JP2007315249A - Air/fuel ratio control device for internal combustion engine - Google Patents

Air/fuel ratio control device for internal combustion engine Download PDF

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JP2007315249A
JP2007315249A JP2006144375A JP2006144375A JP2007315249A JP 2007315249 A JP2007315249 A JP 2007315249A JP 2006144375 A JP2006144375 A JP 2006144375A JP 2006144375 A JP2006144375 A JP 2006144375A JP 2007315249 A JP2007315249 A JP 2007315249A
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value
fuel ratio
air
guard
sum
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JP4770589B2 (en
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Takahiko Fujiwara
Taiga Hagimoto
Junichi Kako
Naoto Kato
Norihisa Nakagawa
Shuntaro Okazaki
徳久 中川
純一 加古
直人 加藤
俊太郎 岡崎
大河 萩本
孝彦 藤原
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Toyota Motor Corp
トヨタ自動車株式会社
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Abstract

An object of the present invention is to appropriately perform guard processing for air-fuel ratio correction when the air-fuel ratio is feedback-controlled based at least on the sum of an integral term and its learned value.
In this air-fuel ratio control apparatus, a steady component of an integral term Ksubi (= DVoxs) regarding a difference (= DVoxs) between an output value of an air-fuel ratio sensor disposed in an exhaust passage on the downstream side of a catalyst and a reference value. = Ksubilow) is transferred to the learning value Learn at every predetermined timing. Accordingly, the sum SUM, which is the sum of the integral term Ksubi and the learned value Learn, functions as a substantial integral term value. The sum value SUM is subjected to a first guard process (−G ≦ SUM ≦ G), and the sum value SUM subjected to the first guard process is used as a feedback correction amount FBsub (= proportional term Ksubp + differential term Ksubd +). Used to calculate the sum value SUM). Thus, the guard process is directly performed on the sum SUM itself that functions as a substantial integral term, and the guard process for air-fuel ratio correction can be appropriately performed.
[Selection] Figure 5

Description

  The present invention is applied to an internal combustion engine having an air-fuel ratio sensor at least downstream of a catalyst disposed in an exhaust passage, and controls the air-fuel ratio of gas flowing into the catalyst based on the output value of the air-fuel ratio sensor. The present invention relates to an air-fuel ratio control device for an engine. Hereinafter, “the air-fuel ratio of the gas flowing into the catalyst” may be simply referred to as “air-fuel ratio”, and “the internal combustion engine” may be simply referred to as “engine”.

Conventionally, as this type of air-fuel ratio control device, for example, the one disclosed in Patent Document 1 is known. In this air-fuel ratio control apparatus, an upstream air-fuel ratio sensor and a downstream air-fuel ratio sensor are respectively disposed upstream and downstream of the catalyst disposed in the exhaust passage. A feedback correction amount is calculated by performing proportional / integral / derivative processing (PID processing) on the deviation between the output value of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor and the target value of the output value (value corresponding to the target air-fuel ratio). Based on a value obtained by correcting the output value of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor with this feedback correction amount, the amount of fuel injected from the injector is feedback-controlled so that the air-fuel ratio becomes the target air-fuel ratio.
JP 2005-113729 A

In general, the difference between the intake air flow rate measured by an air flow meter used to determine the amount of fuel injected from the injector and the actual air flow rate (variation of the air flow meter), the command fuel instructed to be injected by the injector A difference (injector variation) between the injection amount and the amount of fuel actually injected (hereinafter collectively referred to as “error of fuel injection amount”) inevitably occurs. Furthermore, an error in the output value is likely to occur in a limiting current type oxygen concentration sensor that is often used as an upstream air-fuel ratio sensor.

  The feedback correction amount includes an integral term (I term) value, that is, a value obtained by multiplying the deviation integral value updated by integrating the deviation by a feedback gain. As a result, even if the “error in the fuel injection amount” or the error in the output value of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor occurs, the “error in the fuel injection amount” or the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor can be obtained by executing the feedback control described above. Can be compensated by an integral term (a value based on the deviation integral value), and as a result, the air-fuel ratio can be made to coincide with and converge to the target air-fuel ratio. In other words, the value of the integral term (or deviation integral value) can be a value representing the magnitude of the “error in the fuel injection amount” or the error in the output value of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor.

  In the apparatus described in Patent Document 1, learning of an integral term having such a character is executed. That is, in this apparatus, every time a predetermined timing arrives, a stationary component of the integral term value (specifically, a value obtained by subjecting the integral term value to a low-pass filter process) becomes a learning value (integral term value). It is acquired as an update value for updating (a value representing a stationary component). The updated value is added to the learned value stored in the backup RAM (SRAM) at that time to update the learned value. Then, the updated value is subtracted from the value of the integral term at that time.

  In this way, each time a predetermined timing arrives, the steady component of the value of the integral term is transferred to the learning value. That is, the sum of the value of the integral term and the learning value (hereinafter referred to as “total value”) functions as a substantial integral term value in the feedback correction amount. In other words, in the apparatus described in Patent Document 1, the air-fuel ratio is feedback-controlled based on the feedback correction amount based on the total value (including the total value).

  By the way, when an abnormality occurs in the air-fuel ratio control system during execution of the feedback control described above (for example, when an abnormality occurs in an air flow meter, an injector, a downstream air-fuel ratio sensor, etc.), the deviation is kept at a large value. . As a result, the feedback correction amount can gradually increase as the deviation integral value (and therefore the integral term, and hence the total value) gradually increases. If the feedback correction amount becomes excessively large, problems such as the air-fuel ratio deviating from the combustible region may occur.

  Therefore, it is necessary to perform guard processing for air-fuel ratio correction so that the feedback correction amount does not deviate from a certain range. Here, as described above, when the air-fuel ratio is feedback-controlled based on the feedback correction amount including the total value, it becomes a problem how to perform the guard process for the air-fuel ratio correction.

  An object of the present invention is to provide an internal combustion engine air conditioner that can appropriately perform guard processing for air-fuel ratio correction when the air-fuel ratio is feedback-controlled based at least on the total value (value based on the integrated deviation value + learned value). An object of the present invention is to provide a fuel ratio control device.

  The air-fuel ratio control apparatus according to the present invention is applied to an internal combustion engine including a catalyst, a downstream air-fuel ratio sensor disposed in an exhaust passage downstream of the catalyst, and fuel injection means for injecting fuel. .

  The air-fuel ratio control apparatus according to the present invention includes an integral value calculating means, a learning means, a total value calculating means, a first guard process executing means, and an air-fuel ratio feedback control means.

  The integral value calculation means calculates a deviation integral value that is updated by integrating values corresponding to the deviation between the output value of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor and the target value corresponding to the target air-fuel ratio. Here, the “value corresponding to the deviation” means the deviation between the output value of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor and the target value itself, or the deviation between the air-fuel ratio corresponding to the output value of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor and the target air-fuel ratio. Etc.

  The learning means uses the value based on the deviation integral value to calculate / update a learning value representing a stationary component of the “value based on the deviation integral value”, and an amount corresponding to the amount of change in the learning value due to the update. Is subtracted from the “value based on the deviation integrated value”. Here, the “value based on the deviation integral value” is, for example, the deviation integral value itself, an integral term obtained by multiplying the deviation integral value by the feedback gain, or the like. The learning value (a value representing a stationary component of “value based on deviation integral value”) is, for example, a value obtained by low-pass filter processing (smoothing processing) on “value based on deviation integral value”.

  For example, each time the predetermined timing arrives, this learning means acquires a steady component of “value based on deviation integral value” as an update value for learning value update, and the acquired update value at that time The learning value is updated by adding to the learning value, and the amount corresponding to the updated value is subtracted from the “value based on the deviation integral value” at that time.

  The total value calculation means calculates a total value that is the sum of the “value based on the deviation integrated value” and the learning value. Here, the “total value” is, for example, when the deviation integral value itself is used as the “value based on the deviation integral value”, “the deviation integral value and the learning value representing the stationary component of the deviation integral value. When the integral term (product of deviation integral value and feedback gain) is used as the “value based on the deviation integral value”, the sum of the integral value and the learning value representing the steady component of the integral term It is.

  The first guard process executing means performs a first guard process for limiting the total value to the first guard value when the total value exceeds the first guard value. Here, the first guard value is determined in consideration of, for example, an air-fuel ratio range corresponding to the combustible region, an error in the output value of the air-fuel ratio sensor upstream of the catalyst, and the like.

  The air-fuel ratio feedback control means feedback-controls the amount of fuel injected from the fuel injection means so that the air-fuel ratio becomes the target air-fuel ratio based on at least the total value subjected to the first guard processing.

  Thus, when performing the guard process for air-fuel ratio correction when the air-fuel ratio is feedback-controlled based on the total value (“value based on deviation integral value” + learned value), for example, “value based on deviation integral value” The guard value (first guard value) may be set individually for the learning value. However, with this configuration, the total value can reach up to twice the first guard value, and as a result, problems such as the air-fuel ratio deviating from the combustible region may occur.

  In contrast, according to the air-fuel ratio control apparatus of the present invention, the first guard value is set for the total value itself. That is, the guard process is directly performed on the total value itself that functions as a substantial “value based on the deviation integral value” (for example, a substantial integral term) when performing the air-fuel ratio correction. Therefore, it is possible to appropriately perform guard processing for air-fuel ratio correction, and as a result, it is possible to effectively suppress the occurrence of problems such as deviation of the air-fuel ratio from the combustible region.

  In the air-fuel ratio control apparatus according to the present invention, when the “value based on the deviation integral value” exceeds the second guard value, the “value based on the deviation integral value” is limited to the second guard value. A second guard process executing means for performing a 2-guard process, wherein the total value calculation means uses a sum of the “value based on the deviation integral value” subjected to the second guard process and the learning value as the total value. It is preferable to be configured as described above. Here, it is preferable that the second guard value is the same value as the first guard value.

  When the above-described abnormality of the air-fuel ratio control system (for example, abnormality of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor or the like) occurs and continues, the total value can be maintained in a state of sticking to the first guard value. On the other hand, a case will be considered in which, although an abnormality has occurred in the air-fuel ratio control system for some reason, the sum is stuck to the first guard value, and then the abnormality is canceled.

  In such a case, it is considered preferable to return the total value to an appropriate value less than the first guard value as soon as possible. This is based on the fact that maintaining the total value at the first guard value leads to maintaining the air / fuel ratio at a value significantly different from the target air / fuel ratio, which is undesirable from the viewpoint of emission suppression.

  Here, a case is considered in which guard processing is performed on the total value as described above, but guard processing is not performed on the “value based on the deviation integrated value” itself. In this case, even while the total value is limited to the first guard value by the guard process, the “value based on the deviation integral value” can exceed the first guard value and increase without limit.

  Therefore, even if the abnormality of the air-fuel ratio control system is canceled and the “value based on the deviation integral value” starts to decrease, the “value based on the deviation integral value” is returned to an appropriate value less than the first guard value. May require considerable time. As a result, there may be a case where the return of the sum value to an appropriate value less than the first guard value (hereinafter, simply referred to as “sum value return”) is delayed.

  On the other hand, according to the above configuration, in addition to the guard process being performed on the total value (“value based on deviation integral value” + learning value), the guard process is also performed on “value based on deviation integral value”. . Therefore, while the total value is limited to the first guard value by the guard process, the “value based on the deviation integral value” cannot exceed the first guard value and increase indefinitely. As a result, the “return of sum value” after the abnormality of the air-fuel ratio control system is canceled can be accelerated.

  Similarly, in the air-fuel ratio control apparatus according to the present invention, when the learned value exceeds the third guard value, the third guard process is performed to perform a third guard process that limits the learned value to the third guard value. It is preferable that the sum total value calculating means is configured to use a sum of a value based on the deviation integral value and the learning value subjected to the third guard process as the sum total value. Here, it is preferable that the third guard value is the same value as the first guard value.

  According to this, in addition to performing guard processing on the total value (“value based on deviation integral value” + learning value), guard processing is also performed on the learning value. Therefore, while the total value is limited to the first guard value by the guard process, the learning value cannot exceed the first guard value and increase without limit. As a result, the “return of the sum total value” can be speeded up for the same reason as the case where the guard processing is also applied to the “value based on the deviation integrated value” described above.

  In order to make “return of the sum total value” even faster, in addition to the first guard process being performed on the sum value (“value based on deviation integral value” + learned value), “value based on deviation integral value” It is preferable that the second and third guard processes are separately performed for the learning value. In this case, it is preferable that the same value is used as the first guard value, the second guard value, and the third guard value.

  As described above, when the first guard process is performed on the total value (“value based on deviation integral value” + learning value), the integral value calculation is performed when the third guard process is also performed on the learned value. When the learning value is limited to the third guard value, the means corresponds to a direction in which the value based on the deviation integral value approaches (while increasing) the first guard value (or the second guard value). It is more preferable that the deviation integrated value is not updated.

  According to this, over the relatively long period from when the learning value is updated to the third guard value due to the update of the learning value until the next update timing of the learning value arrives, "(Increase)" is prohibited from being updated in a direction approaching the first guard value (or the second guard value). In other words, only the update corresponding to the direction away from the first guard value (or the second guard value) of the “value based on the deviation integral value” (while decreasing) is permitted. As a result, the “return of sum value” can be made even faster (details will be described later).

  Embodiments of an air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings.

  FIG. 1 shows a schematic configuration of a system in which an air-fuel ratio control apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention is applied to a spark ignition type multi-cylinder (four-cylinder) internal combustion engine 10. The internal combustion engine 10 includes a cylinder block unit 20 including a cylinder block, a cylinder block lower case, an oil pan, and the like, a cylinder head unit 30 fixed on the cylinder block unit 20, and a gasoline mixture in the cylinder block unit 20. And an exhaust system 50 for releasing exhaust gas from the cylinder block 20 to the outside.

  The cylinder block unit 20 includes a cylinder 21, a piston 22, a connecting rod 23, and a crankshaft 24. In the cylinder block portion 20, the piston 22 reciprocates in the cylinder 21, and the reciprocating motion of the piston 22 is transmitted to the crankshaft 24 via the connecting rod 23, whereby the crankshaft 24 rotates. Yes. The heads of the cylinder 21 and the piston 22 form a combustion chamber 25 together with the cylinder head portion 30.

  The cylinder head portion 30 includes an intake port 31 communicating with the combustion chamber 25, an intake valve 32 that opens and closes the intake port 31, an intake camshaft that drives the intake valve 32, and continuously changes the phase angle of the intake camshaft. The variable intake timing device 33, the actuator 33 a of the variable intake timing device 33, the exhaust port 34 communicating with the combustion chamber 25, the exhaust valve 35 that opens and closes the exhaust port 34, the exhaust camshaft 36 that drives the exhaust valve 35, and the spark plug 37 And an igniter 38 including an ignition coil that generates a high voltage to be applied to the spark plug 37, and an injector (fuel injection means) 39 for injecting fuel into the intake port 31.

  The intake system 40 is provided in an intake pipe 41 including an intake manifold that communicates with the intake port 31 and forms an intake passage with the intake port 31, an air filter 42 provided at an end of the intake pipe 41, and the intake pipe 41. A throttle valve 43 and a throttle valve actuator 43a that can change the opening cross-sectional area of the intake passage are provided. Here, the intake port 31 and the intake pipe 41 constitute an intake passage.

  The exhaust system 50 includes an exhaust manifold 51 that communicates with the exhaust port 34, and an exhaust pipe (exhaust pipe) that is connected to the exhaust manifold 51 (actually, a collection portion of the exhaust manifolds 51 that communicate with each exhaust port 34). ) 52, an upstream catalyst device 53 (hereinafter referred to as “first catalyst 53”) disposed (interposed) in the exhaust pipe 52, and disposed in the exhaust pipe 52 downstream of the first catalyst 53. A downstream catalyst device 54 (interposed) (hereinafter referred to as “second catalyst 54”) is provided. The exhaust port 34, the exhaust manifold 51, and the exhaust pipe 52 constitute an exhaust passage.

  On the other hand, this system includes an air flow meter 61, a throttle position sensor 62, a cam position sensor 63, a crank position sensor 64, a water temperature sensor 65, an exhaust passage upstream of the first catalyst 53 (in this example, each of the exhaust manifolds 51 is An air-fuel ratio sensor 66 (hereinafter referred to as an “upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66”) disposed in the aggregated portion), an exhaust passage downstream of the first catalyst 53 and upstream of the second catalyst 54. An air-fuel ratio sensor 67 (hereinafter referred to as “downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67”) and an accelerator opening sensor 68 are provided.

  The air flow meter 61 is configured by a known hot-wire air flow meter, and outputs a voltage corresponding to the mass flow rate (intake air flow rate Ga) of intake air flowing through the intake pipe 41 per unit time. . The throttle position sensor 62 detects the opening of the throttle valve 43 and outputs a signal representing the throttle valve opening TA. The cam position sensor 63 generates a signal (G2 signal) having one pulse every time the intake camshaft rotates 90 ° (that is, every time the crankshaft 24 rotates 180 °). The crank position sensor 64 has a narrow pulse every time the crankshaft 24 rotates 10 ° and outputs a signal having a wide pulse every time the crankshaft 24 rotates 360 °. This signal represents the operating speed NE. The water temperature sensor 65 detects the temperature of the cooling water of the internal combustion engine 10 and outputs a signal representing the cooling water temperature THW.

  The upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 is a limiting current type oxygen concentration sensor, and outputs a current corresponding to the air-fuel ratio A / F as shown in FIG. 2, and an output value Vabyfs which is a voltage corresponding to this current. In particular, when the air-fuel ratio is the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, the output value Vabyfs becomes the upstream target value Vstoich. As is apparent from FIG. 2, the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 can accurately detect a wide range of air-fuel ratio A / F.

  The downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67 is an electromotive force type (concentration cell type) oxygen concentration sensor, and outputs an output value Voxs, which is a voltage that changes suddenly in the vicinity of the theoretical air-fuel ratio, as shown in FIG. ing. More specifically, the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67 is approximately 0.1 (V) when the air-fuel ratio is leaner than the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, and is approximately 0.1 when the air-fuel ratio is richer than the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. When 9 (V) and the air-fuel ratio is the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, a voltage of 0.5 (V) is output. The accelerator opening sensor 68 detects the operation amount of the accelerator pedal 81 operated by the driver, and outputs a signal representing the operation amount Accp of the accelerator pedal 81.

  The system further includes an electrical control device 70. The electric control device 70 includes a CPU 71 connected to each other by a bus, a routine (program) executed by the CPU 71, a table (look-up table, map), a ROM 72 in which parameters and the like are stored in advance, and the CPU 71 temporarily stores data as necessary. RAM 73 for storing data, a backup RAM (SRAM) 74 for storing data while the power is turned on and holding the stored data even while the power is shut off, an interface 75 including an AD converter, and the like. It is a microcomputer. The interface 75 is connected to the sensors 61 to 68, supplies signals from the sensors 61 to 68 to the CPU 71, and in response to an instruction from the CPU 71, the actuator 33a, the igniter 38, the injector 39, and the variable intake timing device 33 A drive signal is sent to the throttle valve actuator 43a.

(Outline of air-fuel ratio control)
Next, an outline of the air-fuel ratio control of the engine performed by the air-fuel ratio control apparatus (hereinafter also referred to as “this apparatus”) configured as described above will be described.

  This apparatus uses air-fuel ratio feedback control using the output value of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 (hereinafter referred to as “main FB control”) and air-fuel ratio using the output value of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67. Two air-fuel ratio feedback controls called feedback control (hereinafter referred to as “sub-FB control”) are performed. In addition, this apparatus performs “correction of the basic fuel injection amount” to be described later using the output value of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 in order to appropriately compensate the “error of the fuel injection amount” described above. Thus, feedback control is performed so that the air-fuel ratio matches the theoretical air-fuel ratio that is the target air-fuel ratio.

  More specifically, as shown in FIG. 4 which is a functional block diagram, the present apparatus is configured to include the functional blocks A1 to A15. Hereinafter, each functional block will be described with reference to FIG.

<Calculation and correction of basic fuel injection amount>
First, the in-cylinder intake air amount calculation means A1 is a table MapMc stored in the ROM 72 and the intake air flow rate Ga measured by the air flow meter 61, the operating speed NE obtained based on the output of the crank position sensor 64, and the ROM 72. Based on the above, the in-cylinder intake air amount Mc (k), which is the amount of fresh air drawn into the cylinder that reaches the intake stroke in the current intake stroke, is obtained. Here, the subscript (k) indicates a value for the current intake stroke (hereinafter, the same applies to other physical quantities). The in-cylinder intake air amount Mc is stored in the RAM 73 while corresponding to the intake stroke of each cylinder.

  The upstream target air-fuel ratio setting means A2 determines the upstream target air-fuel ratio abyfr based on the operating speed NE that is the operating state of the internal combustion engine 10, the throttle valve opening TA, and the like. The upstream target air-fuel ratio abyfr is set to the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio except for special cases after the warm-up of the internal combustion engine 10 is completed, for example.

  The control target air-fuel ratio setting means A3 is based on the upstream target air-fuel ratio abyfr and the sub FB correction amount FBsub calculated by the sub FB correction amount calculation means A9 described later according to the following equation (1). Set the air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k).

abyfrs (k) = abyfr / (1 + FBsub) (1)

  As can be understood from the above equation (1), this control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k) is set to an air-fuel ratio that differs from the upstream target air-fuel ratio abyfr by an amount corresponding to the sub FB correction amount FBsub. The control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs is stored in the RAM 73 while corresponding to the intake stroke of each cylinder.

  The basic fuel injection amount calculation means A4 divides the in-cylinder intake air amount Mc (k) by the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k), thereby corresponding to the in-cylinder intake air amount Mc (k). An uncorrected basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) which is an amount of fuel for obtaining the air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k) is obtained. The uncorrected basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb is stored in the RAM 73 while corresponding to the intake stroke of each cylinder.

  The corrected basic fuel injection amount calculation means A5 is the basic fuel obtained by the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient setting means A15 described later (already in the previous intake stroke) as the uncorrected basic fuel injection quantity Fbaseb (k). By multiplying the injection amount correction coefficient KF, the corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase is obtained.

  As will be described later, the corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase is an amount equal to the amount of fuel to be injected in order to make the air-fuel ratio in the current intake stroke coincide with the current target air-fuel ratio for control abyfrs (k). This is the command fuel injection amount that should be instructed to be injected to the injector 39 in order to actually inject fuel. As a result, as described in detail later, the “correction of the basic fuel injection amount” is achieved.

<Calculation of command fuel injection amount>
The command fuel injection amount calculation means A6 adds a main FB correction amount FBmain calculated by a main FB correction amount calculation means A14, which will be described later, to the corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase. Obtain the injection amount Fi (k). The command fuel injection amount Fi is stored in the RAM 73 while corresponding to the intake stroke of each cylinder.

Fi (k) = Fbase + FBmain (2)

  In this way, the present apparatus instructs the fuel injection of the command fuel injection amount Fi (k) calculated based on the corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase based on the sub FB correction amount FBsub and the main FB correction amount FBmain. Is performed on the injector 39 for the cylinder that reaches this intake stroke. Thereby, as will be described in detail later, the main FB control and the sub FB control are achieved.

<Sub FB control>
Similarly to the upstream target air-fuel ratio setting means A2 described above, the downstream target value setting means A7 sets the downstream target value Voxsref based on the operating speed NE, which is the operating state of the internal combustion engine 10, the throttle valve opening TA, and the like. decide. This downstream target value Voxsref is set to 0.5 (V), which is a value corresponding to the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio except for special cases, for example, after the warm-up of the internal combustion engine 10 is finished (see FIG. 3). reference.). In this example, the downstream target value Voxsref is set so that the air-fuel ratio corresponding to the downstream target value Voxsref always matches the upstream target air-fuel ratio abyfr described above.

  Based on the following equation (3), the output deviation amount calculation means A8 calculates the downstream side target value Voxsref from the downstream side target value Voxsref at the current time point (specifically, the current Fi (k) injection instruction start point). An output deviation amount DVoxs is obtained by subtracting the output value Voxs of the air-fuel ratio sensor 67. This output deviation amount DVoxs corresponds to the “value corresponding to the deviation between the output value of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor and the target value corresponding to the target air-fuel ratio”.

DVoxs = Voxsref−Voxs (3)

  The sub FB correction amount calculation means A9 (PID controller) obtains the sub FB correction amount FBsub by performing proportional / integral / differential processing (PID processing) on the output deviation amount DVoxs. Hereinafter, a method for calculating the sub FB correction amount FBsub by the sub FB correction amount calculating unit A9 including the functional blocks A9a to A9k will be described with reference to FIG. 5 which is a functional block diagram of the sub FB correction amount calculating unit A9. .

  The proportional term calculation means A9a obtains the proportional term Ksubp (= Kp · DVoxs) in the sub FB correction amount FBsub by multiplying the output deviation amount DVoxs by a preset proportional gain Kp (proportional constant).

  The integration processing means A9b calculates and updates the deviation integral value SDVoxs, which is the time integral value of the output deviation amount DVoxs, by sequentially integrating the output deviation amount DVoxs. However, the integration processing unit A9b will be described later when a “learned value learned by the third guard processing” described later by the third guard processing unit A9g described later is in guard restriction (ie, Learn = G or −G). Deviation integral value SDVoxs corresponding to the direction in which “second guard-processed integral term Ksubi” (= Ki · SDVoxs) (−G ≦ Ksubi ≦ G) approaches the learning value Learn (= G or −G) during guard restriction Will not be updated. Hereinafter, a process that does not update the deviation integral value SDVoxs in this way is referred to as an “update prohibition process”. The operation and effect of the “update prohibition process” will be described later. The integration processing means A9b corresponds to the “integral value calculation means”.

  The integral term calculation means A9c calculates the integral term Ksubi (= Ki · SDVoxs) in the sub FB correction amount FBsub by multiplying the deviation integral value SDVoxs by a preset integral gain Ki (integral constant). The integral term Ksubi corresponds to the “value based on the deviation integral value”.

  The second guard processing means A9d performs second guard processing on the value of the integral term Ksubi. In the second guard process, when the value of the integral term Ksubi falls below -G (negative value, second guard value), the value of the integral term Ksubi is set (restricted) to the value -G, and the integral term Ksubi When the value of exceeds the value G (positive value, second guard value), the value of the integral term Ksubi is set (limited) to the value G. Here, the value G is determined in consideration of the air-fuel ratio range corresponding to the combustible region, the magnitude of an error that may occur in the output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66, and the like.

  As a result, the value of the integral term Ksubi subjected to the second guard processing is not less than the value −G and not more than the value G. When the integral term Ksubi subjected to the second guard process is in guard restriction (that is, Ksubi = G or −G), the deviation integral value SDVoxs is a value corresponding to the value of the integral term Ksubi in guard restriction (= Ksubi / Ki). The operation and effect of the second guard process will be described later. The second guard processing means A9d corresponds to the “second guard processing execution means”.

  The annealing processing means A9e is a value obtained by applying one of the well-known annealing processing (for example, first-order digital low-pass filter processing) to the value of the integral term Ksubi subjected to the second guard processing (hereinafter referred to as “annealing processing”). Called post-integral term Ksubilow). The value of the integral term Ksubilow after the annealing process represents a stationary component of the value of the integral term Ksubi subjected to the second guard process.

  The learning processing means A9f performs “integral term Ksubi learning processing” every time a predetermined timing arrives. In “Learning process of integral term Ksubi”, the value of the integral term Ksubilow after the above-mentioned smoothing processing is the learning value Learn (a value representing a stationary component of the integral term Ksubi value subjected to the second guard process). Acquired as an update value DLearn for updating. The updated value DLearn is added to the learned value Learn stored in the backup RAM 74 at that time. Thereby, the learning value Learn is updated.

  The third guard processing means A9g performs third guard processing on the updated learning value Learn. In the third guard process, when the updated learning value Learn is less than -G (negative value, third guard value), the learning value Learn is set (restricted) to the value -G, and the updated learning is performed. When the value Learn exceeds the value G (positive value, third guard value), the learning value Learn is set (restricted) to the value G. Thereby, the learning value Learn that has been subjected to the third guard process is not less than the value −G and not more than the value G. The operation and effect of the third guard process will be described later. The third guard processing means A9g corresponds to the “third guard processing execution means”.

  The learning value Learn that has been updated by the “integral term Ksubi learning process” and subjected to the third guard process is stored in the backup RAM 74. That is, the “third guard processed learning value Learn” stored in the backup RAM 74 is stepped every time a predetermined timing arrives (that is, every time the execution timing of the “integral term Ksubi learning processing” arrives). Will change. Then, the change from the previous value of the learned value Learn stored in the backup RAM 74 is subtracted from the value of the “integrated term Ksubi subjected to the second guard process” at that time. Accordingly, the deviation integral value SDVoxs is corrected to a value (= Ksubi / Ki) corresponding to the value of the integral term Ksubi after being subtracted.

  That is, each time the execution timing of the “integral term Ksubi learning process” arrives, the steady component of the value of the integral term Ksubi subjected to the second guard process is transferred to the learned value Learn subjected to the third guard process. Go. And before and after each “learning process of integral term Ksubi”, the sum of the integral term Ksubi subjected to the second guard process and the learned value Learn subjected to the third guard process does not change. In other words, the sum of the second guard-processed integral term Ksubi and the third guard-processed learning value Learn functions as a substantial integral term value in the sub FB correction amount FBsub. In addition, every time the “integral term Ksubi learning process” is completed, the value of the integral term Ksubilow after the smoothing process is cleared to “0”. The means for performing the “integral term Ksubi learning process” corresponds to the “learning means”.

  The total value calculation means A9h calculates the sum of the value of the integral term Ksubi subjected to the second guard process and the learned value Learn (value stored in the backup RAM 74) subjected to the third guard process as the total value SUM. That is, the total value SUM is a value that functions as a substantial integral term in the sub FB correction amount FBsub. The total value calculation means A9h corresponds to the “total value calculation means”.

  The first guard processing means A9i performs the first guard processing on the total value SUM. In the first guard process, when the sum value SUM falls below -G (negative value, first guard value), the sum value SUM is set (restricted) to the value -G, and the sum value SUM becomes the value G ( When the value exceeds a positive value (first guard value), the total value SUM is set (limited) to the value G. As a result, the sum value SUM subjected to the first guard processing is not less than the value −G and not more than the value G. The operation and effect of the first guard process will be described later. The first guard processing means A9i corresponds to the “first guard processing execution means”.

  The differential term calculation means A9j multiplies the time differential value DDVoxs of the output deviation amount DVoxs by a preset differential gain Kd (differential constant) to obtain the differential term Ksubd (= Kd · DDVoxs) in the sub FB correction amount FBsub. Ask.

  The adding means A9k adds the proportional term Ksubp, the sum SUM (that is, the substantial integral term), and the derivative term Ksubd according to the following equation (4), so that the output deviation amount DVoxs is proportionally / integrated / differentiated ( A sub FB correction amount FBsub which is a value obtained by PID processing) is obtained (−1 <FBsub <1).

FBsub = Ksubp + SUM + Ksubd (4)

  Referring to FIG. 4 again, as described above, this sub FB correction amount FBsub is used for setting the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k), and before correction based on the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k). The basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) (and hence the command fuel injection amount Fi (k)) is determined. Thereby, the sub FB control is performed as follows.

  For example, if the output value Voxs of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67 shows a value corresponding to the air-fuel ratio leaner than the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio because the average air-fuel ratio is leaner than the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, the output deviation amount Since DVoxs has a positive value (see FIG. 3), the sub FB correction amount FBsub has a positive value. As a result, the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k) is set to a value smaller than the upstream target air-fuel ratio abyfr (= theoretical air-fuel ratio) (that is, a rich air-fuel ratio). Therefore, the pre-correction basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) (and hence the command fuel injection amount Fi (k)) becomes larger than the value corresponding to the upstream target air-fuel ratio abyfr, and the air-fuel ratio is richer than the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. It is controlled to become.

  On the contrary, if the output value Voxs of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67 shows a value corresponding to the air-fuel ratio richer than the theoretical air-fuel ratio because the average air-fuel ratio is richer than the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, the output deviation Since the amount DVoxs has a negative value, the sub FB correction amount FBsub has a negative value. Thus, the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k) is set to a value (that is, a lean air-fuel ratio) larger than the upstream target air-fuel ratio abyfr (= theoretical air-fuel ratio). Therefore, the pre-correction basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) (and thus the command fuel injection amount Fi (k)) becomes smaller than the value corresponding to the upstream target air-fuel ratio abyfr, and the air-fuel ratio is leaner than the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio. It is controlled to become.

  In addition, since the sub FB correction amount FBsub includes an integral term (that is, a sum value SUM that is a substantial integral term), it is guaranteed that the output deviation amount DVoxs becomes zero in a steady state. In other words, the steady deviation between the downstream target value Voxsref and the output value Voxs of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67 becomes zero. As a result, even if the above-mentioned “error in fuel injection amount” or the error in the output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 occurs due to the sub FB control, the downstream of the first catalyst 53 in the steady state. It is ensured that the air-fuel ratio of the air-fuel ratio converges to the air-fuel ratio corresponding to the downstream target value Voxsref (that is, the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio).

  As described above, in the sub FB control, the amount of fuel injected from the injector 39 is feedback controlled so that the air-fuel ratio becomes the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio based on the sub-FB correction amount FBsub based on the total value SUM subjected to the first guard processing. The The means for controlling the fuel injection amount in this way corresponds to the “air-fuel ratio feedback control means”.

<Action and effect of each treatment>
Next, “first guard processing” by the first guard processing means A9i shown in FIG. 5, “second guard processing” by the second guard processing means A9d, “third guard processing” by the third guard processing means A9g, The operation and effect of the “update prohibition process” performed by the integration processing unit A9b will be described with reference to FIGS. 6A to 6D.

  FIG. 6A shows a comparison target of this apparatus in which all of the “first guard process”, “second guard process”, “third guard process”, and “update prohibition process” are not performed in this apparatus (hereinafter, “update prohibition process”). , Referred to as “Comparison Device A”), the output value Voxs of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67, the integral term Ksubi, the post-smoothing integral term Ksubilow, the learned value Learn, and the sum value SUM ( = Ksubi + Learn) is a time chart showing an example of a change. Each of the times t1 to t7 corresponds to the execution timing of the “integral term Ksubi learning process”.

  As shown in FIG. 6A, in the period in which the output value Voxs of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67 is leaner than the theoretical air-fuel ratio (that is, the period in which the output deviation amount DVoxs is maintained at a positive value), the integral term Ksubi In the period during which the output value Voxs is richer than the theoretical air-fuel ratio (that is, the period in which the output deviation amount DVoxs is maintained at a negative value) The value of the term Ksubi (and hence the sum SUM) decreases.

  In addition, each time the execution timing of the “integral term Ksubi learning process” arrives, the value of the integral term Ksubilow after the smoothing process at that time is added to the learned value Learn at that time, and the learned value Learn is stepped. And the change in the learning value Learn is subtracted from the value of the integral term Ksubi. That is, the total value SUM (= Ksubi + Learn) does not change immediately before and after the execution timing of each “integral term Ksubi learning process”. Further, the value of the integral term Ksubilow after the annealing process is cleared to “0”.

  In the example shown in FIG. 6A, an abnormality occurs in the air-fuel ratio control system for some reason, and the period in which the output value Voxs shows lean becomes longer on average than the period in which the rich value shows, so The value SUM) is increasing on average (before time t1 to time t6). After that, the abnormal term is canceled and the period in which the output value Voxs is rich becomes longer on average than the period in which the lean is shown, so that the integral term Ksubi (and hence the sum SUM) decreases on average (time) after t6).

  In the example illustrated in FIG. 6A, the third guard process is not performed on the learned value Learn, and thus the learned value Learn may exceed the value G and increase without limit. As a result, the learned value Learn has reached the value G between time t5 and time t6, and exceeds the value G between time t6 and time t7.

  In addition, since the first guard process is not performed on the sum value SUM, the sum value SUM can exceed the value G and increase without limit. As a result, the total value SUM exceeds the value G from a certain time point between time t4 and time t5 to immediately before time t7 (refer to the area indicated by hatching). Thus, in the example shown in FIG. 6A (that is, when the comparison target device A is used), there is a problem that the air-fuel ratio deviates from the combustible region during the period in which the total value SUM exceeds the value G. Can occur.

  On the other hand, FIG. 6B shows a case where a device that performs the “first guard process” in the comparison target device A (hereinafter referred to as “comparison target device B”) is used as a comparison target of this device. 6B is a time chart corresponding to FIG. 6A.

  As shown in FIG. 6B, in this case, since the first guard process is performed on the total value SUM, the total value SUM is a value from a certain time point between time t4 and time t5 to immediately before time t7. Limited to G (sticks to value G). In other words, the sum value SUM does not exceed the value G. Therefore, by performing the first guard process, it is possible to effectively suppress the occurrence of problems such as the air-fuel ratio deviating from the combustible region.

  However, in this case, the learning value Learn (and the integral term Ksubi) can increase beyond the value G indefinitely even when the total value SUM is in the guard limit (that is, SUM = G). Similarly, the learning value Learn exceeds the value G between time t6 and time t7. As a result, a relatively long time is required from time t6 when the integral term Ksubi starts to decrease on average until time tA when the sum SUM (= Ksubi + Learn) returns to the value G or less. That is, the “return of sum value SUM” is greatly delayed.

  On the other hand, in FIG. 6C, the “second guard process” and the “third guard process” are performed in the comparison target apparatus B (hereinafter referred to as “comparison target apparatus C”). FIG. 6B is a time chart corresponding to FIG.

  As shown in FIG. 6C, in this case, since the third guard process is performed on the learned value Learn, the learned value Learn is limited to the value G from time t6 to t7 (sticks to the value G). In other words, the learning value Learn does not exceed the value G while the total value SUM is guard-restricted. Therefore, the total value SUM (= Ksubi + Learn) returns to the value G or less at a relatively early stage (time tB) after the integral term Ksubi starts to decrease on average at time t6.

  That is, by performing the second and third guard processes in addition to the first guard process, the “return of the sum value SUM” can be accelerated. As a result, the period during which the air-fuel ratio is maintained at a value significantly different from the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio can be shortened, so that deterioration of emissions can be suppressed.

  FIG. 6D is a time chart corresponding to FIG. 6C when the comparison target apparatus C performs the “update prohibition process”, that is, when the apparatus itself is used. As shown in FIG. 6D, in this case, when the learning value Learn is being guarded (ie, Learn = G) (time t5 to time t7), the guard of the integral term Ksubi (−G ≦ Ksubi ≦ G) Updating in the direction approaching the learning value Learn (= G) being limited (in FIG. 6D, the direction in which the integral term Ksubi increases) is not performed.

  In other words, the value of the integral term Ksubi is kept constant during the period in which the output value Voxs of the downstream side air-fuel ratio sensor 67 shows lean (refer to each part indicated by three ellipses in FIG. 6D). On the other hand, from time t5 to time t7, updating of the integral term Ksubi in the decreasing direction during the period in which the output value Voxs is rich is permitted. As a result, the total value SUM (= Ksubi + Learn) has already returned to the value G or less at the stage (time tC) before the integral term Ksubi starts to decrease on average at time t6.

  That is, by performing the update prohibition process in addition to the first guard process, the second and third guard processes, the “return of the sum value SUM” can be further accelerated. As a result, the period during which the air-fuel ratio is maintained at a value significantly different from the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio can be further shortened, so that the emission deterioration can be further suppressed. The operations and effects of the “first guard process”, “second guard process”, “third guard process”, and “update prohibition process” have been described above.

<Main FB control>
Referring to FIG. 4 again, the table conversion means A10 includes the output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66, the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor output value Vabyfs and the air-fuel ratio A / F shown in FIG. The detected air-fuel ratio abyfs (k) at this time (specifically, at the start of the current Fi (k) injection instruction) detected by the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 based on the table defining the relationship of Ask. The detected air-fuel ratio abyfs is stored in the RAM 73 while corresponding to the intake stroke of each cylinder.

  The target air-fuel ratio delay unit A11 is determined for each intake stroke by the control target air-fuel ratio setting unit A3, and among the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs stored in the RAM 73, N strokes (N intake strokes) before the present time. The control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs is read from the RAM 73, and is set as the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k−N). This value N is the time required from the fuel injection instruction until the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas based on the combustion of the fuel injected by the injection instruction appears as the output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 (hereinafter referred to as “delay time”). This is the number of strokes corresponding to “L”. Hereinafter, the delay time L and the number of strokes N will be added.

  In general, the fuel injection instruction is executed during the intake stroke (or before the intake stroke), and the injected fuel enters the combustion chamber 25 at a time near the compression top dead center that comes later. It can be ignited (burned). As a result, the generated exhaust gas is discharged from the combustion chamber 25 to the exhaust passage through the periphery of the exhaust valve 35, and then moves in the exhaust passage to thereby detect the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 (detection unit thereof). To reach. Furthermore, a predetermined time is required until the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas that has reached the detection portion of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 appears as the output value Vabyfs of the sensor.

  From the above, the delay time L is a delay related to the combustion stroke (stroke delay), a delay related to the movement of exhaust gas in the exhaust passage (transport delay), and a delay related to the response of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 ( Response delay). That is, the air-fuel ratio abyfs detected by the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 is a value representing the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas generated based on the fuel injection instruction executed before the delay time L thus obtained.

  The time related to the stroke delay described above decreases as the operating speed NE increases, and the time related to transport delay tends to decrease as the operating speed NE and cylinder intake air amount Mc increase. Accordingly, the stroke number N corresponding to the delay time L is determined by the cylinder intake air amount Mc (k), the operation speed NE, the operation speed NE and the cylinder intake air amount Mc shown in the graph of FIG. It can be obtained based on the table MapN (Mc, NE) that defines the relationship with the number N. As a result, the stroke number N decreases as the operating speed NE and the cylinder intake air amount Mc increase.

  The upstream air-fuel ratio deviation calculating means A12 subtracts the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k−N) N strokes before the current stroke from the current detected air-fuel ratio abyfs (k) based on the following equation (5). Then, the upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAF N strokes before the current stroke is obtained.

DAF = abyfs (k) −abyfrs (k−N) (5)

  Thus, in order to obtain the upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAF before the N stroke from the current time, the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k−N) before the N stroke from the current time is calculated from the current detected air-fuel ratio abyfs (k). As described above, the detected air-fuel ratio abyfs (k) is reduced by the empty time of the exhaust gas generated based on the injection instruction executed by the delay time L before the current time (and therefore before the N stroke before the current time). This is because it represents the fuel ratio. This upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAF is a value corresponding to the excess or deficiency of the fuel supplied into the cylinder at the time point before the N stroke.

  The high-pass filter A13 is a first-order digital filter as shown in the following formula (6) in which the characteristics are expressed using the Laplace operator s. In the following formula (6), τ1 is a time constant. The high-pass filter A13 substantially prohibits the passage of low frequency components having a frequency of (1 / τ1) or less.

1-1 / (1 + τ1 · s) (6)

  The high-pass filter A13 inputs the value of the upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAF, and after passing through the high-pass filter, which is a value after high-pass filter processing of the value of the upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAF according to the above equation (6), Outputs the fuel ratio deviation DAFhi.

  The main FB correction amount calculation means A14 (P controller) performs proportional processing (P processing) on the upstream side air-fuel ratio deviation DAFhi after passing through the high-pass filter, so that the fuel supply amount before N strokes is calculated based on the following equation (7). A main FB correction amount FBmain for compensating for excess or deficiency (excess or deficiency of only a high frequency component equal to or higher than the frequency (1 / τ1)) is obtained. In equation (7), Gphi is a preset proportional gain (proportional constant).

FBmain = Gphi ・ DAFhi (7)

  In this way, the present apparatus obtains the main FB correction amount FBmain based on the value based on the output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 and the value subjected to the high-pass filter processing. When determining the command fuel injection amount Fi (k), the apparatus adds the main FB correction amount FBmain to the corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase as described above. Thereby, the main FB control is performed as follows, independently of the sub FB control described above.

  For example, when the air-fuel ratio suddenly changes and becomes lean, the detected air-fuel ratio abyfs (k) this time becomes a lean value (a larger value) than the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k−N) N strokes before the current time. Become. For this reason, the upstream side air-fuel ratio deviation DAF is a large positive value. Further, since the signal indicating the upstream side air-fuel ratio deviation DAF due to a sudden change in the air-fuel ratio has a high frequency component equal to or higher than the frequency (1 / τ1), the upstream side after passing through the high-pass filter A13 after passing through the high-pass filter A13. The air-fuel ratio deviation DAFhi is also a large positive value. Accordingly, the main FB correction amount FBmain is a large positive value. Thereby, the command fuel injection amount Fi (k) is controlled to be larger than the corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase so that the air-fuel ratio becomes rich.

  Conversely, when the air-fuel ratio suddenly changes and becomes rich, the detected air-fuel ratio abyfs (k) this time becomes a richer value (smaller value) than the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k−N). For this reason, the upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAF is a negative value. Further, since the signal indicating the upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAF has a high frequency component equal to or higher than the frequency (1 / τ1) due to a sudden change in the air-fuel ratio, the upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAFhi after passing through the high-pass filter is also a negative value. It becomes. Accordingly, the main FB correction amount FBmain is a negative value. As a result, the command fuel injection amount Fi (k) is controlled to be smaller than the corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase so that the air-fuel ratio becomes lean.

  In this way, an appropriate air-fuel ratio correction can be executed for transient disturbances by the main FB control. The main FB correction amount calculation means A14 (P controller) does not include an integral term. Therefore, in the main FB control, the above-mentioned “error in fuel injection amount” cannot be compensated.

<Setting of basic fuel injection correction factor>
The basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient setting means A15 performs the above-described “correction of the basic fuel injection amount”, and thus a value obtained by multiplying the basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) before correction by the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF (= The corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase) is actually equal to the amount of fuel to be injected in order to make the air-fuel ratio in the current intake stroke coincide with the current target air-fuel ratio for control abyfrs (k). The basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF is set so as to coincide with (approach) the command fuel injection amount to be instructed to be injected to the injector 39 for injection. Hereinafter, a method for setting the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF by the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient setting means A15 will be described.

  Under the assumption that the in-cylinder intake air amount Mc is constant, the product of the fuel injection amount and the air-fuel ratio is constant. Using this relationship, as shown in the following equation (8), the command fuel injection amount Fi is multiplied by a value (detected air-fuel ratio abyfs / control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs), so that the air-fuel ratio is controlled by the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs. The command fuel injection amount to be instructed to actually inject an amount of fuel equal to the amount of fuel to be injected (hereinafter referred to as “basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset”). ) Is required.

Fbaset = Fi ・ (abyfs / abyfrs) (8)

  Here, as described above, the value obtained by multiplying the basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb before correction by the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF is equal to the basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset obtained according to the above equation (8). Since the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF is set, the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF can be set according to the following equation (9).

KF = Fbaset / Fbaseb (9)

  By the way, as described above, the detected air-fuel ratio abyfs based on the output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 is executed before the delay time L from the present time (accordingly, before the N stroke from the present time (see FIG. 7)). It represents the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas based on the combustion of the fuel injected by the injected injection instruction. In consideration of this, when calculating the basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset using the above equation (8), the current value abyfs (k) is used as the detected air-fuel ratio abyfs, and the control target air-fuel ratio is calculated. If the values abyfrs (k−N) and Fi (k−N) before N strokes are used as abyfrs and the command fuel injection amount Fi, they are used to calculate the base fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset. The intake strokes corresponding to the three values (detected air-fuel ratio abyfs, control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs, command fuel injection amount Fi) can all be made the same. As a result, the basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset corresponding to the intake stroke N strokes before the present time can be obtained with high accuracy.

  When the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF is calculated using the above equation (9), the basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset can be accurately obtained as described above. If the value Fbaseb (k−N) corresponding to the intake stroke N strokes before the current stroke is used as the basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb before correction, the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF is Can be calculated to a value that accurately represents the ratio between the base fuel injection amount Fbaseb before correction and the base fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset at the time of the intake stroke before N strokes.

  Therefore, by multiplying the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF obtained in this way by the current (previous) basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k), the current basic fuel injection after correction (current) The amount Fbase can be made to coincide with the basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount corresponding to the current intake stroke with high accuracy.

  In addition, when the engine is in a transient operation state, the detected air-fuel ratio abyfs, the command fuel injection amount Fi, the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs, and the pre-correction basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb can vary greatly with high frequency independently. In such a case, the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF calculated according to the above equation (9) may also fluctuate greatly with a high frequency, and as a result, there is a possibility that stable "correction of the basic fuel injection amount" cannot be realized. is there. Therefore, it is preferable to use a low-pass filter process in order to realize stable “correction of the basic fuel injection amount”. From the above, the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient setting means A15 includes the functional blocks A15a to A15f as shown in FIG. 8 which is a functional block diagram thereof.

  The command fuel injection amount delay means A15a reads the value before the N stroke from the current time from the RAM 73 out of the command fuel injection quantity Fi obtained for each intake stroke by the command fuel injection amount calculation means A6 and stored in the RAM 73. Is the commanded fuel injection amount Fi (k−N).

  The control air-fuel ratio delay unit A15b reads from the RAM 73 the value before the N strokes from the current time out of the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs obtained for each intake stroke by the control target air-fuel ratio setting unit A3 and stored in the RAM 73. This is the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k−N).

  The basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount calculation means A15c calculates a basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset corresponding to the intake stroke N strokes before the current time according to the following equation (10) corresponding to the above equation (8). .

Fbaset = Fi (k−N) ・ (abyfs (k) / abyfrs (k−N)) (10)

  The pre-correction basic fuel injection amount delay means A15d calculates the value before the N stroke from the current time among the pre-correction basic fuel injection amounts Fbaseb obtained for each intake stroke by the basic fuel injection amount calculation means A4 and stored in the RAM 73. Is taken as a base fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k−N) before correction.

  The correction coefficient setting means A15e calculates the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF1 before the low-pass filter process according to the following equation (11) corresponding to the above (9).

KF1 = Fbaset / Fbaseb (k−N) (11)

  The low-pass filter A15f is a first-order digital filter as shown in the following equation (12) in which the characteristics are expressed using the Laplace operator s. In the following formula (12), τ2 is a time constant. The low-pass filter A15f substantially prohibits the passage of high-frequency components having a frequency (1 / τ2) or higher.

1 / (1 + τ2 · s) (12)

  The low-pass filter A15f inputs the value of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF1 before the low-pass filter process, and the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF which is a value after low-pass filter processing of the value KF1 according to the above equation (12). Is output.

  The above is the outline of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF setting method by the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient setting means A15. In this way, the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF can be set to an appropriate value for compensating for the “error in the fuel injection amount”.

<Storage processing of basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient>
In “when the output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 does not become a normal value” such as during warm-up operation of the internal combustion engine, the detected air-fuel ratio abyfs does not accurately represent the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gas. In such a case, the value of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF calculated according to the equations (10) to (12) using the value of the detected air-fuel ratio abyfs is also used to compensate for the “error in the fuel injection amount”. Is not an appropriate value. Therefore, in such a case, the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF calculated according to the above equations (10) to (12) should not be used for correcting the uncorrected basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k).

  Therefore, the present apparatus is limited to the above (when the output value Vabyfs of the upstream side air-fuel ratio sensor 66 becomes (can be) a normal value (specifically, when a main feedback condition described later is satisfied)) ( The basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) before correction is corrected using the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF calculated according to the equations (10) to (12). In addition, in this case, the present apparatus sequentially stores and updates the calculated value of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF in the backup RAM 74.

  Here, the storage / update of the value of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF will be added. Generally, when the cylinder intake air amount Mc increases, the degree of “error in fuel injection amount” increases (therefore, the deviation amount of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF from “1” changes). There is. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 9, the present apparatus divides the possible range of the cylinder intake air amount Mc into a plurality of (in this example, four) classifications. Then, every time a new basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF is calculated, this device selects the class to which the current in-cylinder intake air amount Mc (k) belongs, and the basic fuel corresponding to the selected class The value of the injection amount correction coefficient KFmem (m) (m: 1, 2, 3, 4) is updated and stored as the calculated new basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF.

  On the other hand, in the case where “the output value Vabyfs of the upstream side air-fuel ratio sensor 66 does not become a normal value (specifically, when a main feedback condition described later is not satisfied)” Selects the category to which the quantity Mc (k) belongs, and corresponds to the selected category of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KFmem (m) (m: 1, 2, 3, 4) stored in the backup RAM 74 This value is set as the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient memory value KFmem.

  Then, this device uses the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient stored value KFmem instead of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF calculated according to the above equations (10) to (12), and the basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb before correction. Correct (k). As a result, even when “the output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 does not become a normal value”, the “error in the fuel injection amount” can be compensated with some degree of accuracy. The above is the outline of the air-fuel ratio control by this apparatus.

(Actual operation)
Next, the actual operation of the air-fuel ratio control apparatus according to this apparatus will be described. Hereinafter, for convenience of explanation, “MapX (a1, a2,...)” Represents a table for obtaining a value X having a1, a2,. Further, when the value of the argument is a detection value of the sensor, the current value is used.

<Air-fuel ratio feedback control>
The CPU 71 calculates the command fuel injection amount Fi shown in the flowchart of FIG. 10 and performs a routine for instructing fuel injection. The CPU 71 performs a predetermined crank angle before each intake top dead center (for example, BTDC 90 ° CA). ) Is repeated every time.

  Therefore, when the crank angle of an arbitrary cylinder reaches the predetermined crank angle, the CPU 71 starts processing from step 1000 and proceeds to step 1005, and the cylinder that reaches the current intake stroke based on the table MapMc (NE, Ga). This time, the in-cylinder intake air amount Mc (k), which is the amount of fresh air taken in (hereinafter also referred to as “fuel injection cylinder”), is estimated.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1010, where the current target air-fuel ratio abyfr (k), the latest value of the sub FB correction amount FBsub obtained by a routine described later (at the time of the previous fuel injection), The control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k) is obtained based on the above equation (1), and in the subsequent step 1015, the cylinder intake air amount Mc (k) is divided by the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k). As a result, the current pre-correction basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) is determined.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1020 to determine whether or not the main feedback condition is satisfied. Here, the main feedback condition is, for example, that the engine coolant temperature THW is equal to or higher than the first predetermined temperature, and that the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 is normal (including that it is in an active state). This is established when the intake air amount Mc (k) (or load) is equal to or less than a predetermined value.

  If the main feedback condition is satisfied, the CPU 71 determines “Yes” in step 1020 and proceeds to step 1025 to set the pre-correction basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) in the routine described later (previous fuel). The corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase is determined by multiplying the latest value of the obtained basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF (at the time of injection).

  On the other hand, if the main feedback condition is not satisfied, the CPU 71 makes a “No” determination at step 1020 to proceed to step 1030 to store the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient stored value KFmem in the basic fuel stored in the backup RAM 74. The injection amount correction coefficient KFmem (m) (m: 1, 2, 3, 4) is determined to be a value selected from the value of the cylinder intake air amount Mc (k).

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1035 and determines the corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase by multiplying the basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) before correction determined in step 1015 by the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient stored value KFmem. To do.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1040, and the main FB correction obtained in the routine described later (at the time of the previous fuel injection) to the obtained corrected basic fuel injection amount Fbase according to the above equation (2). The current command fuel injection amount Fi (k) is determined by adding the latest value of the amount FBmain.

  Subsequently, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1045 to give an instruction to inject fuel of the command fuel injection amount Fi (k), and then proceeds to step 1095 to end the present routine tentatively. As described above, the pre-correction basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) is corrected so as to coincide with the above-described basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset, so that the “error of the fuel injection amount” can be compensated, and the main FB control, And sub FB control is performed.

<Calculation of main FB correction amount>
Next, the operation when calculating the main FB correction amount FBmain in the above-described main FB control will be described. The CPU 71 performs the routine shown by the flowchart in FIG. 11 for the fuel injection cylinder at the fuel injection start timing (injection instruction start time). It will be executed repeatedly every time.

  Accordingly, when the fuel injection start timing comes for the fuel injection cylinder, the CPU 71 starts the process from step 1100 and proceeds to step 1105 to determine whether or not the main feedback condition is satisfied. This main feedback condition is the same as the main feedback condition in step 1020 of FIG.

  Now, assuming that the main feedback condition is satisfied, the CPU 71 determines “Yes” in step 1105 and proceeds to step 1110, and based on the table Mapabyfs (Vabyfs) (see FIG. 2), The current detected air-fuel ratio abyfs (k) is obtained.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1115 to determine the number N of strokes based on the table MapN (Mc (k), NE) (see FIG. 7). Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1120, and abyfrs (k) which is the control target air-fuel ratio before the N stroke (N intake strokes) from the present time to the detected air-fuel ratio abyfs (k) according to the above equation (5). The upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAF is obtained by subtracting -N).

  Subsequently, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1125 to perform a high-pass filter process on the upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAF with the high-pass filter A13 to obtain the upstream air-fuel ratio deviation DAFhi after passing through the high-pass filter. Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1130 to obtain the main FB correction amount FBmain according to the equation (7), and then proceeds to step 1195 to end the present routine tentatively.

  As described above, the main FB correction amount FBmain is obtained, and the main FB control described above is executed by reflecting the main FB correction amount FBmain in the command fuel injection amount Fi (k) in step 1040 of FIG. 10 described above. .

  On the other hand, if the main feedback condition is not satisfied at the time of determination in step 1105, the CPU 71 determines “No” in step 1105 and proceeds to step 1135 to set the value of the main FB correction amount FBmain to “0”. Thereafter, the routine proceeds to step 1195 to end the present routine tentatively. Thus, when the main feedback condition is not satisfied, the main FB correction amount FBmain is set to “0”, and the air-fuel ratio feedback control based on the main FB control is not performed.

<Calculation of sub FB correction amount>
Next, the operation when calculating the sub FB correction amount FBsub in the above-mentioned sub FB control will be described. The CPU 71 performs the routine shown by the flowchart in FIG. 12 for the fuel injection cylinder at the fuel injection start timing (injection instruction start time). It will be executed repeatedly every time.

  Therefore, when the fuel injection start timing comes for the fuel injection cylinder, the CPU 71 starts processing from step 1200, and first, in step 1205, determines whether or not the sub feedback condition is satisfied. The sub feedback condition is satisfied, for example, when the engine coolant temperature THW is equal to or higher than a second predetermined temperature higher than the first predetermined temperature, in addition to the main feedback condition in step 1020 (and step 1105) described above.

  Now, assuming that the sub-feedback condition is satisfied, the CPU 71 determines “Yes” in step 1205 and proceeds to step 1210. From the downstream target value Voxsref according to the above equation (3), The output deviation amount DVoxs is obtained by subtracting the output value Voxs of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67, and in the following step 1215, the proportional term Ksubp is obtained by multiplying the output deviation amount DVoxs by the proportional gain Kp.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1220 to obtain a differential value DDVoxs of the output deviation amount DVoxs based on the following equation (13). In equation (13), DVoxs1 is the previous value of the output deviation amount DVoxs set (updated) in step 1230, which will be described later, at the previous execution of this routine. Further, Δt is the time from the time when this routine is executed last time to the time when this routine is executed this time.

DDVoxs = (DVoxs−DVoxs1) / Δt (13)

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1225 to obtain the differential term Ksubd by multiplying the differential value DDVoxs of the output deviation amount by the differential gain Kd. Set to a value equal to the obtained output deviation amount DVoxs.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1235, where the learned value Learn subjected to the third guard process obtained at the routine described later (at the time of the previous fuel injection) is in the guard limit (that is, Learn = G or − G)), and if “No” is determined, the process proceeds to step 1240 to add the output deviation amount DVoxs obtained in step 1210 to the deviation integral value SDVoxs at that time to The deviation integrated value SDVoxs is obtained (that is, the deviation integrated value SDVoxs is updated), and the process proceeds to Step 1250.

  On the other hand, if “Yes” is determined in step 1235, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1245, where the sign of the output deviation amount DVoxs obtained in step 1210 is “a learning value in which the value of the integral term Ksubi is guard-limited. It is determined whether or not it corresponds to “Learning (= G or −G) direction”. Specifically, when the learning value Learn during guard restriction is the value G, when the value of the output deviation amount DVoxs is positive (or “0”), the determination is “Yes” and the value of the output deviation amount DVoxs is When negative, it is determined as “No”. When the learning value Learn during guard restriction is the value −G, when the value of the output deviation amount DVoxs is positive, it is determined as “No”, and when the value of the output deviation amount DVoxs is negative (or “0”) It is determined as “Yes”.

  If the CPU 71 determines “No” in step 1245, it proceeds to step 1250 after performing the update processing of the deviation integral value SDVoxs in step 1240. On the other hand, if “Yes” is determined in step 1245, the CPU 71 proceeds directly to step 1250 without performing the processing in step 1240. The process in which the deviation integral value SDVoxs is not updated (and thus the integral term Ksubi is updated) corresponds to the “update prohibition process” described above.

  When the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1250, the integral term Ksubi is obtained (updated) by multiplying the deviation integral value SDVoxs by the integral gain Ki, and in the subsequent step 1255, the above-mentioned second integral term Ksubi is obtained. A guard process (−G ≦ Ksubi ≦ G) is performed.

  Subsequently, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1260 to determine whether or not the integral term Ksubi is in the guard limit (that is, Ksubi = G or −G). When determining “No”, the CPU 71 immediately proceeds to step 1270. move on. On the other hand, when determining “Yes”, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1265 and corrects the deviation integral value SDVoxs to a value (Ksubi / Ki) in order to make the deviation integral value SDVoxs correspond to the value of the integral term Ksubi in the guard limit. Thereafter, the process proceeds to Step 1270.

  When the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1270, it adds the integral term Ksubi subjected to the second guard processing in step 1255 and the learned value Learn subjected to the third guard processing obtained in a routine to be described later to obtain the total value SUM, and subsequent step 1275. Then, the above-described first guard processing (−G ≦ SUB ≦ G) is performed on the obtained sum value SUM.

  Then, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1280, where the proportional term Ksubp obtained in step 1215, the differential term Ksubd obtained in step 1225, the sum value SUM subjected to the first guard processing in step 1275, The sub FB correction amount FBsub is obtained based on the above equation (4), and the routine proceeds to step 1295 to end the present routine tentatively.

  Thus, the sub FB correction amount FBsub is obtained. This sub FB correction amount FBsub is reflected in the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k) by the above-described step 1010 in FIG. 10, and the command fuel injection amount Fi (k) is based on this control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k). Is determined, the sub FB control described above is executed.

  On the other hand, if the sub-feedback condition is not satisfied at the time of determination in step 1205, the CPU 71 determines “No” in step 1205 and proceeds to step 1285 to set the value of the sub FB correction amount FBsub to “0”. Thereafter, the process proceeds to step 1295 to end the present routine tentatively. As described above, when the sub feedback condition is not satisfied, the sub FB correction amount FBsub is set to “0”, and the air-fuel ratio feedback control based on the sub FB control is not performed.

<Update of sub FB learning value Learn>
Next, the operation when the learning value Learn of the integral term Ksubi is updated will be described. The CPU 71 performs the routine shown by the flowchart in FIG. 13, and the fuel injection start timing (injection instruction start time) arrives for the fuel injection cylinder. Each time you do it, it will be executed repeatedly.

  Therefore, when the fuel injection start timing comes for the fuel injection cylinder, the CPU 71 starts processing from step 1300 and first determines in step 1305 whether or not a sub-feedback condition is satisfied. This sub feedback condition is the same as the sub feedback condition in step 1205 of FIG.

  When the CPU 71 makes a “No” determination at step 1305, the CPU 71 immediately proceeds to step 1395 to end the present routine tentatively. In this case, the learning value Learn is not updated. On the other hand, if the CPU 71 determines “Yes” in step 1305, the process proceeds to step 1310, where the integration term Ksubi value subjected to the second guard process in the previous step 1255 is low-pass filtered and integrated after the annealing process. Find the term Ksubilow.

  Subsequently, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1315 to determine whether or not the update timing of the learning value Learn has arrived. When determining “No”, the CPU 71 immediately proceeds to step 1395 and once ends this routine. In this case, the learning value Learn is not updated. In this example, the learning value Learn is updated every time fuel injection is performed a predetermined number of times.

  Assuming that the update timing of the learning value Learn has arrived, the CPU 71 determines “Yes” in step 1315 and proceeds to step 1320, where the update value DLearn of the learning value is updated in the previous step 1310. Is set to the value of the integral term Ksubilow after the current annealing.

  Subsequently, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1325 and adds the updated value DLearn obtained in step 1320 to the learned value Learn stored in the backup RAM 74 at that time to obtain a new learned value Learn (ie, learned). In step 1330, the above-described third guard process (−G ≦ Learn ≦ G) is performed on the updated learned value Learn. The learned value Learn subjected to the third guard process is stored in the backup RAM 74.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1335 to determine whether or not the learning value Learn is in guard restriction (that is, Learn = G or −G). When determining “No”, the CPU 71 immediately proceeds to step 1345. . On the other hand, if the determination is “Yes”, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1340 to update the update value DLearn from the learning value Learn that is guard-restricted in step 1360 described later when the last learned value Learn is updated. The previous learning value Learn1 is corrected to a value obtained by subtracting, and then the process proceeds to step 1345.

  When the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1345, the update value DLearn is subtracted from the integral term Ksubi by subtracting the update value DLearn from the integral term Ksubi subjected to the second guard processing at the previous step 1255 at that time, and the following step At 1350, the deviation integral value SDVoxs is corrected to a value (Ksubi / Ki) in order to correspond the deviation integral value SDVoxs to the value of the integral term Ksubi after the above subtraction.

  Then, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1355 to clear the value of the integral term Ksubilow after the annealing process to “0”, and in the subsequent step 1360, the previous learning value Learn1 is subjected to the third guard process in the above step 1330. After setting to a value equal to the learning value Learn, the routine proceeds to step 1395 and the present routine is temporarily terminated.

  In this way, each time the update timing arrives, the stationary component (= Ksubilow) of the value of the integral term Ksubi subjected to the second guard process is transferred to the learned value Learn that has been subjected to the third guard process. Thus, the learning value Learn is updated.

<Calculation and storage of basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient>
Next, the operation for calculating the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF will be described. The CPU 71 performs the routine shown by the flowchart in FIG. 14 every time the fuel injection start timing (injection instruction start time) arrives for the fuel injection cylinder. It is designed to be executed repeatedly.

  Therefore, when the fuel injection start timing has arrived for the fuel injection cylinder, the CPU 71 starts processing from step 1400, proceeds to step 1405, determines whether or not the main feedback condition is satisfied, and determines “No”. In this case, the process immediately proceeds to step 1495 to end the present routine tentatively. In this case, calculation of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF and storage processing of the value of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF in the backup RAM 74 are not executed. This main feedback condition is the same as the main feedback condition in steps 1020 and 1105.

  Now, assuming that the main feedback condition is satisfied, the CPU 71 determines “Yes” in step 1405, proceeds to step 1410, and determines the number of strokes based on the table MapN (Mc (k), NE). N is determined.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1415, where the command fuel injection amount Fi (k−N) N strokes before the current time, the current detected air-fuel ratio abyfs (k) obtained in the previous step 1110, and the current time Based on the control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs (k−N) before the N stroke and the above equation (10), the basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset is obtained.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1420 and is based on the basic fuel injection amount equivalent command injection amount Fbaset, the pre-correction basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k−N) N strokes before the present time, and the above equation (11). The basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF1 before the low pass filter processing is obtained.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1425, where the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF1 before the low-pass filter process is low-pass filtered by the low-pass filter A15f to obtain the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF.

  Next, the CPU 71 proceeds to step 1430 to determine whether or not the KF storage condition is satisfied. The storage process of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF is preferably executed in a steady operation state where the value of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF is stable. In this example, the KF storage condition is that the engine 10 is in a predetermined steady operation state (for example, a state where the fluctuation range of the operation speed NE and the accelerator pedal operation amount Accp is not more than a predetermined value over a predetermined period up to the present time). The case holds.

  Assuming that the KF storage condition is satisfied, the CPU 71 determines “Yes” in step 1430 and proceeds to step 1435 to select KFmem selected from the latest value of the in-cylinder intake air amount Mc (k). (m) The value of (m: 1, 2, 3, 4) is updated to a value equal to the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF obtained in the previous step 1425, and the updated value of KFmem (m) is changed. After the data is stored in the corresponding memory of the backup RAM 74, the process proceeds to step 1495. On the other hand, if the CPU 71 determines “No” in step 1430, it proceeds to step 1495 immediately without executing the processing of step 1435.

  Thereby, when the main feedback condition is satisfied, the calculation (update) of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF is executed every time the fuel injection start timing comes for the fuel injection cylinder. Then, in step 1025 of the routine of FIG. 10 described above, the latest value of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF calculated (updated) as described above is used, so that the pre-correction basic fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k ) Will be corrected. In addition, when the KF storage condition is satisfied, the storage process of the value of the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF to the backup RAM 74 is executed.

  As described above, according to the embodiment of the air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine according to the present invention, the difference between the downstream target value Voxsref and the output value of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor 67 (= output deviation amount DVoxs). The steady component of the integral term Ksubi (= integral term Ksubilow after annealing) is transferred to the learning value Learn at every predetermined timing. Therefore, the sum of the integral term Ksubi and the learning value Learn (= sum value SUM) functions as a substantial integral term value. The sum value SUM is subjected to “first guard processing” (−G ≦ SUM ≦ G), and the sum value SUM subjected to the first guard processing is used as a sub FB correction amount FBsub (= proportional term Ksubp +) used for sub FB control. Used to calculate the derivative term Ksubd + sum value SUM).

  As a result, the guard process is directly performed on the sum SUM itself that functions as a substantial integral term when performing air-fuel ratio correction by sub-FB control. Therefore, it is possible to appropriately perform guard processing for air-fuel ratio correction, and as a result, it is possible to effectively suppress the occurrence of problems such as deviation of the air-fuel ratio from the combustible region.

  Further, the integral term Ksubi and the learning value Learn used for calculating the total value SUM (= Ksubi + Learn) are “second guard process” (−G ≦ Ksubi ≦ G) and “third guard process” (− G ≦ Learn ≦ G) is applied, and the “update prohibition process” described above is also performed. As a result, the time when the sum SUM once stuck to the guard value (value G or value -G) returns to within the guard range (-G <SUM <G) can be advanced. As a result, the period during which the air-fuel ratio is maintained at a value significantly different from the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio can be shortened, so that deterioration of emissions can be suppressed.

  Furthermore, since the sub FB correction amount FBsub includes an integral term (= sum value SUM) for the output deviation amount DVoxs, even if the output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 has an error, It can be guaranteed that the air-fuel ratio downstream of the first catalyst 53 converges to the air-fuel ratio corresponding to the downstream target value Voxsref (that is, the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio) in the steady state.

  In addition, the main FB control based on the value based on the output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 and the value subjected to the high-pass filter can correct the air-fuel ratio appropriately for the transient disturbance.

  In addition, “basic fuel injection amount correction” is performed by multiplying the base fuel injection amount Fbaseb (k) before correction by the basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient KF obtained according to the above equations (10) to (12). Thus, the “fuel injection amount error” can be appropriately compensated.

  The present invention is not limited to the above embodiment, and various modifications can be employed within the scope of the present invention. For example, in the above embodiment, the sub FB control is performed by changing the target air-fuel ratio (control target air-fuel ratio abyfrs) according to the sub FB correction amount FBsub including the sum SUM. The output value Vabyfs of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor 66 may be corrected according to the included sub FB correction amount FBsub, and the sub FB control may be performed based on the corrected output value, or the sub FB correction amount FBsub including the total value SUM Accordingly, the sub FB control may be performed by directly correcting the basic fuel injection amount.

  In the above embodiment, the guard value (first guard value) used for the “first guard process” for the sum SUM and the guard value (second guard value) used for the “second guard process” for the integral term Ksubi. Guard value) and the guard value (third guard value) used in the “third guard process” for the learning value Learn are all the same value (value G or value−G), but are different from each other. Also good.

  In the above embodiment, in addition to the “first guard process”, the “second guard process”, the “third guard process”, and the “update prohibition process” are performed. "May not be performed. Alternatively, the “third guard process” and the “update prohibition process” may not be performed. Alternatively, the “second guard process”, the “third guard process”, and the “update prohibition process” may not be performed.

  In the above embodiment, the learning value is a value representing a steady component of the integral term Ksubi obtained by multiplying the deviation integral value SDVoxs, which is the time integral value of the output deviation amount DVoxs, by the integral gain Ki (= Learn). , And the sum of the integral term Ksubi and the learned value Learn is used as the sum value SUM subjected to the first guard processing, but as shown in FIG. 15, the steady state of the deviation integrated value SDVoxs itself is used as the learned value. A value (= Learn1) representing a simple component may be used, and the sum of the deviation integrated value SDVoxs and the learned value Learn1 may be used as the sum value SUM1 subjected to the first guard processing. In FIG. 15, the guard value G1 used for the first to third guard processes is a value obtained by dividing the guard value G in FIG. 5 by the integral gain Ki.

  In this case, the integral term Ksubi is obtained by multiplying the sum value SUM1 subjected to the first guard processing by the integral gain Ki (see the function block A91), and the sub FB correction amount FBsub is obtained according to the following equation (14). Also by this, the same operation and effect as the first embodiment can be obtained.

FBsub = Ksubp + Ksubi + Ksubd (14)

1 is a schematic view of an internal combustion engine to which an air-fuel ratio control apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention is applied. 2 is a graph showing the relationship between the output voltage of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor shown in FIG. 1 and the air-fuel ratio. 2 is a graph showing the relationship between the output voltage of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor shown in FIG. 1 and the air-fuel ratio. FIG. 2 is a functional block diagram when the air-fuel ratio control device shown in FIG. 1 executes air-fuel ratio feedback control. FIG. 5 is a functional block diagram when a sub FB correction amount calculating unit shown in FIG. 4 calculates a sub FB correction amount. As a comparison target of the air-fuel ratio control device shown in FIG. 1, in the air-fuel ratio control device shown in FIG. 1, “first guard processing”, “second guard processing”, “third guard processing”, and “update prohibition processing” ”In the case of using a device that does not perform all of the above (comparison target device A), the output value of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor, the integral term, the integral term after annealing, the learned value, and the total value (= integral term + learning) 5 is a time chart showing an example of a change in value). As a comparison target of the air-fuel ratio control device shown in FIG. 1, corresponding to FIG. 6A in the case of using the “first guard process” (comparison target device B) in the comparison target device A shown in FIG. 6A. It is a time chart. When the comparison target device B shown in FIG. 6B that performs the “second guard process” and the “third guard process” (comparison target device C) is used as the comparison target of the air-fuel ratio control device shown in FIG. FIG. 6B is a time chart corresponding to FIG. 6B. 6 is a time chart corresponding to FIG. 6C when the air-fuel ratio control device shown in FIG. 1 is used. 3 is a graph showing a table that defines a relationship between an operation speed and an in-cylinder intake air amount, and a stroke number corresponding to a delay time, which is referred to by the CPU shown in FIG. 1. FIG. 5 is a functional block diagram when a basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient setting unit shown in FIG. 4 sets a basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient. It is the figure which showed a mode that the calculated basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient was classified according to the cylinder intake air amount, and was memorize | stored in the memory of backup RAM. FIG. 3 is a flowchart showing a routine for calculating a command fuel injection amount executed by a CPU shown in FIG. 1 and performing an injection instruction. FIG. 3 is a flowchart showing a routine for calculating a main FB correction amount executed by a CPU shown in FIG. 1. FIG. 3 is a flowchart showing a routine for calculating a sub FB correction amount executed by a CPU shown in FIG. 1. FIG. It is the flowchart which showed the routine for performing the update of the learning value which CPU shown in FIG. 1 performs. 2 is a flowchart showing a routine for calculating a basic fuel injection amount correction coefficient executed by a CPU shown in FIG. 1. It is a functional block diagram when the sub FB correction amount calculating means calculates the sub FB correction amount in the air-fuel ratio control apparatus according to the modification of the embodiment of the present invention.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 ... Internal combustion engine, 25 ... Combustion chamber, 39 ... Injector, 51 ... Exhaust manifold, 53 ... Three way catalyst (1st catalyst), 66 ... Upstream air-fuel ratio sensor, 67 ... Downstream air-fuel ratio sensor, 70 ... Electric control Device 71 ... CPU 74 ... Backup RAM

Claims (7)

  1. A catalyst disposed in an exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine;
    A downstream air-fuel ratio sensor disposed in the exhaust passage downstream of the catalyst and outputting a value corresponding to the air-fuel ratio of the gas flowing out from the catalyst;
    Fuel injection means for injecting fuel;
    An air-fuel ratio control device for an internal combustion engine applied to an internal combustion engine comprising:
    Integral value calculating means for calculating a deviation integral value that is updated by integrating a value corresponding to a deviation between an output value of the downstream air-fuel ratio sensor and a target value corresponding to the target air-fuel ratio;
    A learning value representing a stationary component of the value based on the deviation integral value is calculated / updated using a value based on the deviation integral value, and an amount corresponding to the amount of change of the learning value due to the update is calculated and updated. Learning means to subtract from the value based on
    A total value calculation means for calculating a total value that is a sum of the value based on the deviation integral value and the learning value;
    First guard process execution means for performing a first guard process for limiting the total value to the first guard value when the total value exceeds the first guard value;
    Air-fuel ratio feedback control for feedback-controlling the amount of fuel injected from the fuel injection means so that the air-fuel ratio of the gas flowing into the catalyst becomes the target air-fuel ratio based on at least the total value subjected to the first guard processing Means,
    An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine comprising:
  2. An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine according to claim 1,
    A second guard process executing means for performing a second guard process for limiting a value based on the deviation integral value to the second guard value when a value based on the deviation integral value exceeds a second guard value;
    The total value calculation means includes:
    An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine configured to use a sum of a value based on the deviation integrated value subjected to the second guard process and the learned value as the total value.
  3. An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine according to claim 1,
    A third guard process executing means for performing a third guard process for limiting the learned value to the third guard value when the learned value exceeds the third guard value;
    The total value calculation means includes:
    An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine configured to use a sum of a value based on the deviation integral value and a learning value subjected to the third guard process as the total value.
  4. An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine according to claim 1,
    Second guard process execution means for performing a second guard process for limiting a value based on the deviation integral value to the second guard value when a value based on the deviation integral value exceeds a second guard value;
    Third guard process execution means for performing a third guard process for limiting the learned value to the third guard value when the learned value exceeds the third guard value;
    With
    The total value calculation means includes:
    An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine configured to use a sum of a value based on the deviation integrated value subjected to the second guard process and a learned value subjected to the third guard process as the total value.
  5. The air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine according to claim 4,
    An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine, wherein the same value is used as the first guard value, the second guard value, and the third guard value.
  6. An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 3 to 5,
    The integral value calculating means includes
    When the learning value is limited to the third guard value, the internal combustion engine is configured not to update the deviation integral value corresponding to the direction in which the value based on the deviation integral value approaches the first guard value. Engine air-fuel ratio control device.
  7. An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 1 to 6,
    The internal combustion engine includes an upstream air-fuel ratio sensor that is disposed in the exhaust passage upstream of the catalyst and outputs a value corresponding to the air-fuel ratio of the gas flowing into the catalyst,
    The air-fuel ratio feedback control means includes
    The fuel injection means injects the air-fuel ratio of the gas flowing into the catalyst to the target air-fuel ratio based on at least the sum value subjected to the first guard process and the output value of the upstream air-fuel ratio sensor. An air-fuel ratio control apparatus for an internal combustion engine configured to feedback control the amount of fuel.
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Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH03258944A (en) * 1990-03-07 1991-11-19 Nissan Motor Co Ltd Air-fuel ratio control device for engine
JP2002227691A (en) * 2001-02-05 2002-08-14 Denso Corp Air fuel ratio controller for internal combustion engine
JP2005036742A (en) * 2003-07-16 2005-02-10 Toyota Motor Corp Air-fuel ratio control device of internal combustion engine
JP2005083200A (en) * 2003-09-04 2005-03-31 Nissan Motor Co Ltd Air-fuel ratio control device for internal combustion engine
JP2005113729A (en) * 2003-10-06 2005-04-28 Toyota Motor Corp Air fuel ratio control device for internal combustion engine

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH03258944A (en) * 1990-03-07 1991-11-19 Nissan Motor Co Ltd Air-fuel ratio control device for engine
JP2002227691A (en) * 2001-02-05 2002-08-14 Denso Corp Air fuel ratio controller for internal combustion engine
JP2005036742A (en) * 2003-07-16 2005-02-10 Toyota Motor Corp Air-fuel ratio control device of internal combustion engine
JP2005083200A (en) * 2003-09-04 2005-03-31 Nissan Motor Co Ltd Air-fuel ratio control device for internal combustion engine
JP2005113729A (en) * 2003-10-06 2005-04-28 Toyota Motor Corp Air fuel ratio control device for internal combustion engine

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