JP2008097632A - Guiding system for vehicle - Google Patents

Guiding system for vehicle Download PDF

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JP2008097632A
JP2008097632A JP2007301681A JP2007301681A JP2008097632A JP 2008097632 A JP2008097632 A JP 2008097632A JP 2007301681 A JP2007301681 A JP 2007301681A JP 2007301681 A JP2007301681 A JP 2007301681A JP 2008097632 A JP2008097632 A JP 2008097632A
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course
position
area
vehicle
means
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JP4605807B2 (en
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Masahito Kageyama
雅人 影山
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Komatsu Ltd
株式会社小松製作所
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To easily create a guided course corresponding to change of a shape of a course area or the change of a move goal point and also prevent an unmanned vehicle from interfering with a boundary of the course area and a surface of its face. <P>SOLUTION: The guiding system for the unmanned vehicle, for performing guided driving of the unmanned vehicle along with the guided course based on a driving position of the unmanned vehicle measured by the driving position measurement means and the course data for regulating the guided course for the unmanned vehicle, is equipped with a means to input the shape of the course area; a means to instruct the position of the move origin point, direction of the unmanned vehicle and the position of the move destination point and the vehicle advance direction, respectively; a means to create the course data for satisfying the vehicle advance direction and the instructed position in the move origin point and the move goal point; a means to predict the interference between the unmanned vehicle and the course area when the unmanned vehicle is driven by the created course data; and a course data change means to change the course data when the interference is predicted. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2008,JPO&INPIT

Description

  The present invention relates to a vehicle guidance device, and more particularly to a device suitable for application to a case where a plurality of unmanned off-road dump trucks are guided to travel at a work site such as a mine.

  In wide-area mines, unmanned vehicle guided travel systems that guide unmanned vehicles such as unmanned off-road dump trucks have been widely put into practical use in order to release laborious labor, reduce production costs, and reduce fuel consumption. It's getting on.

  The unmanned vehicle is equipped with a position measuring device that measures its traveling position using a GPS (global positioning system) or the like. On the other hand, in a monitoring station that monitors a plurality of unmanned vehicles, position data of a traveling course on which the unmanned vehicles should travel is obtained and stored by surveying or teaching at a work site. When the position data of the traveling course is given from the monitoring station via wireless communication or the like, the unmanned vehicle measures the position (and direction) of its own vehicle with the position measurement device mounted on the vehicle, and measures the current The vehicle is steered so as to reach each position on the traveling course sequentially while comparing the position and the sequential position on the traveling course.

  Here, as a method for acquiring the travel course position data, for example, a teaching method in which a manned vehicle for teaching is actually traveled and its travel route is stored is widely used.

  In this case, the teaching vehicle actually travels so that it passes through the target point that the unmanned vehicle should reach, or the route from the travel start point to the target point or the route from the travel start point through the target point to the travel end point. Position data is acquired. There is also a method of generating a traveling course from the position data of the target point obtained by acquiring only the position data of the target point by teaching.

For example, in the mine, as shown in FIG. 8, there is a soil removal area 65 in which the unmanned vehicle 2 carries the soil and discharges the soil, that is, the soil removal operation is to be performed. The position data of the traveling course 71 that passes through the target earthing point 72 in the earthing area 65 is acquired by the teaching method.
JP-A 63-273916 Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 3-113516 Japanese Utility Model Publication No. 5-87608 Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-38586 JP-A-5-257529 JP-A-9-44243 JP-A-8-101712 JP-A-1-173300

  Work sites such as wide-area mines are usually unpaved, and the road surface condition changes as the unmanned vehicle 2 travels. Also, rocks and earth and sand that are loads may fall on the road surface while the unmanned vehicle 2 is traveling. For this reason, a hole, a muddyness, etc. may be formed on the driving course obtained by teaching, and it may become difficult for the vehicle to pass. In addition, rocks or the like may appear on the traveling course obtained by teaching, making it impossible to pass the vehicle. In the present specification, things that obstruct the running of the vehicle, such as holes, muddyness, or falling cargo, are collectively referred to as “obstacles”.

  In this case, it is necessary to teach a new traveling course again so as to avoid the obstacle.

  However, each time the road surface condition changes or whenever a load falls from another unmanned vehicle, restarting the teaching operation causes interruption of the loading operation and the soil removal operation, which significantly impairs the work efficiency.

  Therefore, instead of avoiding the interference with the obstacle by re-performing the teaching operation, the obstacle detector 34 mounted on the vehicle detects the obstacle 74 while the unmanned vehicle 2 is traveling as shown in FIG. A method of changing the course individually for each vehicle is adopted.

  For example, in Patent Document 1, Patent Document 2, and Patent Document 3, a traveling course is provided so that an obstacle in front of the vehicle is detected by an obstacle detector mounted on the vehicle, and interference with the detected obstacle is avoided. The invention of changing is described.

  However, according to the invention described in the above publication, only obstacles in front of the vehicle that can be detected by the obstacle detector can be detected. Even other obstacles existing on the course after the course change cannot be detected in advance. For this reason, when the vehicle starts to run along the changed traveling course, there is a possibility of interfering with the other obstacles.

  Furthermore, the invention described in the above publication can detect only an obstacle having a shape that can be detected by an obstacle detector. Conversely, an obstacle having a shape that cannot be detected by the obstacle detector cannot be detected. Obstacle detectors can generally detect obstacles that are convex with respect to the road surface, that is, obstacles such as falling loads (rocks), and the traveling course can be changed to avoid these obstacles. . However, it is impossible to detect a concave hole, a rough road surface, or a muddyness with respect to the road surface. For this reason, since the traveling course is not changed so as to avoid the obstacle, there is a possibility that the vehicle interferes with the obstacle and cannot travel.

  A plurality of unmanned vehicles are running on the work site. However, even if an obstacle detector is mounted on each of the plurality of unmanned vehicles, it cannot be said that the same obstacle can be reliably detected by all of the plurality of vehicles.

  That is, as the obstacle detector, a millimeter wave radar, a laser radar, a visual sensor or the like is generally used, and the obstacle detection accuracy depends on the influence of the S / N ratio.

  Work sites such as mines are prone to dust and dust. For this reason, the dust and dust may become noise when the obstacle detector detects the obstacle, and it may be difficult to distinguish the obstacle from the surrounding environment. For this reason, even if an obstacle detector mounted on an unmanned vehicle can detect an obstacle according to changes in the surrounding environment, the same obstacle cannot be detected by an obstacle detector mounted on another unmanned vehicle. There can be. For this reason, the unmanned vehicle that could not detect the obstacle may interfere with the obstacle.

  In Patent Document 4, an obstacle is not detected by an obstacle detector, but an obstacle is registered in advance, and an alarm is issued when approaching the previously registered obstacle. An invention is disclosed in which the operator is alerted to alert the operator.

  In this publication, the position of the obstacle of the snowplow is stored in advance in a storage medium mounted on the snowplow. Then, the data on the storage medium is sequentially read while the snowplow is running, and an alarm is issued to alert the operator when approaching an obstacle stored in the storage medium.

  However, according to the invention described in the above publication, only obstacles stored in advance in the storage medium can be detected and avoided. In contrast, a newly generated obstacle that is not stored in advance in the storage medium cannot be detected and avoided.

  When applying to detect fixed obstacles that are not newly generated, such as when driving a snowplow, such as a trench or shoulder that is buried in snow, the problem of missing an obstacle is Does not occur.

  However, when the invention described in the above publication is applied to a work site such as a wide-area mine where a plurality of unmanned vehicles travel, a newly generated obstacle is missed or an already removed obstacle is an obstacle. This causes a problem of detection.

  In other words, obstacles (loads) fall from unmanned dump trucks at any time in wide-area mines. Even if an obstacle (load) falls, a manned vehicle such as a bulldozer may be immediately removed when it detects it. In addition, manned work vehicles such as other bulldozers and refueling vehicles may stop on the course of unmanned dump trucks. In this case, the manned work vehicle becomes an obstacle for the unmanned vehicle. Moreover, the stop position of the manned vehicle which is this obstacle changes at any time. In this way, obstacles are not fixed at a work site where a plurality of vehicles travel. As the vehicle travels, obstacles are newly generated or removed, and their positions change as needed.

  Therefore, when the invention described in the above publication is applied, a newly generated obstacle other than the obstacle previously stored in the storage medium may be missed, and the vehicle may interfere with the obstacle. Conversely, the obstacle that has already been removed is erroneously determined to be an obstacle, causing a problem that the driving course is unnecessarily changed or an unnecessary stop occurs.

  That is, the invention described in Patent Document 4 cannot deal with a work site where obstacles change in real time, such as a work site where a plurality of vehicles travel.

  The present invention has been made in view of such a situation, and the following points are to be solved.

(1) When an obstacle occurs, the travel course is corrected with a higher work efficiency (the travel course is corrected with a higher work efficiency than the teaching method).

(2) It is possible to prevent an obstacle from being overlooked or erroneously determined to be an obstacle even at a work site where obstacles change in real time, such as a work site where a plurality of vehicles travel.

(3) The obstacle is surely caught even if it is an obstacle present in the range that cannot be detected by the obstacle detector or an obstacle that cannot be detected.

(4) Ensure that the obstacle is caught regardless of the surrounding environment such as noise around the obstacle.

  Next, another problem to be solved will be described.

  The teaching method exhibits a high ability in the operation of repeatedly traveling on the same course. However, in a scene where the shape of the course changes frequently, the ability to create course data by teaching must be frequently performed, so the ability is remarkably limited.

  For example, in a mine loading area, the position of a loading machine such as a wheel loader or a power shovel changes as the work progresses. On the other hand, in the mining area, not only the fixed earthing device (bit) is earthed, but also the earthing area in a certain area has been changed to change the position of earthing. The method to go is also taken.

  In the above teaching method, it is necessary to teach a new course every time the position of the loader or the earthing position changes, which significantly impedes the labor saving effect of the unmanned dump system.

  In order to cope with such a changing work site, a method of correcting and using a once created course and a method of guiding a vehicle with a radio control have been proposed.

  That is, Patent Document 5 proposes a method of generating a course that returns to a round course (original course) after guiding the vehicle with a radio control.

  By using the above-described radio control, it is possible to guide the vehicle to an arbitrary place as in the case of manual travel, but on the other hand, an operator for operating the radio control is required. Moreover, when the vehicle is guided from the outside using a joystick or the like, it actually involves a very difficult and troublesome task of constantly replacing the vehicle traveling direction with its own viewpoint. It has been found out.

  In addition, in order to avoid the difficulty of the radio control operation, there is a case where most of the work is performed by unmanned traveling and the operator gets into the vehicle during the loading work.

  On the other hand, Patent Document 6 proposes a method of creating a course from a branch point of a planned course (original course) using a cubic curve.

  Although this method is more convenient in actual use than the method using a radio control, there is a drawback that the range in which the vehicle can be guided is limited by a three-dimensional curve, and there are obstacles within the range to be guided. In this case, there is a drawback that there is a risk of causing interference with the vehicle.

  The occurrence of interference cannot be recognized unless the vehicle is actually run on the vehicle. Therefore, sufficient monitoring is required during driving, and a sufficiently flat guidance range can be prepared in advance. It was difficult to use unless it was a work site.

  In the planning of the travel route of a vehicle, the patent demarcation 7 proposes that considers interference with an obstacle. In this method, a simple part such as a straight part is taught off-line, and a complicated part having a high possibility of interference is taught on an actual vehicle.

  In this method, as the loading operation progresses, teaching of the loading portion must be repeated, and thus the usability cannot be improved.

  Furthermore, a method has also been proposed in which the shape of a very close course area such as a parking lot is detected by a rotating ultrasonic sensor, and an optimum steering angle for entering the parking lot is obtained from a database and presented to the driver. (Patent Document 8).

  However, with this method, it is impossible to operate an unmanned traveling vehicle that freely moves while changing the rudder angle in a large and complex course area while avoiding interference.

  In other words, unlike the parking lot, the shape and the target position of the course area of the mine loading site are very different, so a database for uniquely obtaining the course data from the shape of the course area, etc. should be created. Is difficult to implement, and this requires a more versatile method.

  Furthermore, in the path search of a general articulated industrial robot, the concept of a configuration coordinate system in which the angle of each axis is taken as a coordinate axis is widely used. Since the axes of the robot can move independently, a straight line passing through any two points in this space can move for the robot. (Conversely, even if two arbitrary points in a three-dimensional space are given, the robot is not necessarily movable between them.) By using this space, various route search techniques such as a maze method are devised. It is.

  If a route that avoids interference with an obstacle is first created in the space, the route is always movable. In other words, it is possible to perform a route search considering only avoidance with an obstacle without considering the problem of route movement.

  The concept of the configuration coordinate system cannot be used for unmanned vehicles that operate by steering. In other words, even if you specify the position of two points in the plane and the direction of travel of the vehicle at those positions, in an unmanned vehicle that has only forward / reverse and steering operation functions, move along a route that connects the above positions with a straight line. Can not.

  That is, even if a route that prioritizes avoidance with obstacles is planned, the route is a general vehicle that operates by steering steering or the like, specifically, a front wheel steering mechanism, a rear wheel steering mechanism, a four wheel steering mechanism, A vehicle having a steering mechanism such as an articulate cannot move.

  For example, FIG. 37 shows a route between two points in consideration of an obstacle, but in this case, the vehicle A is obviously not movable.

  Note that the path shown in FIG. 38 is desirable under the conditions shown in FIG.

  In order to solve the above-described problems, there are cases where a vehicle mechanism is modified to design a vehicle that can move in all directions. However, the extra steering mechanism not only leads to an increase in cost, but also impairs stability during high-speed traveling, so it is not suitable for application to mining unmanned vehicles that require high-speed traveling.

  In view of such a situation, it is an object of the present invention to easily create a guidance course corresponding to a change in the shape of a course area or a change in a movement target position, and an unmanned vehicle can be placed on the boundary or face of a course area. An object of the present invention is to provide an unmanned vehicle guidance device capable of preventing interference.

In the first invention,
Vehicle position measuring means for measuring the current position of the own vehicle, the position data of the target point that the vehicle should reach and the position data of the course area where the vehicle can travel are given, the course area The vehicle generates data of a traveling course that travels inside and passes through the target point, and compares the current vehicle position measured by the vehicle position measuring means with the generated position on the traveling course. In a vehicle guidance device that is guided to travel along the traveling course,
Instruction means for indicating the position of the target point in the course area;
When position data of the course area is given and the position of the target point is instructed by the instruction means, the vehicle travels in the course area and reaches the instructed position of the target point. Driving course generating means for generating driving course data;
Guidance means for guiding the vehicle to travel along the travel course generated by the travel course generation means.

  According to the first aspect of the present invention, it is possible to easily generate a traveling course corresponding to a change in the shape of the course area and a change in the position and direction of the target point without teaching the traveling course with an actual vehicle.

  Further, since the traveling course is generated so that the vehicle travels in the course area, it is possible to prevent the vehicle from interfering with the boundary between the vehicle body and the course area and the face.

Also, the second invention is
An unmanned vehicle guidance device that guides and travels the unmanned vehicle along the guidance course based on the traveling position of the unmanned vehicle measured by the traveling position measuring unit and the course data that defines the guidance course of the unmanned vehicle. There,
Means for inputting the shape of the course area;
Means for indicating the position of the movement start point, the direction of the unmanned vehicle at the position, the position of the movement target point, and the vehicle traveling direction at the position;
Means for creating course data satisfying the instructed position and the vehicle traveling direction at the position of the movement start point and the movement destination point;
Means for inferring interference between the unmanned vehicle and the course area when the unmanned vehicle is driven on a guidance course defined by the created course data;
Course data changing means for changing the course data when the interference is inferred,
It is characterized by having.

  According to the second aspect of the present invention, it is possible to easily generate a guidance course corresponding to a change in the shape of the course area or a change in the movement destination position without teaching the guidance course using an actual vehicle.

  Further, the interference between the unmanned vehicle traveling on the generated guidance course and the boundary of the course area is estimated, and the course data is changed when the interference is estimated. Therefore, it is possible to prevent interference with the boundary between the unmanned vehicle body and the course area and the facet.

The third invention is the second invention,
The means for creating the course data includes:
Means for generating a position of an intermediate point of the guidance course and a vehicle traveling direction at the position in the course area;
The position of the movement starting point, the position of the intermediate point, and the position of the movement target point pass through the position at each position, and the vehicle traveling direction at the position coincides with the tangential direction of the arc or the direction of the straight line. Means for connecting with the arc and / or straight line,
The course data changing means is characterized in that the course data is changed by changing the position of the intermediate point when the interference is inferred.

  According to the third aspect of the invention, since the guidance course is created using the intermediate point, it is possible to easily generate a route that turns back at this intermediate point, and as a result, it is possible to freely plan a route including the turning point.

  In addition, since the guidance course is created by connecting the position of the movement start point, the position of the intermediate point, and the position of the movement destination point by an arc, a straight line, or both, the guidance course can be created efficiently.

A fourth invention is the second invention,
The means for creating the course data includes:
Means for generating a position of an intermediate point of the guidance course and a vehicle traveling direction at the position in the course area;
The position of the movement starting point, the position of the intermediate point, and the position of the movement target point pass through the position at each position, and the vehicle traveling direction and the tangential direction of the spline curve at the position coincide with each other. Means for connecting with the spline curve,
The course data changing means is characterized in that the course data is changed by changing the position of the intermediate point when the interference is inferred.

  According to the fourth aspect of the invention, the same effect as that of the third aspect of the invention can be obtained.

The fifth invention is the second invention,
The means for creating the course data includes:
Means for generating a position of an intermediate point of the guidance course and a vehicle traveling direction at the position in the course area;
The position of the movement starting point, the position of the intermediate point, and the position of the movement target point are passed through the position at each position, and the vehicle traveling direction and the tangential direction of the spline curve at the position, the arc tangent Means for connecting the spline curve and the arc, or the spline curve and the straight line so that the direction or the direction of the straight line coincides,
The course data changing means is characterized in that the course data is changed by changing the position of the intermediate point when the interference is inferred.

  According to the fifth aspect of the invention, the same effect as that of the third aspect of the invention can be obtained.

A sixth invention is any one of the third to fifth inventions,
The means for creating the course data includes:
An evaluation means for evaluating the course data using a distance between the guidance course and a boundary of the course area;
And selecting means for selecting course data having the best evaluation value among the plurality of generated course data.

  According to the sixth invention, the course data is evaluated and the course data having the best evaluation value is selected. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate and select the course data that does not cause the interference between the unmanned vehicle and the boundary of the course area. is there.

A seventh invention is any one of the third to fifth inventions,
The means for creating the course data includes:
An evaluation means for evaluating the course data using a function of a distance between the guidance course and a boundary of the course area and a minimum radius of the guidance course;
And selecting means for selecting course data having the best evaluation value among the plurality of generated course data.

  According to the seventh aspect of the present invention, it is possible to evaluate and select course data that does not interfere with the boundary between the unmanned vehicle and the course area and that does not interfere with the turning of the unmanned vehicle.

The eighth invention
An unmanned vehicle guidance device that guides and travels the unmanned vehicle along the guidance course based on the traveling position of the unmanned vehicle measured by the traveling position measuring unit and the course data that defines the guidance course of the unmanned vehicle. There,
Means for inputting the shape of the course area;
A means of creating course data;
Means for inferring interference between the unmanned vehicle and the course area when the unmanned vehicle is driven on a guidance course defined by the created course data;
Course data changing means for changing the course data when the interference is inferred,
A mode setting means for setting an automatic driving mode during guided driving of the unmanned vehicle using the generated course data, and setting a measurement mode when inputting the shape of the course area;
It is characterized by having.

  According to the eighth aspect of the invention, the automatic driving mode and the measurement mode can be selected and set, so that the unmanned vehicle is automatically driven in the measurement mode and the shape of the course area is input during the automatic driving. Is avoided. Further, since the operator can select and set both modes, workability is improved.

The ninth invention
An unmanned vehicle guidance device that guides and travels the unmanned vehicle along the guidance course based on the traveling position of the unmanned vehicle measured by the traveling position measuring unit and the course data that defines the guidance course of the unmanned vehicle. There,
Means for inputting the shape of the course area;
A means of creating course data;
Means for inferring interference between the unmanned vehicle and the course area when the unmanned vehicle is driven on a guidance course defined by the created course data;
Course data changing means for changing the course data when the interference is inferred,
Means for recognizing the shape change area of the course area;
Course area shape updating means for updating the shape of the course area so that the shape of the course area is changed only in the shape change area;
It is characterized by having.

  According to the ninth aspect, the shape change area is recognized, and the shape of the course area is updated only by the shape change area. Therefore, the number of course area shape input operations can be reduced as much as possible.

The tenth invention is the ninth invention,
Means for recognizing the shape change area of the course area,
A moving body for measurement that moves in the course area;
A moving position measuring means for measuring a moving position of the measuring moving body;
Means for identifying the shape change area based on the moving position of the measurement moving body and the occupied area of the moving body;
It is characterized by providing.

  According to the tenth aspect of the invention, the shape change area is specified based on the moving position of the measurement moving body and the occupied area of the moving body. Therefore, for example, when the course area is a mine work area, a work machine that performs work such as loading in the course area can be used as a movable body for measurement.

In an eleventh aspect based on the ninth aspect,
Means for recognizing the shape change area of the course area,
Position measuring means for measuring a three-dimensional position of an excavation part of a work machine that performs excavation work in the course area;
A ground height measuring means for measuring an initial ground height of the course area;
Means for identifying a shape change area of the course area based on a position and an occupied area of the excavation portion when the height of the excavation portion coincides with the initial ground height;
It is characterized by providing.

  According to the eleventh aspect, the change in the course area is detected because the height of the excavation part of the work machine that performs the excavation work matches the ground height of the course area, and based on the position of the excavation part and the occupied area The shape change area is identified. Therefore, the shape change area can be specified without providing a special measuring means.

In a twelfth aspect of the invention according to any one of the second, eighth, and ninth aspects of the invention,
The traveling position measuring means is a GPS, and the means for inputting the shape of the course area is a means for replacing the position measured by the GPS with a position measured at the left end or the right end of the unmanned vehicle; It is characterized by comprising instruction means for instructing which one of the measured position and the position measured at the right end is to be replaced.

  According to the twelfth aspect of the invention, the position measured by the GPS is replaced with the position measured at the left end or the right end of the unmanned vehicle, so that the unmanned vehicle is placed along the boundary of the course area along the left end or the right end of the unmanned vehicle. By traveling, the shape of the course area can be input with high accuracy by a so-called teaching method.

In a thirteenth aspect of the present invention, any one of the second, eighth, and ninth aspects of the invention,
The travel position measuring means is a GPS, and the means for inputting the shape of the course area comprises means for selectively changing the position of the GPS antenna between the left end and the right end of the unmanned mobile body.

  According to the thirteenth aspect of the present invention, the position of the GPS antenna can be selected and changed between the left end and the right end of the unmanned mobile body, so that the unmanned vehicle is placed along the left or right end of the unmanned vehicle along the boundary of the course area. By traveling, the shape of the course area can be input with high accuracy by a so-called teaching method.

In a fourteenth aspect based on the first aspect,
The vehicle is an unmanned vehicle loaded with a loading machine,
The course area position data is updated by excluding a certain area from the current course area based on the current position of the loading machine.

  According to the fourteenth aspect of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 40 (a), the fixed area 14b based on the current position of the loading machine 14 is excluded from the current course area 1, so that the position of the course area 1 Data (the shape of the course area 1) is updated. That is, even if the loading machine 14 is not equipped with a device for measuring the bucket position, the position data of the course area 1 can be accurately updated as long as the loading machine 14 has a device for measuring the current position of the loading machine 14. .

In a fifteenth aspect based on the fourteenth aspect,
The certain area excluded from the current course area is an area in which the loading machine of the loading machine can reach.

  According to the fifteenth aspect of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 40 (a), an area 14b within a range where the loading machine (arm) of the loading machine 14 reaches from the current position of the loading machine 14 is obtained. By being excluded from the current course area 1, the position data of the course area 1 (the shape of the course area 1) is updated. That is, even if the loading machine 14 does not include a device for measuring the bucket position, the position data of the course area 1 can be accurately updated as long as the device for measuring the current position of the loading machine 14 is provided. .

The sixteenth aspect of the invention is the fourteenth aspect of the invention,
The certain area excluded from the current course area is in an area where the loading machine of the loading machine can reach, and is an area about the size of the main body of the loading machine.

  According to the sixteenth aspect of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 40 (a), the loading machine 14 is located within an area 14b within a range where the loading machine (arm) of the loading machine 14 reaches from the current position of the loading machine 14. An area 14a that is about the size of the main body is obtained, and the area 14a is excluded from the current course area 1, whereby the position data of the course area 1 (the shape of the course area 1) is updated. That is, even if the loading machine 14 does not include a device for measuring the bucket position, the position data of the course area 1 can be accurately updated as long as the device for measuring the current position of the loading machine 14 is provided. .

In the seventeenth invention, in the fourteenth invention,
The certain area excluded from the current course area is an area within a range where the loading machine of the loading machine can reach and the distance from the boundary of the course area is constant.

  According to the seventeenth aspect of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 41, from the boundary 1a of the course area 1 in the region 14b within the range where the loading machine (arm) of the loading machine 14 reaches from the current position of the loading machine 14. The area 14c having a constant distance is obtained, and the area 14c is excluded from the current course area 1, whereby the position data of the course area 1 (the shape of the course area 1) is updated. That is, even if the loading machine 14 does not include a device for measuring the bucket position, the position data of the course area 1 can be accurately updated as long as the device for measuring the current position of the loading machine 14 is provided. .

In an eighteenth invention, in the first invention,
The vehicle is an unmanned vehicle on which a load is loaded by a loading machine, and includes relative position indicating means for indicating a relative position with respect to the loading machine,
The area data of the course area is updated by excluding the area based on the position designated by the relative position designating means from the current course area.

  According to the eighteenth aspect, the relative position (bucket position) with respect to the loading machine 14 is instructed by the relative position indicating means, and the area based on the instructed position is excluded from the current course area 1. Thus, the position data of the course area 1 (the shape of the course area 1) is updated. That is, when the excavation work form does not have a certain regularity, the range to be excluded from the current course area 1 is instructed directly by the operator, and the position data of the course area 1 can be updated accurately.

In the nineteenth invention, in the first invention,
The vehicle is an unmanned vehicle loaded with a loading machine,
The position data of the course area is updated by adding the area of the unoccupied vehicle's occupation range at the target point that the unmanned vehicle should reach to the current course area.

  According to the nineteenth aspect of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 39 (a), the area 2a of the unoccupied range of the unmanned vehicle 2 at this target point is obtained from the target point that the unmanned vehicle 2 should reach, and the area of this occupied range By adding 2a to the current course area 1, the position data of the course area 1 (the shape of the course area 1) is updated. That is, even if the loading machine 14 is not equipped with a device for measuring the bucket position, as long as it has a device for measuring the current position of the loading machine 14 (the target point of the unmanned vehicle 2), the position data of the course area 1 Updates can be made accurately.

In the twentieth invention, in the first invention,
The vehicle is an unmanned vehicle loaded with a loading machine,
The position data of the course area is obtained by excluding a certain area based on the current position of the loading machine from the current course area, or the unoccupied vehicle's occupation range at a target point that the unmanned vehicle should reach. It is assumed that the area is updated by adding it to the current course area.

  According to the twentieth invention, as shown in FIG. 40 (a), the fixed area 14b based on the current position of the loading machine 14 is excluded from the current course area 1, thereby the position of the course area 1. Data (the shape of the course area 1) is updated. Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 39 (a), the area 2a of the unoccupied range of the unmanned vehicle 2 at the target point is obtained from the target point that the unmanned vehicle 2 should reach, and the area 2a of the occupied range is the current course area 1 The position data of the course area 1 (the shape of the course area 1) is updated. That is, even if the loading machine 14 is not equipped with a device for measuring the bucket position, as long as it has a device for measuring the current position of the loading machine 14 (the target point of the unmanned vehicle 2), the position data of the course area 1 Updates can be made accurately.

In the twenty-first invention, in the twentieth invention,
In accordance with the working mode of the loading machine, there is further provided selection means for selecting whether the course area is enlarged or reduced, and the course area position data is updated according to the selection result of the selection means. I have to.

  According to the twenty-first aspect of the invention, there is further provided selection means for selecting whether the course area 1 is enlarged or reduced according to the work mode of the loading machine 14, and the course area 1 is selected according to the selection result of the selection means. Position data update processing is performed.

  Embodiments of a vehicle guidance device according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.

  First, an embodiment capable of avoiding interference with an obstacle will be described.

  FIG. 7 shows the entire work site of the embodiment. In this embodiment, a plurality of unmanned vehicles (dump trucks) 2, 2... Perform loading work of loading rocks and earth containing ore in a loading area 73 of a wide-area mine site, travel at high speed on a traveling course area 67, It is assumed that a soil discharging operation for discharging earth and sand in the soil region 65 is performed. In this case, the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2,... Are guided and traveled along a travel course 71 generated for each vehicle, as will be described later. The loading area 73, the traveling course area 67, and the soil removal area 65 become the course area 68. The course area 68 is an area where the unmanned vehicle 2 can travel. Outside the area of the course area 68, as shown in FIG. 8, the vehicle cannot travel such as a cliff or a face.

  In addition to the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2..., The loading machine 14 and the manned vehicle 20 are traveling in the course area 68. The loading machine 14 is a manned vehicle on which an operator is boarded, but is distinguished from the manned vehicle 20 for convenience of explanation.

  The loading machine 14 is a manned work machine that loads the ore (earth and sand) mined in the unmanned vehicle 2 by mining ore in the loading region 73 (mining site). For example, excavators and wheel loaders are applicable. The loading machine 14 changes its vehicle position as the mining operation proceeds.

  The manned vehicle 20 is a manned work vehicle on which an operator gets on and performs various operations other than the loading operation. For example, manned dump trucks, bulldozers, motor graders, sprinklers, refueling vehicles, and four-wheel drive vehicles that perform teaching work are applicable.

  For example, if the manned vehicle 20 is a bulldozer, as shown in FIG. 8, the earth and sand discharged by the unmanned vehicle 2 is dumped and leveled in the earth removal area 65 (earth disposal site). As with the loading machine 14, the position of the manned vehicle 20 changes as the work progresses.

  As the work by the loading machine 14 and the manned vehicle 20 progresses, the positions and shapes of the loading area 14 and the soil removal area 65 change. This is because the position and shape of the walls and cliffs such as the face change with work. Note that the position shape of the traveling course area 67 may change as the position shape of the shoulder changes as the work progresses.

  As described above, the position and shape of the course area 68 change from time to time as the work progresses.

  The course area 68 is unpaved. For this reason, as the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. Also, the rock as cargo may fall on the road surface while the unmanned vehicle 2 is traveling. For this reason, a hole, a muddyness, etc. may be formed on the driving course of the unmanned vehicle 2, and it may become difficult for the vehicle to pass. Also, rocks may appear on the running course, making it impossible to pass the vehicle. Therefore, these holes, mud, rocks and the like become obstacles when the unmanned vehicle 2 travels.

  And the fall of the said obstacle (load) occurs at any time. Even if an obstacle (load) falls, a manned vehicle 20 such as a bulldozer may remove it if it finds it. Furthermore, the manned work vehicle 20 such as other bulldozers or refueling vehicles may be stopped on the traveling course of the unmanned vehicle 2. In this case, the manned vehicle 20 becomes an obstacle for the unmanned vehicle 2. Moreover, the stop position of the manned vehicle 20 which is an obstacle changes at any time. Thus, the obstacle in the course area 68 where the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2... Travels is not fixed. As the unmanned vehicle 2 travels, a new obstacle is generated or removed, and its position changes as needed.

  As described above, the obstacle in the course area 68 changes as the work progresses. In the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 6, it is assumed that a soil removal area 65 is assumed as the course area 68 and a traveling course 71 in the soil removal area 65 is generated.

  As shown in FIG. 6, the earth removal area 65 is an area surrounded by a boundary line 66. The exit area 65 is provided with an entrance / exit for the unmanned vehicle 2. The entrance / exit of the earth removal area 65 and the traveling course area 67 which is the traveling path of the unmanned vehicle 2 are connected.

  The unmanned vehicle 2 starts traveling from the traveling start point, travels on the traveling course region 67 in the direction of arrow A, and reaches the entrance point 69 of the soil removal region 65. Then, it passes through the entry point 69 and enters the earth removal area 65 from the earth removal area entrance. Then, the unmanned vehicle 2 switches back in the earth removal area 65. That is, the unmanned vehicle 2 moves forward in the direction of arrow B and then moves backward in the direction of arrow C along the direction of earth removal. Then, the vehicle stops at the target earthing point 72 and performs earthing work. In other words, the vessel of the dump truck 2 is inclined and the earth and sand in the vessel is discharged at the target discharge point 72. The unmanned vehicle 2 that has completed the earth removal operation moves forward in the direction of arrow D, escapes from the earth removal area 65 through the earth removal area entrance, and enters the traveling course area 67. Then, the vehicle passes through the exit point 70, travels on the travel course area 67 in the direction of arrow E, and returns to the travel end point. The unmanned vehicle 2 is guided to travel along the traveling course 71 as described above.

  Here, when the outside of the earth removal area 65 (inside surrounded by the boundary line 66) and the traveling course area 67, that is, the outside of the course area 68 is shown in actual terrain, as shown in FIG. Thus, it is an area where the unmanned vehicle 2 cannot travel.

  As shown in FIG. 8, the position and shape of the soil removal area 65 change as the work progresses, and the obstacle 74 in the soil removal area 65 also changes as needed. The vehicle can travel in the area 68 (the soil removal area 65) and is corrected as needed so as not to interfere with the obstacle 74.

  FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing the flow of various data in the embodiment. Data is transmitted and received among the monitoring station 8, the unmanned vehicle 2, the loading machine 14, and the manned vehicle 20. The monitoring station 8 has a function of managing and monitoring a plurality of unmanned vehicles 2. Various types of data are transmitted and received among the monitoring station 8, the unmanned vehicle 2, the loading machine 14, and the manned vehicle 20, so that the data of the obstacle 74 common to the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2,. The data indicating the position and shape of the course area 68 is stored. As the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2... Travel, the data of the obstacle 74 is updated and the data of the course area 68 is updated.

  The traveling course 71 is modified as needed as a modified traveling course 71 ′ based on data updated at any time.

  2, 3, 4, and 5 show the configurations of the unmanned vehicle 2, the monitoring station 8, the loading machine 14, and the manned vehicle 20 in block diagrams, respectively.

  First, the configuration of the unmanned vehicle 2 in FIG. 2 will be described.

  The position measurement unit 33 of the unmanned vehicle 2 measures its own vehicle position (X, Y). As the means for position measurement, wheel rotation speed sensors and gyroscopes provided on the front and rear wheels of the unmanned vehicle 2 are used. The vehicle position is measured based on the output signals of these wheel rotation speed sensors and the output signal of the gyro. In this embodiment, a GPS capable of measuring the ground position of the vehicle 2 is also mounted as a device for measuring the vehicle position.

  In the processing unit 31 of the unmanned vehicle 2, a deviation between the vehicle position obtained from the output of the wheel rotation speed sensor and the vehicle position obtained from the output of the GPS that is the ground position measuring device is obtained. From this deviation, the road surface state of the road surface on which the unmanned vehicle 2 is currently traveling is detected.

  The unmanned vehicle 2 is equipped with an obstacle detector 34 that detects an obstacle 74 ahead in the vehicle traveling direction. As the obstacle detector 34, a millimeter wave radar, a laser radar, a visual sensor, or the like is used.

  FIG. 9 shows how the obstacle 74 in front of the unmanned vehicle 2 is detected. Assume that the obstacle detector 34 detects an obstacle 74 ahead in the vehicle traveling direction when a radio wave or laser is projected at the projection angle θ while the vehicle 2 is traveling in the direction indicated by the arrow 75. At this time, the relative position of the obstacle 74 with respect to the vehicle 2 is obtained based on the projection angle θ of the radio wave or laser and the distance d to the obstacle 74 corresponding to the radio wave or laser transmission / reception time. Since the absolute position (X, Y) of the unmanned vehicle 2 is measured by the position measuring unit 33, the absolute position (X, Y) of the unmanned vehicle 2 and the obstacle to the vehicle 2 obtained from the obstacle detector 34 are displayed. From the relative position of 74, the absolute position of the obstacle 74 is measured.

  As the obstacle detector 34, a detector provided with a scanning mechanism for scanning radio waves or lasers may be used. Moreover, you may use the obstruction detector which projects an electromagnetic wave or a laser in a fixed direction.

  When there is an obstacle 74 in the vicinity of the unmanned vehicle 2, the obstacle 74 is found on the loading machine 14 or the manned vehicle 20 on which the operator is boarded. At this time, a stop command is transmitted to the unmanned vehicle 2 via the communication unit 55 of the loading machine 14 and via the communication unit 63 of the manned vehicle 20. The stop command is received by the communication unit 32 of the unmanned vehicle 2.

  The data indicating the vehicle position measured by the unmanned vehicle 2, the data indicating the detection position of the obstacle 74, the data indicating the road surface condition, and the data indicating that the stop command has been received are processed by the processing unit 31 and the communication unit 32. Is transmitted to the monitoring station 8.

  Data indicating the traveling course 71 (or the modified traveling course 71 ′) on which the unmanned vehicle 2 should travel is transmitted from the monitoring station 8 and received by the communication unit 32.

  The received data of the traveling course 71 or 71 ′ is stored in the traveling course storage unit 35.

  In the processing unit 31, the unmanned vehicle 2 travels while comparing its own vehicle position measured by the position measurement unit 33 with sequential positions on the travel course 71 or 71 ′ stored in the travel course storage unit 35. A travel command and a steering command are generated so as to sequentially follow successive positions on the course 71 or 71 '. These travel command and steering command are output to the travel mechanism unit 36 and the steering mechanism unit 37. As a result, the unmanned vehicle 2 is guided to travel along the traveling course 71 or 71 ′ and reaches the target discharge point 72.

  Next, the configuration of the loading machine 14 shown in FIG. 4 will be described.

  The loading machine 14 is provided with a position measuring unit 51 that measures the position of the vehicle in order to measure the position of the vehicle as the position of the obstacle 74. For example, a GPS that can measure the position of the vehicle 14 with respect to the ground is used as the position measuring means.

  Data indicating the position and shape of the course area 68 and data indicating the position, shape, and size of the obstacle 74 are input from the data input unit 48 of the loading machine 14.

  In the loading machine communication unit 55, various data transmitted from the monitoring station 8, that is, data of the traveling courses 71 and 71 ', data of the obstacle 74, data of the course area 68, and data of the position of another vehicle are received. .

  On the display unit 50 of the loading machine 14, a course area 68, traveling courses 71 and 71 ′, various vehicles including the own vehicle 14, and an obstacle 74 are displayed on the same screen.

  FIG. 12 (a) shows a soil removal area 65, traveling courses 71 and 71 ′ in the soil removal area 65, an unmanned vehicle 2 and a manned vehicle 20 in the soil removal area 65 on the display screen 76 of the display unit 50. And the obstacle 74 in the earth removal area 65 is displayed. When the loading place is displayed, the loading area 73, the traveling courses 71 and 71 'in the loading area 73, the unmanned vehicle 2 and the loading machine 14 in the loading area 73 are displayed on the display screen 76 of the display unit 50. Then, the obstacle 74 in the loading area 73 is displayed.

  The relative position of each display object (course area 68, obstacle 74, etc.) on the display screen 76 of the display unit 50 corresponds to the actual relative position.

  The position, shape, and size of the course area 68 on the display screen 76 and the position, shape, and size of the obstacle 74 are input as the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. It changes according to the data input from the unit 48. That is, when a new instruction input operation is performed in the data input unit 48, the position and shape of the course area 68 displayed on the display screen 76 of the display unit 50, and the position, shape, and size of the obstacle 74 are instructed. It changes according to the contents.

  That is, the operator visually recognizes the change in the position and shape of the course area 68 and confirms the generation and disappearance of the obstacle 74.

  Then, a data instruction input operation is performed by the data input unit 48 so that a result as visually observed on the display screen 76 is obtained. Specifically, the display screen 76 is configured with a touch panel. The input data is automatically corrected by a data correction unit 49 as will be described later.

  A traveling command and a steering command corresponding to the manual operation of the operator are generated by the processing unit 47, and these traveling command and steering command are output to the traveling mechanism unit 53 and the steering mechanism unit 54. As a result, the loading machine 14 is steered according to manual operation and travels.

  The loading machine 14 becomes a target point of the traveling course 71 of the unmanned vehicle 2 in the loading area 73. Therefore, the traveling course correction unit 52 of the loading machine 14 performs a process of correcting the route of the traveling course 71 in accordance with the change of the target point as the vehicle 14 moves.

  The data of the obstacle 74 input corrected by the loading machine 14, the data of the corrected course area 68, the data of the corrected traveling course 71, and the data indicating the measured position of the vehicle 14 are processing units. The data is processed at 47 and transmitted to the monitoring station 8 via the communication unit 55. Further, when the traveling course 71 is corrected as the loading machine 14 moves, data indicating permission for use for permitting traveling along the corrected traveling course 71 is transmitted to the monitoring station 8.

  Further, when the operator of the loading machine 14 visually finds that an obstacle 74 is present in the vicinity of the unmanned vehicle 2 that is traveling, a stop indicating that the corresponding unmanned vehicle 2 is instructed to stop. The command is transmitted via the communication unit 55.

  Next, the configuration of the manned vehicle 20 shown in FIG. 5 will be described.

  5, the same reference numerals as those in FIG. 4 denote the same components. That is, the manned vehicle 20 is configured in substantially the same manner as the loading machine 14. However, the loading machine 14 has a traveling course correction unit 52, whereas the manned vehicle 20 has no traveling course correction unit 52.

  Next, the configuration of the monitoring station 8 in FIG. 3 will be described.

  3, the same reference numerals as those in FIG. 4 denote the same components. That is, the display unit 50 of the monitoring station 8 displays the same display as the display screen 76 in FIG. Therefore, when the operator of the monitoring station 8 inputs the data of the obstacle 74 and the data of the course area 68 from the data input unit 48, the display content of the display screen 76 changes according to the input content. Further, the data correction unit 49 automatically corrects the input data.

  The communication unit 45 of the monitoring station 8 receives various data transmitted from the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2..., The loading machine 14 and the manned vehicle 20. Various data are processed by the processing unit 38.

  That is, the position data of the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2..., The loading machine 14 and the manned vehicle 20, that is, the position data of all the vehicles is stored in the vehicle position storage unit 46. The stored contents are rewritten to the latest position data every time the latest position data is transmitted.

  The course area storage unit 40 stores data on the course area 68 transmitted from the loading machine 14, data on the course area 68 transmitted from the manned vehicle 20, and data on the course area 68 that has been input and corrected by the monitoring station 8. The The stored contents are rewritten to the latest data every time data of the latest course area 68 is transmitted. That is, the course area storage unit 40 stores data on the latest position and shape of the course area 68 that changes as the work progresses.

  Based on the vehicle position data, obstacle position data, road surface data, and stop command reception data transmitted from the unmanned vehicle 2, the processing unit 38 of the monitoring station 8 determines the position, shape, and size of the obstacle 74 as described later. Data indicating this is generated.

  Similarly, the processing unit 38 of the monitoring station 8 generates data indicating the position, shape, and size of the obstacle 74 based on the vehicle position data and the obstacle data transmitted from the loading machine 14 as will be described later. The

  Similarly, the processing unit 38 of the monitoring station 8 generates data indicating the position, shape, and size of the obstacle 74 based on the vehicle position data and the obstacle data transmitted from the manned vehicle 20 as described later. The

  The obstacle storage unit 41 stores the data of the obstacle 74 generated based on the transmission data of the unmanned vehicle 2, the loading machine 14, and the manned vehicle 20, and the data of the obstacle 74 input and corrected by the monitoring station 8. . The stored content is rewritten to the latest data every time the latest obstacle 74 data is generated. That is, the obstacle storage unit 41 stores the latest position, shape, and size data of the obstacle 74 that changes as the work progresses.

  The display screen 76 of the display unit 50 includes the latest vehicle position and the latest course area 68 (based on the storage content of the vehicle position storage unit 46, the storage content of the course area storage unit 40, and the storage content of the obstacle storage unit 41. The position and shape of the earth removal area 65) and the position, shape and size of the latest obstacle 74 are displayed (see FIG. 12A).

  Prior to the operation of the unmanned vehicle 2, the manned vehicle 20 for teaching travels in the course area 68 in advance, and the position data of the course area 68 (the earth removal area 65) is acquired, and the traveling course 71 of the unmanned vehicle 2 is obtained. Position data is acquired. The position data obtained by these teachings is given to the monitoring station 8. Note that these position data may be acquired by surveying.

  In the traveling course generation unit 44 of the monitoring station 8, a traveling course 71 is first generated based on the position data obtained by the teaching.

  Then, as the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2... Travels (according to the progress of work), the stored data in the course area storage unit 40 and the obstacle storage unit 41 are read out as needed. Based on the latest obstacle and course area data read out at any time, the unmanned vehicle 2 travels in the course area 68 (the earth removal area 65) without interfering with the obstacle 74, and the target earth removal point 72 is obtained. The traveling course 71 is modified to pass.

  The position data of the travel course 71 generated by the travel course generation unit 44 or the corrected position data of the corrected travel course 71 ′ is transmitted to the unmanned vehicle 2 via the communication unit 45.

  Next, various modes for correcting the traveling course 71 in accordance with the generation or disappearance of the obstacle 74 at any time will be described.

・ Mode 1
On the display screen 76 of the display unit 50 of the manned vehicle 20, as shown in FIG. 12A, the earth removal area 65, the traveling course 71 in the earth removal area 65, and the unmanned in the earth removal area 65. It is assumed that the vehicle 2 and the manned vehicle 20 are displayed.

  The operator catches the generation and disappearance of the obstacle 74 in the course area 68 by visual observation. For example, the case where the rock which is the load of the unmanned vehicle 2 is falling on the road surface within the field of view of the operator is applicable. In addition, a case where a hole, a muddyness, a rough road surface, or the like is formed on the road surface within the visual field of the operator is applicable. These holes, muddy, and rough road surfaces are obstacles that cannot be detected by the obstacle detector 34 mounted on the unmanned vehicle.

  Moreover, the case where the fall load (rock) is removed by the manned vehicle 20 such as a bulldozer within the field of view of the operator corresponds.

  Next, the operator shifts his / her eyes to the display screen 76 and replaces the generation / disappearance position of the obstacle 74 in the actual earth removal area 65 with the position on the display screen 76. That is, since the earth removal area 65 is displayed on the display screen 76, the generation / disappearance position of the obstacle 74 can be confirmed on the screen from the relative positional relationship with the earth removal area 65, and the position is indicated. Can do.

  For example, when an obstacle 74 is newly generated, the generation position, shape, and size data are instructed and input from the data input unit 48. Thus, the obstacle 74 caught by the operator is displayed on the display screen 76 as shown in FIG.

  The same processing as the obstacle instruction processing performed through the display unit 50 and the data input unit 48 of the manned vehicle 20 is performed through the display unit 50 and the data input unit 48 of the loading machine 14. The monitoring station 8 also performs the same obstacle instruction process.

  For this reason, the obstacle storage unit 41 of the monitoring station 8 stores data on the position, shape, and size of the obstacle 74 instructed on the display screen 76 of each display unit 50. Each time an obstacle 74 is newly designated on the display screen 76, the stored contents of the obstacle storage unit 41 are updated.

  Then, the traveling course generation unit 44 of the monitoring station 8 corrects the obstacle 74 to avoid the obstacle 74 based on the data of the obstacle 74 stored in the obstacle storage unit 41 as shown by the broken line in FIG. A traveling course 71 'is generated. A corrected traveling course 71 ′ is displayed on the display screen 76.

  FIG. 8 shows a modified traveling course 71 ′ at an actual work site.

  The unmanned vehicle 2 is guided to travel along this corrected travel course 71 '. For this reason, the unmanned vehicle 2 can travel safely without interfering with the obstacle 74.

  When the disappearance of the obstacle 74 is instructed on the display screen 76, no interference occurs even if the vehicle 2 passes over the disappearance position. Therefore, the traveling course generation unit 44 can generate a traveling course that passes through the obstacle disappearance position. In other words, unnecessary correction of the traveling course is prevented.

  In this embodiment, the process for correcting the traveling course 71 is performed by the monitoring station 8 in response to the instruction to generate and extinguish the obstacle 74 on the display screen 76. It may be performed by the machine 14. Further, it is possible to perform the same processing on the manned vehicle 20.

  As described above, according to the present embodiment, the obstacle 74 instructed on the display screen 76 is stored as the position of the obstacle 74 common to the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. Therefore, it is possible to easily correct the traveling courses 71, 71,... Of the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2,. Therefore, the correction work of the traveling courses 71, 71. The work efficiency is dramatically improved as compared with the teaching work in which the teaching vehicle must be run every time an obstacle is generated.

  Moreover, since the data on the obstacle 74 is updated at any time by giving instructions on the display screen 76 at any time, the obstacle 74 is generated in real time like a work site where a plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. It can cope with the work site that disappears. That is, it is not possible to overlook the obstacle 74 that changes from time to time or to mistakenly determine that it is the obstacle 74.

  Further, according to this embodiment, since the operator visually confirms that the obstacle 74 is present, the obstacle 74 present in the range that cannot be detected by the obstacle detector 34 mounted on the unmanned vehicle or the detection failure is detected. Even an obstacle 74 of a possible shape (a hole, a muddy, a rough road surface, etc.) can be determined as an obstacle.

  Further, according to the present embodiment, since the operator visually confirms that the obstacle 74 is present, the obstacle 74 can be detected regardless of the surrounding environment as compared with the case where the obstacle detector 34 detects it. It is surely caught.

・ Aspect 2
On the display screen 76 of the display unit 50 of the manned vehicle 20, as shown in FIG. 12A, the earth removal area 65, the unmanned vehicle 2 and the manned vehicle 20 in the earth removal area 65 are displayed. It shall be. On the display screen 76, as shown in FIG. 12 (b), a traveled traveling course 71 ″ in which the unmanned vehicle 2 has already traveled is displayed.

  This traveled travel course 71 ″ can select the latest travel course from travel courses that have already traveled in the past. Also, the travel course 71 ″ can be traveled by designating a code (vehicle number) for identifying the unmanned vehicle 2. The completed traveling course 71 ″ can be selected and displayed on the screen.

  The operator visually recognizes the generation of the obstacle 74 in the course area 68. When it is captured that the rock is present on the road surface within the operator's field of view, the operator shifts his eyes to the display screen 76 and displays the actual position of the obstacle 74 (rock) in the soil removal area 65. Replace with a position on the screen 76.

  In this case, since the earth removal area 65 is displayed on the display screen 76, the generation position of the obstacle 74 can be determined based on the relative positional relationship with the earth removal area 65.

  At a work site in a wide-area mine, the obstacle 74 such as a rock is generated mainly when a load of the unmanned vehicle 2 falls. Therefore, the obstacle 74 is often located on the traveled traveling course 71 ″ where the unmanned vehicle 2 has traveled.

  Here, as shown in FIG. 12B, since the traveled traveling course 71 ″ is displayed on the display screen 76, an obstacle such as a rock is relative to the traveled traveling course 71 ″. 74 generation positions can be determined more accurately. That is, the operator corrects the determination that the position of the obstacle 74 determined based on the relative positional relationship with the course area 68 is positioned at 74 ′ on the travel course 71 ″ that has been traveled. The position data can be input from the data input section 48. The falling direction of the load differs depending on the curvature of the traveling course 71 ″. Therefore, the position of the obstacle 74 can be corrected with higher accuracy in consideration of the drop direction of the load (vehicle rear, vehicle left direction, vehicle right direction).

  As described above, according to the present embodiment, there is an effect that the position of the obstacle 74 generated by the drop of the load of the unmanned vehicle 2 such as a rock can be more accurately indicated on the display screen 76.

  The same processing as the obstacle instruction processing performed through the display unit 50 and the data input unit 48 of the manned vehicle 20 is performed through the display unit 50 and the data input unit 48 of the loading machine 14. The monitoring station 8 also performs the same obstacle instruction process.

  The process after the obstacle instruction process is performed is the same as that in the first aspect, and thus the description thereof is omitted.

・ Aspect 3
On the display screen 76 of the display unit 50 of the manned vehicle 20, as shown in FIG. 12A, the earth removal area 65, the unmanned vehicle 2 and the manned vehicle 20 in the earth removal area 65 are displayed. It shall be. On the display screen 76, as shown in FIG. 12 (b), a travel course 71 ″ in which the unmanned vehicle 2 has already traveled is displayed.

  The operator visually recognizes the generation of the obstacle 74 in the course area 68. When it is captured that the rock is present on the road surface within the operator's field of view, the operator shifts his eyes to the display screen 76 and displays the actual position of the obstacle 74 (rock) in the soil removal area 65. Replace with a position on the screen 76.

  In this case, since the earth removal area 65 is displayed on the display screen 76, the generation position of the obstacle 74 can be determined from the relative positional relationship with the earth removal area 65. Therefore, the operator inputs the data on the position of the obstacle 74 determined in this way from the data input unit 48.

  At a work site in a wide-area mine, the obstacle 74 such as a rock is generated mainly when a load of the unmanned vehicle 2 falls. Therefore, the obstacle 74 is often located on the traveled traveling course 71 ″ where the unmanned vehicle 2 has traveled.

  In view of this, the data correction unit 49 sets the position of the obstacle 74 instructed by the operator on the travel course 71 ″ based on the position data of the travel course 71 ″ that has been traveled, as shown in FIG. A process of automatically correcting to be positioned at 74 'is performed. Note that the load drop direction differs depending on the curvature of the traveling course 71 ″, etc. Therefore, the position of the obstacle 74 is corrected more accurately based on the data indicating the load drop direction (vehicle rear, vehicle left direction, vehicle right direction). May be.

  As described above, according to the present embodiment, when the obstacle 74 generated by the drop of the load of the unmanned vehicle 2 such as a rock is input on the display screen 76, the indicated position is more accurate. The effect of automatic correction to the position 74 'is obtained.

  The same processing as the obstacle instruction correction processing performed through the display unit 50, the data input unit 48, and the data correction unit 49 of the manned vehicle 20 is performed through the display unit 50, the data input unit 48, and the data correction unit 49 of the loading machine 14. Made. In the monitoring station 8, the same obstacle instruction correction process is performed.

  The process after the obstacle instruction correction process is performed is the same as that in the first aspect, and thus the description thereof is omitted.

・ Aspect 4
As shown in FIG. 9, the obstacle detector 34 of the unmanned vehicle 2 detects an obstacle 74 in front of the vehicle. The obstacle 74 on the side and rear of the unmanned vehicle 2 may be detected by appropriately changing the position and number of the obstacle detectors 34. Further, the obstacle detector 34 may be mounted on the manned work vehicles 20 and 14. Further, the obstacle detector 34 may be mounted on all unmanned vehicles, or the obstacle detector 34 may be mounted only on some unmanned vehicles.

  In the processing unit 31 of the unmanned vehicle 2, the vehicle 2 is based on the radio wave or laser projection angle θ projected from the obstacle detector 34 and the distance d to the obstacle 74 corresponding to the radio wave or laser transmission / reception time. The relative position of the obstacle 74 with respect to is calculated. Further, in the processing unit 31 of the unmanned vehicle 2, the absolute position (X, Y) of the vehicle 2 measured by the position measuring unit 33 when the obstacle 74 is detected by the obstacle detector 34, the projection distance d, and the projection The absolute position of the obstacle 74 is calculated by adding the relative position of the obstacle 74 obtained from the angle θ.

  Note that the monitoring station 8 may perform processing for calculating the position of the obstacle 74 by transmitting the detection signal of the obstacle detector 34 to the monitoring station 8.

  Therefore, the obstacle storage unit 41 of the monitoring station 8 stores calculation position data of the obstacle 74 transmitted from the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. Each time the obstacle 74 is newly detected by the obstacle detector 34 and the position of the obstacle 74 is calculated, the storage content of the obstacle storage unit 41 is updated. However, a plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2... May detect the same obstacle 74. In this case, an average value of calculation positions of the same obstacle 74 transmitted from each vehicle 2, 2... Is obtained, and this average value is stored in the obstacle storage unit 41 as position data of the same obstacle 74. It can be memorized.

  Then, the traveling course generation unit 44 of the monitoring station 8 avoids the obstacle 74 based on the position data of the obstacle 74 stored in the obstacle storage unit 41, as indicated by a broken line in FIG. A corrected traveling course 71 'is generated. A corrected traveling course 71 ′ is displayed on the display screen 76.

  FIG. 8 shows a modified traveling course 71 ′ at an actual work site.

  The unmanned vehicle 2 is guided to travel along this corrected travel course 71 '. For this reason, the unmanned vehicle 2 can travel safely without interfering with the obstacle 74.

  As described above, according to the present embodiment, the obstacle 74 detected in a certain unmanned vehicle 2 is stored as the position of the obstacle 74 common to the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. Therefore, it is possible to easily correct the traveling courses 71, 71,... Of the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2,. Therefore, the correction work of the traveling courses 71, 71.

  Further, since an obstacle 74 detected by a certain unmanned vehicle 2 is regarded as an obstacle 74 for another unmanned vehicle 2, the obstacle 74 is detected by the obstacle detector 34 mounted on the other unmanned vehicle 2. Even if it cannot, the other unmanned vehicle 2 can avoid the obstacle 74 without fail. That is, even when the obstacle detector 34 of the other vehicle 2 breaks down, the operation is uncertain, or the obstacle 74 cannot be accurately detected due to the influence of the surrounding environment, the other vehicle 2 is surely The obstacle 74 can be avoided.

  In addition, according to the present embodiment, since the obstacle 74 is detected and calculated at any time by the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2..., The data on the obstacle 74 is updated at any time. It is possible to cope with a work site where the obstacle 74 is generated in real time like a work site where. That is, by sharing data obtained from a plurality of unmanned vehicles, it is possible to avoid missing the obstacle 74 that is changing as needed.

・ Aspect 5
The processing unit 31 of the unmanned vehicle 2 obtains the deviation between the vehicle position obtained from the output of the wheel rotational speed sensor and the vehicle position obtained from the output of the GPS that is the ground position measuring device, and from this deviation, the unmanned vehicle The road surface state of the road surface 2 is currently traveling is detected.

  The road surface state data is transmitted to the monitoring station 8, and the processing unit 38 of the monitoring station 8 determines whether or not the road surface is an obstacle 74.

  That is, when the deviation between the vehicle position obtained from the output of the wheel rotational speed sensor and the vehicle position obtained from the output of the GPS which is the ground position measuring device is equal to or greater than a predetermined threshold (the wheel is turning) However, if there is little change in the ground position), it is determined that the unmanned vehicle 2 is slipping greatly, and the road surface at that time is determined to be an obstacle 74 (slack, hole, etc.). Then, it is determined that the current measurement position (X, Y) of the unmanned vehicle 2 that has transmitted the road surface state data is the position of the obstacle 74 (slack, hole, etc.). Note that the size of the obstacle 74 (slack, hole, etc.) may be set in accordance with the magnitude of the slip (the above-mentioned deviation).

  Whether the vehicle is an obstacle 74 is determined based on the deviation between the vehicle position obtained from the output of the wheel rotational speed sensor and the vehicle position obtained from the output of the GPS that is the ground position measuring device. Further, it may be determined whether or not the vehicle is an obstacle 74 based on the deviation between the output of the front wheel speed sensor and the output of the rear wheel speed sensor. When the difference between the rotational speed of the front wheels and the rotational speed of the rear wheels is large, it can be determined that the unmanned vehicle 2 is slipping.

  Moreover, although it has detected that it slipped and it is judged that it is the obstruction 74, you may judge that it is the obstruction 74 by detecting the rough road surface.

  The unmanned vehicle 2 is equipped with a gyro as a component of the position measurement unit 33. The gyro output, that is, the angular velocity of the attitude angle of the unmanned vehicle 2 is transmitted to the monitoring station 8 as road surface condition data.

  In the monitoring station 8, when the angular velocity of the attitude angle of the unmanned vehicle 2 output from the gyro is equal to or higher than a predetermined threshold value (when the attitude change per unit time in the yaw direction of the unmanned vehicle 2 is large). The road surface under the unmanned vehicle 2 is determined to be largely rough, and the road surface at that time is determined to be an obstacle 74 (road surface roughness). Then, it is determined that the current measurement position (X, Y) of the unmanned vehicle 2 that has transmitted the road surface state data is the position of the obstacle 74 (road surface roughness). The size of the obstacle 74 (road surface roughness) may be set in accordance with the level of road surface roughness (the size of the output value of the gyro).

  Although it is determined from the output of the gyro whether or not it is an obstacle 74, the unmanned vehicle 2 is equipped with an inclinometer, and the rate of change of the inclination angle per unit time obtained from the output of this inclinometer Based on the above, it may be determined whether or not the obstacle 74 is present. When the rate of change of the tilt angle per unit time obtained from the output of the inclinometer is large (when the change in attitude per unit time in the rolling direction or pitching direction of the unmanned vehicle 2 is large), It can be judged that the road surface is rough.

  Further, even when the degree of slip or rough road is small and it cannot be determined that the obstacle 74 is an obstacle 74, a traveling / stop command is transmitted to the unmanned vehicle 2 according to the degree of slip or rough road. be able to. That is, the monitoring station 8 can transmit a travel command for reducing the travel speed to the unmanned vehicle 2 in accordance with the magnitude of slip or road surface roughness. In some cases, the monitoring station 8 may transmit a stop command for stopping traveling to the unmanned vehicle 2.

  In this embodiment, the monitoring station 8 side determines the degree of slip and road surface roughness based on the road surface condition data, but the unmanned vehicle 2 side independently determines the degree of slip and road surface roughness based on the road surface state data. May be.

  In this case, if it is determined on the unmanned vehicle 2 side that the slip or the road surface is rough, the unmanned vehicle 2 reduces the traveling speed according to the magnitude of the slip or the road surface. Further, when the slip or road surface roughness becomes larger than a predetermined threshold value, the traveling is stopped. In this case, data indicating that the speed of the unmanned vehicle 2 has decreased or stopped traveling is transmitted to the monitoring station 8.

  Further, it may be determined whether or not the unmanned vehicle 2 is an obstacle 74 and the determination result may be transmitted to the monitoring station 8. In this case, the monitoring station 8 may adopt the determination result transmitted from the unmanned vehicle 2 as it is. Alternatively, the monitoring station 8 further analyzes the data transmitted from the unmanned vehicle 2 (road surface state data, speed reduction / travel stop data, obstacle determination data), and finally determines whether or not it is an obstacle 74. May be.

  Therefore, the obstacle storage unit 41 of the monitoring station 8 stores the measurement position (X, Y) of the unmanned vehicle 2 as the position of the obstacle 74 when the slip or the rough road surface occurs. Every time the obstacle detector 34 newly determines that the obstacle 74 (slip, rough road surface) is detected, the storage content of the obstacle storage unit 41 is updated.

  Then, the traveling course generation unit 44 of the monitoring station 8 avoids the obstacle 74 based on the position data of the obstacle 74 stored in the obstacle storage unit 41, as indicated by a broken line in FIG. A corrected traveling course 71 'is generated. A corrected traveling course 71 ′ is displayed on the display screen 76.

  FIG. 8 shows a modified traveling course 71 ′ at an actual work site.

  The unmanned vehicle 2 is guided to travel along this corrected travel course 71 '. For this reason, the unmanned vehicle 2 can travel safely without interfering with the obstacle 74.

  As described above, according to the present embodiment, the obstacle 74 (slip, rough road surface) generated in a certain unmanned vehicle 2 is stored as the position of the obstacle 74 common to the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. Therefore, from this stored data, it becomes possible to easily and quickly correct the traveling courses 71, 71,... Of the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2,. Therefore, the correction work of the traveling courses 71, 71.

  Further, according to the present embodiment, since the data of the obstacle 74 is updated at any time in response to the occurrence of the obstacle 74 (slip, rough road) in the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2,. It is possible to cope with a work site where the obstacle 74 is generated in real time like a work site where 2, 2,. That is, by sharing the obstacle data obtained from a plurality of unmanned vehicles, it is possible to avoid missing the obstacle 74 (slip, rough road surface) that changes as needed.

  Further, according to this embodiment, since the obstacle 74 is determined from the road surface on which the unmanned vehicle 2 travels, the obstacle 74 (sluffy, undetectable by the obstacle detector 34 mounted on the unmanned vehicle). Even a hole, a rough road surface, etc.) can be determined as an obstacle.

  Obstacles 74 such as mud, holes and rough road surfaces may change and disappear as the work progresses. When the operator visually determines that the obstacle 74 has disappeared, the operator instructs the disappearance of the obstacle 74 on the display screen 76 as described above. In the monitoring station 8, processing for deleting the data of the corresponding obstacle 74 from the obstacle storage unit 41 is performed in accordance with the instruction to eliminate the obstacle 74.

  Further, the monitoring station 8 may ask the operator whether or not the obstacle 74 has disappeared after a certain time has elapsed since the obstacle 74 is stored in the obstacle storage unit 41. In this embodiment, it is assumed that the road surface state is detected by all unmanned vehicles, but the road surface state may be detected by only some unmanned vehicles. Further, the road surface state may be detected by the loading vehicle 14 and the manned vehicle 20. In this case, the obstacle 74 (slack, hole, rough road surface, etc.) on the route along which the loading vehicle 14 and the manned vehicle 20 travel can be captured.

・ Aspect 6
When the operator of the manned vehicle 20 or the loading machine 14 visually finds that the obstacle 74 exists in the vicinity of the unmanned vehicle 2 that is traveling, the corresponding unmanned vehicle 2 is instructed to stop. A stop command to that effect is transmitted via the communication unit 55. The obstacle 74 in this case is a load (rock, earth and sand) dropped from the unmanned vehicle 2, a muddy, a hole, a rough road surface, and the like.

  The monitoring station 8 receives data indicating that the stop command has been received from the unmanned vehicle 2 that has received the stop command. The monitoring station 8 receives data on the current measurement position (X, Y) of the unmanned vehicle 2 that has received this stop command. Therefore, the monitoring station 8 can determine that the measurement position (X, Y) (stop position of the unmanned vehicle 2) of the unmanned vehicle 2 that has received this stop command is the position of the obstacle 74.

  Further, in order to more accurately identify the position of the obstacle 74, data indicating the relative position of the obstacle 74 with respect to the unmanned vehicle 2 is transmitted to the monitoring station 8 from the loading machine 14 or the manned vehicle 20 that has transmitted the stop command. May be.

  10 and 11 illustrate the positional relationship between the obstacle 74 and the traveling course, respectively.

  As shown in FIG. 10, when the operator of the manned vehicle 20 or the loading machine 14 confirms that the obstacle 74 exists behind the unmanned vehicle 2 (on the traveling course 71), the unmanned vehicle 2 is set to the origin. The coordinate position data on the coordinate system XY is transmitted to the monitoring station 8. In addition, data “L (m) behind unmanned vehicle 2” may be transmitted to monitoring station 8. In this case, the corresponding data is transmitted to the monitoring station 8 by indicating the corresponding position on the display screen 76 of the display unit 50 of the manned vehicle 20 or the loading machine 14.

  In the monitoring station 8, based on the measurement position (X, Y) (stop position of the unmanned vehicle 2) of the unmanned vehicle 2 that has received the stop command and the relative position data transmitted from the manned vehicle 20 or the loading machine 14, The position of the obstacle 74 is accurately calculated. That is, the rear of the unmanned vehicle 2 (on the traveling course 71) is specified as the exact position of the obstacle 74.

  Similarly, as shown in FIG. 11, when the operator of the manned vehicle 20 or the loading machine 14 confirms that the obstacle 74 exists on the side of the unmanned vehicle 2, the coordinate system with the unmanned vehicle 2 as the origin is used. The coordinate position data on XY is transmitted to the monitoring station 8. Further, the data “side L (m) of the unmanned vehicle 2” may be transmitted to the monitoring station 8. In this case, the corresponding data is transmitted to the monitoring station 8 by indicating the corresponding position on the display screen 76 of the display unit 50 of the manned vehicle 20 or the loading machine 14.

  In the monitoring station 8, based on the measurement position (X, Y) (stop position of the unmanned vehicle 2) of the unmanned vehicle 2 that has received the stop command and the relative position data transmitted from the manned vehicle 20 or the loading machine 14, The position of the obstacle 74 is accurately calculated. That is, the side of the unmanned vehicle 2 is specified as the exact position of the obstacle 74.

  In addition, by transmitting data on the shape and size of the obstacle 74 from the manned vehicle 20 or the loading machine 14 to the monitoring station 8, not only the position of the obstacle 74 but also the shape and size may be specified.

  Therefore, the obstacle storage unit 41 of the monitoring station 8 stores the position of the unmanned vehicle 2 that has received the stop command (or a position in the vicinity thereof) as the position of the obstacle 74. And whenever the unmanned vehicle 2 receives a stop command, the memory content of the obstacle memory | storage part 41 is updated.

  Then, the traveling course generation unit 44 of the monitoring station 8 avoids the obstacle 74 based on the position data of the obstacle 74 stored in the obstacle storage unit 41, as indicated by a broken line in FIG. A corrected traveling course 71 'is generated. A corrected traveling course 71 ′ is displayed on the display screen 76.

  FIG. 8 shows a modified traveling course 71 ′ at an actual work site.

  The unmanned vehicle 2 is guided to travel along this corrected travel course 71 '. For this reason, the unmanned vehicle 2 can travel safely without interfering with the obstacle 74.

  As described above, according to the present embodiment, the location where a certain unmanned vehicle 2 is stopped is stored as the position of the obstacle 74 common to the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. Can be corrected easily and in a short time. Therefore, the correction work of the traveling courses 71, 71.

  Further, according to the present embodiment, since the data of the obstacle 74 is updated at any time in response to the stop of the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2,... At any time, the work site where the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. Thus, it is possible to cope with a work site where the obstacle 74 is generated in real time. In other words, by sharing the obstacle data obtained from a plurality of unmanned vehicles, it is possible to avoid missing the obstacle 74 that changes from time to time.

  Further, according to this embodiment, since the operator visually confirms the obstacle 74, the obstacle 74 (slack, hole, rough road surface, etc.) that cannot be detected by the obstacle detector 34 mounted on the unmanned vehicle. Even if it exists, it can be judged that this is an obstacle.

  In addition, according to the present embodiment, since it is confirmed by the operator's visual observation that the obstacle 74 is present, the obstacle 74 can be surely seen regardless of the surrounding environment as compared with the case where the obstacle detector 34 detects it. Captured.

  In this embodiment, it is assumed that all unmanned vehicles have a function of receiving and stopping a stop command, but only a part of the unmanned vehicles receive a stop command and stop. Implementation can also be provided.

・ Aspect 7
The position measurement unit 51 of the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 measures its own vehicle position. The data of the measurement position is transmitted to the monitoring station 8.

  The manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 become obstacles when a plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2.

  Therefore, the obstacle storage unit 41 of the monitoring station 8 stores the measurement position transmitted from the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 as the position of the obstacle 74. And whenever the measurement position of the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 is changed at any time, the memory content of the obstacle memory | storage part 41 is updated.

  Then, the traveling course generation unit 44 of the monitoring station 8 avoids the obstacle 74 based on the position data of the obstacle 74 stored in the obstacle storage unit 41, as indicated by a broken line in FIG. A corrected traveling course 71 'is generated. A corrected traveling course 71 ′ is displayed on the display screen 76.

  FIG. 8 shows a modified traveling course 71 ′ at an actual work site.

  The unmanned vehicle 2 is guided to travel along this corrected travel course 71 '. For this reason, the unmanned vehicle 2 can travel safely without interfering with the obstacle 74.

  The storage position of the obstacle 74 may be updated at any time regardless of whether the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 are running or stopped.

  The storage position of the obstacle 74 may be updated only when the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 are stopped, without being performed while the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 are traveling. In this case, while the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 are traveling, the obstacle data corresponding to the traveling vehicle is deleted from the stored contents of the obstacle storage unit 41.

  However, when the storage position of the obstacle 74 is updated at any time while the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 are traveling, the traveling course 71 is complicatedly corrected. In order to avoid this, it is desirable to update the traveling course 71 by updating the storage position of the obstacle 74 every time the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 stop.

  Further, even if the traveling course 71 is modified so as to avoid the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14, there is a possibility that the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 may interfere with the unmanned vehicle 2 when the traveling course 71 starts traveling again. Thus, it is desirable to perform wireless communication between the unmanned vehicle 2, the manned vehicle 20, and the loading machine 14 and guide the unmanned vehicle 2 while confirming the mutual positional relationship.

  In the present embodiment, it is assumed that the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 itself are used as the obstacle 74, but the following implementation is also possible.

  That is, when the operator finds an obstacle 74 such as a rock, the manned vehicle 20 travels to a position near the obstacle 74. Therefore, the manned vehicle 20 specifies the relative position of the obstacle 74 with respect to the own vehicle 20 in the same manner as in FIGS. 10 and 11. Then, the relative position data is transmitted to the monitoring station 8.

  In the monitoring station 8, the position of the obstacle 74 is accurately calculated based on the transmitted measurement position data of the manned vehicle 20 and relative position data of the obstacle 74 with respect to the manned vehicle 20. The position data of the obstacle 74 is stored in the obstacle storage unit 41.

  In this embodiment, only the data of the position of the obstacle 74 is transmitted to the monitoring station 8, but it is also possible to generate data on the shape and size of the obstacle 74 and transmit this to the monitoring station 8. It is.

  In this case, the traveling speed of the vehicle and the traveling direction of the vehicle are calculated based on the outputs of the manned vehicle 20 and the position measuring unit 51 of the loading machine 14. Then, data on the size of the obstacle 74 is generated in accordance with the calculated vehicle speed. Specifically, the size of the obstacle 74 is specified by determining that the obstacle 74 is larger as the traveling speed of the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 is higher.

  Further, the shape data of the obstacle 74 is generated according to the calculated traveling direction of the vehicle. Specifically, the shape of the obstacle 74 is specified by determining that the obstacle 74 has a long shape in the direction in which the manned vehicle 20 and the loading machine 14 travel.

  In this way, data on the position, shape, and size of the obstacle 74 is stored in the obstacle storage unit 41.

  In the present embodiment, the manned work vehicles 20 and 14 are obstacles to the unmanned vehicle 2, but the work vehicles 20 and 14 may be unmanned vehicles.

  As described above, according to this embodiment, the work vehicles 20 and 14 are stored as the positions of the obstacles 74 common to the plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. It is possible to easily correct the traveling courses 71, 71,. Therefore, the correction work of the traveling courses 71, 71.

  Further, since the data of the obstacle 74 is updated at any time as the positions of the work vehicles 20 and 14 are changed at any time, the obstacle 74 becomes real time like a work site where a plurality of unmanned vehicles 2, 2. Can handle changing work sites. That is, the obstacle 74 changing from time to time is not missed.

  In the embodiment described above, it is assumed that the corrected traveling course 71 ′ is generated according to the obstacle 74 data. However, according to the present invention, it is not always necessary to generate a traveling course. It is sufficient that at least the data of the obstacle 74 can be acquired. For example, when the present invention is applied to an unmanned vehicle having artificial intelligence, if only the data of the obstacle 74 is given to the vehicle, the unmanned vehicle follows the inference engine, and passes through a path that avoids the obstacle 74. 72 can be reached.

  Hereinafter, an embodiment in which a guided traveling course can be easily generated when a course area and a target point are changed will be described.

  In FIG. 15, the course area 1 is a work area (loading area or earthing area) in a mine. The unmanned off-road dump truck 2 which is an unmanned moving body reaches the position SP of the entrance branch point of the course area 1 and then travels toward the position TP of the moving destination along the guidance course described later. Execute the predetermined work (loading work or earth removal work).

  The unmanned off-road dump truck 2 (hereinafter referred to as unmanned dump truck) includes a travel control system as shown in FIG.

  In FIG. 13, the mode setting unit 3 sets a measurement mode and an automatic operation mode, and is configured by a switch, for example.

  The position measuring unit 4 uses the GPS (global positioning system) (not shown), a tire rotation speed detection sensor for obtaining travel distance information, an optical fiber gyro for obtaining travel direction information, and the like. The current travel position is detected.

  FIG. 14 illustrates a procedure for generating a guidance course.

  In this procedure, first, the shape input process of the course area 1 is executed (step 100).

  When inputting the shape of the course area 1, an area measuring dump truck (hereinafter referred to as a measuring dump truck) not shown is driven. That is, an operator gets on the measurement dump, operates the mode setting unit 3 to set the measurement mode, and then travels the dump 2 along the boundary of the course area 1.

  At this time, the measurement dump dump position measurement unit 4 detects the travel position of the measurement dump every moment and stores it in the course area storage unit 6. Therefore, the course area storage unit 6 stores the shape of the course area 1 as a coordinate point sequence of the travel position.

  If there is an area that cannot be run in the course area (for example, an area with large rocks), move the measurement dump to the vicinity and manually enter the relative range from that position. Or, an operator inputs on the screen using a graphic interface.

  The communication unit 7 shown in FIG. 13 performs communication with the monitoring station 8 installed at a predetermined place, and the communication unit 7 for the measurement dump includes data indicating the shape of the measured course area. Is transmitted to the monitoring station 8.

  By the way, the loading operation of the unmanned dump truck 2 for work is performed when the dump truck 2 approaches a loading device such as a wheel loader or a power shovel collecting ore and the loading device loads the ore into the dump truck.

  The position TP of the movement target point is a loading position of the loading device, and this loading position changes as the work progresses.

  Therefore, in this embodiment, the wheel position of the wheel loader and the power shovel and the approach angle of the unmanned dump truck 2 are obtained using the GPS on the loading device and the geomagnetic direction sensor.

  The loading device includes a wireless communication device, and transmits the bucket position at the time of loading to the monitoring device 8 as the position TP of the movement destination point.

  Note that, as shown in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 9-44242, the position TP of the movement target point can be obtained by designating the relative position from the previous loading position according to the position change of the loading device.

  The monitoring station 8 gives the data indicating the shape of the course area, the position SP of the entrance branch point (movement start point) of the course area 1 and the position TP of the movement destination point to the unmanned dump truck 2 for work. Send.

  Therefore, the processing unit 5 of the unmanned dump truck 2 inputs the branch point position SP and the movement target point position TP via the communication unit 7 (step 101), and then the number of guidance course generations n and the best evaluation described later. Each value E best is initialized to 0 (step 102).

  Then, the processing unit 5 randomly sets the coordinates of the position MP of one intermediate point in the course area 1 and the azimuth angle of the unmanned dump truck 2 at the position MP of the intermediate point (Step 103). A guidance course for the unmanned dump truck 2 connecting the branch point position SP and the intermediate point position MP is generated (step 104).

  As shown in FIG. 15, the direction vector of the unmanned dump truck 2 at the branch point position SP is spv, the same direction vector at the intermediate point position MP is mpv, and the same value at the target point position TP. Assuming that the direction vector is tpv, the procedure for generating the guidance course in step 104 is as follows.

(A) A case where a position MP exists on the straight line SP + m spv as shown in FIG. 16 and FIG.

(A-1)
As shown in FIG. 16, when spv = mpv, a straight line connecting positions SP and MP is generated as a guidance course.

(A-2)
As shown in FIG. 17, when spv ≠ mpv, circles S1 and S2 satisfying the following conditions 1 and 2 are set, and the circles S1 and S2 interposed between the positions SP and MP are combined. Generate a line as a guided course.

Condition 1: The circle S1 has a circumference passing through the position SP and a straight line SP + k spv as a tangent. The circle S2 has a circumference passing through the position MP and a straight line MP + lmpv as a tangent.
Condition 2: The center of the circle S4 is on the position MP side when viewed from the position SP, and the center of the circle S5 is on the position SP side when viewed from the position MP.
Condition 3: The circles S1 and S2 have the same diameter and contact each other.

(B) As shown in FIGS. 18 to 22, when the position MP does not exist on the straight line SP + m spv and spv ≠ mpv and spv ≠ −mpv, the straight line SP + m spv and the straight line MP + Find the intersection point SMp of n mpv.

(B-1)
As shown in FIG. 18, when is in front of the position SP and behind the position MP, a straight line passing through the position SP and including the vector spv and a straight line including the vector mpv through the position MP are tangent. A circle S3 is set, and a guidance course passing through an arc and a straight line on the circle S3 interposed between the positions SP and MP is generated.

  That is, when the distance between the intersection point SMP and the position SP is shorter than the distance between the intersection point SMP and the position MP, an arc passing from the position SP to the intersection point with the straight line parallel to the vector mpv from the position SP to the position MP. A line segment is generated as a course.

  Conversely, when the distance between the intersection point SMP and the position MP is close, a course consisting of a line segment from the position SP to a point where the straight line including the vector spv contacts the circle and an arc on the circle from the contact point to the position MP. Generate.

(B-2)
As shown in FIG. 19, when the intersection point SMp is behind the position Sp and the position MP, or as shown in FIG. 20, the intersection point SMp is ahead of the position Sp and the position MP, respectively, Circles S4 and S5 satisfying the conditions 1 to 3 are set, and a line formed by a combination of arcs on the circles S4 and S5 interposed between the positions SP and MP is generated as a guidance course.

Condition 1: The circle S4 has a straight line passing through the position SP and including the vector spv as a tangent. The circle S5 has a straight line passing through the position MP and including the vector mpv as a tangent.
Condition 2: The center of the circle S4 is on the position MP side when viewed from the position SP, and the center of the circle S5 is on the position SP side when viewed from the position MP. Condition 3: The circles S4 and S5 have the same diameter and contact each other.

(B-3)
As shown in FIG. 21, when the intersection point SMp is behind the position Sp and in front of the position MP, a circle S6 having a straight line including the vector spv and a straight line including the vector mpv is set. A line composed of a straight line from the position SP to the point where the straight line including the vector spv contacts the circle S6 and an arc on the circle S6 from the contact point to the position MP is generated as a guidance course.

(C) As shown in FIG. 22, when the position MP does not exist on the straight line SP + m spv and the vectors spv and mpv are parallel to each other and spv = mpv, Circles S4 and S5 satisfying the indicated conditions are set, and a line composed of a combination of arcs on the circles S4 and S5 interposed between the positions SP and MP is generated as a guidance course.

(D) As shown in FIGS. 23 and 24, the position MP does not exist on the straight line SP + m spv, and the vectors spv and mpv are parallel to each other and spv = −mpv.

(D-1)
As shown in FIG. 23, when the inner product (spv, Mp-Sp) of the vector spv and the vector from the position Sp to the position Mp is (spv, Mp-Sp)> 0, the circumference passes the position Mp, and Then, a circle S7 having a straight line SP + k spv and a straight line MP + l mpv as a tangent is set. A line consisting of a straight line from the position SP to the point where the tangent line SP + k spv contacts the circle 8 and an arc on the circle 8 from the contact point to the position MP is generated as a guidance course.

(D-2)
As shown in FIG. 24, when the inner product (spv, Mp-Sp) is (spv, Mp-Sp) ≦ 0, the circumference passes through the position SP, and the straight line SP + k spv and the straight line MP + l mpv A circle S9 with tangent to is set. A line consisting of an arc on a circle S9 from the position SP to the point where the straight line MP + l mpv contacts the circle S10 and a straight line from the contact point to the position MP is generated as a guidance course.

  The procedure for generating the guidance course of the unmanned dump truck 2 between the entrance branch point position SP and the intermediate point position MP is as described above. In the course generation methods shown in FIGS. 19, 20, and 22, the diameters of the two circles are set equal to each other, but this is for the purpose of facilitating the calculation. Course generation is possible even if they are not set equal.

  Next, the processing unit 5 generates a guidance course between the position MP of the intermediate point and the position TP of the target point (step 105). This guidance course is generated by the above-described branch point position Sp and the intermediate point. Since the guidance course is generated between the positions MP, the description thereof is omitted here.

  In step 103, the coordinates of the midpoint position MP are set at random. However, the coordinates may be set sequentially from the coordinates of a predetermined end of the course area 1. Further, when generating a guide course between the intermediate point position MP and the target point position TP in step 105, one or more other intermediate points may be set between these positions as necessary. good.

  Thus, the generation of one guidance course from the entrance branch point position SP to the target point position TP via the intermediate point position MP, for example, the guidance course illustrated in FIG. 25 is completed. Therefore, the processing unit 5 calculates the minimum distance between the guidance course and the boundary of the course area (step 106).

  That is, the generated guidance course is expressed as a sequence of coordinate points in the same manner as the shape of the course area 1. Therefore, the processing unit 5 stops the distance between the line segment indicated by each point on the guidance course and the line segment indicated by each point on the course area 1 to obtain the minimum distance.

  By the way, the generated guided course is designed so that the distance from the boundary of the course area 1 is as large as possible, and so that the unmanned dump truck 2 can be moved with a radius of rotation as large as possible. It is desirable to set so that the position TP of the target point can be reached.

  Therefore, the processing unit evaluates the generated guidance course using the following evaluation function (step 107).

E = f1 (min (distance for edge)) + f2 (minimum R) + f3 (length of course)
However, min (distance for edge): The minimum distance between the guidance course and the boundary of the course area 1.
minimum R: Minimum radius of the arc part of the guide course
length of course: the length of the guidance course In step 108, it is determined whether or not the minimum distance is smaller than ½ of the vehicle width of the dump truck 2. In step 109, the minimum radius is the reference radius. It is determined whether or not it is smaller than (the minimum turning radius of the dump truck 2).

  That the minimum distance is smaller than 1/2 of the vehicle width of the dump truck 2 suggests that the dump truck 2 may interfere with the boundary of the course area 1, and the minimum radius is smaller than the reference radius. It is suggested that the generated guidance course includes a portion where the dumper 2 cannot turn.

  Therefore, if any of the determination results in steps 108 and 109 is YES, a process for setting the evaluation value E to 0 is executed (step 110).

  In step 111, it is determined whether or not the evaluation value E is larger than the best evaluation value E best obtained so far.

  If the determination result in step 111 is YES, the previous best evaluation value is updated with the evaluation value E, and the intermediate point position Mp set in step 103 is generated in steps 104 and 105. The guided course is stored in the guided course storage unit 9 shown in FIG. 13 (step 112).

  In the next step 113, it is determined whether or not the evaluation value E is larger than a preset reference evaluation value. If the evaluation value E is larger than the reference evaluation value, the guidance course storage unit 9 currently stores the evaluation value E. The stored intermediate point position Mp and the guidance course are determined as the employment intermediate point position and the employment guidance course (step 114).

  On the other hand, when the determination result of step 111 and step 113 is NO, the number of times of induction course generation n (which is appropriately set according to the size of the course area) is incremented by 1 (step 115), and then It is determined whether the number of generations n has reached the set number (step 116).

  If the number of generations n has not reached the set number, the procedure returns to step 103. If the number of generations n has reached the set number, the procedure proceeds to step 114.

  As described above, when the determination results in steps 108 and 109 are YES, the process for setting the evaluation value E to 0 is executed. Therefore, the determination result in step 111 is NO. The process for generating another course is executed.

  Therefore, according to the above procedure, when the generated guidance course includes a portion where the dump 2 cannot turn, or when the dump 2 may interfere with the boundary of the course area, the guidance Another induction course different from the course is regenerated.

  Finally, there is no portion where the dumper 2 cannot turn, and a guidance course that does not cause the above-described interference is generated.

  Note that the minimum distance which is the determination target in step 108 includes measurement errors in the course area. Further, when the dump 2 is guided to travel based on the course data, errors such as a position measurement error and a travel control error occur. Therefore, in order to improve the reliability of the interference check in step 108, it is desirable to adopt a judgment criterion in which the above error is added to 1/2 of the vehicle width.

  As is clear from the above description, according to the above procedure, based on the coordinates of the midpoint position MP specified at random, the position of the target point is determined from the position SP of the entrance branch point via the midpoint position MP. A guidance course that reaches the position TP, specifically, a guidance course constituted by a straight line, a circular arc, or a combination thereof is generated.

  Then, when the evaluation value of the generated guidance course is higher than the reference evaluation value, or when the number n of generations of the guidance course reaches the set number, the position of the employment intermediate point and the employment guidance course are determined.

  The processing unit 5 transmits the position of the employment midpoint and the employment guidance course to the monitoring station 8 via the communication unit 7 shown in FIG.

  In the method for generating the guidance course, the position MP of the intermediate point is set at random. However, the position MP of the intermediate point may be set sequentially from any one end position of the course area. . Alternatively, a predetermined area of the course area may be designated, and the midpoint position MP may be set sequentially from any end position of the area.

  Furthermore, in the method for generating the guidance course, the guidance course is constituted by a straight line, a circular arc, or a combination thereof. It is also possible to configure, or a combination of straight lines, arcs and spline curves may be used.

  Furthermore, in the above description, a guidance course that does not cause interference is automatically generated. However, every time one course is generated, an operator's response to the course may be obtained.

  That is, every time one course is generated, an embodiment in which the presence / absence of occurrence of interference and the risk of interference are displayed for the course and the operator is allowed to select the best course based on the display is also possible. .

  Next, the guided traveling of the dump truck 2 using the guidance course will be described.

  The unmanned dump truck 2 that has traveled to the position SP of the entrance branch point by automatic operation is temporarily stopped by a stop command from the monitoring station 8. Then, when an automatic driving command is transmitted from the monitoring station 8, automatic driving running in the course area 1 is started.

  That is, the processing unit 5 activates the traveling mechanism unit 10 to travel the unmanned dump truck 2 based on the automatic driving command, and simultaneously determines the current position of the unmanned dump truck 2 based on the output of the traveling position measuring unit 4. Based on this current position and the guidance course stored in the guidance course storage section 9, the steering mechanism section 11 of the dump truck 2 is controlled so that the unmanned dump truck 2 is positioned on the guidance course. Therefore, the unmanned dump truck 2 reaches the position TP of the target point while traveling on the guidance course.

  In the above embodiment, the branch point SP of the unmanned dump truck 2 is set at the entrance of the course area 1. However, the so-called hall road which is the traveling path of the dump truck 2 to the entrance of the course area 1 and the course area entrance If the boundary is not clear or the course area 1 is long, the branch point SP may be provided at an arbitrary position on the whole road.

  In this case, the branch point SP is uniquely determined as a position on the hole load at a predetermined distance from the position TP of the target point, or the position SP of the branch point is determined as a position on the hole load. This is expressed using a parameter (for example, the travel distance of the dump 2 from a predetermined starting position on a guide course set in advance on the whole road), and this parameter is searched together with the position MP of the intermediate point to search for the branch point. SP may be determined.

  In the above embodiment, the midpoint position MP is given by orthogonal coordinates (X, Y), but the midpoint position MP can also be given by cylindrical coordinates (θ, l). Two vectors at right angles may be used as the reference of the coordinate system, or arbitrary vectors in different directions, for example, the position SP of the entrance branch point or the position TP of the target point may be used.

  On the other hand, it is also possible to give the position MP of the intermediate point as follows.

  That is, a circle passing through the position SP of the entrance branch point and touching the direction vector spv is drawn, and the position MP of the intermediate point can be set based on the radius of the circle and the length of the arc from the position SP in the circle. .

  Similarly, a circle passing through the position TP of the moving target point and touching the vector tpv is drawn, and the position MP of the intermediate point is set by the radius of this circle and the length of the arc from the position TP in the circle. Is also possible.

  In this case, a partial guidance course from the position SP to the position TP or a partial guidance course from the position TP to the midpoint position MP is created simultaneously with the setting of the midpoint position MP. It is not necessary to create this partial guidance course according to the algorithm described above.

  And the said partial induction | guidance | derivation course will be comprised as a course in which turning of the dump 2 is fully possible by setting the radius of the said circle more than the minimum turning radius of the dump 2.

  In the above description, one circle is drawn to set the position MP of the intermediate point. However, a plurality of circles are drawn, and the position MP of the intermediate point is determined by the radius of each circle and the arc length in each circle. Can also be set.

  That is, for example, as shown in FIG. 26, a circle S10 that is in contact with the vector tpv through the position TP of the movement target point and a circle S11 of the same diameter that is in contact with the circle S10 are drawn. Based on the length of the arc from TP to the contact point of the circles S10 and S10 and the length of the arc from the contact point to the midpoint position MP1, the intermediate point position MP is set based on the position TP of the moving target point. can do.

  There are two types of circles passing through the position TP of the movement target point and in contact with the vector tpv: a circle S10 shown above the vector spv and a circle not shown located below the vector spv.

  Therefore, to draw the two circles and set the midpoint position MP, the radius of the circle, the length of the arc in one circle, the length of the arc in the other circle, and the left A total of four parameter values, a flag indicating whether the circle is located below or above the tangent, are designated. The two circles do not necessarily have the same diameter.

  As described above, even when a plurality of circles are drawn to set the midpoint position MP, a partial guidance course that reaches the midpoint position MP at the same time as the setting is created. There is no need to create a partial guidance course.

  This partial guidance course also does not include a portion where the unmanned dumper 2 cannot turn by setting the radius of each circle to be equal to or greater than the minimum turning radius of the dumper 2.

  By the way, although the position measuring unit 4 shown in FIG. 14 includes the GPS, as shown in FIG. 27, when the GPS antenna 12 is disposed at the front center of the unmanned dump truck 2, the GPS is The arrangement position of the antenna 12 is measured as the traveling position of the unmanned dump truck 2.

  Therefore, when the unmanned dump truck 2 is driven along the boundary of the course area 1 and an attempt is made to measure the shape of the course area 1 based on the GPS position detection result obtained at that time, the measured course area The shape of 1 is a shape in which the boundary of the actual course area 1 is shifted inward by a distance of about ½ of the vehicle width of the unmanned dump truck 2. That is, the measured shape of the course area 1 includes an error corresponding to a distance of about ½ of the vehicle width.

  FIG. 28 illustrates a procedure for reducing the error as much as possible. This procedure is executed by the processing unit 5. At the time of execution, the measurement mode is set by the mode setting unit 3.

  The GPS outputs data (hereinafter referred to as GPS data) indicating the position of the dump 2 at a predetermined cycle. In the procedure shown in FIG. 28, after the flag and the azimuth angle of the dump 2 are initialized to 0 (step 200), the read GPS data {GPSx, GPS y} is the GPS data { GPS old x, GPS old y} are set (step 201).

  Next, the GPS data {GPS x, GPS y} is read (step 202), and it is determined whether the flag is set to 1 (203).

  At the present time, since the flag is 0, the determination result in step 203 is NO. Therefore, after the flag is set to 1 (step 204), the procedure returns to step 201.

  Thereafter, the procedure of steps 201 to 203 is executed again, but since the flag is set to 1, the determination result of step 203 is YES. As described above, the GPS data {GPS old x, GPS old y} output in the previous cycle and the GPS data {GPS x, GPS y} output in the current cycle are obtained. Based on the following equation (1) The azimuth angle of the unmanned dump truck 2 is calculated (step 205).

Angle = atan2 (GPS y -GPS old y, GPS x -GPS old x) ... (1)
Here, atan2 is an arc tangent function for obtaining an angle by taking into account the signs of X and Y.

  Next, it is determined whether or not the left end of the unmanned dump truck 2 is set to the measurement position (step 206). Note that the measurement position instruction switch 13 shown in FIG. 14 selectively indicates the left end and the right end of the unmanned dump truck 2 as the measurement position, and the determination in step 206 is executed based on the instruction of the switch 13. .

  When the left end measurement position is instructed, the left end position is calculated as the travel position based on the following equations (2) and (3) (step 207), and when the right end is instructed. Is calculated based on the following expressions (4) and (5) as the travel position (step 208).

Edge x = Gps x + l1 * cos (Angle) -12 * sin (Angle)… (2)
Edge y = Gps y + l1 * cos (Angle) -12 * cos (Angle) (3)
Edge x = Gps x + l1 * cos (Angle) -13 * sin (Angle)… (4)
Edge y = Gps y + l1 * cos (Angle) -13 * cos (Angle)… (5)
Here, l1, l2 and l3 are parameters indicating the positional relationship of the GPS antenna 12 in the dump 2 (see FIG. 27).

  The calculated travel position {Edge x, Edge y} is stored in the course area storage unit 6 (step 209). Thereafter, the above procedure is repeated.

  Therefore, for example, if the unmanned dump truck 2 is run with its left end along the boundary of the course area 1 in the state where the left end measurement position is indicated, the shape of the course area 1 can be measured with extremely high accuracy.

  In the above procedure, the azimuth angle of the unmanned dump truck 2 is calculated based on the position change amount of the unmanned dump truck 2. However, the azimuth angle may be measured using an optical fiber gyroscope or a geomagnetic sensor. In addition, a so-called sensor fusion method for improving detection accuracy by using a plurality of different types of sensors in combination can be introduced in the measurement of the azimuth angle.

  By the way, it is also possible to improve the shape measurement accuracy of the course area 1 by changing the actual arrangement position of the GPS antenna 12.

  In this case, for example, connectors for attaching the GPS antenna 12 are also provided at the left end and the right end of the unmanned dump truck 2, and the GPS antenna 12 is selectively connected to each connector according to the running mode of the dump truck 2 with respect to the boundary of the course area. .

  Of course, separate GPS antennas may be attached to the left end and the right end, respectively, and these antennas may be selectively connected to the GPS receiver by the switch means.

  If the course area 1 is the loading area, the course area 1 expands with the progress of excavation work by the excavating machine. That is, the shape of the course area 1 changes.

  When the shape of the course area 1 changes, an error occurs in the minimum distance calculated in step 106 in FIG. 14, and this affects the evaluation value in step 107. Further, as the course area 1 expands and changes, the guidance course of the unmanned dump truck 2 needs to be changed.

  In order to cope with the change in the shape of the course area 1, the shape measurement operation of the course area 1 may be performed periodically, but this is not a good idea because it reduces workability.

  Therefore, hereinafter, a method of updating the shape of the course area 1 without performing the above measurement operation will be described.

  As shown in FIG. 29, a loading machine (loading device) 14 such as a wheel loader is located at the loading place in the course area 1.

  As shown in FIG. 32, the loading machine 14 includes a position measuring unit 15 having a GPS, an azimuth measuring unit 16 having an optical fiber gyroscope, a communication unit 17 communicating with the monitoring station 8, and a guidance course storage unit 18. And a processing unit 19.

  Data indicating the shape of the course area 1 transmitted from the monitoring station 8 is received by the communication unit 17 and then stored in the course area storage unit 19 via the processing unit 18. The data indicating the shape of the course area 1 relates to the course area actually measured by the unmanned dump truck 2, and hereinafter, this course area is referred to as an initial course area.

  As shown in FIG. 33, the processing unit 19 inputs the current position of the loading machine 14 measured by the position measuring unit 15 (step 300), and between the position and the boundary of the initial course area 1 The distance is calculated (step 301), and then it is determined whether or not the distance is zero (step 302).

  As shown in the arrow of FIG. 29, the loading machine 14 advances toward the outside of the initial course area 1 as the ore excavation progresses. As a result, the position and the boundary of the initial course area 1 are increased. The distance between them gradually decreases.

  Then, as shown in FIG. 30, when the loading machine 14 advances until the distance becomes zero, the determination result in step 302 becomes YES, so the course area shape update process is executed in the processing unit 18 (step 303). ).

  That is, the course area shape data stored in the storage unit 18 is updated so that the entry area of the loading machine 14 is added to the initial course area.

  As a result of this update process, the storage unit 18 stores data indicating the expanded course area shape as shown in FIG. The updated course area is re-updated as the loading machine 14 proceeds thereafter.

  The occupied area of the loading machine 14 and the positions of the left and right front ends are calculated by the processing unit 19 based on the position, shape and orientation of the loading machine 14.

  The updated course area shape is transmitted to the monitoring station 8 via the communication unit 17. Accordingly, the monitoring station 8 updates the position TP of the moving destination point in response to the movement of the loading machine 14, and the dumped data indicating the updated position TP of the moving destination point and the updated course area shape is stored in the dump station. Send to 2

  The processing unit 5 of the dump 2 shown in FIG. 13 executes the guided course generation procedure shown in FIG. 15 based on the updated moving destination point position TP and the course area shape. As a result, the dump 2 is guided to the position TP of the moving destination point along the guidance course adapted to the change in the course area shape.

  In the above, the course area shape is updated based on the position change of the loading machine 14, but the shape of the course area is changed based on the work mode of the excavator, for example, the work mode of the power shovel 20 shown in FIG. It is also possible to update.

  In this case, as shown in FIG. 35, the excavator 20 stores a three-dimensional position measurement unit 21, such as a GPS, a bucket position measurement unit 22, a communication unit 23 that communicates with the monitoring station 8, and a course area shape. A course area storage unit 24 and a processing unit 25 are provided.

  The bucket position measuring unit 22 includes the three-dimensional position of the excavator 20 measured by the three-dimensional position measuring device 21, the rotation angles of the boom 25, the arm 26 and the bucket 27, and the turning of the upper swing body 28. The three-dimensional position of the bucket 27 is measured based on the corner.

  In the course area storage unit 24, data indicating the shape of the course area (the initial course area) 1 transmitted from the monitoring station 8 is stored via the communication unit 23 and the processing unit 25.

  FIG. 36 illustrates a course area shape update procedure executed in the processing unit 25.

  In this procedure, the position of the power shovel 20 measured by the position measuring unit 21 is input (step 400), and then the position of the bucket 27 measured by the bucket position measuring unit 22 is input (step 401).

  The ground height of the excavation site of the power shovel 20 decreases as the excavation progresses, and eventually coincides with the ground height in the course area. Accordingly, in the next step 402, it is determined whether or not the height of the bucket 27 matches the initial ground height in the course area.

  When executing the determination in step 402, the height of the bucket 27 can be obtained from the output of the bucket position measurement unit 22. The initial ground height in the course area is measured in advance by an appropriate means.

  If the bucket 27 is brought into contact with the ground in the course area, the height position at the three-dimensional position output from the bucket position measuring unit 22 indicates the ground height, so that the excavator 20 itself It is also possible to measure the initial ground height.

  If the decision result in the step 402 is YES, a course area update process is executed (step 403). That is, the course area shape data stored in the storage unit 24 is updated so that the exclusive area of the bucket 27 is added to the initial course area. The updated shape data is re-updated as the excavator 20 proceeds with excavation thereafter.

  Even when the course area 1 is the earthing area, the shape of the course area can be updated.

  That is, in the earth removal area, the shape of the area changes with the earth removal work of the dump 2, but the earth removal position is known from the position of the dump 2, and the earth removal range is the amount of earth dumped. Known from.

  Therefore, the shape data of the course area is updated so that the portion corresponding to the soil removal position in the course area is reduced by the soil removal range. Of course, the updated shape data is renewed with the subsequent earth removal work.

  By the way, in the said embodiment, in order to measure the shape of the course area 1, the said dump truck for a measurement is actually drive | working, However, a laser is turning, for example, turning to the entrance part of the said course area 1 centering on a vertical axis. A laser projector that projects light in a horizontal direction and a light receiver that receives the reflected light of the laser light (reflected light from the boundary of the course area 1) are disposed, and the reflection is performed from the time when the laser light is projected. It is also possible to measure the shape of the course area 1 based on the time until light is received.

  According to this method, it is possible to measure the entire course area, but only the shape of the shape change area of the area may be measured using a low-power laser beam.

  The shape of the shape change area can also be measured by running the measurement dump truck in the shape change area.

  In the embodiment described above, when the height of the bucket 27 of the excavator 20 is measured by the bucket position measuring unit 22 and the height measured by the bucket position measuring unit 22 becomes the initial ground height of the course area 1. In addition, the course area 1 is enlarged and updated by the occupied area of the bucket 27.

  However, the actual loading machine 14 often does not include a work machine position measurement unit such as the bucket position measurement unit 22. Accordingly, an embodiment in which processing for updating the course area 1 can be performed even when a work machine position measuring unit such as the bucket position measuring unit 22 is not mounted will be described.

Example 1
It is assumed that the position of the loading machine 14 such as an excavator or a wheel loader is measured by a position measuring device such as a GPS. The position measured by the loading machine 14 is set as the movement target point Tp of the unmanned dump truck 2. For example, if the loading machine 14 is an excavator, its position is measured by one or more GPSs attached to the excavator body or arm or boom.

  FIG. 39 is a diagram illustrating an update process for expanding the course area 1 based on the current position of the loading machine 14 measured by the loading machine 14. In FIG. 39, 1 a indicated by a broken line indicates a boundary line of the course area 1.

  As shown in FIG. 39 (a), the loading machine 14 performs excavation work by so-called top loading as in FIG. Accordingly, the course area 1 changes from the state shown in FIG. 39A to the state shown in FIG. 39B with the progress of excavation and loading work by the loading machine 14. In this way, the operator of the loading machine 14 leveles the work surface according to excavation and newly expands the course area 1 in which the unmanned dump truck 2 can travel.

  In this case, when the work machine position measuring unit such as the bucket position measuring unit 22 is mounted on the loading machine 14, the height of the bucket 27 measured by the bucket position measuring unit 22 is the same as in the above-described embodiment. The position data of the portion where the course area 1 is expanded can be acquired from the position of the bucket 27 when the initial ground height of the course area 1 is reached. The course area 1 is expanded by the occupied area of the bucket 27.

  If the work machine position measuring unit such as the bucket position measuring unit 22 is not mounted on the loading machine 14, the current position of the loading machine 14 measured by the position measuring device (GPS) mounted on the loading machine 14, that is, an unmanned dump. Based on the two movement destination points Tp (loading position), the position where the course area 1 expands and the range where it expands are determined. That is, the area indicated as the target position Tp of the unmanned dump truck 2 is an area where the rough surface of the ground is leveled by the loading machine 14. This leveled area is an area that is guaranteed by the operator of the loading machine 14 to be suitable for traveling the unmanned dump truck 2.

  Therefore, every time the current position of the loading machine 14 is measured by the position measuring device (GPS) mounted on the loading machine 14 and the movement destination point Tp (loading position) of the unmanned dump truck 2 is given, the movement destination point Tp is set in the course area 1. The expansion position is set, and the course area 1 is sequentially enlarged and the course area 1 is automatically updated.

  It is arbitrary how to set the expansion range of the course area 1 when the movement destination point Tp is given. For example, as shown in FIG. 39A, the range in which the course area 1 is expanded may be set to the size of the vehicle occupying range 2a centered on the movement target point Tp (loading position) of the unmanned dump truck 2 (reference). it can. When setting the occupation range 2a of the vehicle 2, a certain margin may be expected. As shown in FIG. 39 (a), the course area 1 is sequentially expanded by the occupation range 2a of the vehicle 2 every time the movement destination point Tp of the unmanned dump truck 2 is given.

  When the movement destination point Tp of the unmanned dump truck 2 is given, the unmanned dump truck 2 moves toward the movement destination point Tp. The traveling course essential for the unmanned dump truck 2 to move toward the movement destination point Tp (occupation range 2a) is also regarded as being leveled by the loading machine 14 and is simultaneously added to the enlarged range of the course area 1. Is also possible.

Example 2
Next, an example in which the course area 1 is updated so as to be reduced will be described. In this case, the loading machine 14 performs excavation and loading operations in the state shown in FIG. For this reason, as the work of the loading machine 14 progresses, the boundary line 1a of the course area 1 moves inward and the course area 1 is reduced. The loading machine 14 such as an excavator is a series of excavations in which the bucket is operated to excavate earth and sand, and then the main body (upper swirling body) is swung (rotated) to transport ore in the bucket to the unmanned dump truck 2 for loading. , Loading work. The turning speed of the main body of the loading machine 14 is higher than the moving speed of the vehicle. For this reason, the carrying work (loading work) of earth and sand (ore) after excavating the earth and sand is performed by rotating the main body, and the vehicle itself does not move. Therefore, when loading earth and sand into the unmanned dump truck 2, the earth and sand within a certain range are excavated and leveled with reference to the rotation center position of the main body of the loading machine 14. From this, when the target point Tp of the unmanned dump truck 2 is given, the excavated (excavated) area can be estimated based on the rotation center position of the loading machine 14.

  For example, the loading machine 14 such as an excavator can excavate any region within the reach of its arm as shown in FIG. Therefore, when the target point Tp (loading position) of the unmanned dump truck 2 is instructed, the entire area 14b within the reach of the arm is removed from the course area 1 based on the rotation center position of the loading machine 14 at that time. To do. As a result, it is possible to prevent the unmanned dump truck 2 from entering the excavated area regardless of what work the loading machine 14 is performing in the area 14b.

  However, if the entire area 14b that the arm of the loading machine 14 reaches is removed from the course area 1, the moving destination point Tp of the unmanned dump truck 2 will be outside the course area 1 as it is. Accordingly, in combination with the first embodiment, a process of removing the range 14b that the arm of the loading machine 14 reaches from the course area 1 is executed so that the movement target point Tp of the unmanned dump truck 2 is in the course area 1.

  That is, the target point Tp of the unmanned dump truck 2 is an area where the vehicle can travel by leveling with the loading machine 14. Therefore, only this target point Tp is removed from the circle 14a that the arm of the loading machine 14 reaches. This is because the region excluding the target point Tp in the periphery 14a of the loading machine 14 may be excavated.

Example 3
In the second embodiment, it is possible to remove a part of the range 14b that the arm of the loading machine 14 can reach from the course area 1, but remove a part thereof. In other words, in normal mining operations, excavation does not start from the center of the empty course area 1, but excavation is performed within a certain range from the boundary 1a of the course area 1, and the unmanned dump truck 2 can travel in other parts. It is common to leave as a rough course area. As the excavation progresses, the loading machine 14 repeatedly moves at a pitch of about 1 to 3 m as needed. Therefore, even when the range to be removed from the course area 1 is, for example, a range about the size of the vehicle body, the course area 1 that changes due to excavation can be covered. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 40 (a), as the loading machine 14 moves, the size of the vehicle body existing within a certain range from the boundary 1a of the course area 1 in the circle 14b within the range where the arm of the loading machine 14 reaches. Area 14a (octagonal area 14a) is sequentially removed from the course area 1. When it is determined that the loading machine 14 has moved at a high speed, the distance from the boundary 1a of the course area 1 is constant among the circles 14b within the reach of the arm of the loading machine 14 as shown in FIG. The area 14 c is sequentially excluded from the course area 1.

Example 4
When the excavation work form does not have a certain regularity, the operator of the loading machine 14 may directly indicate the range to be excluded from the course area 1. For example, when the loading machine 14 is an excavator, the bucket is moved above the position to be excavated, and the operator presses a button or the like at that time to indicate the current bucket position as a range to be removed from the course area 1 Can be considered. In this case, the rotation center position and direction of the excavator can be obtained by a plurality of position measuring devices (GPS) provided in the excavator. And the position of the bucket is calculated using the distance between the bucket given in advance and the rotation center of the main body.

  Now, the update process when the course area 1 is expanded in the first embodiment is described, and the update process when the course area 1 is reduced is described in the second, third, and fourth embodiments. You may make it perform either the update process which expands the course area 1 according to a work condition, and the update process which reduces. For example, a selection switch for selecting whether the course area 1 is to be enlarged or reduced is provided according to the work mode of the loading machine 14, and an update process and reduction to enlarge the course area 1 according to the result selected by this selection switch. It is possible to perform one of the update processes to be performed.

  The guidance course described above is obtained by heuristic problem solving techniques, and various methods have been proposed for such solving techniques. The Monte Carlo method is to simply perform a plurality of trials and select the trial with the best evaluation function value. Also, the trial is not performed in the whole space, but is performed in the solution space close to the previous trial, and the evaluation value is compared with the previous evaluation value. The method of adopting the method is called the hill climb method, which is an effective technique for solving heuristic problems at high speed.

  In the hill climb method, the optimal solution may not be selected if a local solution exists in the solution space. For example, a local solution may exist when there is an island entry prohibition area in the course area, and in this case, the optimal solution may not be selected. Genetic Aigorithm (GA) is another heuristic method. This involves exchanging part of the data of multiple candidates, creating a new candidate, “crossover”, and repeatedly performing mutations that change part of the candidate to generate descendants with better evaluation values. It is a calculation method to produce.

  In this method, mutation is performed from within the entire solution space, so there is little risk of falling into a local solution. Therefore, the solution obtained is faster than the Monte Carlo method, and is therefore often used.

  In this embodiment, Genetic Aigorithm is used, but details thereof are omitted.

  In the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 15, the data of the guided course is generated by giving the movement starting point Sp and the direction spv at the position, but the movement starting point Sp and the direction spv at the position are generated. Instead of giving, a plurality of point sequences on the course entering the course area 1 may be given to generate data on the guided traveling course. In this case, the following method can be considered as a method of selecting a plurality of point sequences on the course entering the course area 1. That is, it is only necessary to select a case where the evaluation function value is optimized by changing the intermediate point Mp in the same manner. The operator may arbitrarily select it. Moreover, even if it does not give by a point sequence, you may select one place among them as a point on a line segment, a circular arc, or a spline curve.

  In the present invention, the evaluation function for evaluating the guided traveling course is not limited to those described in the above-described embodiments. For example, the estimated time when moving on the guided traveling course may be the target of the evaluation. In this case, the shorter the travel time, the better the evaluation value. Further, the position of the switchback may be an evaluation target. In this case, the closer the switchback position is to the target point, the better the evaluation value. Alternatively, the smaller the change between the posture angle at the switchback position and the posture angle at the target position, the better the evaluation value.

FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a data flow of the embodiment. FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing the configuration of the unmanned vehicle. FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing the configuration of the monitoring station. FIG. 4 is a block diagram showing the configuration of the loading machine. FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing the configuration of a manned vehicle. FIG. 6 is a conceptual diagram illustrating generation of a traveling course. FIG. 7 shows the entire course area. FIG. 8 is a diagram showing a state of the work site. FIG. 9 is a diagram showing how an obstacle is detected. FIG. 10 is a diagram showing the positional relationship between an obstacle and a travel course. FIG. 11 is a diagram showing the positional relationship between an obstacle and a travel course. 12A and 12B are diagrams showing display screens. 13 is a block diagram showing the configuration of the control system provided in the unmanned dump truck. FIG. 14 is a flowchart illustrating a procedure for generating a guidance course. FIG. 15 is a conceptual diagram illustrating the shape of the course area. FIG. 16 is a diagram showing a manner of generating a guidance course. FIG. 17 is a diagram showing how the guidance course is generated. FIG. 18 is a diagram showing how the guidance course is generated. FIG. 19 is a diagram showing how the guidance course is generated. FIG. 20 is a diagram showing a manner of generating a guidance course. FIG. 21 is a diagram showing a manner of generating a guidance course. FIG. 22 is a diagram showing how the guidance course is generated. FIG. 23 is a diagram showing how the guidance course is generated. FIG. 24 is a diagram showing how the guidance course is generated. FIG. 25 is a diagram showing a generation mode of the guidance course. FIG. 26 is a diagram showing how the guidance course is generated. FIG. 27 is a plan view showing an arrangement position of the GPS antenna. FIG. 28 is a flowchart showing measurement position replacement processing by GPS. FIG. 29 is a conceptual diagram showing the position of the loading machine in the course area. FIG. 30 is a conceptual diagram showing how the loading machine moves in the course area. FIG. 31 is a conceptual diagram showing the updated shape of the course area. FIG. 32 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a control system provided in the loading machine. FIG. 33 is a flowchart illustrating the course area update procedure. FIG. 34 is a conceptual diagram showing the excavation mode of the power shovel. FIG. 35 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a control system provided with a power shovel. FIG. 36 is a flowchart illustrating the course area update procedure. FIG. 37 is a conceptual diagram showing an example of a path that cannot be moved. FIG. 38 is a conceptual diagram showing an example of a movable route. FIG. 39 is a diagram for explaining how the course area expands. FIG. 40 is a diagram for explaining how the course area shrinks. FIG. 41 is a diagram for explaining how the course area shrinks.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Course area 2 Unmanned dump 3 Mode setting part 4 Position measurement part 5 Processing part 6 Course area memory | storage part 7 Communication part 8 Monitoring station 9 Guidance course memory | storage part 10 Traveling mechanism part 11 Steering mechanism part 12 GPS antenna 13 Measurement position instruction | indication switch 14 Loading machine 15 Position measurement unit 16 Orientation side unit 17 Communication unit 18 Processing unit 19 Course area storage unit 20 Power shovel 21 Three-dimensional position measurement unit 22 Bucket position measurement unit 23 Communication unit 24 Course area storage unit 25 Processing unit 27 Bucket 34 Obstacle detector 41 Obstacle storage unit 44 Traveling course generation unit 48 Data input unit 50 Display unit 65 Earth removal area 68 Course area 71 Traveling course 71 ′ modified traveling course 71 ″ Traveled traveling course 72 Target earthing point 73 Loading area 74 Obstacle 76 Display screen

Claims (21)

  1. Vehicle position measuring means for measuring the current position of the own vehicle, the position data of the target point that the vehicle should reach and the position data of the course area where the vehicle can travel are given, the course area The vehicle generates data of a traveling course that travels inside and passes through the target point, and compares the current vehicle position measured by the vehicle position measuring means with the generated position on the traveling course. In a vehicle guidance device that is guided to travel along the traveling course,
    Instruction means for indicating the position of the target point in the course area;
    When position data of the course area is given and the position of the target point is instructed by the instruction means, the vehicle travels in the course area and reaches the instructed position of the target point. Driving course generating means for generating driving course data;
    A vehicle guidance device comprising: guidance means for guiding and running the vehicle along the travel course generated by the travel course generation means.
  2. An unmanned vehicle guidance device that guides and travels the unmanned vehicle along the guidance course based on the traveling position of the unmanned vehicle measured by the traveling position measuring unit and the course data that defines the guidance course of the unmanned vehicle. There,
    Means for inputting the shape of the course area;
    Means for indicating the position of the movement start point, the direction of the unmanned vehicle at the position, the position of the movement target point, and the vehicle traveling direction at the position;
    Means for creating course data satisfying the instructed position and the vehicle traveling direction at the position of the movement start point and the movement destination point;
    Means for inferring interference between the unmanned vehicle and the course area when the unmanned vehicle is driven on a guidance course defined by the created course data;
    Course data changing means for changing the course data when the interference is inferred,
    An unmanned vehicle guidance device comprising:
  3. The means for creating the course data includes:
    Means for generating a position of an intermediate point of the guidance course and a vehicle traveling direction at the position in the course area;
    The position of the movement starting point, the position of the intermediate point, and the position of the movement target point pass through the position at each position, and the vehicle traveling direction at the position coincides with the tangential direction of the arc or the direction of the straight line. Means for connecting with the arc and / or straight line,
    3. The unmanned vehicle guidance according to claim 2, wherein the course data changing means changes the course data by changing a position of the intermediate point when the interference is inferred. apparatus.
  4. The means for creating the course data includes:
    Means for generating a position of an intermediate point of the guidance course and a vehicle traveling direction at the position in the course area;
    The position of the movement starting point, the position of the intermediate point, and the position of the movement target point pass through the position at each position, and the vehicle traveling direction and the tangential direction of the spline curve at the position coincide with each other. Means for connecting with the spline curve,
    3. The unmanned vehicle guidance according to claim 2, wherein the course data changing means changes the course data by changing a position of the intermediate point when the interference is inferred. apparatus.
  5. The means for creating the course data includes:
    Means for generating a position of an intermediate point of the guidance course and a vehicle traveling direction at the position in the course area;
    The position of the movement starting point, the position of the intermediate point, and the position of the movement target point pass through the position at each position, and the direction of tangent to the vehicle traveling direction and the spline curve at that position, the tangent of the arc Means for connecting the spline curve and the arc, or the spline curve and the straight line so that the direction or the direction of the straight line coincides,
    3. The unmanned vehicle guidance according to claim 2, wherein the course data changing means changes the course data by changing a position of the intermediate point when the interference is inferred. apparatus.
  6. The means for creating the course data includes:
    An evaluation means for evaluating the course data using a distance between the guidance course and a boundary of the course area;
    6. The unmanned vehicle guidance device according to claim 3, further comprising selection means for selecting course data having the best evaluation value among the plurality of course data generated.
  7. The means for creating the course data includes:
    An evaluation means for evaluating the course data using a function of a distance between the guidance course and a boundary of the course area and a minimum radius of the guidance course;
    6. The unmanned vehicle guidance device according to claim 3, further comprising selection means for selecting course data having the best evaluation value among the plurality of course data generated.
  8. An unmanned vehicle guidance device that guides and travels the unmanned vehicle along the guidance course based on the traveling position of the unmanned vehicle measured by the traveling position measuring unit and the course data that defines the guidance course of the unmanned vehicle. There,
    Means for inputting the shape of the course area;
    A means of creating course data;
    Means for inferring interference between the unmanned vehicle and the course area when the unmanned vehicle is driven on a guidance course defined by the created course data;
    Course data changing means for changing the course data when the interference is inferred,
    A mode setting means for setting an automatic driving mode during guided driving of the unmanned vehicle using the generated course data, and setting a measurement mode when inputting the shape of the course area;
    An unmanned vehicle guidance device comprising:
  9. An unmanned vehicle guidance device that guides and travels the unmanned vehicle along the guidance course based on the traveling position of the unmanned vehicle measured by the traveling position measuring unit and the course data that defines the guidance course of the unmanned vehicle. There,
    Means for inputting the shape of the course area;
    A means of creating course data;
    Means for inferring interference between the unmanned vehicle and the course area when the unmanned vehicle is driven on a guidance course defined by the created course data;
    Course data changing means for changing the course data when the interference is inferred,
    Means for recognizing the shape change area of the course area;
    Course area shape updating means for updating the shape of the course area so that the shape of the course area is changed only in the shape change area;
    An unmanned vehicle guidance device comprising:
  10. Means for recognizing the shape change area of the course area,
    A moving body for measurement that moves in the course area;
    A moving position measuring means for measuring a moving position of the measuring moving body;
    Means for identifying the shape change area based on the moving position of the measurement moving body and the occupied area of the moving body;
    The unmanned vehicle guidance device according to claim 21, further comprising:
  11. Means for recognizing the shape change area of the course area,
    Position measuring means for measuring a three-dimensional position of an excavation part of a work machine that performs excavation work in the course area;
    A ground height measuring means for measuring an initial ground height of the course area;
    Means for identifying a shape change area of the course area based on a position and an occupied area of the excavation portion when the height of the excavation portion coincides with the initial ground height;
    The unmanned vehicle guidance device according to claim 9, further comprising:
  12.   The traveling position measuring means is a GPS, and the means for inputting the shape of the course area is a means for replacing the position measured by the GPS with a position measured at the left end or the right end of the unmanned vehicle; The guidance device for an unmanned vehicle according to any one of claims 2, 8, and 9, further comprising instruction means for instructing which one of the measured position and the position measured at the right end is to be replaced.
  13.   The travel position measuring means is a GPS, and the means for inputting the shape of the course area comprises means for selectively changing the position of the GPS antenna to the left end and the right end of the unmanned mobile body. The unmanned vehicle guidance device according to any one of 2, 8, and 9.
  14. The vehicle is an unmanned vehicle loaded with a loading machine,
    The vehicle guidance device according to claim 1, wherein the position data of the course area is updated by excluding a certain area based on a current position of the loading machine from the current course area.
  15. The vehicle guidance device according to claim 14, wherein the certain area that is excluded from the current course area is an area that can be reached by the loading machine of the loading machine.
  16. The vehicle according to claim 14, wherein the certain area excluded from the current course area is an area within a range where the loading machine of the loading machine can reach and is about the size of the main body of the loading machine. Guidance device.
  17. The fixed area excluded from the current course area is an area within a range where the loading machine of the loading machine can reach, and a distance from the boundary of the course area is constant. Vehicle guidance device.
  18. The vehicle is an unmanned vehicle on which a load is loaded by a loading machine, and includes relative position indicating means for indicating a relative position with respect to the loading machine,
    The vehicle guidance device according to claim 1, wherein the position data of the course area is updated by excluding an area based on the position indicated by the relative position instruction means from a current course area.
  19. The vehicle is an unmanned vehicle loaded with a loading machine,
    The vehicle guidance according to claim 1, wherein the position data of the course area is updated by adding an area of the occupation range of the unmanned vehicle at a target point to be reached by the unmanned vehicle to the current course area. apparatus.
  20. The vehicle is an unmanned vehicle loaded with a loading machine,
    The position data of the course area is obtained by excluding a certain area based on the current position of the loading machine from the current course area, or the unoccupied vehicle's occupation range at a target point that the unmanned vehicle should reach. The vehicle guidance device according to claim 1, which is updated by adding the area to the current course area.
  21. In accordance with the working mode of the loading machine, there is further provided selection means for selecting whether the course area is enlarged or reduced, and the course area position data is updated according to the selection result of the selection means. The vehicle guidance device according to claim 20.
JP2007301681A 1998-02-13 2007-11-21 Vehicle guidance device Expired - Fee Related JP4605807B2 (en)

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