JP2008056067A - Vehicle - Google Patents

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JP2008056067A
JP2008056067A JP2006234758A JP2006234758A JP2008056067A JP 2008056067 A JP2008056067 A JP 2008056067A JP 2006234758 A JP2006234758 A JP 2006234758A JP 2006234758 A JP2006234758 A JP 2006234758A JP 2008056067 A JP2008056067 A JP 2008056067A
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Prior art keywords
target
vehicle
center
turning
lateral acceleration
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JP2006234758A
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JP5041205B2 (en
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Katsunori Doi
克則 土井
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Equos Research Co Ltd
株式会社エクォス・リサーチ
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Priority to JP2006234758A priority Critical patent/JP5041205B2/en
Priority claimed from US12/439,127 external-priority patent/US8165771B2/en
Publication of JP2008056067A publication Critical patent/JP2008056067A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility
    • Y02T10/7208Electric power conversion within the vehicle
    • Y02T10/7241DC to AC or AC to DC power conversion

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To turn at smaller limit quantities (in the closest state to a turning target). <P>SOLUTION: The position of the center of gravity of a vehicle as a whole body is determined, and limit lateral acceleration a<SB>lim</SB>(=a<SB>Min</SB>, a<SB>Max</SB>) is determined according to the position of the center of gravity. Turning travel is performed in such a range that lateral acceleration a* determined based on a target travel state (V*, γ*) desired by an occupant does not exceed the limit lateral acceleration a<SB>lim</SB>. That is, in the case that the target travel state (V*, γ*) not exceeding the limit lateral acceleration a<SB>lim</SB>is inputted (desired) by the occupant, turning travel is performed in the target travel state. In the case that the target travel state (V*, γ*) exceeding the limit lateral acceleration a<SB>lim</SB>is inputted, the desired target travel state (V*, γ*) is limited to an actual target travel state (V*=, γ*=) to have the lateral acceleration a* equal to the limit lateral acceleration a<SB>lim</SB>. The turning speed and the turning radius of curvature are not limited more than necessary, thereby the turning performance of the vehicle can be utilized to the utmost up to a limit. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2008,JPO&INPIT

Description

  The present invention relates to a vehicle, and for example, relates to control of turning of a horizontally mounted two-wheeled vehicle having two drive wheels arranged to face each other.

Vehicles that use inverted pendulum attitude control (hereinafter simply referred to as inverted pendulum vehicles) are attracting attention and are currently being put into practical use.
For example, Patent Document 1 proposes a technique that has two drive wheels arranged on the same axis and detects and drives the posture of the drive wheel by the driver's movement of the center of gravity.
Further, a vehicle that moves while controlling the posture of one conventional circular drive wheel, one spherical drive wheel, and various inverted pendulum vehicles have been proposed.
JP 2004-276727 A JP 2004-129435 A

Such a vehicle maintains a stopped state or travels while performing posture control based on a weight shift amount by a driver, an operation amount from a remote controller or a control device, a pre-input travel command data, or the like. It is like that.
The vehicle is turned by steering the wheels or applying differential torque to the two drive wheels.

  However, such a single-person vehicle is smaller than a general passenger car, and the distance between the left and right wheels is narrow. Further, the ratio of the weight of the occupant to the weight of the entire vehicle is large, and if the seating posture of the occupant is ensured, the position of the center of gravity of the entire vehicle becomes high.

Therefore, when such a vehicle turns, if the turning speed is too high or the turning radius is too small, the vehicle may not be able to maintain the inverted control due to centrifugal force. Further, since the ground contact load on the inner ring side becomes small, the inner ring may slip.
Thus, since there is a limit in turning performance, a limit value corresponding to the limit value is set, and turning is performed within the range.

However, when the occupant changes the sitting position or sitting posture, or a person of a different body type rides, the limit values of the turning speed and the turning curvature (the reciprocal of the turning radius) also change. For this reason, in consideration of safety, it is necessary to set a limit value corresponding to the strictest condition within the range of assumed condition changes, and it has not been possible to set a high limit value suitable for each condition.
The same problem exists even when there is no vehicle or when the vehicle automatically travels with any luggage.

And when a turn request exceeding the limit of turning performance is input by the occupant's operation, in order to turn within the range of the set limit value, limit the turning radius with respect to the required value, It is necessary to limit the turning speed to make it smaller.
However, if the turning radius is suddenly limited, there is a possibility that the occupant's target travel route will deviate significantly.
On the other hand, if the turning speed is suddenly limited, sudden braking occurs, causing a sudden approach of the following vehicle and making the passenger feel uncomfortable.

Accordingly, a first object of the present invention is to grasp the requested turning target and the actual turning limit, and turn with a smaller limit (a state as close to the turning target as possible) corresponding to the turning limit.
Further, the second object is to limit the turning speed and the turning radius more suitable for the purpose of traveling and the traveling state within the set limit value range.

(1) In the first aspect of the present invention, the vehicle includes two drive wheels arranged to face each other, and the target running state obtaining means for obtaining the target speed V * and the target curvature γ *, and the obtained target Travel control means for controlling travel by speed V * and target curvature γ * , center-of-gravity position acquisition means for acquiring the center-of-gravity position of the vehicle including the vehicle, and limit lateral acceleration a lim corresponding to the acquired center-of-gravity position Limit lateral acceleration determination means, and when the target lateral acceleration a * corresponding to the acquired target velocity V * and target curvature γ * exceeds the limit lateral acceleration a lim , the target lateral acceleration a * Is less than the limit lateral acceleration a lim , and the amount of deviation between the travel locus when turning at the acquired target speed V * and the target curvature γ * and the travel locus when traveling at a limited value is predetermined. So that it is within the upper limit of deviation δ Max of The vehicle is provided with limiting means for limiting at least one of the acquired target speed V * and target curvature γ * to achieve the object.
(2) In the invention described in claim 2, in the vehicle described in claim 1, the restricting means is a vehicle trajectory when turning at the acquired target speed V * and target curvature γ * , and the acquired If the amount of deviation from the vehicle trajectory when turning while decelerating at the minimum reduction speed b Min until turning at the target curvature γ * is within a predetermined deviation upper limit value δ Max , deceleration is performed. b is the minimum reduction speed b Min, and when it is larger than the predetermined deviation upper limit value δ Max, the deceleration b is equal to the deviation upper limit δ Max , the target speed V * is limited by the deceleration b, and the target limiting the target curvature gamma * curvature gamma * by the target speed V * of the limit value, characterized in that.
(3) In the invention described in claim 3, in the vehicle according to claim 1 or 2, the limiting means is configured so that the target lateral acceleration a * becomes the limit lateral acceleration a lim . At least one of the acquired target speed V * and target curvature γ * is limited.
(4) In the invention described in claim 4, in the vehicle described in claim 1, claim 2, or claim 3, a load sensor disposed in the riding section and a height for measuring the height of the weight body. A vehicle center of gravity acquisition means for acquiring a center of gravity position of the vehicle from the detection values of the load sensor and the height sensor, and the center of gravity position acquisition means includes the center of gravity position of the acquired vehicle And the position of the center of gravity of the vehicle including the vehicle is obtained from the position of the center of gravity of the vehicle defined in advance.
(5) In the invention described in claim 5, in the vehicle described in claim 1, claim 2, claim 3 or claim 4, the travel control means directly sets the target speed V * and the target curvature γ * . As a control object, traveling is controlled by feedback control.

In the present invention, when the target lateral acceleration a * exceeds the limit lateral acceleration a lim , the target lateral acceleration a * is equal to or less than the limit lateral acceleration a lim , and the vehicle turns with the acquired target speed V * and target curvature γ * . At least of the acquired target speed V * and the target curvature γ * so that the amount of deviation between the running locus in the case of running and the running locus in the case of running at the limited value is within a predetermined deviation upper limit value δ Max. Since one side is configured to be restricted, it is possible to turn with the minimum necessary amount of restriction, and it is possible to perform a restriction that is more suitable for a traveling purpose and a traveling state.

Hereinafter, a preferred embodiment of a vehicle according to the present invention will be described in detail with reference to FIGS.
(1) Outline of Embodiment During turning, when the ground load center point of a vehicle moves outside between both drive wheels, the vehicle rolls over.
Here, the ground load center point represents the intersection of a straight line passing through the center of gravity parallel to the resultant force vector F of the centrifugal force and gravity acting on the vehicle, and the ground. At this time, the direction of the resultant force vector F is determined by the lateral acceleration of the vehicle, and further the lateral acceleration is determined by the turning speed and turning curvature of the vehicle.
Therefore, the limit of the turning performance, that is, the limit position of the ground load center point is determined by the position of the center of gravity of the vehicle and the lateral acceleration (turning speed and turning curvature).

  In this embodiment, as turning control of a horizontally mounted two-wheeled vehicle, (a) a limit lateral acceleration is determined as a turning limit value corresponding to the center of gravity of the vehicle, and (b) a target lateral acceleration determined from a passenger's turning request is obtained. When the set lateral acceleration is exceeded, the turning target is limited.

(A) Determination of limit lateral acceleration (limit value of lateral acceleration) Estimate the center of gravity position of the vehicle (occupant, luggage, etc.), and based on this and the design center position of the vehicle known at the design stage, the entire vehicle Is estimated.
Then, the value of the limit lateral acceleration a lim is obtained from the estimated center-of-gravity position of the entire vehicle and the design value of the vehicle (such as the distance between the drive wheels 11a and 11b). This limit lateral acceleration a lim can be obtained irrespective of the traveling state such as the vehicle speed.
For the estimation of the center of gravity position, the seating position, weight, and body shape of the vehicle (occupant, luggage, etc.) are measured from the measured values of the load meter and seat height meter, and the center of gravity position of the vehicle (the body symmetry plane Estimate the deviation from the height.

(B) Limit of turning target When, for example, the target lateral acceleration a * based on the target driving state input by the passenger is 0.5 G, and exceeds the obtained limit lateral acceleration a lim = 0.3 G Since the control as required by the passenger cannot be performed, it is necessary to limit the target traveling state so that the lateral acceleration a = a lim = 0.3G.
In this embodiment, as a restriction | limiting of a target driving | running | working state, a turning driving | running | working is performed by the value which restrict | limited the vehicle speed and the turning curvature by either of the following methods.
If the inputted target running state is equal to or less than the limit lateral acceleration a lim , the vehicle turns according to the input value.

(A) Optimization for target (first optimization)
In the first optimization, optimization is performed with respect to the passenger's input target (V * , γ * ). The ideal target state (the target travel state input by the passenger or instructed from the outside) and the real target Minimize the difference between the states (the target driving state limited so that the lateral acceleration does not exceed the limit value).
(B) Optimization considering target change (second optimization)
In the second optimization, the actual target G is determined in consideration of the time change (time change rate) of the ideal target R (V * , γ * ).
(C) Optimization with respect to the target in consideration of the occupant's willingness to drive (third optimization)
In the third optimization, optimization is performed in consideration of the passenger's input target (V * , γ * ) and its change. The operation of the joystick (controller 31) by the passenger can determine the strength of the occupant will (for example, the urgency of the request) based on the speed of movement. Therefore, the time change rate of the input target (V * , γ * ) is obtained, and if the magnitude is equal to or smaller than a predetermined threshold Th (Th V , Thγ), it is determined that there is no urgency and the first optimization is performed. If it is larger than the threshold Th, it is determined that there is urgency, and the second optimization is performed.
(D) Optimization of travel position (fourth optimization)
In the fourth optimization, optimization is performed so that the distance between the ideal target position P1 and the actual target position P2 after a certain time t is the shortest.
(E) Restrictions on running start deviation (fifth optimization)
In the fifth optimization, optimization is performed from the viewpoint of running track deviation.
That is, the deceleration b for deceleration is obtained so that the deviation between the ideal target trajectory and the actual target trajectory is within the set limit value, and optimization is performed based on the value.

(2) Details of Embodiment FIG. 1 illustrates an external configuration of a vehicle in the present embodiment.
As shown in FIG. 1, the vehicle includes two drive wheels 11a and 11b arranged on the same axis.
Both drive wheels 11a and 11b are each driven by a drive motor 12.

On the upper part of the drive wheels 11a, 11b (hereinafter referred to as the drive wheels 11 when referring to both drive wheels 11a and 11b) and the drive motor 12, a boarding section 13 (on which a heavy load such as luggage or passengers rides) Sheet) is arranged.
The riding section 13 includes a seat surface section 131 on which a driver sits, a backrest section 132, and a headrest 133.

  The riding section 13 is supported by a support member 14 fixed to a drive motor housing 121 in which the drive motor 12 is accommodated.

  A control device 30 is arranged on the left side of the riding section 13. This control device 30 is for giving instructions such as acceleration, deceleration, turning, in-situ rotation, stop, braking, etc. of the vehicle by the operation of the driver.

  Although the control device 30 in the present embodiment is fixed to the seat portion 131, it may be configured by a remote control connected by wire or wirelessly. Further, an armrest may be provided and the control device 30 may be arranged on the upper part thereof.

  Further, although the control device 30 is arranged in the vehicle of the present embodiment, in the case of a vehicle that automatically travels according to predetermined travel command data, a travel command data acquisition unit is arranged instead of the control device 30. Established. For example, the travel command data acquisition unit includes a reading unit that reads the travel command data from various storage media such as a semiconductor memory, and / or a communication control unit that acquires the travel command data from the outside through wireless communication. It may be.

  In FIG. 1, the boarding unit 13 displays a case where a person is on board. However, the boarding part 13 is not necessarily limited to a vehicle driven by a person, and only a baggage is placed and the vehicle is driven by an external remote control operation or the like. In the case where the vehicle is stopped or stopped, only the baggage is loaded and the vehicle is driven or stopped in accordance with the driving command data. Further, the vehicle may be driven or stopped while nothing is on board.

  In this embodiment, control such as acceleration / deceleration is performed by an operation signal output by the operation of the control device 30. For example, as shown in Patent Document 1, the driver is inclined forward and tilted forward and backward. By changing the angle, the vehicle attitude control and the traveling control according to the inclination angle may be performed. Moreover, you may enable it to switch both types.

A load meter 51 (not shown), which will be described later, is disposed on the lower side (back surface side of the seating surface portion 131) of the riding portion 13.
A seat height meter 52 (not shown), which will be described later, is disposed on the back surface of the boarding portion (the front side of the backrest portion).

A control unit 16 is disposed between the riding section 13 and the drive wheel 11.
In the present embodiment, the control unit 16 is attached to the lower surface of the seat portion 131 of the riding portion 13, but may be attached to the support member 14.

FIG. 2 shows the configuration of the control unit 16.
The control unit 16 includes a control ECU (electronic control device) 20 that performs various controls such as vehicle travel, attitude control, and travel control during turning in the present embodiment. The control ECU 20 includes a control device 30. The travel control sensor 40, the center-of-gravity position measurement sensor 50, the actuator 60, and other devices such as a battery are electrically connected.

  The battery supplies power to the drive motor 12, the actuator 60, the control ECU 20, and the like.

  The control ECU 20 includes a travel control program, a posture control program, a ROM that stores various programs and data such as a turning control processing program in the present embodiment, a RAM that is used as a work area, an external storage device, an interface unit, and the like. It consists of a computer system.

The control ECU 20 includes a vehicle body travel control system 21 and a turning limit determination system 23.
The vehicle body travel control system 21 is configured to realize a front / rear acceleration / deceleration function for controlling acceleration / deceleration in the longitudinal direction of the vehicle and a turning function for turning the vehicle, and a turning travel target limiting system 22 is provided to realize the turning function. I have.
The vehicle body travel control system 21 performs posture control from the travel target input from the controller 31 and the wheel rotation angles and / or translational accelerations of the drive wheels 11a and 11b supplied from the travel control sensor 44. .

Further, in response to the front / rear direction acceleration / deceleration and turning instructions supplied from the control device 30, an output command value for realizing the instructions is supplied to the wheel drive actuator 61.
In this embodiment, it turns by controlling the rotation speed of both the drive wheels 11a and 11b.

  The turning target restriction system 22 restricts the turning target (target values of vehicle speed and turning curvature) input from the controller 31 based on the lateral acceleration limit determined by the turning limit determination system 23. Yes.

The turning limit determination system 23 includes a gravity center position estimation system 25.
The center-of-gravity position estimation system 25 determines the type of vehicle (person, luggage, or none) from the supplied lateral acceleration, load distribution, and sitting height measurement values, and the center-of-gravity shift and height of the vehicle according to the type. Is estimated.
The center-of-gravity position estimation system 25 determines the center-of-gravity position of the vehicle from the estimated center-of-gravity position deviation and height.

  The turning limit determination system 23 obtains a limit lateral acceleration from the estimated position of the center of gravity of the vehicle, and supplies it to the turning target limitation system 22.

The control device 30 includes a controller 31 and supplies a target value for vehicle travel to the control ECU 20 based on the operation of the driver.
The controller 31 includes a joystick. The joystick is set to the neutral position in an upright state, and is instructed to move forward and backward by tilting in the front-rear direction, and instructed to turn left and right by tilting left and right. The required speed and turning curvature are increased according to the inclination angle.

The travel control sensor 40 includes a wheel tachometer 41 that detects a wheel rotation angle and an accelerometer 42 that detects a translational acceleration of the vehicle.
A value detected by the traveling control sensor 40 is supplied to the vehicle body traveling control system 21.

The center-of-gravity position measuring sensor 50 includes a load meter (or load distribution meter) and a sitting height meter (or shape measuring instrument) used for estimating (directly estimating) the center-of-gravity position of an occupant (vehicle).
FIG. 3 shows the arrangement of the load meter 51 and the sitting height meter 52.
As shown in FIG. 3, the load meter 51 is disposed on the lower side of the riding section 13, specifically, on the lower surface portion of the seat surface section 131.
The load meter 51 measures the load distribution (eccentricity) on the seat and supplies the measured value to the gravity center position estimation system 25.

By placing the load meter 51 on the lower side of the riding part 13 (below the seat structure), not only the vehicle placed on the riding part but also the load of the luggage hung on the backrest part 132 and the headrest 133 In addition, it is configured to be able to measure the loads of all the vehicles arranged in other places.
The weight of the vehicle body (hereinafter referred to as the vehicle body weight) and the position of the center of gravity (hereinafter referred to as the vehicle body center of gravity position) are fixed and determined in advance at the time of design, and thus are not measured by the load meter 51.

In this embodiment, three or more load meters capable of measuring triaxial components are arranged as the load meter 51.
The load meter 51 measures the weight at the same time as the load distribution, and uses it to determine the vehicle and set the target position (angle) of the center-of-gravity position adjustment system.

In order to estimate the position of the center of gravity of the vehicle, two load meters may be installed in the lateral direction, but fail safe is realized by installing three or more load meters (the load meter is 1 Even if it breaks, it can be measured).
In addition, by using a load meter capable of measuring three-axis components, and using data on lateral acceleration and lateral vehicle body tilt angle, it will be possible to estimate the center of gravity deviation during turning and vehicle body tilt. Good.

As shown in FIG. 3, the sitting height meter 52 is disposed on the backrest portion 132 and the headrest 133.
The sitting height meter 52 measures the height (higher sitting height) of the vehicle by scanning a moving (scanning) optical sensor in the vertical direction (height direction). As a result, highly accurate measurement is possible. The measurement value is supplied to the center-of-gravity position estimation system 25. Note that a plurality of fixed sensors may be arranged in the vertical direction to discretely measure the height of the vehicle.

  In the seat height meter 52 of the present embodiment, by arranging a plurality of optical sensors in the horizontal direction, it is possible to measure the height even when the vehicle is largely displaced laterally, and one of them breaks down. In addition, fail safe is realized by using measured values of other optical sensors.

  Further, the seat height meter 52 of the present embodiment can estimate the shape of the vehicle and use it for discrimination of the type (person, luggage, none).

In addition, as long as the information regarding a gravity center position is obtained, you may make it substitute with another measuring device.
For example, as shown in FIG. 3D, the center-of-gravity shift can be measured with a torsion torque measuring instrument. However, in this case, only one load cell needs to be installed in order to measure the mass of the vehicle.

In FIG. 2, the actuator 60 includes a vehicle body drive actuator 61 that drives the drive wheels 11 in accordance with a command value supplied from the vehicle body travel control system 21.
The vehicle body drive actuator 61 controls the drive wheels 11a and 11b independently according to the command value.

Next, the turning control process in the vehicle as the embodiment configured as described above will be described.
FIG. 4 is a flowchart showing the contents of the turning traveling control process.
The turning limit determination system 23 of the control ECU 20 measures the boarding (sitting) position, load (weight), and shape (body shape) of a vehicle (occupant or the like) using a measuring instrument such as the sensor 50 for measuring the center of gravity ( Step 11).

Next, the center-of-gravity position estimation system 25 of the turning limit determination system 23 estimates the center-of-gravity shift and height of the vehicle from the obtained data (step 12).
First, the center-of-gravity position estimation system 25 obtains the mass of the loaded object based on the load on the riding section 13 obtained from the load meter 51.
FIG. 5 shows the mechanical state of the occupant (vehicle) and the seat (carrying part 13) during turning.
In FIG. 5, the vertical component of the force acting on the riding part (vehicle body) when the amount of boarding substance is m H , the seat mass is m S , the total mass of the riding part is m c = m H + m S , and the gravitational acceleration is g. The balance of the direction component parallel to the central axis is expressed by the following formula 1.

(Formula 1)
F n = ΣF n (k) = − m c g

In Equation 1, F n (k) represents the tensile load measured by the kth load meter among N pieces, and the vertical acting on the riding section is obtained by taking the sum of the measured values of all N load cells. Find the force F n .

In the present embodiment, the center-of-gravity position estimation system 25 obtains the boarding substance amount m H from the following formula 2 obtained by transforming the formula 1.

(Formula 2)
m H = (F n / g) −m S

The value of the riding substance amount m H is the overall center-of-gravity position evaluation, use the type determination of the loaded article.

Next, the center-of-gravity position estimation system 25 determines the type of vehicle (person) based on the height of the vehicle (sitting height, baggage height) obtained from the sitting height meter and the amount of loaded material m H calculated by Equation 2. , Baggage, none), and the center of gravity height h H of the vehicle is estimated by a method suitable for the type.

FIG. 6 explains the determination of the type of the vehicle and the determination of the center of gravity height h H based on the type.
As shown in FIG. 6, a certain threshold is set for the sitting height ζ H , mass m H , and specific mass m H / ζ H , and the type of the vehicle is determined based on the threshold. Note that each threshold value used in FIG. 6 and the following discriminant is an example, and is corrected according to an assumed use environment.
(A) When m H <0.2 kg and ζ H <0.01 m, it is determined that the vehicle is “none”.
(B) When m H > 8 kg, ζ H > 0.3 m, and m H / ζ H > 30 kg / m, the vehicle is determined to be “person”.
(C) In other cases (other than the cases (a) and (b) above), it is determined that the vehicle is “luggage”.

In the discrimination conditions described above, the reason why the threshold for body weight is as small as 8 kg in the discrimination condition (b) is that a child ride is also assumed. Further, by adding the specific mass (weight per unit seat height; m H / ζ H ) to the human discrimination condition, the discrimination accuracy can be improved.
Note that m H / ζ H <p (for example, 80 kg / m) as an upper limit may be added to a person's determination condition in order not to determine that a person is loaded with a small and heavy load (for example, an iron ingot). .
Each discrimination condition and discriminant value are examples, and are changed and discriminated appropriately according to an assumed use condition.

Hereinafter, the center-of-gravity position estimation system 25 estimates the center-of-gravity height (height from the seat surface portion 131) h H of the vehicle according to the determined type of the vehicle. Thus, a more accurate value can be estimated by discriminating the vehicle and changing the estimation method (evaluation formula) of the center-of-gravity height h H according to the type.

(A) When the vehicle is determined as “None” h H = 0

(B) When it is determined that the vehicle is “luggage”, it is assumed that the center of gravity is shifted below the geometric center, and the eccentricity γ representing the degree of deviation in the downward direction is used. The center of gravity height h H is obtained from the above. This eccentricity γ is an assumed value set in advance, and in this embodiment, γ = 0.4.
(Formula 3)
h H = ((1-γ) / 2) ζ H

(C) When the vehicle is determined to be “person”, the center-of-gravity height h H is obtained from Equation 4 with reference to a standard human body shape.
In Equation 4, ζ H, 0 and h H, 0 are standard values of the seat height and the center of gravity height, and in this embodiment, ζ H, 0 = 0.902 m and h H, 0 = 0.264 m.
(Formula 4)
h H = (ζ H / ζ H, 0 ) h H, 0

  Here, the case where the type of vehicle and the height of the center of gravity are obtained according to FIG. 6 has been described. However, the type of vehicle and the height of the center of gravity are obtained using more complicated conditions and evaluation formulas (maps). May be.

Next, the center-of-gravity position estimation system 25 obtains the load distribution on the riding section 13 obtained from the load meter 51, the boarding substance amount m H and the boarding body center-of-gravity height h H which are the vehicle information acquired so far. Based on this, the lateral center-of-gravity shift λ H of the vehicle is obtained.
In FIG. 5, the balance of moments around the horizontal component (direction component perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the vehicle body) of the force acting on the riding section and the reference axis (intersection line of the plane of symmetry of the vehicle body and the installation surface of the load cell 51). Is expressed by Equation 5 below. However, the centrifugal force due to the angular velocity of the vehicle body tilting motion (or the tilting motion of the riding section 13) and the inertial force due to the angular acceleration are ignored.
In Equation 5, m c , λ c , h c , η c = h c + δ S are the mass of the entire riding part, the center of gravity deviation (distance from the vehicle body axis to the center of gravity), and the center of gravity height (seat surface part 131), respectively. The distance from the seating surface to the center of gravity), and the load meter reference center of gravity height (the distance from the installation surface of the load meter 51 to the center of gravity).
In Equations 5 and 6, m H , λ H , h H , η H = h H + δ S are the mass, center-of-gravity displacement, center-of-gravity height, load meter reference center-of-gravity height, m S , λ S , h S , η S = h S + δ S is the seat mass, center of gravity shift, center of gravity height, load meter reference center of gravity height, and δ S is the thickness of the seat surface portion 131 (from the installation surface of the load meter 51 to the seat The distance to the seating surface of the surface portion 131), g represents gravity acceleration.
In Equation 5, the symbol “(••)” of λ H ( •• ) represents twice differentiation.

(Formula 5)
F t = ΣF t (k) = − m c a−m H λ H (··) + F et
T tn = Σ (F n (k) Y (k) )
= F n λ c −F t η c + m H λ H (··) (η H −η c ) −F etet −η c )

(Formula 6)
m c = m H + m S
λ c = (m H λ H + m S λ S ) / m c
η c = (m H η H + m S η S ) / mc

In Formula 5, F n (k) and F t (k) are the tensile load and lateral load (direction component perpendicular to the body symmetry plane) measured by the kth load meter among N, By taking the sum of N load cells, the vertical force F n and the lateral force F t acting on the riding section are obtained. Y (k) is the mounting position (distance from the plane of symmetry of the vehicle body ) of the kth load meter, and the moment T acting on the riding section is obtained by taking the sum of the product of this and F n (k). Find tn .

In Equation 5, a is the lateral acceleration actually received by the vehicle, and by using these values, the center-of-gravity shift and the center-of-gravity height of the vehicle can be obtained even during turning.
The lateral acceleration a used in Equation 5 is obtained from the measured value of the travel control sensor 40.

In the formula 5, F et represents an external force, human corresponds to the force by the force and wind pushing from the outside. Also, η et is the height of the point of application of external force (height from the load meter 51 installation surface). These values are unknown, and the two formulas of Formula 5 include three unknowns together with the center of gravity shift λ H of the vehicle.
Therefore, both the external force F et and the height η et of the action point cannot be accurately obtained, but if one value is assumed, the other value can be obtained. For example, assuming the assumed position of the aerodynamic center (the point of action of air resistance) as the point of action height η et , the magnitude F et of the air resistance can be evaluated, and the value can be used for running and attitude control. it can.

In the present embodiment, it is assumed that the influence of external force is small, and F et = 0. Thereby, the two formulas of Formula 5 can be changed into the following formula 7. This Formula 7 is an algebraic formula, and it is possible to evaluate the vehicle center-of-gravity deviation λ H in a simple and stable manner.
That is, the center-of-gravity position estimation system 25 obtains the center-of-gravity displacement λ H of the vehicle based on Equation 7 (and Equation 6) using the weight m H and the center-of-gravity height h H of the vehicle obtained so far.

(Formula 7)
λ H = (m c λ c −m S λ S ) / m H
λ c = {F t η c + F HaH −η c ) + T tn } / F n
F Ha = F t + m c a

After estimating the mass mH, the center-of-gravity shift λH, and the center-of-gravity height hH, which are mechanical parameters of the vehicle, the turning limit determination system 23 obtains the overall center-of-gravity position of the vehicle including the vehicle body and the vehicle (occupant). (Step 14).
FIG. 7 shows the position of the center of gravity of the vehicle, the passenger, and the whole.
The turning limit determination system 23 obtains the mass m, the center-of-gravity shift λ, and the center-of-gravity distance l of the entire vehicle from the following formula 8. In formula 8, m H , λ H , h H , l H = h H + l 0 is Represents the mass, center of gravity deviation, center of gravity height, and center of gravity distance of the vehicle. l 0 is the distance from the center of rotation of the vehicle body in the front-rear direction (axle) to the seat surface of the seat surface portion 131. M CB and l CB represent the mass of the vehicle body and the center of gravity distance, respectively. Note that the center of gravity shift of the vehicle body is λ CB = 0.

(Formula 8)
m = m H + m CB
λ = m H λ H / m
l = (m H l H + m CB l CB ) / m

Next, the turning limit determination system 23 calculates the limit lateral accelerations a lim = a Min and a Max from the obtained center-of-gravity position (mass m, center-of-gravity deviation λ, main center-of-gravity distance l) of the entire vehicle (step 14). ).
Here, the lateral acceleration is positive in the direction when turning right (left direction as viewed from the vehicle) and negative in the direction when turning left (right direction as viewed from the vehicle). Generally, a Min is the limit lateral direction when turning left. Expressing the acceleration, a Max corresponds to the limit lateral acceleration when turning right.

FIG. 8 shows the ground load center point S, the ground load center position λ GF , and the ground load eccentricity β determined from the lateral acceleration a and the center of gravity of the entire vehicle.
As shown in FIG. 8, the ground contact load center point S is an intersection of a straight line passing through the center of gravity and parallel to the resultant vector F of centrifugal force and gravity and the ground, and the relative position (displacement) of the point S with respect to the vehicle body center axis. Is the ground load center position λGF .
A value obtained by making λ GF dimensionless with a half tread D / 2 is a ground load eccentricity β, and if −1 <β <1, a ground load center point exists between both drive wheels 11.

The ground load eccentricity β and the ground load center position λ GF are expressed by the following Equation 9.
In Equation 9, R W is the tire contact radius, D is the tread (both drive wheels 11a, the distance between 11b), lambda is the vehicle total center of gravity displacement, l is the vehicle total center distance, a is the current lateral acceleration, g is Gravity acceleration.

(Formula 9)
β = λ GF / (D / 2)
λ GF = λ− (a / g) (l + R W )

The stability of the vehicle can be determined as follows based on the value of the ground load eccentricity β obtained from Equation 9.
(A) β = 0: neutral state; most stable state (b) | β |> 1 ... car body rollover; car body rolls in the direction in which the ground load point is shifted (c) | β |> β slip ... piece Wheel slip; the drive wheel far from the ground load point slips (there is a high possibility that the vehicle will spin and roll over)

The slip start load eccentricity β slip which is a threshold value in the one-wheel slip condition (c) is expressed by the following Expression 10.
In Equation 10, a BC is the lateral acceleration at the center of gravity, g is the gravitational acceleration, R w is the tire ground contact radius, and m is the mass of the vehicle. Also, τ w * represents the driving torque of the driving wheel far from the ground load center point.

(Formula 10)
β slip = 1− {1 / √ (1− (a / μg) 2 )} | τ w * | / {(1/2) μmg R w }

  In Expression 10, μ is a coefficient of friction between tire road surfaces. In this embodiment, an assumed value set in advance is given, but a measured value by a measuring instrument or an estimated value by an observer may be used.

As is clear from Equation 10, β slip is smaller than 1. That is, when driving torque is applied, one wheel slips before the vehicle rolls over. Therefore, in this embodiment, the slip limit β slip is set as the stability limit.

Then, the turning limit determination system 23 obtains the limit lateral accelerations a lim = a Min and a Max by solving the three formulas (9) and (10).
However, since the simultaneous equations of Equation 9 and Equation 10 cannot be solved explicitly, the limit lateral direction can be determined by an implicit iterative calculation method such as Newton's method or a numerical solution table obtained in advance by numerical calculation. Determine the acceleration.

The turning limit determination system 23 supplies the limit lateral acceleration a lim = a Min , a Max obtained as described above to the turning target limitation system 22.

When the limit lateral acceleration a lim is obtained from the estimated value of the center-of-gravity position of the entire vehicle, the turning target control system 22 determines the target driving state including the limitation of the turning target value (steps 15 to 18).

First, the turning target control system 22 sets a target driving state based on an occupant input operation (step 15). That is, the target vehicle speed V * and the target curvature γ * corresponding to the input value of the travel target input from the controller 31 are set as the target travel state.

Next, the turning target control system 22 obtains the target lateral acceleration a * = γ * V * 2 from the set target vehicle speed V * and the target curvature γ * (step 16).
Then, it is determined whether the target lateral acceleration a * exceeds the limit lateral accelerations a Min and a Max determined in step 14 (a Min <a * <a Max ?).

When the target lateral acceleration a * is within the range of the limit lateral acceleration a lim (= a Min , a Max ) (step 17; Y), the target vehicle speed V * and the target curvature γ * are restricted by the passenger's operation. Without proceeding, the process proceeds to step 19.
In this case, the travel target (actual target) is V * ˜ = V * , γ * ˜ = γ * .

On the other hand, when the target lateral acceleration a * exceeds the limit lateral acceleration a lim (= a Min , a Max ) (step 17; N), the turning target control system 22 makes the target driving state (V * , γ * ) To limit and correct (step 18). That is, the target running state (V * , γ * ) is set to any one of the methods (a) to (e) so that the lateral acceleration a * ≈the limit lateral acceleration a lim (= a Min , a Max ). To optimize.
The optimization according to (a) to (c) is an optimization for the requested target driving state (V * , γ * ), and is an optimization in accordance with the operation (will) of the passenger.
The optimization by (c) and (e) is to optimize the travel state and the history when traveling in the requested target travel state.

In the optimization according to (a) to (c), the ideal target running state (V * , γ * ) is realized so that the lateral acceleration a * ≈the limit lateral acceleration a lim (= a Min , a Max ). It is limited to the target running state (V * ˜, γ * ˜).
Thereby, since the turning speed and the turning curvature are not restricted more than necessary, the turning performance of the vehicle can be utilized to the maximum.

In the following description, the ideal target means the passenger's input target (V * , γ * ), and the ideal target state means the position, speed, etc. after traveling according to the ideal target.
The actual target means a value (V * ˜, γ * ˜) in which the ideal target is limited so that the target lateral acceleration a * becomes the limit lateral acceleration a lim, and the actual target state is in accordance with the actual target. It shall mean the position, speed, etc. after traveling.

(A) First optimization In this first optimization, the passenger's input target (V * , γ * ) is optimized, and the difference between the ideal target state and the actual target state is minimized. .
FIG. 9 shows the first optimization state.
In FIG. 9, a turning limit curve A is a curve determined by the limit lateral acceleration a lim determined in step 14. A region on the origin side (lower left side) of the turning limit curve is in a stable state, and a region on the side away from the origin (upper right side) is an unstable region (a region requiring restriction).

  As shown in FIG. 9, when the input ideal target R0 exists in the stable region (step 17; Y), the turning control is performed with the input ideal target without optimization.

On the other hand, when the ideal targets R1 and R2 exist in the unstable region, they are optimized to the actual targets G1 and G2 on the turning limit curve A that is the stability limit of turning.
In this optimization, for example, G1 that is as close as possible to the ideal target R1 is selected on the turning limit curve A.

That is, the turning target control system 22 acquires the ideal target R (V * , γ * ) and the turning limit a lim , and based on the following simultaneous equations (Formula 11), the actual target G (V * ˜, γ * Seek out.

(Formula 11)
xy 2 = c
2x (x−x 1 ) = y (y−y 1 )
x = γ * ˜ / γ 0 , x 1 = γ * / γ 0 , c = a lim / (γ 0 V 0 2 )
y = V * ˜ / V 0 , y 1 = V * / V 0

V 0 and γ 0 in Equation 11 are reference values for the turning speed and the curvature, respectively, and give respective set maximum values in the control system, for example. Note that these values can be changed to change the weight of speed and curvature.
As a numerical solution of Expression 11, for example, Newton's method (repetitive calculation method) is used. Note that the convergence stability and convergence speed can be improved by giving the solution at the previous time step as an initial value.

In this embodiment, the turning target control system 22 uses a determination method by numerical calculation, and the solution of the above simultaneous equations is given in advance as a function of parameters x 1 , y 1 , c in a table and is used. The actual target state may be determined.

As described above, the first optimization with respect to the ideal target (V * , γ * ) input by the passenger is suitable for the normal traveling by the passenger's operation, and realizes the traveling state according to the intention of the passenger. be able to.
In addition, the driver's responsibility is to ensure the validity and safety of the driving target.
Furthermore, the algorithm is simple, and responsiveness and robustness are high.

(B) Second Optimization In this second optimization, the actual target G is determined in consideration of the time change (time change rate) of the ideal target R (V * , γ * ).
FIG. 10 shows the second optimization state.
As shown in FIG. 10, in the second optimization, for example, it is assumed that the ideal target R11 in the stable region has moved to the ideal target R12 in the unstable region within a certain time. In this case, the change amount Δγ * of the ideal turning curvature is larger than the change amount ΔV * of the ideal target vehicle speed, and this change is judged to be an indication of the passenger's willingness to make the curvature larger than the vehicle speed. Can do.
Therefore, the turning target control system 22 does not limit the elements with the large change amount among the elements V * and γ * of the ideal target after the change, but preferentially restricts the element with the small change amount, The actual target G on the turning limit curve A is determined.

For example, when the ideal target changes from R11 to R12 within a predetermined time as in the above example, it is determined that the passenger strongly desires an increase in the turning curvature, and the turning curvature is the input value γ The vehicle speed V * is limited (V * ˜ = V * ′ <V * ) while maintaining ** ˜ = γ * ).
Further, when the ideal target changes from R21 to R22, it is determined that the passenger strongly desires an increase in the vehicle speed, and the vehicle speed maintains the input value V * (V * to = V * ). The turning curvature γ * is limited (γ * ˜ = γ * ′ <γ * ).

Summarizing the above, as shown in FIG. 10B, the following optimization is performed according to the direction of time change of the ideal target state (V * , γ * ) by the input operation.
The turning target control system 22 first obtains the ideal target V * , γ * and the turning limit a lim, and obtains the ideal target time change ΔV * , Δγ * from the following Expression 12.

(Formula 12)
ΔV * (k) = V * (k) −V * (kn)
Δγ * (k) = γ * (k) −γ * (kn)

In Formula 12, the time change is evaluated by the difference between the current ideal target V * (k) , γ * (k) and the ideal target V * (kn) , γ * (kn) that is the reference time T = nΔt before. To do.
When the change amount of the ideal target is small during the reference time T, the direction of change is determined in consideration of the previous value.

Next, the turning target control system 22 limits the ideal targets V * and γ * as follows from the direction of time change.
(A) In the case of a change to the lower right (ΔV * ≦ 0 and Δγ * ≧ 0) For example, a maneuver at the entrance of a curve is assumed, and in this case, the passenger's request is “I want to turn” Judge, give priority to the target curvature and limit only the target speed.
That is, the turning target control system 22 sets the actual target curvature to γ * ˜ = γ * .
Further, the actual target speed is obtained by V * ˜ = √ (a lim / γ * ).

(B) In the case of a change to the upper left (ΔV * ≧ 0 and Δγ * ≦ 0)
For example, when maneuvering at a curve exit is assumed, it is determined that this is a passenger's request to “accelerate”, the target speed is prioritized, and only the target curvature is limited.
That is, the turning target control system 22 sets the actual target speed to V * to = V * .
Further, the actual target curvature is obtained by γ * ˜ = a lim / V * 2 .

(C) In other cases (both ideal target speed and curvature increase or decrease)
In this case, the target speed and the target curvature are limited in accordance with the direction (angle) of change, and the actual target speed V * ˜ (= x) and the actual target curvature γ * ˜ (= y) are obtained from the following Expression 13.
However, in Expression 13, Δx = Δγ * / γ 0 and Δy = ΔV * / V 0 .

(Formula 13)
xy 2 = c
Δx (x−x 1 ) = Δy (y−y 1 )

As described above, in the second optimization for the ideal target (V * , γ * ) input by the passenger, the change in the input operation is determined as a strong travel intention of the passenger.
For this reason, it is possible to realize an appropriate traveling state particularly during an emergency operation of the passenger (for example, a sudden turn command when avoiding a collision).

In the embodiment described above, the case has been described in which the actual target G is determined according to the three time change states (A) to (C) above from the time change of the ideal target (V * , γ * ). The real target G may be determined according to two time-varying states by limiting the ideal target (V * , γ * ) having a smaller rate of change.
That is, among the ideal target R (V * , γ * ), the one with the smaller time change rate ΔV * , Δγ * is limited to a value on the turning limit curve A.

(C) Third Optimization In this third optimization, optimization is performed in consideration of the passenger's input target (V * , γ * ) and its change.
The input target (V * , γ * ) by the occupant depends on the operation of the joystick (controller 31), but when the movement is fast, it can be determined that the urgency sign is expressed.
Therefore, the rate of change of the input target (V * , γ * ) is obtained, and if it is equal to or less than a predetermined threshold Th (Th V , Thγ), it is determined that there is no urgency and the first optimization (optimization with respect to the target value) )I do.
On the other hand, if the rate of change is greater than the threshold value Th, it is determined that there is urgency, and second optimization (optimization considering change in input target) is performed.
Comparison with the threshold value Th is performed for both the vehicle speed threshold value Th V and the curvature threshold value Thγ, and if either one is greater, it is determined that there is urgency.

Note that once the second optimization control is entered, the second optimization method is continuously applied until the input target value falls within the limit value.
This is presumed that when the joystick is moved quickly, there is urgency, so that the position is maintained as it is for a while. In this case, the change rate becomes 0 and it is prevented from returning to the first optimization. It is.

(D) Fourth Optimization In the fourth optimization, optimization is performed from the viewpoint of the travel position after a predetermined time.
FIG. 11 shows the vehicle position when traveling in the ideal target state and the vehicle position by the fourth optimization.
As shown in FIG. 4, from the vehicle position P0 at a certain time point, the vehicle position when it is assumed that the vehicle has made a turn for a predetermined time t according to the passenger's input target ((V * , γ * )) is the ideal target. The vehicle position is assumed to be the actual target position when it is assumed that the vehicle has made the turn for the same fixed time t with the actual target (V * ˜, γ * ˜) with the input target (V * , γ * ) limited. Let P2.

In the fourth optimization, the turning target control system 22 acquires the ideal target (V * , γ * ) and the turning limit a lim , and sets the ideal target position P1 and the actual target position P2 after a certain time t. The actual target (V * ˜, γ * ˜) is determined so that the distance becomes the shortest.
A condition (approximate expression) in which the distance between both positions P1 and P2 is the shortest is expressed by the following Expression 14.

(Formula 14)
V * ˜ = (α / (1-β)) V * , γ * ˜ = a lim / (V * ˜) 2
α = a lim / a * ,
β = {2 (8−π) / (π 2 −2 (1 + 3α) π + 32)} (1-α)

In this embodiment, the fixed time t is a time required for the vehicle to turn by a predetermined angle Θ = 90 degrees in the ideal target (V * , γ * ) state.
Note that the predetermined angle Θ can be set small (for example, 30 degrees and 45 degrees), and in this case, finer control can be performed.
In the present embodiment, in Formula 14, the shortest condition is obtained by linear approximation for the deviation between P1 and P2, but the exact solution may be obtained by solving the equation implicitly. Good.

  According to the fourth optimization, since the actual vehicle position is limited as close as possible to the target position calculated every moment based on the ideal target, for example, a car that travels similarly around If there is, it is suitable for collective traveling (not only the trajectory but also the time is taken into account, so it will not be rear-end collision).

(E) Fifth Optimization In the fifth optimization, optimization is performed from the viewpoint of running track deviation. The fifth optimization is suitable, for example, when traveling alone on a predetermined track.
FIG. 12 shows the fifth optimization.
As shown in FIG. 12, in the fifth optimization, the vehicle is decelerated so that the deviation between the ideal target trajectory and the actual target trajectory falls within the set limit value.
When turning while decelerating at the minimum reduction speed b Min (setting value) until turning at the ideal target curvature γ * is possible, if the deviation between both tracks is within the orbital deviation upper limit δ Max , the preset maximum Decelerate at reduced speed b Min .
On the other hand, displacement of both raceway is greater than the path deviation upper limit [delta] Max, sets the deceleration to match the path deviation upper limit [delta] Max.

That is, the turning travel target control system 22 first acquires the preset trajectory deviation upper limit δ Max and the minimum reduction speed b MIn, and acquires the ideal target V * , γ *, and the turning limit lim .
Here, in the present embodiment, a distance corresponding to the vehicle body width is set as the value of the track deviation upper limit δ Max . Further, the minimum reduction speed b MIn is set to 0.05 G , for example, but may be configured to be changeable.
Then, the turning target control system 22 obtains the track deviation δ when turning at the minimum reduction speed b Min according to Equation 15.

(Formula 15)
δ = (1 / γ) {(1-α) / α 2 } (1-cos θ)
α = a lim , θ = a lim / b Min (1−√α)

Next, the turning target control system 22 determines whether or not the track deviation δ obtained by Expression 15 is less than or equal to the track deviation upper limit δ Max , and if it is less (δ ≦ δ Max ), the deceleration b is set as the minimum reduction speed b Min . .
On the other hand, if the track deviation δ is larger than δ Max (δ> δ Max ), the deceleration b at which the track deviation δ becomes δ Max is calculated from the following Expression 16.

(Formula 16)
b = {(1-√α) / cos −1 {1- (α 2 / (1-α)) γ * δ}} a lim

Next, the turning target control system 22 calculates the actual target speed V * ˜ corresponding to the obtained deceleration b from Equation 17 and the actual target curvature γ * ˜ from Equation 18.
In Equations 17 and 18, Δt represents a time step, and the current actual target speed V * to (k) is determined from the actual target speed V * to (k−1) at the previous time step.

(Formula 17)
V * to (k) = V * to (k-1) -Δt · b

(Formula 18)
γ * ~ (k) = a lim / V * ~ (k) 2

In the fifth optimization described above, unnecessary rapid deceleration can be eliminated by allowing a certain amount of deviation of the traveling track.
In addition, by setting the minimum reduction speed b Min as a deceleration that does not make the passenger feel uncomfortable, it is possible to prevent more than necessary track deviation.

  In the fifth optimization described, a constant deceleration is set, but considering the jerk (time change rate of acceleration), the frequency component of the acceleration change that the passenger feels uncomfortable is removed. Also good.

In the fifth optimization described above, a preset value is used as the track deviation upper limit value δ Max. However, it may be changed sequentially according to the driving environment and the driving situation as follows.
B) Change due to running average speed Since it can be estimated that the higher the average speed, the wider the road is running, increase the track deviation upper limit δ Max (increase the deviation tolerance).
B) Change based on detection of surrounding objects by sensor When an object around the vehicle is detected and the object cannot be detected within the predetermined distance L1, the upper limit of the track deviation δ Max = L2 (<L1, for example, L2 = L1 / 2) ).

C) Use of navigation information (road width, traffic volume, etc.) If the vehicle is equipped with a navigation device, use navigation information such as road width and traffic volume. The smaller the amount, the larger the upper limit of trajectory deviation δ Max .
D) Change of set value by input operation of passenger The track deviation upper limit δ Max desired by the passenger can be changed by an input operation from an input device such as the control measure 30 or the like.

As described above, when the target travel state is determined by the turning target control system 22, the vehicle body travel control system 21 controls the turning (steps 19 and 20).
First, the vehicle body travel control system 21 measures the actual travel state using the wheel tachometer 41 and the accelerometer 42 (step 19).

FIG. 13 shows the mechanical state of the vehicle when the vehicle turns.
For the measurement of the lateral acceleration a, (1) a method using the measured value of the wheel tachometer 41 (angle meter) of each wheel (drive wheels 11a and 11b) and (2) the measured value of the accelerometer 42 are used. There is a way.

(1) Method Using Measurement Value of Wheel Tachometer 41 In this method, lateral acceleration a (1) is calculated from the rotational speeds of left and right drive wheels 11a and 11b.
As shown in FIG. 13A, when the rotational peripheral speed of the right driving wheel 11a is V R and the rotational peripheral speed of the left driving wheel 11b is V L when viewed from the occupant, the center of gravity position of the occupant (vehicle) The lateral acceleration a (1) at P is calculated from the following formulas 19 and 20.

(Formula 19)
a (1) = V · ΔV / D

(Formula 20)
V = V M − (Y G / D) ΔV
V M = (1/2) (V R + V L )
ΔV = V R −V L
V R = R W ω WR
V L = R W ω WL

In addition, each symbol in Formula 20 is as follows.
ω WR : right wheel rotation angular velocity ω WL : left wheel rotation angular velocity R W : tire ground contact radius D: tread Y G : deviation of the actual center of gravity position (use the value at the previous time step)

(2) Method of Using Measured Value of Accelerometer 42 In this method, the lateral acceleration a to (2) is calculated from the translational acceleration value measured by the accelerometer 42.
As shown in FIG. 13 (b), n axis of the vehicle body central axis, and t axis an axis perpendicular to the vehicle body symmetry plane, a n, when the a a t sensor acceleration (each axial direction component), the sensor mounting lateral acceleration a to the position (2) becomes a to (2) = a t.

In the present embodiment, the lateral acceleration a is determined from the lateral acceleration a (1) based on the measured value of the wheel tachometer 41 and the lateral acceleration a to (2) based on the measured value of the accelerometer 42.
The vehicle body travel control system 21 determines whether or not the driving wheel is slipping, and when it is determined that the driving wheel is not slipping, the value a (1) based on the measured value of the wheel tachometer 41 is used as the lateral acceleration a. When it is determined that the vehicle is slipping, values a to (2) based on the measured value of the accelerometer 42 are set as the lateral acceleration a.

Below, the slip judgment of the drive wheel in this embodiment is demonstrated.
Initially, the vehicle running control system 21, by the following equation 22, the lateral acceleration a (1) at an occupant center-of-gravity position based on the measured value of the wheel rotation meter 41, lateral acceleration a~ at the sensor mounting position ( Calculate 1) .

(Formula 22)
a to (1) = a (1) + (ΔV / D) 2 Y G

Then, the vehicle body travel control system 21 obtains Δa = a˜ (1) −a˜ (2) , and determines that slip has occurred when the absolute value of Δa is equal to or greater than a predetermined threshold ε.
Note that which of the right driving wheel 11a and the left driving wheel 11b is slipping can be determined by the following Expression 23.

(Formula 23)
a ~ (1) -a ~ (2) ≥ ε ... right drive wheel 11a slips a ~ (1) -a ~ (2) ≤-ε ... left drive wheel 11b slips

Next, the vehicle body travel control system 21 realizes stable turning travel by bringing it closer to the target travel state by the state feedback control (step 20).
FIG. 14 is a flowchart of the turning traveling stabilization process (step 20).
The vehicle body running control system 21 acquires the tire rotational speed v and the lateral acceleration a measured in step 19 (step 21), and calculates the actual turning curvature γ (= a / V 2 ) and turning speed V of the vehicle. Calculate (step 22).

On the other hand, the vehicle body running control system 21 uses the actual target speed V * ˜ and the actual target curvature γ * ˜ determined based on the passenger's input target (V * , γ * ) in accordance with the limit lateral acceleration a lim . The target turning speed and the target turning curvature are set (step 23).
Note that when a Min <a * <a Max (step 17; Y), the actual targets are V * ˜ = V * , γ * ˜ = γ * .

As described above, in this embodiment, the feedback control is performed by using the actual target speed V * ˜ and the actual target curvature γ * ˜, which are travel targets, as direct control targets. Compared to direct control, and speed and curvature are controlled indirectly, the running is stable and the restriction is easy and reliable.

  Next, the vehicle body running control system 21 evaluates the difference between the target and the actual turning curvature and turning speed (step 24), and corrects the driving torque of each drive wheel 11a, 11b by feedback control so that the difference is reduced. (Step 25) and return.

In the vehicle body travel control system 21, the speed target V * to be determined from the input operation amount of the driver (corrected value with respect to the limit), the curvature target γ * to and the speed V determined from the measured value of the travel control sensor 40. From the curvature γ, the torque command value of each drive wheel 11a, 11b is calculated by the following formula 24.
In Formula 24, τ R represents the right wheel torque command value, and τ L represents the left wheel torque command value.
Also, τ˜ represents translation and attitude control torque, τ dif represents rotation control torque, and is expressed by Equation 25. In Equation 25, (• ) means a single differentiation.
FIG. 15 shows the state of translation control and attitude control during turning, and the symbols in Equations 24 and 25 are as shown in FIG.

(Formula 24)
τ R = (1/2) (τ + τ dif )
τ L = (1/2) (τ −τ dif )

(Formula 25)
τ = −K V (V−V * ) − Kθθ−Kθ (• ) θ (• )
τ dif = −Kγ (γ−γ * )

In Expression 25, -K V (V-V * ) in the first term on the right side represents speed (translation) feedback control, and -Kθθ-Kθ (· ) θ (· ) in the second term represents attitude feedback control. .

In Expressions 24 and 25, the feedback gains K V , Kθ, Kθ (· ) , and Kγ are set by, for example, the pole placement method. In some cases, a differential gain (other than the posture angle) or an integral gain may be introduced.

  In the embodiment described above, the turning traveling control in a single-axis two-wheeled vehicle has been described as an example. However, the present invention includes optimization for an input (request) exceeding a lateral limit acceleration even for a three-wheeled vehicle or more. It is possible to apply the turning control method in the present embodiment.

In the vehicle of the embodiment described above, the center of gravity position of the entire vehicle is estimated, the limit lateral acceleration a lim (= a Min , a Max ) corresponding to the center of gravity position is obtained, and the target traveling state ( The vehicle travels in a range where the lateral acceleration a * obtained from V * , γ * ) does not exceed the limit lateral acceleration a lim .
That is, when a target travel state (V * , γ * ) that does not exceed the limit lateral acceleration a lim is input (requested) by the passenger, the vehicle travels in the target travel state.
On the other hand, when a target travel state (V * , γ * ) exceeding the limit lateral acceleration a lim is input, the lateral acceleration a = the limit lateral acceleration a is achieved by optimization of (a) to (e). The target travel state (V * , γ * ) is limited to the actual travel state (V * ˜, γ * ˜) so that lim (= a Min , a Max ).
Thereby, since the turning speed and the turning curvature are not restricted more than necessary, the turning performance of the vehicle can be utilized to the maximum.

In the embodiment described above, the target travel state (V * , γ * ) is limited to the actual travel state (V * ˜, γ * ˜) so that the lateral acceleration a = the limit lateral acceleration a lim. Although the case has been described, it may be within the range of the limit lateral acceleration a lim .
However, in order to increase the use range of the turning performance of the vehicle, the lateral acceleration after the restriction is set to a predetermined threshold a k (for example, a k = a lim −0.05 G) or more.

  In the embodiment described above, a joystick is provided as the controller 31, and the amount of forward / backward inclination is associated with the target speed and the amount of lateral inclination is associated with the target curvature. However, other state quantities may be associated. For example, the front / rear tilt amount may correspond to the target longitudinal acceleration, and the left / right tilt amount may correspond to the target turning angular velocity. In this case, the target longitudinal acceleration and angular velocity may be converted into speed and curvature when the target running state is set (step 15 in FIG. 4). Or you may perform the process similar to embodiment described above by making acceleration and angular velocity into a target driving | running | working state.

It is an external appearance block diagram of the vehicle in this embodiment. It is a block diagram of a control unit. It is arrangement | positioning explanatory drawing of a load meter and a sitting height meter. It is a flowchart showing the content of the turning traveling control process. It is explanatory drawing showing the state of the passenger | crew (boarding thing) at the time of turning. It is explanatory drawing about the type discrimination | determination of a vehicle, and estimation of the gravity center height based on it. It represents the position of the center of gravity of the vehicle, the passenger, and the whole. It is explanatory drawing about the grounding load center point S, the grounding load center position (lambda) GF, and grounding load eccentricity (beta). It is explanatory drawing showing the state of the 1st optimization. It is explanatory drawing showing the state of the 2nd optimization. It is explanatory drawing showing the state of the 4th optimization. It is explanatory drawing showing the state of the 5th optimization. It is explanatory drawing showing the mechanical state of the vehicle at the time of vehicle turning. It is a flowchart of turning traveling stabilization processing. It is explanatory drawing showing the state of translation control and attitude | position control at the time of turning.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 11 Drive wheel 12 Drive motor 13 Riding part 131 Seat surface part 14 Support member 16 Control unit 20 Control ECU
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 21 Vehicle body travel control system 22 Turning target restriction system 23 Turning limit determination system 25 Center of gravity position estimation system 30 Steering device 31 Controller 40 Travel and attitude control sensor 41 Travel speed meter 42 Accelerometer 50 Center of gravity position measurement sensor 51 Load meter 52 Seat height meter 60 Actuator 61 Drive wheel actuator

Claims (5)

  1. A vehicle comprising two drive wheels arranged opposite each other,
    Target running state obtaining means for obtaining the target speed V * and the target curvature γ * ;
    Traveling control means for controlling traveling by the acquired target speed V * and target curvature γ * ;
    A center-of-gravity position acquisition means for acquiring the center-of-gravity position of the vehicle including the vehicle;
    Limit lateral acceleration determining means for determining a limit lateral acceleration a lim corresponding to the acquired center of gravity position;
    When the target lateral acceleration a * corresponding to the acquired target velocity V * and target curvature γ * exceeds the limit lateral acceleration a lim , the target lateral acceleration a * is equal to or less than the limit lateral acceleration a lim . The amount of deviation between the travel trajectory when turning at the acquired target speed V * and target curvature γ * and the travel trajectory when traveling at a limited value is within a predetermined deviation upper limit value δ Max. Limiting means for limiting at least one of the acquired target velocity V * and target curvature γ * ;
    A vehicle characterized by comprising:
  2. The limiting means is
    Vehicle trajectory when turning at the acquired target speed V * and target curvature γ * and when turning while decelerating at the minimum reduction speed b Min until turning at the acquired target curvature γ * is possible. The amount of deviation from the vehicle trajectory
    If it is within the predetermined deviation upper limit value δ Max , the deceleration b is set to the minimum reduction speed b Min ,
    If it is larger than the predetermined deviation upper limit value δ Max, the deceleration b that matches the deviation upper limit δ Max is set.
    The target speed V * is limited by the deceleration b, limiting the target curvature gamma * the target curvature gamma * by the target speed V * of the limit values,
    The vehicle according to claim 1.
  3. The limiting means limits at least one of the acquired target speed V * and target curvature γ * so that the target lateral acceleration a * becomes the limit lateral acceleration a lim. The vehicle according to claim 1 or claim 2.
  4. A load sensor disposed in the riding section;
    A height sensor for measuring the height of the weight body;
    A vehicle center of gravity acquisition means for acquiring a center of gravity position of the vehicle from the detection values of the load sensor and the height sensor;
    2. The center-of-gravity position acquisition means acquires the center-of-gravity position of a vehicle including a vehicle from the center-of-gravity position of the acquired vehicle and the center-of-gravity position of the vehicle defined in advance. The vehicle according to claim 2 or claim 3.
  5. 5. The travel control unit according to claim 1, 2, 3 or 4, wherein the travel control means controls the travel by feedback control using the target speed V * and the target curvature γ * as direct control targets. Vehicle.
JP2006234758A 2006-08-31 2006-08-31 Vehicle Expired - Fee Related JP5041205B2 (en)

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JP2011063205A (en) * 2009-09-18 2011-03-31 Honda Motor Co Ltd Inverted-pendulum mobile body
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JP2005138630A (en) * 2003-11-04 2005-06-02 Sony Corp Traveling device and its control method

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CN102897260A (en) * 2008-07-29 2013-01-30 丰田自动车株式会社 Coaxial two-wheel vehicle and method for controlling same
JP2010030440A (en) * 2008-07-29 2010-02-12 Toyota Motor Corp Coaxial two-wheeled vehicle and its control method
JP2010030439A (en) * 2008-07-29 2010-02-12 Toyota Motor Corp Coaxial two-wheeled vehicle and its control method
KR101330172B1 (en) * 2008-07-29 2013-11-15 도요타 지도샤(주) Coaxil two-wheel vehicle and method for controlling same
US8543294B2 (en) 2008-07-29 2013-09-24 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Coaxial two-wheeled vehicle and its control method
US8532877B2 (en) 2008-07-29 2013-09-10 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Coaxial two-wheeled vehicle and its control method
WO2010013381A1 (en) * 2008-07-29 2010-02-04 トヨタ自動車株式会社 Coaxial two-wheel vehicle and method for controlling same
KR101379839B1 (en) * 2008-07-29 2014-04-01 도요타 지도샤(주) Coaxil two-wheel vehicle and method for controlling same
JP2010162963A (en) * 2009-01-13 2010-07-29 Aisin Seiki Co Ltd Posture stabilization control device and vehicle equipped with the same
JP2010228743A (en) * 2009-03-05 2010-10-14 Equos Research Co Ltd Vehicle
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JP2011175369A (en) * 2010-02-23 2011-09-08 Nippon Sharyo Seizo Kaisha Ltd Unmanned conveying vehicle

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