JP2007323843A - Operation method of fuel cell and fuel cell system - Google Patents

Operation method of fuel cell and fuel cell system Download PDF

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JP2007323843A
JP2007323843A JP2006149996A JP2006149996A JP2007323843A JP 2007323843 A JP2007323843 A JP 2007323843A JP 2006149996 A JP2006149996 A JP 2006149996A JP 2006149996 A JP2006149996 A JP 2006149996A JP 2007323843 A JP2007323843 A JP 2007323843A
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fuel cell
time
operation
heat
allowable
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JP2006149996A
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Inventor
Masashi Fujii
Mitsuteru Furuya
光輝 古谷
正史 藤井
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Ebara Ballard Corp
荏原バラード株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/50Fuel cells

Abstract

A fuel cell operating method and a fuel cell system capable of extending the life of a fuel cell until a predetermined period are provided.
A fuel cell is operated within a range of an allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time based on a durable operation time of the fuel cell that generates electric power by an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. In addition, a fuel cell operation method comprising a step of creating an operation plan of the fuel cell 15 and a step of operating the fuel cell 15 based on the created operation plan, and a control device 50 for controlling the operation method of the fuel cell. A fuel cell system comprising:
[Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to a fuel cell operation method and a fuel cell system, and more particularly to a fuel cell operation method and a fuel cell system capable of extending the life of the fuel cell until a predetermined period.

  With the recent increase in awareness of global environmental conservation, the spread of fuel cells that contribute to the prevention of global warming is expected. Currently, fuel cells are expected to have a useful life of 10 years. On the other hand, current fuel cells have a development target of about 40,000 hours of service life.

  However, for example, when a fuel cell installed in a general home is calculated based on the optimal operation based on standard household power consumption and heat consumption, the annual operation time is about 6,000 hours. It becomes. According to this trial calculation, if the fuel cell is operated as it is in demand, there will be no planned 10-year life. In addition, since the fuel cell has a durable start-up number, it is necessary to consider the life from this viewpoint.

  In view of the above-described problems, an object of the present invention is to provide a fuel cell operating method and a fuel cell system capable of extending the life of the fuel cell until a predetermined period.

  In order to achieve the above object, a fuel cell operating method according to a first aspect of the present invention is a fuel cell 15 that generates power by an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, for example. A step (S22) of creating an operation plan of the fuel cell so that the fuel cell 15 operates within a range of an allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time based on the durable operation time of the operation; And a step (S23) of operating the fuel cell 15 based on the above.

  With this configuration, the operation of the fuel cell is performed within the range of the allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time based on the durable operation time of the fuel cell, and the life of the fuel cell is scheduled. Can be extended to a period.

  A fuel cell operation method according to a second aspect of the present invention is the fuel cell operation method according to the first aspect, wherein the allowable operation time per the first predetermined unit time is a prediction of heat demand. And at least one of the power demand predictions.

  With this configuration, for example, when there is a difference in heat demand and / or power demand depending on the season, the supply and demand balance can be appropriately maintained, and the fuel cell operation method can be operated efficiently.

  A fuel cell operating method according to a third aspect of the present invention is the fuel cell operating method according to the first or second aspect, for example, as shown in FIG. When the operating time of the fuel cell in time is less than the allowable operating time per first predetermined unit time (S25), the time of the difference between the allowable operating time and the operating time is set to the following first It is configured to add to the allowable operation time per predetermined unit time (S26).

  If comprised in this way, more power demand and heat demand can be covered with the electric power and heat which a fuel cell generate | occur | produced, ensuring the lifetime of the fuel cell of the scheduled period.

  In order to achieve the above object, a fuel cell operating method according to a fourth aspect of the present invention is a fuel cell 15 that generates power by an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 6, for example. Creating a fuel cell operation plan so that the fuel cell 15 operates within a range of allowable start times per second predetermined unit time determined based on the number of durable start times (S42); And a step (S43) of operating the fuel cell 15 based on the operation plan.

  With this configuration, the operation of the fuel cell is performed within the range of the allowable number of activations per second predetermined unit time determined based on the number of durable activations of the fuel cell, and the life of the fuel cell is scheduled. Can be extended to the period of time.

  A fuel cell operating method according to a fifth aspect of the present invention is the fuel cell operating method according to the fourth aspect, for example, as shown in FIG. 6, wherein the fuel in the second predetermined unit time is used. When the number of activations of the battery is less than the allowable number of activations per second predetermined unit time (S45), the activation number of the difference between the allowable number of activations and the number of activations is set to the next second predetermined unit. It is configured to add to the allowable number of activations per hour (S46).

  If comprised in this way, more power demand and heat demand can be covered with the electric power and heat which a fuel cell generate | occur | produced, ensuring the lifetime of the fuel cell of the scheduled period.

  In order to achieve the above object, a fuel cell system according to a sixth aspect of the present invention includes a fuel cell 15 that generates electricity and generates heat by an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, for example, as shown in FIG. The control apparatus 50 which controls the operating method of the fuel cell of any one of Claims 1 thru | or 5 is provided.

  If comprised in this way, it will become a fuel cell system which can extend a lifetime to the scheduled period.

  According to the present invention, the operation plan of the fuel cell is created so that the fuel cell is operated within the range of the allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time based on the durable operation time of the fuel cell. And a step of operating the fuel cell based on the operation plan, the range of allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time when the operation of the fuel cell is based on the durable operation time of the fuel cell The life of the fuel cell can be extended to a scheduled period.

  A step of creating an operation plan of the fuel cell so that the fuel cell operates within a range of an allowable number of activation times per second predetermined unit time determined based on the number of durable activation times of the fuel cell; And the step of operating the fuel cell based on the operation plan, the allowable number of activation times per second predetermined unit time determined based on the number of durable activation times of the fuel cell. It is performed within the range, and the life of the fuel cell can be extended to a scheduled period.

  Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. In each drawing, the same or corresponding members are denoted by the same or similar reference numerals, and redundant description is omitted.

  First, the configuration of a fuel cell system 100 according to an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 1 is a system diagram illustrating a fuel cell system 100 according to an embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 1, a solid line connecting the devices represents piping, a one-dot chain line represents an electric cable, and a broken line represents a control signal. The fuel cell system 100 includes a reformer 11 that generates a reformed gas g rich in hydrogen, a fuel cell 15 that generates electricity and generates heat by an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, a cooling water c, and a heat storage medium w. A heat exchanger 21 that exchanges heat between them, a hot water storage tank 31 as a heat storage tank, and a control device 50 that controls the fuel cell system 100 are provided.

  The reformer 11 is a device that generates a reformed gas g rich in hydrogen by introducing a raw material fuel m and water vapor (not shown), heating and reforming. The reformed gas g rich in hydrogen is a gas supplied to the fuel cell 15 containing hydrogen in an amount of 40% by volume or more, typically about 70 to 80% by volume. The hydrogen concentration in the reformed gas g may be 80% by volume or more, that is, it may be a concentration that allows power generation by an electrochemical reaction with oxygen in the oxidant gas t when supplied to the fuel cell 15. A raw material fuel pipe 12 for introducing the raw material fuel m and a reformed gas pipe 13 for leading the reformed gas g toward the fuel cell 15 are connected to the reformer 11. The reformer 11 has a heating unit (not shown) for generating reforming heat necessary for reforming.

  The fuel cell 15 is typically a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. Although the fuel cell 15 is simply shown in FIG. 1, actually, the solid polymer membrane is sandwiched between the fuel electrode for introducing the reformed gas g and the air electrode for introducing the oxidant gas t. A single cell is formed, and a plurality of such cells are stacked through a cooling unit. In the fuel cell 15, hydrogen in the reformed gas g supplied to the fuel electrode is decomposed into hydrogen ions and electrons, and the hydrogen ions pass through the solid polymer film and move to the air electrode. It moves to the air electrode through the external electric wire 41 connecting to the air electrode, reacts with oxygen in the oxidant gas t supplied to the air electrode to generate water, and generates heat during this reaction. In this reaction, when the electrons pass through the external electric wire 41, DC power can be taken out. A power conditioner 42 that converts DC power to AC power is connected to the fuel cell 15. Further, the fuel cell 15 has a reformed gas pipe 13 for introducing the reformed gas g and an oxidant gas pipe 14 for introducing an oxidant gas t (typically air is used). It is connected. The fuel cell 15 is connected to a cooling water pipe 16 that circulates the cooling water c that takes away heat generated by an electrochemical reaction. The cooling water pipe 16 is provided with a cooling water pump 18 for circulating the cooling water c. The fuel cell 15 is connected to a signal cable for transferring a control signal to and from the control device 50.

  The heat exchanger 21 is a device that causes heat exchange between the cooling water c and the heat storage medium w (typically liquid water), lowers the temperature of the cooling water c, and increases the temperature of the heat storage medium w. It is. As the heat exchanger 21, a plate heat exchanger is typically used, but a shell and tube type or other heat exchanger may be used. The heat exchanger 21 is connected to a cooling water pipe 16 that introduces and leads out the cooling water c, and a heat storage medium pipe 22 that introduces and leads out the heat storage medium w. By using the heat exchanger 21, the cooling water pipe 16 can be used as a closed flow path, thereby preventing the entry of oxygen, impurities, etc., and protecting the fuel cell 15 from corrosion. Moreover, the edge of the heat storage medium w used as the warm water h and water supplied to a heat demand, and the cooling water c can be cut by using the heat exchanger 21.

  The hot water storage tank 31 is a tank that stores heat generated by an electrochemical reaction in the fuel cell 15. The heat generated in the fuel cell 15 is transmitted to the heat storage medium w through the cooling water c and the heat exchanger 21 and stored in the hot water storage tank 31 in a form held in the heat storage medium w. The hot water storage tank 31 is connected to a heat storage medium pipe 22 that introduces and leads out the heat storage medium w. The heat storage medium pipe 22 is connected to the upper side, preferably the top, of the hot water storage tank 31 on the introduction side of the heat storage medium w, and connected to the lower part, preferably the bottom, of the hot water storage tank 31 on the outlet side. By being connected in this way, temperature stratification is formed in the heat storage medium w in the hot water storage tank 31. The hot water storage tank 31 is also supplied with a hot water supply pipe 32 for supplying the heat storage medium w stored therein as hot water h toward the heat demand (not shown), and for supplementing the reduced water supplied to the heat demand. A makeup water pipe 33 for introducing water is connected. The hot water supply pipe 32 is provided with a hot water pump 34 that pumps hot water h toward heat demand (not shown) and a flow meter 35 that detects the flow rate of the hot water h sent to the heat demand. A signal cable for transmitting a flow signal to the control device 50 is connected to the flow meter 35. Further, the hot water supply pipe 32 is provided with a backup boiler 36 that heats the hot water h that is supplied to a heat demand (not shown). A signal cable for receiving a control signal from the control device 50 is connected to the backup boiler 36.

  The hot water storage tank 31 is provided with a temperature detector 38 for detecting the temperature of the heat medium in the hot water storage tank 31 in order to detect the heat storage capacity. The temperature detector 38 includes a plurality of sensors 38a to 38f for virtually dividing the hot water storage tank 31 in the direction in which temperature stratification is formed and calculating the heat storage capacity. In the present embodiment, the hot water storage tank 31 is virtually divided into five parts, and the sensors are arranged at the boundaries of the virtually divided areas, and thus there are six sensors. An appropriate number of sensors may be provided according to the virtual division number in the hot water storage tank 31.

  A heat storage medium pump 23 that circulates the heat storage medium w between the heat exchanger 21 and the hot water storage tank 31 is disposed in the heat storage medium pipe 22 upstream of the heat exchanger 21. A reverse tide heater 24 is disposed in the heat storage medium pipe 22 on the downstream side of the heat exchanger 21. The reverse power heater 24 converts the surplus power into heat in order to prevent the surplus power that exceeds the power from flowing back to the commercial power supply 45 when the power generated by the fuel cell 15 exceeds the power demand. Is provided.

  A three-way valve 26 is disposed in the heat storage medium pipe 22 on the downstream side of the reverse tide heater 24. A bypass pipe 25 is connected to a connection port of the three-way valve 26 that is not connected to the heat storage medium pipe 22. The other end of the bypass pipe 25 is connected to the heat storage medium pipe 22 on the suction side of the heat storage medium pump 23. A radiator 28 as a radiator is disposed in the bypass pipe 25. The radiator 28 stores heat so that the hot water storage tank 31 can no longer store heat. However, when the operation of the fuel cell 15 needs to be continued, the radiator 28 is used to cool the cooling water c to a temperature necessary for cooling the fuel cell 15. Is a device that forcibly cools the heat storage medium w to supply the heat storage medium w to the heat exchanger 21. A signal cable for receiving a control signal from the control device 50 is connected to the radiator 28. The radiator 28 has a fan that is interlocked with a flow switch (not shown) disposed in the bypass pipe 25. Whether the heat storage medium w is guided to the hot water storage tank 31 or the bypass pipe 25 is determined by switching the three-way valve 26. A signal cable for receiving a control signal from the control device 50 is connected to the three-way valve 26.

  In addition to the external electric wire 41 connected to the fuel cell 15, a cable 43 and a cable 49 that transmit AC power are connected to the power conditioner 42. The cable 43 is connected to a cable 44 that connects the commercial power supply 45 and the power load. That is, the power generated by the fuel cell is linked to the grid power. A wattmeter 48 for detecting electric power is disposed on the cable 44 upstream of the interconnection point. The wattmeter 48 is configured to be able to detect both forward and reverse power. A signal cable for transmitting a power signal to the control device 50 is connected to the wattmeter 48. The cable 49 is connected to the reverse power heater 24 and is configured to transmit surplus power generated in the fuel cell 15 to the reverse power heater 24 when the reverse power flow to the system power is not allowed.

  The control device 50 includes a time measuring unit, a calculating unit, and a data holding unit for controlling the operation of the fuel cell system 100. Typically, the time measuring means is constituted by a timer, the computing means is constituted by a CPU and a memory, and the data storage means is constituted by a memory. The control device 50 is connected to the fuel cell 15, the three-way valve 26, the radiator 28, the flow meter 35, the backup boiler 36, the temperature detector 38, and the wattmeter 48 through signal cables.

  With continued reference to FIG. 1, the operation of the fuel cell system 100 will be described. When the fuel cell system 100 is activated, the raw material fuel m and water vapor (not shown) are introduced into the reformer 11 and heated to generate the reformed gas g. Immediately after the reformer 11 is started, the composition of the reformed gas g is not stable, so that it is not sent to the fuel cell 15 but sent to the heating section (not shown) of the reformer 11 for combustion to generate reformed heat. It is preferable. When the composition of the reformed gas g generated in the reformer 11 becomes stable, the reformed gas g is introduced into the fuel cell 15 and the oxidant gas t is introduced into the fuel cell 15. Then, in the fuel cell 15, power is generated by an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen in the reformed gas g and oxygen in the oxidant gas t to generate heat. The generated DC power is converted into AC power by the power conditioner 42 and transmitted to power demand outside the system, or a blower (not shown) for sending the oxidant gas t to the fuel cell 15 and cooling of the fuel cell system 100. Used as power for the water pump 18.

  On the other hand, the cooling water c pumped by the cooling water pump 18 is introduced into the fuel cell 15, takes heat generated by the electrochemical reaction, rises in temperature, and is led out from the fuel cell 15. The cooling water c whose temperature has risen is introduced into the heat exchanger 21, where it exchanges heat with the heat storage medium w to drop the temperature and is led out from the heat exchanger 21, and is introduced into the fuel cell 15 again. The heat storage medium w whose temperature has increased by exchanging heat with the cooling water c in the heat exchanger 21 flows through the heat storage medium pipe 22 and is introduced into the hot water storage tank 31 from above. The heat storage medium w having a low temperature for exchanging heat with the cooling water c and the heat exchanger 21 is led out from the lower part of the hot water storage tank 31.

  The heat storage medium w having an increased temperature introduced into the hot water storage tank 31 is pumped as hot water h to the heat demand outside the system by the hot water pump 34. At this time, when the temperature of the hot water h does not reach the temperature required by the heat demand outside the system, it is heated by the backup boiler 36. In the hot water storage tank 31, a heat storage medium w (typically makeup water) corresponding to the amount of water reduced by being sent to heat demand outside the system is replenished from the makeup water pipe 33.

  When the heat storage medium w having a high temperature is stored in the hot water storage tank 31 and there is no heat storage medium w having a temperature low enough to cool the cooling water c, but the operation of the fuel cell 15 is to be continued, the control device 50 switches the three-way valve 26. Then, the heat storage medium w bypasses the hot water storage tank 31 and flows to the radiator 28, dissipates heat, drops it to a predetermined temperature, and then guides it to the heat exchanger 21. The temperature detector 38 detects whether or not the heat storage medium w having a temperature capable of cooling the cooling water c remains in the hot water storage tank 31.

  In the operation of the fuel cell system 100 as described above, when the power demand is large, the fuel cell system is started when the power generation is performed only when the power demand is large (electric main heat slave operation) or when the amount of hot water storage decreases, the amount of hot water storage increases and the hot water storage further increases. If the operation (thermal main power operation) is stopped when it is not possible (full storage), the control becomes simple. However, currently, fuel cells are expected to have a useful life of 10 years, while current fuel cells have a development goal of a useful operating time of approximately 40,000 hours. For example, for a fuel cell installed in a general household, if the operation time when the optimum operation is performed based on the standard power consumption and heat consumption of a standard home is calculated, the annual operation time is about 6,000 hours. . According to this trial calculation, if the fuel cell is operated as it is in demand, the operating years will be about 6.7 years, and there will be no planned 10-year life. In addition, since the fuel cell has a durable start-up number, it is necessary to consider the life from this viewpoint. For this reason, as shown below, the fuel cell 15 operates within the range of the allowable operating time per first predetermined unit time and / or the allowable per second predetermined unit time. Control is performed so that the fuel cell 15 operates within the range of the number of activations. In the following description, “operation of the fuel cell 15” includes operating the reformer 11 that generates the reformed gas g as necessary.

  With reference to FIG. 2, control (upper limit operation time setting control) for operating the fuel cell 15 within the range of the allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time will be described. In the following description, FIG. 1 will be referred to as appropriate. FIG. 2 is a flowchart for explaining the upper limit operation time setting control. Control is performed by the control device 50. First, an allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time is set (S21). The first predetermined unit time may be 24 hours (one day). The reason why the first predetermined unit time is set to 24 hours (one day) is because, for example, at home, demand for electric power and heat are often repeated in a cycle of one day. If the first predetermined unit time is assumed to be one year, it is possible to drive in a biased manner such as driving from January to September of the year but not driving from October to December at all. Can occur. Such a biased operation is preferably avoided because it may induce a malfunction of the fuel cell 15.

  The allowable operating time per first predetermined unit time is preferably set according to the prediction of heat demand. Generally, heat demand tends to be high in winter and low in summer. However, if the allowable operating time per unit time is set according to the prediction of heat demand, the balance between supply and demand is appropriate when there is a difference in heat demand depending on the season. Therefore, efficient operation can be performed. The prediction of heat demand is typically performed based on past operation results. Past driving performance is recorded in the data holding means of the control device 50. Moreover, when setting the allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time according to the prediction of heat demand, the same allowable operation time may be set for each month. For example, in general households, it is unlikely that the heat demand will fluctuate greatly from day to day, and even if it is simplified in this way, there is little effect. The period for setting the same allowable time may be, for example, two months other than one month, every season, or two weeks or one week.

  FIG. 3 is a conceptual diagram of a table showing an example of setting the allowable operation time. In the example shown in the figure, since heat demand is predicted to be relatively high from December to February, the allowable operation time of the day is set to 24 hours, and the setting of the allowable operation time is substantially excluded. ing. Moreover, since the heat demand was relatively reduced from June to September, the allowable operating time of the day is set to 5 hours. Also in other months, the allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time is set for each month according to the prediction of heat demand. In the example shown in FIG. 3, the annual total of the allowable operation time is 4055 hours, but the allowable operation time does not necessarily match the actual operation time, and the actual operation time is the allowable set time of the annual total. Therefore, the life of the fuel cell 15 can be extended to a substantially scheduled period. In the step (S21) of setting the allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time, the allowable operation time of the corresponding month is set.

  After setting the allowable operation time, an operation plan is created (S22). The operation plan predicts a time zone in which electric power demand and heat demand occur from past operation results, and considers the time in which electric power and / or heat demand occurs and the set allowable operation time, The time for driving 15 is determined. That is, in the step of creating an operation plan (S22), it is typically determined how to distribute the set allowable operation time within the first predetermined unit time. Forecasts based on past performance are based on average values within the range of conditions that are considered to be equivalent, taking into consideration factors such as season, day of the week, temperature, and weather that are considered to be equivalent to demand for power and heat. It is good to decide by. At this time, the accuracy of the prediction can be improved by excluding the case where the actually measured value is significantly different from the predicted value even under the same conditions due to the absence of the user, etc. and determining the past results. . Further, when creating an operation plan, it is preferable to create an operation plan so as to best meet a predetermined standard from the viewpoints of energy saving, economic efficiency, environmental conservation, and the like. The operation plan is created as follows, for example.

  FIG. 4 is a flowchart illustrating a procedure for creating an operation plan. The operation plan is created by setting an appropriate time from the current time to the first predetermined time ahead as the pickup start time, and using the determined pickup start time as a starting point for a predetermined calculation time interval (1 hour in the present embodiment). ) And proceed while picking up. Here, “pickup” is to set the planned power generation amount based on the predicted value of power demand. That is, the picked-up time zone is a time zone during which power generation can be performed, and the non-pick-up time zone is a time zone during which power generation is not performed. The scheduled power generation amount is typically set to a value that is lower than the predicted value of power demand by a predetermined amount. The value to be set is, for example, a value of 90% of the predicted value of power demand or a value obtained by subtracting 100 W from the predicted value of power demand. The reason why the value is lower than the predetermined amount is because it is assumed that the generated power of the fuel cell 15 does not flow backward to the commercial power supply 45. That is, in general, since fuel cells cannot generate electricity following the power demand completely, if reverse power flow to the grid power is not allowed, In many cases, the power output is a value that is lower than the demand by a predetermined amount. The upper limit of the planned power generation amount is the rated output of the fuel cell 15. Even if the value that is lower than the predicted value of power demand by a predetermined amount is equal to or greater than the rated output of the fuel cell 15, the value of the rated output is set as the upper limit. This is because the fuel cell 15 is damaged if it is operated beyond the rated output. In addition, when it is better to set a lower limit of the planned power generation amount in view of characteristics of the fuel cell to be used, a lower limit is appropriately set. For example, in a fuel cell with a rated output of 1 kW, operation at an output of 300 W or less is not suitable for operation at an output of 300 W or less because the power generation efficiency is drastically reduced and the heat balance is lost. In such a case, the lower limit of the planned power generation amount may be set to 300W.

  When the creation of the operation plan is started, it is first determined whether or not the operation plan creation end condition is satisfied (S31). The operation plan creation end condition is (1) the pickup has been completed up to the first predetermined time ahead, (2) the first predetermined unit time of the fuel cell 15 ("first predetermined time" is When the operation time per different concept) reaches at least one of the upper limits, the condition is satisfied. The “first predetermined time” in the condition (1) is typically 24 hours (one day). The reason why the first predetermined time is set to 24 hours is that, for example, at home, electric power demand and heat demand are often repeated in a cycle of one day. Even in the case of apartment houses, offices, factories, etc., power demand and heat demand are generally repeated on a daily basis. However, when power demand and heat demand are not repeated on a daily basis, for example, when repeated for a week as a minimum unit, it may be performed in a weekly unit, or 48 hours, 72 hours, 96 hours, 2 weeks, a month, etc. It may be performed in other time units. In the condition (2), when the operation plan is created, the allowable operation time per the first predetermined unit time described above is taken into consideration, but the first predetermined unit to be considered at this time is considered. The permissible operating time per hour is typically the difference (when the actual operating time of the fuel cell 15 per the previous first predetermined unit time is less than the set allowable operating time ( “Allowable operation time” − “actual operation time”) is added (S26: see FIG. 2).

  In the step of determining whether or not the operation plan creation end condition is satisfied (S31), if the operation plan creation end condition is satisfied, the operation plan preparation is ended. There are few cases. If the operation plan creation end condition is not satisfied, a pickup for a predetermined calculation time interval is performed (S32). When pickup is performed for a predetermined calculation time interval, whether or not a predetermined standard (in this embodiment, a standard related to energy consumption reduction) has been improved with respect to the scheduled power generation amount of “the amount that has been picked up until then” A simulation for making a determination is performed (S33). Below, the simulation (S33) for determining whether the predetermined | prescribed reference | standard improved about the schedule electric power generation amount for the amount picked up until then is demonstrated.

  In this simulation (S23), a pickup continuation reference value for determining whether or not a predetermined standard has been improved for the planned power generation amount that has been picked up so far is calculated. The pickup continuation reference value is actually a value converted into one reference for energy consumed in various forms. Typically, a value obtained by converting the raw material fuel m input to the fuel cell system 100, energy used for power generation at the power plant, and the like into the same dimension is used. The mathematical formula used to calculate the pickup continuation reference value is stored in advance in the calculation means of the control device 50. The control device 50 calculates the pickup continuation reference value based on the current operation state of the fuel cell 15, the state of the heat storage amount of the hot water storage tank 31, and information of the created operation plan.

  FIG. 5 is a flowchart for explaining a calculation procedure for calculating the pickup continuation reference value. The pick-up continuation reference value is obtained up to the first predetermined time ahead by a predetermined calculation time interval. First, the power purchase amount is obtained from the prediction of power demand in the operation plan and the planned power generation amount (S301). Usually, since the operation plan is prepared so that the predicted value of power demand exceeds the planned power generation amount (see paragraph 0039), the power purchase amount is a positive value, but the planned power generation amount exceeds the predicted power demand value. In this case, the power purchase amount is set to zero. In this way, when the planned power generation amount exceeds the predicted value of power demand, the power purchase amount is set to 0, but when a reverse power flow is recognized, it may be expressed as a negative value. Next, the heating amount of the reverse tide heater 24 is calculated (S302). The amount of heating of the reverse tide heater 24 is obtained by the product of the power value obtained by subtracting the predicted value of power demand from the planned power generation amount, the efficiency of the reverse tide heater 24, and the calculation time interval (1 hour in this embodiment). It is done. The power value obtained by subtracting the predicted value of power demand from the planned power generation amount is the reverse power amount.

  Next, the power generation efficiency and heat recovery efficiency of the fuel cell 15 are obtained (S303). The power generation efficiency and the heat recovery efficiency are values inherent to the fuel cell 15, but are generally not constant values, but are turndown ratios ρ (ρ = “planned”, which is a value obtained by dividing the planned power generation amount by the rated output value. In many cases, it varies with the amount of power generation / rated output value). Therefore, the values of the power generation efficiency and the heat recovery efficiency are stored in the data holding means of the control device 50 as a database corresponding to each turndown ratio ρ, and correspond to the turndown ratio ρ at that time from the database. Calculate power generation efficiency and heat recovery efficiency. Next, a heat recovery amount is obtained (S304). The heat recovery amount is obtained by “heat recovery amount” = “planned power generation amount” × “power generation efficiency” × “calculation time interval” / “heat recovery efficiency”. Next, a piping system heat loss amount is obtained (S305). The piping system heat loss is heat radiation from the cooling water pipe 16 that connects the fuel cell 15 and the heat exchanger 21 and heat radiation from the heat storage medium pipe 22 that connects the heat exchanger 21 and the hot water storage tank 31. The amount of heat loss in the piping system is obtained by the product of the heat loss rate at the time of exhaust heat recovery determined by the heat insulation state of the cooling water pipe 16 and the heat storage medium pipe 22 and the amount of heat recovery obtained in the previous step.

  Next, the amount of heat loss in the hot water storage tank 31 is obtained (S306). The amount of heat loss in the hot water storage tank 31 is determined by the product of the amount of heat stored in the hot water storage tank 31, the hot water storage tank heat loss rate determined by the heat insulation state of the hot water storage tank 31, and the calculation time interval. Next, the amount of stored hot water before use is obtained (S307). The hot water storage amount before use of hot water supply is obtained as the sum of a value obtained by subtracting the hot water tank heat loss rate from the heat storage amount in the hot water storage tank 31 and a value obtained by subtracting the piping system heat loss amount from the heat recovery amount. Next, the hot water supply heat amount from the hot water storage tank 31 and the heating amount of the backup boiler are obtained (S308). When the amount of stored hot water before use of hot water is equal to or greater than the predicted value of heat demand, the amount of hot water supplied from the hot water storage tank 31 is equal to the value of heat demand, and the heating amount of the backup boiler is zero. On the other hand, when the amount of hot water stored before using hot water is below the predicted value of heat demand, the amount of hot water supplied from hot water storage tank 31 is equal to the amount of stored hot water before using hot water, and the predicted value of heat demand and the amount of hot water supplied from hot water tank 31 are The difference is the heating amount of the backup boiler.

  Next, the amount of stored hot water after use of hot water and the amount of heat released from the radiator 28 are obtained (S309). When the difference between the amount of hot water stored before using hot water and the amount of hot water supplied from the hot water storage tank 31 is equal to or less than the maximum value of the amount of stored heat in the hot water storage tank 31, the amount of stored hot water after using hot water is the amount of stored hot water before using hot water and the amount of hot water supplied from the hot water tank 31. The amount of heat released from the radiator 28 is zero. On the other hand, when the difference between the hot water storage amount before use of hot water supply and the hot water supply amount from the hot water storage tank 31 is larger than the maximum value of the heat storage amount of the hot water storage tank 31, the hot water storage amount after use of hot water supply becomes the maximum value of the heat storage amount of the hot water storage tank 31, The heat release amount of the radiator 28 is obtained by “radiation amount of the radiator” = (“hot water storage amount before hot water supply” − “heat supply heat amount from the hot water storage tank 31”) − “maximum value of heat storage amount of the hot water storage tank 31”. The maximum value of the heat storage amount of the hot water storage tank 31 is obtained by (“hot water storage tank temperature at full storage” − “makeup water temperature”) × “hot water storage tank capacity” × “specific heat”.

  Next, the power consumption of the radiator 28 is obtained (S310). The power consumption amount of the radiator 28 is obtained by “radiator power consumption amount” = “radiator heat radiation amount” / “radiator efficiency”. Here, “radiator efficiency” is a value of the amount of electric power used per unit of heat radiation, and is a value unique to the radiator. Next, the amount of fuel consumed by the fuel cell system 100 is obtained (S311). This is obtained by “fuel consumption of fuel cell system” = (“power generation amount” / “power generation efficiency”) × “calculation time interval” / “heat generation amount of raw material fuel”. Next, the amount of fuel consumed by the backup boiler is obtained (S312). This is obtained by “backup boiler consumption fuel amount” = (“backup boiler heating amount” / “backup boiler efficiency”) / “fuel heat generation amount”.

  Next, when the pickup is performed in a state where there is no scheduled power generation amount in the previous predetermined calculation time interval, the power consumption at startup and the fuel consumption at startup are obtained (S313). When there is a scheduled power generation amount in the previous predetermined calculation time interval, the values of power consumption at startup and fuel consumption at startup are zero. Here, the power consumption at start-up and the fuel consumption at start-up are values specific to the fuel cell system 100. In general, the temperature of the reformer 11 needs to be raised to a predetermined temperature when the fuel cell 15 is started, but the reformer is shorter when the fuel cell 15 is stopped for a shorter time than when the fuel cell 15 is stopped. Therefore, the power consumption at startup and the fuel consumption at startup are reduced. Conversely, if the time during which the fuel cell 15 is stopped is long, the temperature drop of the reformer 11 increases, and the power consumption during startup and the amount of fuel consumed during startup increase. Therefore, the power consumption at start-up and the fuel consumption at start-up are made into a database as values corresponding to the stop time of the fuel cell 15 and stored in the data holding means of the control device 50, and the power consumption at start-up at that time is stored from the database. Calculate power and fuel consumption at startup. Next, stop power consumption and stop fuel consumption are determined (S314). The power consumption at stop and fuel consumption at stop are added when the pickup is not performed at the next predetermined calculation time interval, so it is calculated here, but is changed to 0 when the pickup is next performed. Is done. The power consumption during stoppage and the fuel consumption during stoppage are calculated by referring to the database from the time when the fuel cell 15 is stopped, respectively, similarly to the calculation of the power consumption during start-up and the fuel consumption during start-up (S313). The Next, standby power consumption is calculated (S315). The standby power consumption is a fixed value unique to the fuel cell system 100.

The operations in the above steps (S301) to (S315) are performed at predetermined calculation time intervals until the first predetermined time ahead. For example, in this embodiment, it is performed at an interval of 1 hour up to 24 hours ahead. For this reason, after calculating the standby power consumption amount (S315), it is determined whether or not the calculation has been performed until the first predetermined time (S316). When the calculation up to the first predetermined time is not completed, the process returns to the step of obtaining the amount of power purchase (S301) and the above-described series of calculations is performed. When the calculation up to the first predetermined time is completed, the total primary energy consumption is obtained (S317). That is, when the calculation of the above-described step (S301) to step (S315) up to the first predetermined time ahead is completed, the total primary energy consumption is obtained (S317). The total primary energy consumption Pfc is expressed as follows using the total power consumption Efc, the total fuel consumption Gfc, the primary energy conversion factor Ke of power, and the fuel heat generation amount Hf.
Pfc = Ke × Efc + Hf × Gfc
Of the above formulas, using the values obtained in the steps (S301) to (S315), the total power consumption Efc is Efc = “power purchase amount” + “radiator power consumption” + “power consumption at startup” "+" Power consumption during stop "+" power consumption during standby ". The total fuel consumption Gfc is expressed by Gfc = “fuel consumption amount of fuel cell” + “backup boiler fuel consumption amount” + “consumption fuel amount at startup” + “consumption fuel amount at stop”. As the primary energy conversion factor Ke for power, for example, a value of 9.84 kJ / Wh can be used, but since a plurality of conversion factors have been proposed, an appropriate value may be used.

Evaluation of the operation plan of the fuel cell system is often performed by comparison with a conventional system in which power demand is supplied from grid power and heat demand is supplied from a boiler. The primary energy use amount Pp of the conventional system is expressed as follows using the predicted value EL of power demand, the fuel consumption amount GL, the primary energy conversion coefficient Ke of the power and the fuel heat generation amount Hf described above. .
Pp = Ke × EL + Hf × GL
In the above formula, the predicted value EL of the power demand is based on the premise that all power to the power demand is supplied from the grid power. The fuel consumption GL is calculated by “heat demand” ÷ “boiler efficiency” ÷ “fuel heat generation amount”, and it is assumed that all heat to the heat demand is supplied from the boiler. The primary energy reduction rate ηe is obtained by the following equation based on the total primary energy use amount Pfc obtained as described above and the primary energy use amount Pp of the conventional system.
ηe = (Pp−Pfc) / Pp
The primary energy reduction rate ηe calculated in this way becomes the pickup continuation reference value. There are various concepts in the concept of the primary energy reduction rate ηe, and a plurality of methods have been proposed for the calculation. Any one of them may be used, and the above-described calculation method is an example.

  Returning to FIG. 4 again, the description of the procedure for creating the operation plan will be continued. After the simulation is performed (S33) and the pickup continuation reference value is calculated, it is determined whether or not a predetermined criterion (in this embodiment, a criterion related to energy consumption reduction) has been improved (S34). If the predetermined standard is improved, the process returns to the step of determining whether or not the operation plan creation end condition is satisfied (S31), and the subsequent procedures are repeated. On the other hand, if the predetermined standard is not improved, it is determined whether or not the previous pickup continuation reference value has been improved (S35). If the predetermined standard has been improved in the previous pickup continuation reference value, it is possible that the predetermined standard has not been improved by chance in the current pickup continuation reference value. Picking up is performed (S32), and the subsequent procedures are repeated. On the other hand, if the improvement of the predetermined standard is not observed even in the previous pickup continuation reference value, it is determined that the predetermined standard does not improve even if the pickup is continued, and the preparation of the operation plan is ended. An operation plan is created in this way.

  As for the pick-up start time, a plurality of operation plans are created when a plurality of different times are determined. When a plurality of operation plans are created, the control device 50 may be configured so that an operation plan that best meets a predetermined standard is selected from the plurality of operation plans. More preferably, when a plurality of operation plans are created by setting a plurality of times as a pickup start time every predetermined calculation time interval from the time when the operation plan is created to a first predetermined time ahead, the range of selection Can be spread.

  Returning to FIG. 2, the description of the upper limit operation time setting control will be continued. When the operation plan is created, the fuel cell 15 is operated based on the created operation plan (S23). The operation of the fuel cell 15 is not performed according to the created operation plan, but typically, within the allowable operation time defined in the created operation plan, the actual power demand and heat demand are met. Accordingly, the operation is performed with the output of the fuel cell 15. Therefore, the actual operation time does not exceed the set allowable operation time. The operation mentioned here includes a case where there is no demand for electric power and / or heat or the operation is stopped from the viewpoint of the allowable operation time. Further, when the actual power demand and heat demand exceed the allowable operation time, the operation exceeding the allowable operation time may be permitted as long as it is within a predetermined range. In this case, “within a predetermined range” means, for example, a case where there is a margin in the allowable operation time within the first predetermined unit time.

  When the fuel cell 15 is operated, it is determined whether or not a first predetermined unit time (24 hours) has elapsed (S24). If the first predetermined unit time has not elapsed, the operation of the fuel cell 15 based on the previous operation plan is continued (S23). If the first predetermined unit time has elapsed, it is determined whether or not the operation time per first predetermined unit time is less than the allowable operation time (S25). If the operation time per first predetermined unit time is not less than the allowable operation time, the process returns to the step of setting the allowable operation time (S21), and the above-described steps are repeated below.

  If the operation time per first predetermined unit time is less than the allowable operation time, the difference between the allowable operation time and the actual operation time is added to the next allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time. This is set as the next allowable operation time (S26). For example, when the allowable operation time is set as shown in FIG. 3, the allowable operation time in May is set to 7 hours, but the actual fuel cell 15 of a certain day (for example, May 16) When the operation time is 4 hours, add 7-4 = 3 hours to the allowable operation time of the next day (for example, May 17), and allow the next day (for example, May 17). Set the operating time to 10 hours. In this way, more power demand and heat demand can be covered by the power and heat generated in the fuel cell 15 while ensuring the life of the fuel cell 15 in the scheduled period. When the surplus operation time is added to the allowable operation time and the next allowable operation time is set, the process returns to the step of creating the operation plan (S22), and the above-described steps are repeated below.

  If it is more convenient to extend the operating time than the permissible operating time set for each month (for example, when saving energy), the operating time is preempted to limit the future operating time. You may adjust by doing. In the above description, the operation plan has been described as creating an operation plan that best suits a predetermined standard such as energy saving. However, the operation plan is mainly set in consideration of the allowable operation time without setting the predetermined standard. May be created. In this case, the flow described with reference to FIGS. 4 and 5 is omitted.

  In the above description of the upper limit operation time setting control, the allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time is set according to the prediction of heat demand. The operation time may be set according to the prediction of power demand. For example, the use of cooling equipment in summer and the use of heating equipment in winter may increase power consumption compared to the interim period (spring and autumn). When set according to the prediction, when there is a difference in power demand depending on the season, the supply and demand balance can be appropriately maintained, and efficient operation can be performed. Further, the allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time may be set in consideration of both prediction of heat demand and prediction of power demand.

  Next, referring to FIG. 6, a description will be given of the control (upper limit activation number setting control) for operating the fuel cell 15 within the range of the allowable number of activation times per second predetermined unit time. FIG. It is a flowchart explaining setting control. First, an allowable number of activations per second predetermined unit time is set (S41). The second predetermined unit time may be 24 hours (one day), similar to the first predetermined unit time in the upper limit operation time setting control, but may be a time different from the first predetermined unit time. . However, since electric power demand and heat demand are often repeated in a daily unit cycle, the second predetermined unit time is preferably 24 hours (one day). In addition, the allowable number of activations per second predetermined unit time is typically 1 to 2 times, but may be appropriately determined according to the characteristics of the fuel cell 15.

  Once the allowable number of activations is set, an operation plan is created (S42). As in the case of the upper limit operation time setting control, the operation plan is set as the time when the demand for electric power and / or heat is generated by predicting the time period when the electric power demand and the heat demand are generated from the past operation results. The time for operating the fuel cell 15 is determined in consideration of the allowable number of activations. The procedure for creating the operation plan is the same as in the case of the upper limit operation time setting control (see FIGS. 4 and 5), but it is determined whether or not the operation plan creation end condition is satisfied (S31: see FIG. 4). ) In the process, the operation plan creation end condition (2) is replaced with “(2) The number of times the fuel cell 15 has been activated per second predetermined unit time has reached the upper limit”. Accordingly, the allowable number of activations per second predetermined unit time to be considered when creating the operation plan is typically the actual activation of the fuel cell 15 per the second predetermined second unit time. When the number of times does not reach the set allowable start number, the difference (“allowable start number” − “actual start number”) is added (S46: see FIG. 6). Further, the fuel cell 15 cannot generate power immediately after starting, and a lead time of about 1 hour is required to bring the fuel cell 15, the reformed gas g, and the oxidant gas t to predetermined temperatures. . During the lead time, the fuel is consumed, but there is no power generation or heat generation. Therefore, frequent start and stop erodes the time during which power generation and heat generation is possible. Therefore, lead time is taken into account when creating an operation plan.

  Once the operation plan is created, the fuel cell 15 is operated based on the created operation plan (S43). The operation here includes a case where there is no demand for electric power and / or heat or the operation is stopped from the viewpoint of the allowable number of activations. The operation of the fuel cell 15 is not performed according to the created operation plan, but typically, the operation is performed at the output of the fuel cell 15 according to the actual power demand and heat demand. As a result, when the number of activations on that day reaches the allowable number of activations, activation of the fuel cell 15 is prohibited on that day.

  When the fuel cell 15 is operated, it is determined whether or not a second predetermined unit time (24 hours) has elapsed (S44). If the second predetermined unit time has not elapsed, the operation of the fuel cell 15 based on the previous operation plan is continued (S43). If the second predetermined unit time has elapsed, it is determined whether the number of activations per second predetermined unit time is less than the allowable number of activations (S45). If the number of activations per second predetermined unit time is not less than the allowable number of activations, the process returns to the step of setting the allowable number of activations (S41), and the above-described steps are repeated below.

  If the number of activations per second predetermined unit time is less than the allowable number of activations, the difference between the allowable number of activations and the actual number of activations is added to the next allowable number of activations per unit time. This is set as the next allowable number of activations (S46). When the surplus number of activations is added to the allowable number of activations and the next allowable number of activations is set, the process returns to the step of creating the operation plan (S42), and the above-described steps are repeated below. As the upper limit number of activations per day increases, it becomes easier to create an operation plan for DSS operation (Daily Start-up & Shut-down operation: an operation in which activation is stopped at least once a day).

  In the above description, the fuel cell 15 has been described as a solid polymer fuel cell. However, other types of fuel cells such as a phosphoric acid fuel cell and a solid oxide fuel cell can be used in addition to the solid polymer fuel cell. Can be used. However, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell can be operated at a relatively low temperature and can be downsized, so that it is suitable for use in homes, small apartment houses, or small offices.

1 is a system diagram illustrating a fuel cell system according to an embodiment of the present invention. It is a flowchart explaining upper limit operation time setting control. It is a conceptual diagram of the table which shows the example of a setting of upper limit driving time. It is a flowchart explaining the procedure which produces an operation plan. It is a flowchart explaining the calculation procedure which calculates a comparison reference value. It is a flowchart explaining upper limit starting frequency setting control.

Explanation of symbols

15 Fuel cell 21 Heat exchanger 31 Hot water storage tank (heat storage tank)
38 Temperature Detector 50 Control Device 100 Fuel Cell System

Claims (6)

  1. The fuel cell is operated such that the fuel cell operates within a range of an allowable operation time per first predetermined unit time based on a durable operation time of the fuel cell that generates power by an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. Creating an operation plan for
    Operating the fuel cell based on the operation plan;
    How to operate a fuel cell.
  2. An allowable operating time per first predetermined unit time is set according to at least one of a prediction of heat demand and a prediction of power demand;
    The operation method of the fuel cell according to claim 1.
  3. When the operation time of the fuel cell in the first predetermined unit time is less than the allowable operation time per the first predetermined unit time, the difference time between the allowable operation time and the operation time is expressed as follows: Configured to add to the allowable operating time per first predetermined unit time;
    The operation method of the fuel cell according to claim 1 or 2.
  4. The fuel cell is operated so as to operate within a range of an allowable number of activation times per second predetermined unit time determined based on the number of durable activation times of the fuel cell that generates electric power by an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. Creating a fuel cell operation plan;
    Operating the fuel cell based on the operation plan;
    How to operate a fuel cell.
  5. When the number of activations of the fuel cell in the second predetermined unit time is less than the allowable number of activations per second predetermined unit time, the activation number of the difference between the allowable number of activations and the number of activations is determined. Configured to add to an allowable number of activations per second predetermined unit time;
    The operation method of the fuel cell according to claim 4.
  6. A fuel cell that generates electricity and generates heat by an electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen;
    A control device for controlling the operation method of the fuel cell system according to any one of claims 1 to 5;
    Fuel cell system.
JP2006149996A 2006-05-30 2006-05-30 Operation method of fuel cell and fuel cell system Pending JP2007323843A (en)

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