures, the measurement results are almost the same before and after the rotation. That is, it can be seen that the electric field generated by the high frequency coupler has no polarization.

For comparison, while changing the direction of using the conventional linearly polarized antenna, tried by actually measuring the propagation loss S 21. Specifically, the transmission-side linearly polarized antenna is placed at the (0, 0) position, connected to one port of a known network analyzer, and the receiver-side linearly polarized antenna is connected to the network analyzer. Connect to the other port. Then, the propagation loss S 21 between the linearly polarized antennas when the position of the linearly polarized antenna on the receiving side is changed is measured. The measurement frequency is 4 GHz.

Figure 31 is a linearly polarized antenna between the transmitter and indicates the measured value of the propagation loss S 21 when the orientation was placed so as to be the same (i.e., 0 degrees). Further, FIG. 32 shows the results of actual measurement of the propagation loss S 21 in the same manner is rotated by the direction of 90 degrees on the receiving side of the linearly polarized antenna. Comparing the two figures, when the direction of the linearly polarized antenna on the receiving side is 90 degrees, that is, when the transmission and reception polarizations are orthogonal, the propagation loss between the antennas is large and the signal transmission strength is weak. That is, in the linearly polarized antenna, the communication quality cannot be guaranteed if the direction is changed.

Figure 33 is between the high-frequency coupler between the linearly polarized antenna (the direction of polarization is the same when) shows the measured value of the relationship distance between transmission and reception and the propagation loss S 21 of the. However, the measurement frequency is 4 GHz. The radiation electric field attenuates gently in inverse proportion to the distance, whereas the electric field strengths of the induction electric field and the electrostatic electric field attenuate sharply in inverse proportion to the square and cube of the distance, respectively (described above). Therefore, as shown in the figure, the high frequency couplers are strongly coupled at a short distance, but the attenuation due to the distance is large.

  In FIG. 34, the logarithm of the square root of received power (that is, electric field strength) is plotted on the vertical axis and the logarithm of the distance between transmission and reception is plotted on the horizontal axis from the measurement results shown in FIG. A straight-line approximated by multiplication is shown. From the slope of each straight line, in the frequency range of 4 GHz and the distance between transmission and reception of 1 to 5 cm, the electric field generated by the high frequency coupler is dominated by the induction electric field that is proportional to the -2 power of the distance. It can be seen that the generated electric field is dominated by a radiated electric field proportional to approximately the −1th power of the distance.

While a metal such as a ground cannot be disposed in the vicinity of the radiating element of the antenna, the high frequency coupler does not deteriorate in characteristics even when a metal serving as a ground is disposed on the back side of the electrode 108. Figure 35 shows the measurement results of the propagation loss S 21 between EFC when varying ground size of the back of the high-frequency coupler. However, the measurement frequency is 4 GHz, and the size of the coupling electrode is 8 mm × 8 mm. Since the leakage of the electric field in a more rear direction is larger ground size of the back of the high-frequency coupler is reduced, believed to propagation loss S 21 in the front direction increases. The ground does not need to be infinitely large, and it is practically sufficient that one side is at least twice the size of the coupling electrode and at least four times the area.

  As described above, it is desirable that the coupling electrode is disposed at a quarter wavelength position where the maximum amplitude of the standing wave can be obtained.

  Here, when the UWB low band (described above) of 3.1 to 4.9 GHz is assumed as the use frequency band, the wavelength length in free space is about 75 mm, and the wavelength is shortened by the dielectric constant of the substrate. If the stub 103 is formed in a straight line as shown in FIG. 1, the stub 103 does not fit within the area occupied by the coupling electrode 108, which may impair the mounting efficiency on the printed circuit board 101. Incidentally, considering that the dimension of the coupling electrode 108 is about 10 × 10 mm, the dimension of the stub 103 is not balanced.

  Therefore, the pattern of the stub 103 may be bent so as to be accommodated within the area occupied by the coupling electrode 108 while maintaining the half wavelength dimension. That is, the size of the pattern on the printed circuit board 101, that is, the size of the stub 103 becomes longer than the size of the conventional high-frequency coupler by folding the stub 103 under the coupling electrode 108. Can do.

  An actual configuration example of the high-frequency coupler will be described with reference to FIGS. FIG. 3 shows a high-frequency coupler in which the stub 103 is bent under the coupling electrode 108. In order to operate as a high frequency coupler, the length of the stub 103 need only be about one-half wavelength, and the stub 103 does not necessarily have to be a straight line. Therefore, by folding as shown in FIG. The overall dimensions of the vessel can be reduced.

  As described above, from the viewpoint of avoiding electric field coupling between the ground conductor 102 and the coupling electrode 108, the height from the circuit mounting surface of the printed circuit board 101 to the coupling electrode 108 is important.

  For example, as shown in FIG. 4, a coupling electrode 108 is disposed on the upper surface of a spacer 109 having an appropriate height, and is connected to the central portion of the stub 103 through a through hole 110 penetrating the spacer 109. It is configured as follows. The spacer 109 is made of an insulator and has a role of supporting the coupling electrode 108 at a desired height. After a through hole is formed in a columnar dielectric having a desired height, a conductor 109 is filled in the through hole, and a conductor pattern to be a coupling electrode is deposited on the upper end surface, thereby producing a spacer 109. can do. The spacer 109 on which the coupling electrode is formed is mounted on the printed circuit board 101 by a process such as reflow soldering.

  FIG. 5 shows a state where the spacer 109 in which the coupling electrode 108 and the through hole 109 as the metal wire are formed is mounted on the printed circuit board 101 as a surface mount component.

  In the illustrated example, the coupling electrode 108 and the folded stub 103 are formed on the upper and lower surfaces of the spacer 109 made of an insulator. For example, after a through hole is formed in a columnar dielectric having a desired height, the conductor is filled in the through hole, and the conductor pattern of the coupling electrode 108 and the stub 103 is formed on the upper and lower sides of the dielectric by a plating technique. The spacer 109 can be manufactured by vapor-depositing on each end face. At this time, the coupling electrode 108 on the upper end surface is connected to the central portion of the stub 103 on the lower end surface side through a through hole 110 penetrating the spacer 109.

  Conductive patterns 111 and 112 are formed on the printed circuit board 101 to be bonded to both ends of the spacer 109, respectively. One conductor pattern 111 is a signal line drawn from the transmission / reception circuit module 105, and the other conductor pattern 112 is connected to the ground conductor 102 through a through hole 106 that penetrates the printed circuit board 101. The spacer 109 on which the coupling electrode and the folded stub are formed is mounted on the printed circuit board 101 by a process such as reflow soldering.

  In the example shown in FIG. 5, the coupling electrode 108 and the stub 103 are deposited on the upper end surface and the lower end surface of the spacer 109 respectively. As a modification, only the coupling electrode 108 is deposited on the spacer 109. The stub 103 may be arranged as a conductor pattern on the printed circuit board 101 so that the coupling electrode 108 and the stub 103 are connected via the through hole 110 in the spacer 109 when the spacer 109 is surface-mounted. it can.

  In the configuration example of the high frequency coupler shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, the spacer 109 is made of an insulator (described above). However, when a material having a high dielectric constant is used, the wavelength is substantially reduced due to the wavelength shortening effect. Therefore, the dimensions of the stub 103 and the coupling electrode 108 can be reduced.

  The height of the spacer 109 (that is, the length of the through hole 110) corresponds to the height from the circuit mounting surface of the printed circuit board 101 to the coupling electrode 14, and avoids electric field coupling between the coupling electrode 108 and the ground 102. It has both a role and a role of forming a series inductor by the through hole 110. By appropriately adjusting the height of the spacer 109 according to the wavelength used, the through-hole 110 constitutes a series inductor, avoids electric field coupling between the ground 102 and the coupling electrode 108, and functions as a high-frequency coupler. Secure. By appropriately adjusting according to the wavelength used, the through-hole 110 has an inductance and can be substituted for the series inductor 12 shown in FIG. However, when the height of the spacer 109 is large, that is, when the distance from the circuit mounting surface of the printed circuit board 101 to the coupling electrode 108 becomes a length that cannot be ignored with respect to the wavelength used, the through hole 110 acts as an antenna, There is a harmful effect of emitting unnecessary radio waves due to the current flowing inside.

  Here, in the communication system using the electric field coupling by the electrostatic field or the induction electric field, in order to cause the electrostatic coupling between the coupling electrodes, it is necessary to delicately align the coupling electrodes between the transceivers. Yes, the position must be maintained during data communication. It is difficult for the user to know which part in the device the coupling electrode is placed and which part should be contacted, or at what angle the electrode part should face each other for optimal communication For this reason, the maximum communication speed may not be obtained.

  As a solution to this type of problem, a configuration in which a plurality of high-frequency couplers are arranged in an array is conceivable. In the case of radio wave communication, if multiple transmission antennas are provided in parallel, the transmission power is distributed to each antenna and the output of each antenna is reduced, so antennas that do not contribute to communication waste transmission power. End up. On the other hand, in the communication system using electric field coupling, only those having a coupling relationship with other high-frequency couplers can transmit high-frequency signals, and other high-frequency couplers can be designed to be regarded as almost open ends. . In other words, even when a plurality of high frequency couplers are arranged in an array, the problem that a high frequency coupler that does not perform electric field coupling with the high frequency coupler on the communication partner side wastes transmission power is not serious. In addition, since the high-frequency coupler according to the present embodiment has a wide band for each high-frequency coupler, even if a plurality of high-frequency couplers are used simultaneously by arranging the high-frequency couplers in an array in a broadband communication system, It can operate effectively with a wide bandwidth.

  FIG. 9 shows a state in which a plurality of high-frequency couplers shown in FIG. 1 are arranged on a printed board. One end of the stub of each high-frequency coupler is connected in parallel to one transmission / reception circuit module via a signal line. FIG. 10 shows a state in which a plurality of high-frequency couplers shown in FIG. 4 or FIG. 5 are arranged on a printed board.

  Of the three high frequency couplers 1 to 3 shown in the figure, only those having a coupling relationship with other high frequency couplers transmit high frequency signals, and the other high frequency couplers have open ends. For example, when only the high-frequency coupler 2 in the figure is in a coupling relationship with a high-frequency coupler (not shown) on the communication partner side, the output signal from the transmission / reception circuit module is not supplied to the high-frequency coupler 1 and high-frequency coupling is performed. The signal is transmitted to the high frequency coupler on the communication partner side through the device 2.

  Further, a part of the output signal from the transmission / reception circuit section passes through the high-frequency coupler 2 and further propagates through the signal line to reach the high-frequency coupler 3, and then is reflected in front of the high-frequency coupler 3 to be again high-frequency coupled Is supplied to the vessel 2. Here, in order to prevent interference between the original signal and the signal reflected and returned, the length of the signal line connecting the high frequency couplers is an integral multiple of a half wavelength, or a transmission / reception circuit. It is desirable that the difference in the length of the signal line between the module and each high frequency coupler is an integral multiple of a half wavelength. As a result, the signal from the transmission / reception circuit module is supplied to only the high-frequency couplers that are coupled to other high-frequency couplers, as compared with the case where the signal from the transmitter / receiver circuit module is divided into a plurality of parts and supplied to the respective high-frequency couplers. As a result, signals can be transmitted selectively and effectively.

  In addition, as shown in FIG. 9 and FIG. 10, the high-frequency couplers are not arranged in a line, but as shown in FIG. A coupler can also be arranged. In the arrangement example shown in FIG. 11, the length of the signal line connecting the branch point to each high frequency coupler is set to an integral multiple of a half wavelength, so that the transmission / reception circuit module and each high frequency coupler are connected. Since the difference in length of the signal line is an integral multiple of one-half wavelength, it is possible to suppress interference between the original signal supplied to the electrostatically coupled high-frequency coupler and the reflected wave.

  Further, as shown in FIG. 12, even if an arrangement example in which the arrangement of one row shown in FIG. 10 and the arrangement of branches shown in FIG. 11 are used in combination is used, interference between the original signal and the reflected wave is prevented. The effect can be obtained similarly. Further, the problem of positioning the electrode with the communication partner is alleviated by the increase in the number of high-frequency couplers used.

  When a plurality of narrow band devices are arranged in the housing of the device, the band as the entire system is further narrowed, and it is expected that it is difficult to simultaneously use a plurality of high frequency couplers in a wide band communication system. On the other hand, according to this embodiment, since each high-frequency coupler has a wide band, in a wide-band communication system, the high-frequency couplers are arranged in an array as shown in FIGS. Even when the high-frequency couplers are simultaneously used, it is possible to operate effectively with a wide band.

  4 and 5 show configuration examples of a high-frequency coupler that can be applied to the electric field coupling type non-contact communication system shown in FIG. However, the configuration method of the high frequency coupler is not limited to this.

  For example, the electrode portion of the high-frequency coupler can be easily and inexpensively manufactured by, for example, sheet metal processing. 37 to 39 illustrate the manufacturing method.

  In each figure, a sheet metal made of copper or the like is first punched to form a portion to be a coupling electrode and a portion to be a leg connecting the coupling electrode and the high-frequency signal line.

  Subsequently, a bending process is performed, and the legs are bent substantially perpendicularly to the coupling electrode portion to form a desired height. The desired height here corresponds to a dimension that can combine the role of avoiding the coupling between the coupling electrode portion and the ground and the role of the leg portion forming a series inductor.

  The coupling electrode thus completed may be fixed, for example, with a jig (not shown) at a corresponding place on the printed board and fixed by reflow soldering. FIG. 40 shows a state where the coupling electrode shown in FIG. 39 is attached to a stub formed as a conductor pattern of a printed board.

  The number of leg portions acting as series inductors is, for example, two as shown in FIGS. 37 and 39, one as shown in FIG. 38, or three or more. May be.

  Alternatively, the high-frequency coupler can be easily manufactured by forming the signal line, the resonance part, and the coupling electrode as a wiring pattern on the same substrate. FIG. 41 shows an example thereof. However, it is arranged so that the ground does not overlap the back of the coupling electrode. The high-frequency coupler shown in the figure has inferior characteristics compared to a three-dimensional high-frequency coupler such as weak coupling and narrow band, but there are advantages in terms of manufacturing cost and miniaturization (thinning). .

  As described above, according to the communication system according to the present embodiment, high-speed communication of UWB signals can be performed using the characteristics of an electrostatic field or an induced electric field. Further, since the coupling force of the electrostatic field or the induction field is remarkably attenuated according to the communication distance, it is possible to prevent information from being hacked by an unexpected partner and to ensure confidentiality. In addition, by physically approaching the communication partner to be connected and exchanging information, the user can intuitively select the communication partner. Since the communication system according to the present embodiment does not radiate radio waves to the outside, it does not affect other wireless systems. Further, since radio waves flying from the outside are not received, the reception sensitivity is not lowered due to the influence of external noise.

So far, a mechanism for transmitting signals between a pair of high frequency couplers in the electric field coupling type non-contact communication system shown in FIG. 14 has been described. Here, when a signal is transmitted between two devices, energy transfer is inevitably involved. Therefore, this type of communication system can be applied to power transmission. As described above, the electric field E R generated by the EFC antenna of the transmitter is the air propagates as a surface wave, power can be taken out by rectifying and stabilizing a signal received by the EFC at the receiver .

  FIG. 42 shows a configuration example when the communication system using the high frequency coupler shown in FIG. 1 is applied to power transmission.

  In the illustrated system, a charger connected to an AC power source and a wireless communication device are brought close to each other, so that power is transmitted and charged to the wireless communication device in a non-contact manner via a high-frequency coupler built in them. However, the high frequency coupler is used only for power transmission.

  When the receiving high-frequency coupler is not near the transmitting high-frequency coupler, most of the power input to the transmitting high-frequency coupler is reflected and returns to the DC / AC inverter side. Radiating or consuming more power than necessary can be suppressed.

  Moreover, although the example which performs charge to a radio | wireless communication apparatus was given in the figure, you may make it perform the non-contact electric power transmission not only to a radio | wireless machine but the music player or a digital camera, for example.

  FIG. 43 shows another configuration example in which the communication system using the high-frequency coupler shown in FIG. 1 is applied to power transmission. The illustrated system is configured to use a high-frequency coupler and a surface wave transmission line for both power transmission and communication.

  The timing for performing communication and power transmission is switched by a communication / transmission (reception) switching signal sent from the transmission circuit unit. For example, communication and power transmission may be switched at a predetermined cycle. At this time, the power transmission output can be kept optimal by adding the charging state to the communication signal and feeding back to the charger side. For example, when charging is completed, the information may be sent to the charger side, and the power transmission output may be set to zero.

  In the system shown in the figure, the charger is connected to an AC power supply. However, for example, the battery can be used to distribute power from another mobile phone to a mobile phone with a low battery. It may be used.

  The present invention has been described in detail above with reference to specific embodiments. However, it is obvious that those skilled in the art can make modifications and substitutions of the embodiment without departing from the gist of the present invention.

  In the present specification, the embodiment applied to a communication system in which a UWB signal is data-transmitted by electric field coupling in a cableless manner has been mainly described, but the gist of the present invention is not limited to this. For example, the present invention can be similarly applied to a communication system that uses a high-frequency signal other than the UWB communication method and a communication system that performs data transmission by electric field coupling using a relatively low frequency signal.

  In the present specification, the embodiment in which the present invention is applied to a system that performs data communication between a pair of high-frequency couplers has been mainly described. However, when a signal is transmitted between two devices, it is inevitable. It is naturally possible to apply this type of communication system to power transmission because it involves energy transfer.

  In short, the present invention has been disclosed in the form of exemplification, and the description of the present specification should not be interpreted in a limited manner. In order to determine the gist of the present invention, the claims should be taken into consideration.

FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating a configuration example of a high-frequency coupler according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a diagram illustrating a state in which a standing wave is generated in the stub 103. FIG. 3 is a view showing a high-frequency coupler in which the stub 103 is bent under the coupling electrode 108. FIG. 4 is a view showing a state in which the coupling electrode 108 is supported using the spacer 109. FIG. 5 is a diagram showing an example in which the spacer 109 is configured as a surface-mounted component of the printed circuit board 101. FIG. 6 is a diagram showing a high frequency coupler in which an impedance matching unit is configured by a lumped constant circuit. FIG. 7 is a diagram showing a high frequency coupler in which an impedance matching unit is configured by a distributed constant circuit. FIG. 8 is a diagram showing a comparison of the frequency characteristics of the high-frequency coupler when the impedance matching unit is composed of a lumped constant circuit and a distributed constant circuit. FIG. 9 is a diagram showing a state in which a plurality of high-frequency couplers shown in FIG. 1 are arranged on a printed board. FIG. 10 is a diagram showing a state in which a plurality of the high-frequency couplers shown in FIGS. 4 and 5 are arranged on the printed circuit board. FIG. 11 is a diagram showing an arrangement example in which the high-frequency coupler according to the present invention is mounted on a printed circuit board. FIG. 12 is a view showing an arrangement example in which the high-frequency coupler according to the present invention is mounted on a printed circuit board. FIG. 13 is a diagram illustrating an equivalent circuit of a high-frequency coupling circuit in which the impedance matching unit and the resonance unit are configured by a lumped constant circuit. FIG. 14 is a diagram illustrating a configuration example of a communication system including a transmitter and a receiver including the high-frequency coupler illustrated in FIG. FIG. 15 is a diagram showing an equivalent circuit of a band-pass filter configured by arranging the two high-frequency couplers shown in FIG. 13 to face each other. FIG. 16A is a diagram illustrating a state in which a high-frequency transmission line is connected to the center of the coupling electrode. FIG. 16B is a diagram illustrating a state in which a high-frequency transmission line is connected to a position having an offset from the center of the coupling electrode, and an unequal current flows in the conclusion electrode. FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating a configuration example in which a transmitter and a receiver include a coupler including only electrodes and a coupling portion simply operates as a parallel plate capacitor in communication using a frequency in the kHz or MHz band. . FIG. 18 is a diagram illustrating a state in which propagation loss occurs due to reflection of a signal at an impedance mismatched portion in a coupling portion in communication using a high frequency in the GHz band. FIG. 19 is a diagram showing a state in which the electrodes of the high-frequency coupler shown in FIG. 13 are arranged facing each other. 20A is a diagram for explaining the characteristics of the high-frequency coupler shown in FIG. 13 alone. FIG. 20B is a diagram for explaining the characteristics of the high-frequency coupler shown in FIG. 13 alone. FIG. 21A is a diagram illustrating a state in which the high frequency coupler induces an electric field by the function as an impedance converter. FIG. 21B is a diagram illustrating a state in which the high frequency coupler induces an electric field by the function as the impedance converter. FIG. 22 is a diagram showing an equivalent circuit of an impedance conversion circuit configured as a single high-frequency coupler. Figure 23 is a diagram showing an electric field component (longitudinal wave component) E R oscillating in the direction of propagation and parallel orientation. FIG. 24 is a diagram showing a state in which an electromagnetic field generated by a minute dipole is mapped onto a coupling electrode. FIG. 25 is a diagram showing dimensional parameters in a high-frequency coupler in which a parallel inductor and a series inductor are configured by a distributed constant circuit. FIG. 26 is a diagram showing measured values of propagation loss for each attachment position L2 of the coupling electrode 108 while changing the distance between the coupling electrodes of the transceiver. FIG. 27 is a diagram showing measured values of S parameters (reflection characteristics: VSWR) when two high-frequency couplers are arranged facing each other and the distance between the coupling electrodes is changed. FIG. 28 is a diagram showing measured values of S parameters (propagation loss S 21 ) when two high-frequency couplers are arranged facing each other and the distance between the coupling electrodes is changed. Figure 29 is a receiving side of the EFC antenna and transmission side of the high-frequency coupler showed the measured value of the propagation loss S 21 between EFC when orientation was placed so as to be the same (i.e., 0 degrees) FIG. It is. Figure 30 is a high-frequency coupler on the reception side and the transmission side of the high-frequency coupler is a diagram showing the measured values of the propagation loss S 21 between EFC when placed such orientation is 90 degrees. Figure 31 is a diagram showing the measured values of the propagation loss S 21 when placed so as to linearly polarized antenna orientation the same (i.e., 0 degrees) between transmission and reception. Figure 32 is a diagram showing the measured values of the propagation loss S 21 when placed such that the orientation 90 degrees linearly polarized antenna between transmission and reception. Figure 33 is a diagram between the EFC antennas between a linearly polarized antenna (the direction of polarization is the same when) showed the measured value of the relationship distance between transmission and reception and the propagation loss S 21 of the. FIG. 34 plots the logarithm of the square root of received power (that is, the electric field strength) on the vertical axis and the logarithm of the distance between transmission and reception on the horizontal axis from the measurement results shown in FIG. It is the figure which showed the straight line approximated next. Figure 35 is a view showing a measurement result of the propagation loss S 21 between EFC when varying ground size of the back of the high-frequency coupler. FIG. 36 is a diagram schematically showing the configuration of a “capacitance loaded type” antenna in which a metal is attached to the tip of the antenna element to give a capacitance and the height of the antenna is shortened. FIG. 37 is a diagram showing an example of a method for manufacturing the electrode portion of the high-frequency coupler by sheet metal processing. FIG. 38 is a diagram showing an example of a method for manufacturing the electrode portion of the high-frequency coupler by sheet metal processing. FIG. 39 is a diagram showing an example of a method for manufacturing the electrode portion of the high-frequency coupler by sheet metal working. FIG. 40 is a view showing a state in which the coupling electrode shown in FIG. 37 is attached to a stub formed as a conductor pattern of a printed circuit board. FIG. 41 is a diagram showing a configuration example of a high-frequency coupler manufactured by forming a signal line, a resonance part, and a coupling electrode as a wiring pattern on the same substrate. FIG. 42 is a diagram showing a configuration example when the communication system using the high frequency coupler shown in FIG. 1 is applied to power transmission. FIG. 43 is a diagram showing another configuration example in which the communication system using the high-frequency coupler shown in FIG. 1 is applied to power transmission.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 101 ... Printed circuit board 102 ... Ground 103 ... Stub 104 ... Signal line 105 ... Transmission / reception circuit 106 ... Through hole 107 ... Metal wire 108 ... Coupling electrode 109 ... Spacer 110 ... Through hole 111, 112 ... Conductor pattern

Claims (15)

  1. A transmitter circuit unit that generates a high-frequency signal for transmitting data, a transmitter including a high-frequency coupler that transmits the high-frequency signal as an electrostatic field or an induction electric field,
    A high-frequency coupler and a receiver including a receiving circuit unit that receives and processes a high-frequency signal received by the high-frequency coupler;
    The high-frequency coupler of the transmitter and the receiver includes a coupling electrode and a resonance unit including a distributed constant circuit for strengthening electrical coupling between the coupling electrodes.
    A communication system, wherein the high-frequency signal is transmitted by electric field coupling between high-frequency couplers facing the transmitter and the receiver.
  2. The high-frequency signal is a UWB signal that uses an ultra-wideband.
    The communication system according to claim 1.
  3. The resonance unit constitutes a bandpass filter that passes a desired high frequency band between the high frequency couplers of the transmitter and the receiver.
    The communication system according to claim 1.
  4. A communication circuit unit for processing a high-frequency signal for transmitting data;
    A high-frequency coupler for electric field coupling with a communication partner facing each other across a very short distance;
    The high-frequency coupler includes a resonance unit including a coupling electrode and a distributed constant circuit for strengthening electrical coupling between the coupling electrodes.
    A communication apparatus, wherein the high-frequency signal is transmitted by electric field coupling with a high-frequency coupler on a communication partner side.
  5. The high-frequency signal is a UWB signal that uses an ultra-wideband.
    The communication apparatus according to claim 4.
  6. The resonating unit constitutes a band-pass filter that passes a desired high-frequency band with a communication partner high-frequency coupler,
    The communication apparatus according to claim 4.
  7. The high-frequency coupler is mounted on a printed board on which a circuit module constituting the communication circuit unit that performs processing of a high-frequency signal that transmits data is mounted.
    The communication apparatus according to claim 4.
  8. The distributed constant circuit is configured as a stub composed of a conductor pattern disposed on the printed circuit board,
    A ground is formed on the other surface of the printed board, and a tip portion of the stub is connected to the ground through a through hole in the printed board.
    The communication apparatus according to claim 7.
  9. The stub has a length of approximately one half of the wavelength of the operating frequency, and the coupling electrode is disposed at a substantially central position of the stub.
    The communication apparatus according to claim 8.
  10. The coupling electrode includes a conductor pattern deposited on a surface of a spacer made of an insulator. When the spacer is mounted on the printed board, the conductor pattern of the coupling electrode has a through hole in the spacer. Connected to a substantially central position of the stub through
    The communication apparatus according to claim 8.
  11. The stub has a folded shape that fits within an occupied area when the spacer is mounted on the printed circuit board, and has a length that is approximately a half of the wavelength of the used frequency.
    The communication apparatus according to claim 10.
  12. The stub is composed of a conductor pattern deposited on the other surface of the spacer.
    The communication apparatus according to claim 10.
  13. On the printed circuit board, a plurality of high-frequency couplers are connected to the communication circuit unit.
    The communication apparatus according to claim 7.
  14. The length of the signal line connecting each high frequency coupler is an integral multiple of a half wavelength.
    The communication apparatus according to claim 13.
  15. Rectifying the high-frequency signal transmitted between the high-frequency couplers, further comprising power generation means for generating power,
    The communication apparatus according to claim 4.
JP2007148671A 2006-11-21 2007-06-04 Communication system, communication device, and high frequency coupler Active JP4345849B2 (en)

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EP07253160.1A EP1926223B1 (en) 2006-11-21 2007-08-10 Communication system and communication apparatus
US11/838,698 US7750851B2 (en) 2006-11-21 2007-08-14 Communication system and communication apparatus
KR20070081762A KR20080046079A (en) 2006-11-21 2007-08-14 Communication system and communication apparatus
CN2007101423376A CN101188438B (en) 2006-11-21 2007-08-14 Communication system and communication apparatus
US12/785,355 US8013795B2 (en) 2006-11-21 2010-05-21 Communication system and communication apparatus

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WO2016204250A1 (en) * 2015-06-17 2016-12-22 株式会社ExH Electric power supply system

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KR20080046079A (en) 2008-05-26
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