JP2008039738A - Positioning method - Google Patents

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JP2008039738A
JP2008039738A JP2006218347A JP2006218347A JP2008039738A JP 2008039738 A JP2008039738 A JP 2008039738A JP 2006218347 A JP2006218347 A JP 2006218347A JP 2006218347 A JP2006218347 A JP 2006218347A JP 2008039738 A JP2008039738 A JP 2008039738A
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station
radio signal
base station
reference station
reference
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Masafumi Asai
Akira Fujii
Hidenori Sekiguchi
雅文 浅井
彰 藤井
英紀 関口
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Fujitsu Ltd
富士通株式会社
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<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To reduce the number of necessary base stations, concerning a positioning method. <P>SOLUTION: This method has a configuration including a process for transmitting a ranging radio signal from a reference station R whose position is known; a process wherein a plurality of base stations B whose positions are known measure each reception time of the ranging radio signal by each timepiece Cb in own station; a process for transmitting a response radio signal including delay time information by a timepiece Cm in own station from reception until reply after a moving terminal M receives the ranging radio signal; a process wherein the reference station R and each base station B measure each reception time of the response radio signal by each timepiece Cr, Cb in each own station; and a process for operating each distance from the reference station R and each base station B to the moving terminal M by erasing each deviation element between the timepieces Cm, Cb, Cr in each station based on each reception time of the response radio signal in the reference station R and each base station B, a transmission time of the ranging radio signal in the reference station R, the delay time information from a portable terminal, and known distance information between reference station R and each base station B. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2008,JPO&amp;INPIT

Description

本発明は、測位方法に関するものである。 The present invention relates to a positioning method.

移動端末と位置が既知の複数の基地局との間で無線信号による交信を行い、無線信号の到達時間を利用して移動端末の位置を求める測位方法としては、特許文献1に記載されたものが知られている。 Mobile terminal and position performs a communication by radio signals to and from a plurality of known base stations, as the positioning method of determining the position of a mobile terminal using an arrival time of a radio signal, those described in Patent Document 1 It has been known.

この従来例において、移動局は基地局(基準局)からの応答要求無線に応答して応答無線信号を送信する。 In this conventional example, the mobile station transmits a response radio signal in response to the response request radio from the base station (base station). 応答無線信号は、基準局および適数個の受信装置(基地局)において受信され、受信時刻が計測される。 Response radio signal is received at the reference station and apply several receiving apparatus (base station), the reception time is measured.

電波の伝搬速度と基準局、基地局間の距離は既知であるために、移動局の位置は、 Radio wave propagation speed and reference station, since the distance between the base stations is known, the position of the mobile station,
||Pt - Pj| - |Pt - P1|| = c(R_{_m@j,1} - R{t_m@1,1}) || Pt - Pj || Pt - P1 || = c (R _ {_ m @ j, 1} - R {t_m @ 1,1})
但し、Ptは移動局の位置、P1は基準局の位置、 However, Pt is the position of the mobile station, P1 is the position of the reference station,
Pjは第j番目の基地局の位置、 Pj is the position of the j-th base station,
R{t_m@1,1})は基準局における受信時刻、R_{_m@j,1}は第j番目の基地局での受信時刻 の関係式を連立させた解として与えられる。 R {t_m @ 1,1}) is received at reference station time, R _ {_ m @ j, 1} is given as a solution obtained by simultaneous relational expression reception time in the j-th base station.
特開2005-117440号公報 JP 2005-117440 JP

しかし、上述した従来例における関係式は、基準局と移動局との距離に対する相対距離として与えられるために、解を求めるには、多数の基地局が必要になるという問題がある。 However, relation in the conventional example described above, in order to be given as a relative distance to the distance between the reference station and the mobile station, to determine the solution, resulting in the need for a large number of base stations. 例えば、移動局の2次元位置は、三辺測量によって、最低1個の基準局と、1個の基地局からの距離が解れば求めることができるが、上記解を求めるためには、最低でも1個の基準局と、2個の基地局が必要となる。 For example, two-dimensional position of the mobile station, by trilateration, and the lowest one reference station, can be determined if the distance from one base station known, in order to obtain the above solution, 1 at a minimum and the number of the reference station, it is necessary to two base stations.

本発明は、以上の欠点を解消すべくなされたものであって、必要基地局数を低減させることのできる測位方法の提供を目的とする。 The present invention was made to solve the above drawbacks, and an object thereof is to provide a positioning method capable of reducing the number of necessary base stations.

2点に配置された送受信局間の距離は、2局間で測距用無線信号を往復させ、各局における送受信時刻差を利用することに求めることができる。 The distance between the arranged transmitting and receiving station in two points, is reciprocated a distance measurement for radio signals between two stations can be determined to use the transmission time difference in each station. すなわち、端末a、b間の距離をLab、端末a、bにおける測距用無線信号の送信時刻をTa1、Tb2、受信時刻をTb1、Ta2、端末間の時計のオフセットをToab、光速をVc、とすると、 That is, the terminal a, the distance between b Lab, terminal a, Ta1 the transmission time of the ranging radio signal at b, Tb2, Tb1 reception time, Ta2, TOAB the offset clock between terminals, the speed of light Vc, If you,
Tb1 + Toab = Ta1 + Lab/Vc Tb1 + Toab = Ta1 + Lab / Vc
Ta2 = Tb2 + Toab + Lab/Vc Ta2 = Tb2 + Toab + Lab / Vc
の関係が成立し、端末間距離は、Toabを消去した、 Relationship is established, end-to-end distance was erased TOAB,
Lab = Vc {(Ta2 - Ta1) - (Tb2 - Tb1) }/2 (式1) Lab = Vc {(Ta2 - Ta1) - (Tb2 - Tb1)} / 2 (Equation 1)
として求めることができる。 It can be obtained as.

したがって、端末aを位置が既知な基準局R、端末bを移動端末Mとし、基準局Rからの測距用無線信号に対する移動端末Mからの応答無線信号に(Tb2 - Tb1)、すなわち、携帯端末が応答無線信号を返信するまでの遅延時間を載せると、基準局Rにおいて携帯端末までの距離を求めることができる。 Therefore, the position of the terminal a is known as the reference station R, a terminal b and mobile terminal M, the response radio signal from the mobile terminal M for distance measurement radio signal from the reference station R (Tb2 - Tb1), i.e., the mobile terminal placing the delay before returning a response radio signal, it is possible to determine the distance to the mobile terminal at the reference station R.

例えば、位置既知点からの距離により任意点の2次元位置を知るためには、2箇所の位置既知点が必要であり、2箇所の基準局Rと移動端末Mとの間で上述した交信を行うことにより、移動端末Mの位置を求めることができる。 For example, in order to know the two-dimensional position of an arbitrary point by the distance from the position known point, it is necessary position known two points of, performs communication described above between the mobile terminal M as the reference station R in two places it makes it possible to determine the position of the mobile terminal M.

しかし、この場合、2回の移動端末Mからの送信が必要となり、移動端末Mの電力消費量が大きくなる。 However, in this case, it must be transmitted from the mobile terminal M of the two, the power consumption of the mobile terminal M is increased.

本発明は、この問題を解決するために、2局間での往復交信による測距方法を採用するとともに、基準局Rから送信される測距用無線信号を基地局Bで受信することにより基準局Rと基地局Bとの時計のずれを補正し、移動端末Mからの応答無線信号を基地局Bにより受信することにより、移動端末Mの測距を行う。 The present invention, in order to solve this problem, while adopting the distance measuring method according to the reciprocating communication between two stations, the reference station R by receiving the distance measurement radio signal transmitted from the reference station R in the base station B and the deviation of the clocks of the base station B is corrected by receiving a response radio signal from the mobile terminal M by the base station B, measuring a distance of the mobile terminal M.

この結果、基準局Rおよび移動端末Mからの1回の電波送信により移動端末Mの測位を行うことができる。 As a result, it is possible to perform positioning of the mobile terminal M by one wave transmission from the reference station R and the mobile terminal M. また、移動端末Mの2次元位置を測位する場合には、最低、1個の基準局Rと1個の基地局Bを用意するだけで足りる。 Further, in the case of positioning the two-dimensional position of the mobile terminal M is minimum, it is only necessary to provide one reference station R and one of the base station B.

本発明によれば、必要基地局数を低減させることができる。 According to the present invention, it is possible to reduce the number of necessary base stations.

図1に本発明が適用された測位システムを示す。 Showing a positioning system to which the present invention is applied in FIG. 測位システムは、1個の基準局Rと、適数の基地局Bと、これら基準局R、基地局Bに有線LAN1を介して接続される測位サーバ2と、測位対象である移動端末Mとを有して構成される。 Positioning system, chromatic and one reference station R, a base station B of the appropriate number, these reference station R, the positioning server 2 connected via a wired LAN1 to the base station B, the mobile terminal M is positioning target and configured. 基準局Rおよび基地局Bの位置は適宜手段により予め計測されている。 Position of the reference station R and the base station B are measured in advance by appropriate means.

図2に示すように、基準局Rは測距用無線信号を送信するための送信部3rを有する。 As shown in FIG. 2, the reference station R has the transmitting portions 3r for transmitting the distance measurement radio signal. 測位開始命令を受けると、基準局Rは、送信部3rに測距用無線信号をセットし、アンテナから送信する。 When receiving the positioning start instruction, the reference station R sets the distance measurement radio signal to the transmission section 3r, is transmitted from the antenna. 測距用無線信号の送信時刻は基準局R内に用意された時計Crにより計測され、計測結果が測距用無線信号送信時刻保持部4rに格納される。 Transmission time of the ranging radio signal is measured by the clock Cr prepared for the reference station R, the measurement result is stored in the distance measurement radio signal transmission time holding unit 4r.

5rは受信部であり、移動端末Mからの応答無線信号を受信すると上記時計Crにより受信時刻を計測し、計測結果を応答無線信号受信時刻保持部6rに格納する。 5r is receiving unit receives the response radio signal from the mobile terminal M measures the reception time by the clock Cr, stores the measurement result in the response radio signal reception time holding unit 6r. また、受信部5rにおいて受信した応答無線信号は、受信データ保持部7rに格納される。 The response radio signal received by the reception section 5r is stored in the received data holding unit 7r.

基地局Bは、上記基準局Rから送信される測距用無線信号と、移動端末Mから送信される応答無線信号を受信する受信部5bを備える。 The base station B comprises a distance measuring radio signals transmitted from the reference station R, the receiving unit 5b for receiving a response radio signal transmitted from the mobile terminal M. 受信部5bが上記いずれかの無線信号を受信すると、内蔵された時計Cbにより受信時刻を計測し、受信信号が測距用無線信号である場合には、計測結果を測距用無線信号受信時刻保持部8bに、応答無線信号である場合には、応答無線信号受信時刻保持部6bに各々格納する。 When the receiving unit 5b has received any of the above-mentioned radio signal, the reception time measured by the built-in clock Cb, when the received signal is a radio signal for distance measurement, the distance measurement radio signal reception time measurement results the holding portion 8b, if the response radio signal, respectively stored in the response radio signal reception time holding unit 6b.

一方、移動端末Mは、基準局Rからの測距用無線信号を受信する受信部5mを備える。 On the other hand, the mobile terminal M is provided with a receiving portion 5m that receives a radio signal for distance measurement from the reference station R. 測距用無線信号を受信部5mが受信すると、内蔵の時計Cmにより受信時刻を計測し、計測結果を測距用無線信号受信時刻保持部8mに格納する。 Upon receiving the reception section 5m is a distance measuring radio signals, measures the reception time by the built-in clock Cm, stores the measurement result in the distance measurement radio signal reception time holding unit 8m.

また、受信部5mが測距用無線信号を受信すると、図外の制御部は、送信データ作成部9mに応答無線信号をセットし、送信部3mから送信する。 Also, when the receiver section 5m receives the radio signal for distance measurement, an unillustrated control unit sets the response radio signal to the transmission data generating unit 9m, transmitted from the transmitting unit 3m. 応答無線信号は、受信部5mにおいて測距用無線信号を受信してから応答無線信号を送信部3mから送信するまでの遅延時間情報を含んでおり、送信部3mにおける送信時刻は、応答無線信号送信時刻保持部10mに格納される。 Response radio signal includes a delay time information from the reception of the distance measurement radio signal in the reception section 5m before sending a response radio signal from the transmitting unit 3m, transmission time in the transmission section 3m is responsive radio signal It is stored in the transmission time holding unit 10 m.

以上のシステムを使用した移動端末Mの測位方法を図1により説明する。 The positioning method of the mobile terminal M using the above system will be described with reference to FIG. なお、図1(a)において破線は無線による交信を、実線は有線LAN1による交信を示し、図中の小文字のローマ数字は以下に説明するステップ番号に対応する。 Incidentally, the communication broken lines by wireless in FIG. 1 (a), the solid line indicates the communication by wire LAN1, lowercase Roman numerals in the figure correspond to step numbers described below.

まず、測位に際し、基準局Rから測距用無線信号を送信し(ステップS1)、送信時刻を測位サーバ2に転送する(ステップS2)。 First, when positioning, to transmit a distance measurement radio signal from the reference station R (Step S1), and transfers the transmission time to the positioning server 2 (step S2). 測距用無線信号は、移動端末Mと基地局Bにおいて受信され、基地局Bで計測された自局の時計Cbにより計測した受信時刻を測位サーバ2に転送される(ステップS3)。 Wireless signal distance measurement is received at the mobile terminal M and the base station B, it is transferred to the reception time measured to the positioning server 2 by the clock Cb of the station measured by the base station B (step S3).

一方、測距用無線信号を受信した移動端末Mは、自局の時計Cmにより計時した受信時刻を測距用無線信号受信時刻保持部8mに保持した後、送信データ作成部9mで応答無線信号を生成し(ステップS4)、送信する(ステップS5)。 On the other hand, the mobile terminal M which receives distance measurement radio signal, after holding the reception time which is timed to the distance measurement radio signal reception time holding unit 8m by the clock Cm of the own station, the response radio signal transmission data generating unit 9m It generates (step S4), and transmits (step S5). 上述したように、応答無線信号には、遅延時間情報が含まれる。 As described above, the response radio signal includes delay time information.

応答無線信号を受信した基準局Rは自局の時計Crにより計測した受信時刻と、移動端末Mから送信された遅延時間情報を、基地局Bは自局の時計Cbにより計測した受信時刻を測位サーバ2に転送する(ステップS6)。 Reference station R which has received the response radio signal and the reception time measured by the clock Cr of the own station, the delay time information transmitted from the mobile terminal M, the positioning server receiving the time the base station B measured by the clock Cb of the station 2 to transfer (step S6).

基準局Rと基地局Bからデータ転送を受けた測位サーバ2は、測位計算部11において、以下の方法により移動端末Mと基準局R、基地局B間の距離を演算した後、これら距離情報に三辺測量の手法を適用して位置情報を演算する(ステップS7)。 Positioning server 2 which has received the data transfer from the reference station R and the base station B, the positioning calculation unit 11, after calculating the mobile terminal M and the reference station R, the distance between the base station B in the following manner, the three of these distance information It calculates the position information by applying the technique of lateration (step S7).

すなわち、基準局Rの時計Crを基準として移動端末M、基地局Bの時計Cm、CbのずれをTom、Toa、Tob(以下、変数に付されたアルファベットの添え字は局種を、数字の添え字は信号種を示し、基準局Rには"r"、2個の基地局Bに対しては"a"、"b"、移動端末Mに対しては"m"を付す。また、数字"1"は測距用無線信号を、添え字"2"は応答無線信号を示す。)、距離をL(上述した添え字付与規則に従って、基準局Rと移動端末Mの距離はLmr、一方の基地局Bと移動端末Mの距離はLam、他方の基地局Bと移動端末Mの距離はLbm、基準局Rと基地局Bの距離はLar、Lbr)、送受信時刻T(基準局Rの測距用無線信号の送信時刻はTr1、測距用無線信号の移動端末M、基地局Bでの受信時刻はTm1、Ta1、Tb1、移動端末Mの応答無線信号の送信時刻はTm2、応答無線信 That is, the mobile terminal M as a reference clock Cr of the reference station R, watches Cm base station B, and the deviation of the Cb Tom, Toa, Tob (hereinafter, the alphabet attached to the variable subscript a is Station type, accompanied figures shaped represents a signal type, the reference station R subjecting "r", for the two base stations B "a", "b", to the mobile terminal M "m". in addition, numeral " 1 "distance measurement radio signal, the subscript" 2 "indicates a response radio signal.), according to the distance L (above subscript grant rules, distance reference station R and the mobile terminal M is Lmr, one base station B and the distance of the mobile terminal M is Lam, other base stations B and the distance of the mobile terminal M is Lbm, reference station R and the distance of the base station B Lar, Lbr), transmission and reception time T (wireless ranging reference station R transmission time of the signal Tr1, mobile terminal M, reception time in the base station B distance measurement radio signal Tm1, Ta1, Tb1, the transmission time of the response radio signals of the mobile terminal M is Tm2, ​​response wireless signal の基準局R、基地局Bでの受信時刻はTr2、Ta2、Tb2)とすると、 If the reference stations R, the reception time in the base station B Tr2, Ta2, Tb2) that,
ステップS1における送受信パス長と電波到達時間の関係から、 From the relationship between the transmit and receive path length and wave arrival time in step S1,
Tm1 + Tom = Tr1 +Lmr/Vc Tm1 + Tom = Tr1 + Lmr / Vc
Ta1 + Toa = Tr1 + Lar/Vc Ta1 + Toa = Tr1 + Lar / Vc
Tb1 + Tob = Tr1 + Lbr/Vc Tb1 + Tob = Tr1 + Lbr / Vc
(式2)が成立する。 (Equation 2) is satisfied. ただしVcは光速。 However Vc is the speed of light.

また、ステップS5における送受信パス長と電波到達時間の関係から、 Further, from the relationship between the transmit and receive path length and wave arrival time at the step S5,
Tr2 = Tm2 + Tom + Lmr/Vc Tr2 = Tm2 + Tom + Lmr / Vc
Ta2 + Toa = Tm2 + Tom + Lam/Vc Ta2 + Toa = Tm2 + Tom + Lam / Vc
Tb2 + Tob = Tm2 + Tom + Lbm/Vc Tb2 + Tob = Tm2 + Tom + Lbm / Vc
が成立する。 There is established.

基準局R、および2個の基地局Bの位置は既知であるため、Lar、Lbrは既知で、上記6式の未知数は、Lmr、Lam、Lbm、Tom、Toa、Tobの5個となり、Lmr、Lam、Lbmは、Tom、Toa、Tobを消去した式 Since the position of the reference station R, and two base stations B are known, Lar, Lbr is known, unknown of the equation (6) is made Lmr, Lam, Lbm, Tom, Toa, and five Tob, Lmr, Lam, Lbm was erased Tom, Toa, the Tob formula
Lmr = Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) - (Tm2 - Tm1) }/2 Lmr = Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) - (Tm2 - Tm1)} / 2
Lam = Lar + Vc(Ta2 - Ta1) - Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) + (Tm2 - Tm1)}/2 Lam = Lar + Vc (Ta2 - Ta1) - Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) + (Tm2 - Tm1)} / 2
Lbm = Lbr + Vc(Tb2 - Tb1) - Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) + (Tm2 - Tm1)}/2 Lbm = Lbr + Vc (Tb2 - Tb1) - Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) + (Tm2 - Tm1)} / 2
で与えられる。 It is given by.

この結果、移動端末Mの2次元座標(Xm,Ym)は、基準局R、基地局Bの座標を(Xr,Yr), (Xa,Ya), (Xb,Yb)とすると、 As a result, two-dimensional coordinates of the mobile terminal M (Xm, Ym) is the reference station R, the coordinates of the base station B (Xr, Yr), (Xa, Ya), when a (Xb, Yb),
{(Xm - Xr) 2 + (Ym - Yr) 2 } 1/2 = Lmr {(Xm - Xr) 2 + (Ym - Yr) 2} 1/2 = Lmr
{(Xm - Xa) 2 + (Ym - Ya) 2 } 1/2 = Lam {(Xm - Xa) 2 + (Ym - Ya) 2} 1/2 = Lam
{(Xm - Xb) 2 + (Ym - Yb) 2 } 1/2 = Lbm {(Xm - Xb) 2 + (Ym - Yb) 2} 1/2 = Lbm
により求められる。 The sought.

なお、最終式において、未知数Xm,Ymに対して式が3個あるため、式が冗長となるため、Xm,Ymは上記3本の式の最小自乗解として求められる。 Incidentally, in the final formula, unknowns Xm, because expression is three with respect to Ym, since the formula is redundant, Xm, Ym is obtained as the least squares solution of equation three above.

また、上記実施の形態において、受信時刻を正確に計測するために、測距用無線信号、および応答無線信号にインパルス電波を使用することができ、この場合の送信データフォーマットを図3に、基準局Rの装置構成を図4に示す。 Further, in the above embodiment, in order to accurately measure the reception time, ranging radio signal, and can use the response impulse wave to a radio signal, Figure 3 a transmission data format in this case, the reference station the device structure of R shown in FIG.

図3を参照して、送信データは、PN系列の一種である8値のリードソロモンRS系列でタイムホッピング(TH)されており、さらに、パルス位置変調でデータ変調されている。 Referring to FIG. 3, the transmission data is the time-hopping (TH) in Reed-Solomon RS sequence of 8 values, which is a type of PN sequence, further, are data-modulated in a pulse position modulation. 1チップ100nsの場合、RS系列として5763421を使用するとすると、1μsのパルス区間の内、最初のパルスは500nsの位置に、次のパルスは700nsの位置にタイムホッピングされている。 For one chip 100 ns, When using the 5,763,421 as RS sequence, of 1μs pulse zone, the first pulse to the position of 500 ns, next pulse is time-hopping to the position of 700 ns. 同期用のデータ無変調のプリアンブル部は、7パルス7μsであり、その後に、データ部が来る。 Preamble portion of the data unmodulated for synchronization is 7 pulses 7 .mu.s, then, the data portion will come. データ部も同じRS系列でタイムホッピングされているが、さらに、データが1の時には、1チップパルス位置がずれるパルス位置変調(PPM)されている。 Data unit has also been a time hopping with the same RS sequence, further, when the data is 1, is 1 pulse position modulation chip pulse position shifts (PPM).

例えば、0110のデータの場合、5763・・・のRS系列は5873・・・と変調され、500ns、800ns、700ns、300ns位置にパルスがホッピングされる。 For example, if the data 0110, 5763 RS sequence of ... is modulated with 5873 ..., 500 ns, 800 ns, 700 ns, the pulse to 300ns location hopped.

図4を参照して、上記RS系列はPN系列発生部12で生成され、PPMデータ変調部13において送信データの1、0に従ったPPMデータ変調が行われ、インパルス生成部14にパルスが送られる。 Referring to FIG. 4, the RS sequence is generated by PN sequence generator 12, PPM data modulated in accordance with the 1,0 of the transmission data in the PPM data modulating section 13 is performed, a pulse is sent to the impulse generator 14 It is. インパルス生成部14は、ステップリカバリダイオードにより、パルスの立ち上がり部で非常に細いインパルスを生成する。 Impulse generating unit 14, the step recovery diode, to generate a very thin impulse at the rising portion of the pulse.

生成したインパルスは非常に広い帯域を有しているが、例えば、電波法のマスクに適合するように、3.1GHz〜5GHzのバンドパスフィルタ(BPF)を通すことで、不要な3.1GHz以下の成分と5GHzを以上の成分を除去する。 Although the resulting impulse has a very wide band, for example, to fit the mask Radio Law, by passing the band pass filter (BPF) of 3.1GHz~5GHz, unnecessary 3.1GHz following ingredients and removing or more components of 5 GHz. バンドパスフィルタ(BPF)通過後、パワーアンプ(PA)で増幅し、アンテナから電波が放射される。 After the band-pass filter (BPF) passing, amplified by a power amplifier (PA), radio waves are radiated from the antenna. データを送信する時に、プリアンブル後の最初のパルスを発生する時刻を測距用無線送信時刻保持部4rで保存する。 When transmitting the data, save the time for generating the first pulse after the preamble in the distance measurement for radio transmission time holding unit 4r.

一方、受信側では、アンテナで受信されたインパルス電波は、バンドパスフィルタ(BPF)で不要な周波数成分除去後、低雑音アンプ(LNA)で増幅され、パルスの有無が検出される。 On the other hand, on the receiving side, the impulse radio wave received by the antenna, after unnecessary frequency components removed by the bandpass filter (BPF), is amplified by a low noise amplifier (LNA), the presence or absence of pulses is detected. パルス検出部15は、公知のダイオードによる包絡線検波回路とコンパレータ等で実現できる。 Pulse detecting section 15 can be realized by envelope detection circuit and a comparator, etc. by known diode. 検出されたパルスは、PN系列発生部12で発生したRS系列とデジタルマッチドフィルタによる相関器16で比較される。 The detected pulse is compared with the correlator 16 by RS sequence and the digital matched filter generated by PN sequence generator 12.

相関器16によりプリアンブル部が検出されると、同期が確立されたとして、PPMデータ復調部17において次に続くデータ部のPPMを復調し、受信データを生成する。 When the preamble portion is detected by the correlator 16, as the synchronization is established, it demodulates the PPM data portion following the next in PPM data demodulator 17, to generate received data. また、データ部の最初のパルスを検出したならば、その時刻を応答無線信号受信時刻保持部6rに保持する。 Further, if it detects the first pulse of the data unit, and holds the time the response radio signal reception time holding unit 6r.

なお、図3においては、基準局Rの装置構成を示したが、各基地局Bは、基準局Rの装置構成から送信部3rを除いたものであるために図示を省略する。 In FIG. 3, but showing the device configuration of the reference station R, the base station B, not shown for those excluding the transmission portion 3r from the Configuration of the reference station R. また、移動端末Mの装置構成は、基準局Rの装置構成から有線LANインタフェースを除いたものであるために図示を省略する。 The device configuration of the mobile terminal M is not shown because it is obtained by removing the wired LAN interface from the device configuration of the reference station R.

さらに、上述した実施の形態において、基準局R、基地局Bからのデータは有線LAN1を経由して測位サーバ2に集積させ、測位計算部11において演算する場合を示したが、図5、6に示すように、測位計算部11を基準局Rにおくことができる。 Further, in the above embodiment, the reference station R, data from the base station B is integrated to the positioning server 2 via the wired LAN1, although the case of calculating the positioning calculation unit 11, in FIGS. 5 and 6 as shown, it is possible to place the positioning unit 11 to the reference station R. この場合、図1におけるステップS2、S3は取り除から、ステップS6として、各基地局Bは応答無線信号を受信した後、基準局Rに受信時刻差を基地局無線信号として送信する。 In this case, steps S2, S3 are removed et in FIG 1, in step S6, the base station B after receiving the response radio signal, and transmits the base station radio signal reception time difference reference station R.

この結果、基準局Rには上述したLmr、Lam、Lbmを求める全ての情報が集まり、測位計算部11において必要な演算がなされる。 As a result, Lmr described above in reference station R, Lam, gather all the information seeking Lbm, the necessary operations are made in the positioning unit 11.

図6を参照すると、基地局Bは、測距用無線信号受信時刻と応答無線信号受信時刻とから送信データ作成部9bで基地局無線信号を作成し、送信部3bから基準局Rにデータ送信する。 Referring to FIG. 6, the base station B creates a base station radio signal in the transmission data creation portion 9b and a distance measurement radio signal reception time and a response radio signal reception time, data transmitted from the transmitting unit 3b to the reference station R . なお、以下の説明において、上述した実施の形態と実質的に同一の構成要素は、図中に同一符号を付して説明を省略する。 In the following description, the embodiments described above form substantially the same components is omitted are denoted by the same reference numerals in FIG.

このように構成すると、基地局B、基準局R間に有線LAN1を敷設する必要がなくなり、構成が簡単になる。 With this configuration, the base station B, there is no need to lay wire LAN1 between reference station R, the configuration is simplified.

図7に本発明の第2の実施の形態を示す。 Figure 7 shows a second embodiment of the present invention. この実施の形態は、各局毎のクロックの周波数差による内蔵時計Cm、Cb、Crの進み方の誤差(スケール誤差)を解消するための有効な手段を提供する、 This embodiment provides an effective means for eliminating the internal clock Cm due to the frequency difference between the clock of each each station, Cb, Cr of the advance how error (scale error),
例えば、基準局Rと移動端末Mとの間で測距用無線信号と応答無線信号を往復させ、式(1)に基づいて測距しようとした場合、 (Tam2-Tam1) が長くなると、スケール誤差が無視できなくなる。 For example, by reciprocating the response radio signal and ranging radio signals between the reference station R and the mobile terminal M, when attempting to distance measurement based on the equation (1), it becomes longer (tam2-Tam1), scaled error There can not be ignored. 本例において、10ppmのクロック周波数差があった場合、(Tam2-Tam1)=1ms とすると、1ms×10 -5 /2=5ns=となり、これは距離換算で1.5mの誤差となる。 In this example, if there is a clock frequency difference of 10 ppm, when the (Tam2-Tam1) = 1ms, 1ms × 10 -5 / 2 = 5ns = next, which is the error of 1.5m in distance conversion. そこで、返信に時間がかかるような場合には、図7に示すように、基準局Rからさらにクロック誤差検出用無線信号(以下、本信号に関する変数には添え字"3"を付す。)を送信する(ステップS1')。 Therefore, when the time to reply such as, as shown in FIG. 7, further clock error detecting radio signals from the reference station R (hereinafter, a variable relating to the signal given the subscript "3".) Sends a (step S1 ').

測距用無線信号とクロック誤差検出用無線信号の基準局Rでの送信時間間隔と移動端末M、基地局Bでの受信時間間隔との比が周波数差となるため、周波数差を求めて補正することができる。 Since the ratio of the transmission time interval of the reference station R distance measurement radio signal and the clock error detecting radio signals and the mobile terminal M, a reception time interval of the base station B is the frequency difference is corrected seeking the frequency difference be able to.

基準局Rに対する移動端末M、基地局Bの時計Cm、Cb、CrのスケールをSm、Sa、Sbとすると、式(2)は、 Mobile terminal M, clock Cm base station B relative to base station R, Cb, the scale of Cr Sm, Sa, when the Sb, equation (2)
Sm(Tm1 + Tom) = Tr1 +Lmr/Vc Sm (Tm1 + Tom) = Tr1 + Lmr / Vc
Sm(Tm3 + Tom) = Tr3 + Lmr/Vc Sm (Tm3 + Tom) = Tr3 + Lmr / Vc
Tr2 = Sm(Tm2 + Tom) + Lmr/Vc Tr2 = Sm (Tm2 + Tom) + Lmr / Vc
Sa(Ta1 + Toa) = Tr1 + Lar/Vc Sa (Ta1 + Toa) = Tr1 + Lar / Vc
Sa(Ta3 + Toa) = Tr3 + Lar/Vc Sa (Ta3 + Toa) = Tr3 + Lar / Vc
Sb(Tb1 + Tob) = Tr1 + Lbr/Vc Sb (Tb1 + Tob) = Tr1 + Lbr / Vc
Sb(Tb3 + Tob) = Tr3 + Lbr/Vc Sb (Tb3 + Tob) = Tr3 + Lbr / Vc
Sa(Ta2 + Toa) = Sm(Tm2 + Tom) + Lam/Vc Sa (Ta2 + Toa) = Sm (Tm2 + Tom) + Lam / Vc
Sb(Tb2 + Tob) = Sm(Tm2 + Tom) + Lbm/Vc Sb (Tb2 + Tob) = Sm (Tm2 + Tom) + Lbm / Vc
(式3) (Equation 3)
と変形することができる。 It can be transformed as. (式3)の連立方程式において、未知数Lmr、Lam、Lbm、Tom、Toa、Tob、Sm、Sa、Sbを求めると。 In simultaneous equations (Equation 3), unknowns Lmr, Lam, Lbm, Tom, Toa, Tob, Sm, Sa, when obtaining combined with Sb.

Lmr = Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) - (Tr3 - Tr1)(Tm2 - Tm1)/(Tm3 - Tm1) }/2 Lmr = Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) - (Tr3 - Tr1) (Tm2 - Tm1) / (Tm3 - Tm1)} / 2
Lam = Lar + Vc(Ta2 - Ta1)(Tr3 - Tr1)/(Ta3 - Ta1) - Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) + (Tm2 - Tm1)(Tr3 - Tr1)/(Tm3 - Tm1)}/2 Lam = Lar + Vc (Ta2 - Ta1) (Tr3 - Tr1) / (Ta3 - Ta1) - Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) + (Tm2 - Tm1) (Tr3 - Tr1) / (Tm3 - Tm1)} / 2
Lbm = Lbr + Vc(Tb2 - Tb1) (Tr3 - Tr1)/(Tb3 - Tb1)- Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) + (Tm2 - Tm1) (Tr3 - Tr1)/(Tm3 - Tm1)}/2 Lbm = Lbr + Vc (Tb2 - Tb1) (Tr3 - Tr1) / (Tb3 - Tb1) - Vc {(Tr2 - Tr1) + (Tm2 - Tm1) (Tr3 - Tr1) / (Tm3 - Tm1)} / 2
(式4) (Equation 4)
となる。 To become.

この実施例では、時計Cm、Cb、Crの差を1次式(周波数差とオフセット)で表現するため、基準局Rから送信する電波は最低2個あれば良いが、2次式以上で表現する場合や統計的に求める場合には、基準局Rから複数のクロック誤差検出用無線信号を送信してもよい。 In this example, to represent a watch Cm, Cb, the difference between the Cr 1-order equation (frequency difference and offset), radio waves transmitted from the reference station R is sufficient if a minimum of two, expressed by a quadratic expression or when or if the statistical finding may transmit a plurality of clock error detecting radio signals from the reference station R.

図8に本発明の第3の実施の形態を示す。 It shows a third embodiment of the present invention in FIG. この実施の形態は、移動端末Mが複数ある場合の効率的な測位方法を提供するもので、基準局Rは、少なくとも、移動端末Mが加わったことによる未知数(スケール誤差、距離)を求めるために必要な本数以上の連立方程式をたてることができる回数に渡って測距用無線信号とクロック誤差検出用無線信号とを送信する。 This embodiment is intended to provide an efficient positioning method when the mobile terminal M there are multiple reference stations R is at least, in order to determine the unknowns (scale error, distance) by the mobile terminal M is applied over the number of times that can make a required number or more simultaneous equations for transmitting a radio signal and a radio signal clock error detecting ranging.

2個の移動端末Mを測位するこの実施の形態において、図8(b)に示すように、基準局Rからの電波A、B、Cを移動端末Ma、基地局Ba、Bbが受信する。 In this embodiment positions the two mobile terminals M, as shown in FIG. 8 (b), the radio wave A from the reference station R, B, move the C terminal Ma, the base station Ba, Bb is received. 電波Cに対して、移動端末Maは電波Dで応答するが、この時の電波Dは、基準局R、基地局Ba、Bbで受信する。 Against wave C, the mobile terminal Ma is responsive radio wave D, Telecommunications D at this time, receives reference station R, the base station Ba, at Bb. 一方、基準局Rからの電波B、Cは移動端末Mbでも受信する。 Meanwhile, electric wave B from the reference station R, C receives any mobile terminal Mb. そして、基準局Rからの電波Eに対して、移動端末Mbは電波Fで応答するが、この時の電波Fは、基準局R、基地局Ba、Bbで受信する。 Then, the radio wave E from the reference station R, although the mobile terminal Mb responds with Telecommunications F, Telecommunications F at this time, receives reference station R, the base station Ba, at Bb.

このように、電波B、Cを移動端末Ma、Mbで兼ねることで、基準局Rから送信するトータルの電波を減らすことができる。 In this way, also serve as radio waves B, C mobile terminals Ma, in Mb, can reduce the radio wave total to be transmitted from the reference station R. 特に、本実施の形態のように基準局Rからの電波を2個以上使用する場合には効果が顕著になる。 In particular, the effect becomes remarkable when using radio waves of two or more from the reference station R, as in the present embodiment. これは移動端末Mが3個以上の場合も同様であり、こうすることで、移動端末Mが多数あっても測位にかかる時間があまり増えなくて済む。 This is the same when the mobile terminal M is three or more, by doing so, the time required for positioning even mobile terminal M is many need not increase substantially.
(付記1) (Note 1)
位置が既知の基準局から測距用無線信号を送信する工程と、 A step position to transmit a radio signal for distance measurement from a known reference station,
複数の位置が既知の基地局が測距用無線信号の受信時刻を自局の時計により計測する工程と、 A step in which a plurality of positions known base station measures the reception time of the ranging radio signal by the clock of the own station,
移動端末が測距用無線信号を受信後、受信から返信までの自局の時計による遅れ時間情報を含む応答無線信号を送信する工程と、 After receiving the mobile terminal radio signals for ranging, and transmitting a response radio signal including the delay time information according to the local station clock to reply from the receiver,
前記基準局および基地局が応答無線信号の受信時刻を自局の時計で計測する工程と、 A step of the reference station and the base station measures the reception time of the response radio signal by the clock of the own station,
前記基準局および基地局での応答無線信号の受信時刻、基準局での測距用無線信号の送信時刻、携帯端末からの遅れ時間情報、および基準局と基地局間の既知距離情報に基づいて各局での時計のずれ要素を消去して基準局および各基地局と移動端末との距離を演算する工程と、 Reception time of the response radio signal at the reference station and the base station, transmission time of the ranging radio signal at the reference station, delay time information from the portable terminal, and at each station on the basis of the known distance information between the reference station and the base station a step of calculating the distance between the reference station and each base station and the mobile terminal erases the shift elements of the watch,
を含む測位方法。 Positioning method, including.
(付記2) (Note 2)
前記基準局が測距用無線信号の送信時刻と異なった時刻にクロック誤差検出用無線信号を送信するとともに、各基地局において受信時刻を自局の時計により計測し、 Together with the reference station transmits a radio signal clock error detection in the transmission time and the different time distance measurement radio signal, measures the reception time by the clock of the own station at each base station,
測距用無線信号とクロック誤差検出用無線信号との到達時間差により基準局に対する各基地局のクロックの周波数差を補正する付記1記載の測位方法。 Positioning method according to Supplementary Note 1, wherein correcting the frequency difference between the clock of each base station relative to the reference station by the arrival time difference between the distance measurement radio signal and the clock error detecting radio signals.
(付記3) (Note 3)
前記クロック誤差検出用無線信号を測位動作中の複数の移動端末で共有する付記2記載の測位方法。 Positioning method according to Supplementary Note 1, wherein sharing the radio signal for the clock error detected at a plurality of mobile terminals in the positioning operation.
(付記4) (Note 4)
測距用無線信号、および返信用無線信号にインパルス無線信号が使用される付記1、2または3に記載の測位方法。 Positioning method of statement 1, 2 or 3 impulse radio signal is used for distance measurement radio signal, and return radio signal.
(付記5) (Note 5)
前記各基地局における取得データは、無線により測位サーバに送信され、 The acquired data in each base station is transmitted by radio to the positioning server,
測位サーバにより演算工程が実行される付記1から4のいずれかに記載の測位方法。 Positioning method according to any one of Supplementary Note 1 4 arithmetic process by the positioning server runs.
(付記6) (Note 6)
移動端末に測距用無線信号を送信するとともに、測距用無線信号を受信した移動端末から送信され、移動端末における受信から送信までの自局の時計による遅れ時間情報を含む応答無線信号を受信する位置が既知の基準局と、 It transmits the distance measurement radio signal to the mobile terminal, transmitted from the mobile terminal that has received the distance measurement radio signal, receiving a response radio signal including the clock delay time information by the own station to transmit the reception at the mobile terminal the position is a known reference station,
前記移動端末と基準局との交信を受信する位置が既知の適数個の基地局と、 And the mobile terminal and the reference station and the base station position is known suitable several receiving the communication of,
前記基準局および基地局での応答無線信号の受信時刻、基準局での測距用無線信号の送信時刻、携帯端末からの遅れ時間情報、および基準局と基地局間の既知距離情報に基づいて各局での時計のずれ要素を消去して基準局および各基地局と移動端末との距離を演算して移動端末の位置を求める測位サーバと、 Reception time of the response radio signal at the reference station and the base station, transmission time of the ranging radio signal at the reference station, delay time information from the portable terminal, and at each station on the basis of the known distance information between the reference station and the base station a positioning server to erase the deviation element of the watch by calculating the distance between the reference station and each base station and the mobile terminal obtains the location of the mobile terminal,
を有する測位システム。 Positioning system with.
(付記7) (Note 7)
前記基地局は、前記送受信パス数が、基準局および基地局と移動端末間の距離、並びに基地局と移動端末における基準局に対する時計のずれを未知数とし、未知数の個数に対して本数が過剰な距離ー電波到達時間関係式を導出可能な個数だけ用意され、 The base station, the transmit and receive paths number, the distance between the mobile and the base station and the base station terminal, and the unknown deviation of the watch for the reference station in a mobile terminal and a base station, the number is excessive distances over against the number of unknowns is provided a radio wave arrival time relationship only the number can be derived,
前記移動端末との距離が、前記連立方程式の最小自乗解として求められる付記6記載の測位システム。 The distance between the mobile terminal, a positioning system according to Supplementary Note 6, wherein the determined as least squares solution of the simultaneous equations.

本発明を示す図で、(a)は測位方法を示す図、(b)は手順を示す図である。 In view showing the present invention, showing the figure, the (b) instructions indicate (a) shows positioning method. 測位システムのシステム構成図である。 It is a system configuration diagram of a positioning system. 基準局の装置構成を示す図である。 It is a diagram showing a device configuration of the reference station. 送受信データのデータフォーマットを示す図である。 It is a diagram showing a data format of transmitted and received data. 図1の変形例を示す図である。 It is a diagram showing a modification of FIG. 図5の装置構成図である。 It is a device configuration diagram of FIG. 本発明の第2の実施の形態を示す図である。 It is a diagram showing a second embodiment of the present invention. 本発明の第3の実施の形態を示す図である。 It is a diagram showing a third embodiment of the present invention.

符号の説明 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

R 基準局 Cr 時計 B 基地局 Cb 時計 M 移動端末 Cm 時計 R reference stations Cr Clock B base station Cb watch M mobile terminal Cm Watch

Claims (5)

  1. 位置が既知の基準局から測距用無線信号を送信する工程と、 A step position to transmit a radio signal for distance measurement from a known reference station,
    複数の位置が既知の基地局が測距用無線信号の受信時刻を自局の時計により計測する工程と、 A step in which a plurality of positions known base station measures the reception time of the ranging radio signal by the clock of the own station,
    移動端末が測距用無線信号を受信後、受信から返信までの自局の時計による遅れ時間情報を含む応答無線信号を送信する工程と、 After receiving the mobile terminal radio signals for ranging, and transmitting a response radio signal including the delay time information according to the local station clock to reply from the receiver,
    前記基準局および基地局が応答無線信号の受信時刻を自局の時計で計測する工程と、 A step of the reference station and the base station measures the reception time of the response radio signal by the clock of the own station,
    前記基準局および基地局での応答無線信号の受信時刻、基準局での測距用無線信号の送信時刻、携帯端末からの遅れ時間情報、および基準局と基地局間の既知距離情報に基づいて各局での時計のずれ要素を消去して基準局および各基地局と移動端末との距離を演算する工程と、 Reception time of the response radio signal at the reference station and the base station, transmission time of the ranging radio signal at the reference station, delay time information from the portable terminal, and at each station on the basis of the known distance information between the reference station and the base station a step of calculating the distance between the reference station and each base station and the mobile terminal erases the shift elements of the watch,
    を含む測位方法。 Positioning method, including.
  2. 前記基準局が測距用無線信号の送信時刻と異なった時刻にクロック誤差検出用無線信号を送信するとともに、各基地局において受信時刻を自局の時計により計測し、 Together with the reference station transmits a radio signal clock error detection in the transmission time and the different time distance measurement radio signal, measures the reception time by the clock of the own station at each base station,
    測距用無線信号とクロック誤差検出用無線信号との到達時間差により基準局に対する各基地局のクロックの周波数差を補正する請求項1記載の測位方法。 Positioning method according to claim 1, wherein correcting the frequency difference between the clock of each base station relative to the reference station by the arrival time difference between the distance measurement radio signal and the clock error detecting radio signals.
  3. 前記クロック誤差検出用無線信号を測位動作中の複数の移動端末で共有する請求項2記載の測位方法。 Positioning method of claim 2, wherein sharing the radio signal for the clock error detected at a plurality of mobile terminals in the positioning operation.
  4. 測距用無線信号、および返信用無線信号にインパルス無線信号が使用される請求項1、2または3に記載の測位方法。 Positioning method according to claim 1, 2 or 3 impulse radio signal is used for distance measurement radio signal, and a radio signal for reply.
  5. 前記各基地局における取得データは、無線により基準局に送信され、 The acquired data in each base station is transmitted by radio to the base station,
    基準局において演算工程が実行される請求項1から4のいずれかに記載の測位方法。 Positioning method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, the operation process is performed in the reference station.


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