JP2007228254A - Interrogator of wireless tag communication system - Google Patents

Interrogator of wireless tag communication system Download PDF

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JP2007228254A
JP2007228254A JP2006047027A JP2006047027A JP2007228254A JP 2007228254 A JP2007228254 A JP 2007228254A JP 2006047027 A JP2006047027 A JP 2006047027A JP 2006047027 A JP2006047027 A JP 2006047027A JP 2007228254 A JP2007228254 A JP 2007228254A
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transmission
antenna
means
reception
interrogator
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JP4524674B2 (en
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Tsutomu Ohashi
勉 大橋
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Brother Ind Ltd
ブラザー工業株式会社
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Abstract

The present invention reduces reception interference due to mixing of leakage components of a transmission signal.
An interrogator 100 accesses a transmission / reception antenna 1 for transmitting / receiving signals to / from an antenna of a RFID circuit element, and an IC circuit portion of the RFID circuit element via the antenna 1. A high-frequency circuit 2. The high-frequency circuit 2 includes a transmission unit 11 that transmits a signal to the RFID circuit element via the antenna 1, a reception unit 12 that inputs a response signal from the RFID circuit element received by the antenna 1, and a transmission unit 11. And the antenna 1 or the circulator 13 that selectively connects the receiving unit 12 and the antenna 1. The electrical length D from the circulator 13 to the feeding point S of the antenna 1 is (2n + 1) λ / 4, where n is an integer of 0 or more.
[Selection] Figure 3

Description

  The present invention relates to an interrogator of a wireless tag communication system that reads information from a wireless tag circuit element capable of wireless communication of information with the outside.

  In wireless communication devices that transmit and receive via wireless communication, the amount of radio wave attenuation (transmission / reception separation) between the transmission antenna and the reception antenna is finite, so the transmission wave is inevitably transmitted directly from the reception antenna to the reception system. Since it is received and mixed, it becomes an interference signal and interferes with reception of a response signal from the communication partner.

Here, in order to solve such transmission / reception interference, for example, a technique described in Patent Document 1 has already been proposed as a conventional technique related to a radar transponder. In this prior art, an antenna that is used for both transmission and reception is used, and a circulator is connected to the antenna that is used for both transmission and reception. Then, on the receiving side of the circulator, a single-pole double-headed switch connected to the receiving circuit side at the time of reception is provided on the ground side when viewed from the circulator, and the receiving circuit receives a reception signal from the receiving-side connection side of this single-pole double-headed switch. By adopting such a configuration, leakage of the transmission signal to the reception circuit is reduced, and reflection from the switch to the transmission side is reduced so that stable operation can be obtained.
JP-A-8-320373

  By the way, in recent years, an RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) system that reads / writes information of a wireless tag by transmitting an inquiry and receiving a response from a reader / writer without contact with a small wireless tag is known. ing.

  For example, a wireless tag circuit element included in a label-like wireless tag includes an IC circuit unit that stores predetermined wireless tag information and an antenna that is connected to the IC circuit unit and transmits / receives information. When a transmission wave is transmitted from a transmission antenna of a reader / writer as an interrogator to a wireless tag as a responder, the wireless tag circuit element transmits a response using the energy of the radio wave of the transmission wave. Also in this case, interference from the transmission wave to the reception system occurs in the reader / writer as described above.

  However, in the case of wireless communication between a reader / writer as an interrogator and a wireless tag circuit element as a responder in this way, when the reader / writer transmits a radio wave, the radio wave from the wireless tag returned almost simultaneously is read out. / Because it is received by a writer, the above-mentioned conventional technique related to the radar / transponder cannot cope with it. In addition, a reflected wave is also generated in an antenna that is used for both transmission and reception, and is mixed into the reception system, so that the reception wave from the RFID tag circuit element is interfered and reception accuracy is lowered.

  The object of the present invention is to reduce the leakage component from the transmission side to the reception side and improve the information transmission / reception accuracy even when communicating with the RFID tag circuit element as a responder. It is to provide an interrogator for a tag communication system.

  To achieve the above object, according to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a transmitting / receiving antenna means for transmitting and receiving information in a contactless manner with a RFID circuit element to be interrogated, and a transmission signal including at least a carrier wave having a wavelength λ. Information transmitting means for transmitting and accessing the RFID circuit element in a non-contact manner via an antenna means, and a response signal returned from the RFID circuit element in response to a transmission signal transmitted by the information transmitting means An information receiving means for receiving contactlessly through an antenna means; and a transmission / reception separator for connecting the information transmitting means or the information receiving means and the antenna means, wherein n is an integer of 0 or more, and the transmission / reception separation The electrical length from the device to the antenna means is (2n + 1) λ / 4.

  A transmission signal from the information transmission means is transmitted from the transmission / reception separator to the RFID tag circuit element to be interrogated via the antenna means for both transmission and reception, and the RFID tag circuit element is accessed without contact. Then, the response signal returned in response to the signal is received by the information receiving means via the antenna means, whereby information is transmitted to and received from the RFID circuit element. That is, the response signal from the RFID circuit element is received almost simultaneously with the transmission of the transmission signal. At this time, since the transmission / reception separation between the transmission side and the reception side in the transmission / reception separator is finite, a leakage component that wraps around from the transmission side to the information reception means side occurs. If this leakage component is mixed into the information receiving means, it may become an interference signal and interfere with reception of a response signal from the RFID circuit element.

  In the first invention of this application, by setting the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means to (2n + 1) λ / 4, the reflection component of the transmission signal generated from the information transmission means and reflected by the antenna means from the transmission / reception separator is Since the electric length of (2n + 1) λ / 2 is propagated while being reflected by the antenna means from the transmitter / receiver separator and reciprocating and returning to the transmitter / receiver separator again, it is generated from the information transmitting means as described above. Thus, the phase of the leakage component of the transmission signal that is going to wrap around from the transmission / reception separator is reversed. Thereby, since this reflection component can reduce the said leakage component, the reception interference by mixing in the said information receiving means can be reduced, and the information transmission / reception precision can be improved.

  According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the first aspect of the invention, an electrical length ΔL that compensates for a phase change caused by the transmission / reception separator is added to the electrical length (2n + 1) λ / 4 from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means. The electrical length from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means is (2n + 1) λ / 4 ± ΔL.

  By further increasing or decreasing the electrical length according to the phase advance or delay in the transmission / reception separator, the leakage component can be more reliably reduced and the information transmission / reception accuracy can be improved.

  According to a third invention, in the first invention, the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means is changed to be (2n + 1) λ / 4 corresponding to the wavelength λ set variably. It has the 1st electric length adjustment means for this.

  As a result, even if the wavelength λ of the transmission signal changes, the first electrical length adjusting means can set the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means to (2n + 1) λ / 4 correspondingly. It is possible to reliably reduce reception interference.

  According to a fourth invention, in the second invention, the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means corresponds to the wavelength λ that is variably set to be (2n + 1) λ / 4 ± ΔL. It has the 2nd electric length adjustment means for making it change, It is characterized by the above-mentioned.

  The second electrical length adjusting means further increases / decreases the electrical length by ± ΔL according to the advance or delay of the phase in the transmission / reception separator, so that the leakage component can be more reliably reduced and the information transmission / reception accuracy can be improved.

  A fifth invention is the above first or third invention, wherein the impedance is provided between the transmission / reception separator and the antenna unit, and the impedance between the antenna unit side and the information transmission unit side or the information reception unit side is set. An impedance matching circuit for matching, and first correction means for correcting the electrical length so that the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator including the impedance matching circuit to the antenna means is (2n + 1) λ / 4 It is characterized by having.

  When using an antenna, in order to improve communication efficiency, an impedance matching circuit that matches the impedance on the antenna side and the impedance on the circuit side connected to the antenna may be provided. The electrical length to the antenna means changes compared to before the impedance matching circuit is installed. In the fifth invention of the present application, first correction means is provided correspondingly, and the changed electric length is corrected to maintain the total electric length from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means at (2n + 1) λ / 4. To do. Thereby, even if an impedance matching circuit is provided, reception interference can be reliably reduced.

  A sixth invention is the above-mentioned second or fourth invention, wherein the impedance between the antenna means side and the information transmitting part side or the information receiving part side is provided between the transmission / reception separator and the antenna means. An impedance matching circuit for matching and a second correction for correcting the electrical length so that the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator including the impedance matching circuit to the antenna means is (2n + 1) λ / 4 ± ΔL. Means.

  The second correction means performs correction to increase or decrease the electrical length by ± ΔL according to the phase advance or delay in the transmission / reception separator, thereby further reducing the leakage component and improving the information transmission / reception accuracy. .

  According to a seventh invention, in any one of the first, third, and fifth inventions, the antenna means is connected to the information transmitting means or the information receiving means via the plurality of transmitter / receiver separators. Antenna elements, and the electrical length of each path from the transmission / reception separator to the corresponding antenna element is (2n + 1) λ / 4, respectively.

  Thereby, any leakage component of the transmission signal in the transmission / reception separator corresponding to each of the plurality of antenna elements can be reduced, and the information transmission / reception accuracy can be improved.

  According to an eighth invention, in any one of the second, fourth, and sixth inventions, the antenna unit is connected to the information transmitting unit or the information receiving unit via the plurality of transmission / reception separators. An antenna element is provided, and an electrical length of each path from the transmission / reception separator to the corresponding antenna element is (2n + 1) λ / 4 ± ΔL, respectively.

  As a result, the electrical length is further increased / decreased by ± ΔL according to the phase advance or delay in the transmission / reception separators corresponding to each of the plurality of antenna elements, and all of the leakage components are reliably reduced to improve the information transmission / reception accuracy. Can do.

  According to a ninth invention, in the seventh or eighth invention, m is a positive integer, and a difference in electrical length between paths from the transmission / reception separator to the corresponding antenna element is mλ / 2. Features.

  By providing a difference of λ / 2 m times in the electrical length of each path, it becomes possible to improve the degree of freedom of arrangement of a plurality of antenna elements while maintaining information transmission / reception accuracy, and downsize the interrogator itself It becomes possible to do.

  In a tenth aspect based on any one of the first to ninth aspects, the transmitter / receiver selectively connects the information transmitting means and the antenna means or the information receiving means and the antenna means. It is a circulator.

  By setting the electrical length from the circulator to the antenna means to (2n + 1) λ / 4, the reflection component of the transmission signal generated from the information transmission means and reflected from the transmission / reception separator by the antenna means is generated from the information transmission means and transmitted / received. It is possible to reduce the leakage component of the transmission signal that attempts to sneak out from the device and improve the information transmission / reception accuracy.

  In an eleventh aspect based on any one of the first to ninth aspects, the transmission / reception separator selectively connects the information transmitting means and the antenna means or the information receiving means and the antenna means. It is a directional coupler.

  By setting the electrical length from the directional coupler to the antenna means to (2n + 1) λ / 4, a reflection component of the transmission signal generated from the information transmission means and reflected from the transmission / reception separator by the antenna means is generated from the information transmission means. In addition, the leakage component of the transmission signal that attempts to wrap around from the transmission / reception separator can be reduced, and the information transmission / reception accuracy can be improved.

  A twelfth invention is characterized in that, in the first to eleventh inventions, an attenuator circuit is provided so as to connect the information transmitting means and the information receiving means without going through the transmission / reception separator.

  Thus, by appropriately adjusting the level of the attenuator circuit, the reflection component of the transmission signal generated from the information transmission means and reflected from the antenna means by the transmission / reception separator, and the transmission / reception separation generated from the information transmission means, which are in opposite phases to each other It is possible to make the level of the leakage component of the transmission signal going around from the device substantially the same. As a result, the reflection component and the leakage component can be almost canceled out, so that reception interference due to mixing into the information receiving means can be more reliably reduced.

  ADVANTAGE OF THE INVENTION According to this invention, even when it communicates with the RFID circuit element as a responder, the leakage component from a transmission side to a reception side can be reduced and information transmission / reception accuracy can be improved.

  Hereinafter, an embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings.

  FIG. 1 is a system configuration diagram showing an overall outline of an RFID tag communication system to which this embodiment is applied.

  In FIG. 1, the RFID tag communication system S includes an interrogator 100 according to the present embodiment and a RFID tag T as a responder corresponding thereto.

  The wireless tag T has a wireless tag circuit element To including an antenna 51 and an IC circuit unit 52 (details will be described later).

  The interrogator 100 transmits / receives signals to / from the antenna 51 of the RFID circuit element To by wireless communication, and the IC circuit section 52 of the RFID circuit element To via the antenna 1. A high-frequency circuit 2 for accessing (reading or writing), a signal processing circuit 3 for processing a signal read from the RFID circuit element To, and a control circuit 4 are provided.

  The control circuit 4 is a so-called microcomputer, and although not shown in detail, it is composed of a central processing unit such as a CPU, a ROM, and a RAM, and is stored in advance in the ROM while using a temporary storage function of the RAM. Signal processing is performed according to the program.

  FIG. 2 is a functional block diagram showing a functional configuration of the RFID circuit element To provided in the RFID tag T.

  In FIG. 2, the RFID circuit element To includes an antenna 1 that transmits and receives signals in a contactless manner with the antenna 1 on the interrogator 100 side using a high frequency such as a UHF band, and the IC circuit that is connected to the antenna 51. Part 52.

  The IC circuit unit 52 includes a rectification unit 53 that rectifies the carrier wave received by the antenna 51, a power supply unit 54 that stores energy of the carrier wave rectified by the rectification unit 53 and serves as a drive power source, and the antenna 51. Connected to the antenna 51, a clock extraction unit 56 that extracts a clock signal from the received carrier wave and supplies it to a control unit 55 (described later), a memory unit 57 that functions as an information storage unit that can store a predetermined information signal The modulation / demodulation unit 58 and the control unit 55 for controlling the operation of the RFID circuit element To through the clock extraction unit 56 and the modulation / demodulation unit 58 are provided.

  The modem unit 58 demodulates the communication signal received from the antenna 51 of the interrogator 100 received by the antenna 51 and modulates and reflects the carrier wave received from the antenna 51 based on the response signal from the control unit 55. .

  The control unit 55 interprets the received signal demodulated by the modulation / demodulation unit 58, generates a response signal based on the information signal stored in the memory unit 57, and returns the response by the modulation / demodulation unit 58. Execute proper control.

  FIG. 3 is a functional block diagram showing detailed functions of the high-frequency circuit 2 provided in the interrogator 100.

  In FIG. 3, the high-frequency circuit 2 includes a transmission unit 11 that transmits a signal to the RFID circuit element To via the antenna 1 and a reception unit that inputs a response signal from the RFID circuit element To received by the antenna 1. 12 and a circulator 13 that is a transmission / reception separator that selectively connects the transmission unit 11 and the antenna 1 or the reception unit 12 and the antenna 1. The electrical length D from the circulator 13 to the feeding point S of the antenna 1 is (2n + 1) λ / 4 (where λ is the wavelength of the radio wave used for communication), where n is an integer greater than or equal to 0. The reason for this will be described in detail later. In addition, as a transmission / reception separator, you may use a directional coupler instead of said circulator 13. FIG.

The transmission unit 11 includes a crystal resonator 21 that generates a carrier wave for accessing the IC circuit unit 52 of the RFID circuit element To, a PLL (Phase Locked)
Loop) 22 and VCO (Voltage)
Controlled Oscillator) 23 and a transmission multiplication circuit that modulates the generated carrier wave based on the signal supplied from the signal processing circuit 3 (in this example, amplitude modulation based on the “TX_ASK” signal from the signal processing circuit 3). 24 (however, in the case of amplitude modulation, a variable amplification factor amplifier or the like may be used) and the modulated wave modulated by the transmission multiplication circuit 24 is amplified by determining the amplification factor by the “TX_PWR” signal from the control circuit 4 The variable transmission amplifier 25 is provided. The generated carrier wave preferably uses a frequency such as a UHF band or a microwave band, and the output of the transmission amplifier 25 is transmitted to the antenna 1 via the circulator 13 and is connected to the RFID circuit element To. Is supplied to the IC circuit section 52.

  The receiving unit 12 multiplies the reflected wave from the RFID circuit element To received by the antenna 1 by the generated carrier wave and demodulates the received first multiplying circuit 31, and the receiving first multiplying circuit 31 A first band-pass filter 32 for extracting only a signal of a necessary band from the output, a reception first amplifier 34 that amplifies the output of the first band-pass filter 32 and supplies it to the first limiter 33, and the antenna 1 The reception second multiplication circuit 35 that multiplies the reflected wave from the RFID circuit element To received by the carrier wave that has been generated and delayed in phase by 90 °, and the output from the reception second multiplication circuit 35. A second bandpass filter 36 for extracting only a signal in the band, and a reception second amplifier 38 that amplifies the output of the second bandpass filter 36 and supplies the amplified signal to the second limiter 37. It has. The signal “RXS-I” output from the first limiter 33 and the signal “RXS-Q” output from the second limiter 37 are input to the signal processing circuit 3 and processed.

  The outputs of the reception first amplifier 34 and the reception second amplifier 38 are also input to an RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) circuit 39, and a signal “RSSI” indicating the strength of these signals is input to the signal processing circuit 3. It has become so. In this way, in the present embodiment, the response signal from the RFID circuit element To is demodulated by IQ orthogonal demodulation.

  In the above basic configuration, an inquiry (inquiry) signal generated by the transmitter 52 of the high-frequency circuit 2 of the interrogator 100 is transmitted from the antenna 1 via the circulator 13 and received by the antenna 51 of the RFID circuit element To. The Then, the response signal generated by the IC circuit unit 52 of the RFID circuit element To is transmitted (returned) from the antenna 51 and received by the antenna 1 of the interrogator 100. Based on this, reading / writing of information is performed between the RFID circuit element To and the interrogator 100. That is, in the interrogator 100, when the transmission signal is transmitted from the antenna 1, the response signal from the RFID circuit element To is received by the antenna 1 almost simultaneously.

  At this time, since the transmission / reception separation between the transmission unit 11 side and the reception unit 12 side in the circulator 13 is finite, a part of the carrier wave (transmission signal) from the transmission unit 11 side leaks to the reception unit 12 side. Ingredients are produced. If the leakage component of the transmission signal is mixed into the reception unit 12, it becomes an interference signal to the response signal from the RFID circuit element To, and the reception sensitivity is lowered or the circuit of the reception unit 12 is saturated and the reception signal ( There is a possibility that the gain of the response signal) will decrease. A part of the transmission signal from the circulator 13 toward the antenna 1 is reflected by the antenna 1 and returns to the circulator 13 again.

  Therefore, in the present embodiment, as described above, the electrical length D from the circulator 13 to the feeding point S of the antenna 1 is (2n + 1) λ / 4 (λ: wavelength of communication radio wave). As a result, the reflection component of the transmission signal reflected by the antenna 1 propagates an electrical length of (2n + 1) λ / 2 while being reflected by the antenna 1 from the circulator 13 and reciprocating back to the circulator 13. It becomes. For this reason, the reflection component of the transmission signal has an opposite phase to the leakage component of the transmission signal that attempts to circulate to the reception unit 12 side in the circulator 13. Thereby, the reflection component of the transmission signal and the leakage component of the transmission signal are canceled out, and the leakage component is reduced by the reflection component.

  FIG. 4 is a conceptual diagram for illustrating a specific example in which the reflection component from the antenna 1 reduces the leakage component at the circulator 13.

  In FIG. 4, Pt is the transmission power generated in the transmission unit 11, Pa is the antenna power supplied to the antenna 1, Pr is the reflected power from the antenna 1, and Pi is input to the reception unit 12. Received input power. For example, when the standing wave ratio (VSWR = (1 + γ) / (1−γ)) is 2 in antenna matching, γ = 0.33 and the power reflection coefficient is 0.11 (0.33 × 0.33). It becomes. This means that the reflected power Pr from the antenna 1 is -9.5 dB in magnitude with respect to the transmission power Pa.

Here, for example, when the forward loss of the circulator 13 is 0.5 dB and the backward loss of the circulator 13 is 10 dB (leakage component in the circulator 13), the received input power Pi is the reflected power Pr from the antenna 1, and This is the difference between the negative phase leakage component (reverse direction loss) and Pt−0.5−9.5 = Pt−10, respectively.
Therefore, the reflected power from the antenna 1 and the leakage component at the circulator 13 cancel each other. Therefore, the signal component input to the receiving unit 12 is only the input power from the antenna 1 such as a response signal from the wireless tag T.

  As described above, according to this embodiment, since the electrical length D from the circulator 13 to the antenna 1 is (2n + 1) λ / 4, the reflection component of the transmission signal reflected by the antenna 1 and the transmission signal of the circulator 13 are The leakage component has an opposite phase, and the reflection component of the transmission signal reduces the leakage component of the transmission signal. As a result, reception interference due to mixing of leakage components into the reception unit 12 is suppressed, so that the reception gain is increased and the reception sensitivity of the response signal from the wireless tag T is increased. As a result, information transmission / reception accuracy can be improved.

  Note that the present invention is not limited to the above-described embodiment, and various modifications can be made without departing from the technical idea and spirit thereof. Hereinafter, such modifications will be described in order.

(1) In the case where an attenuator circuit is provided FIG. 5 is a main part configuration diagram of an interrogator according to this modification. In FIG. 5, the high frequency circuit 2 of the interrogator 100A is provided with a variable attenuator circuit 40 that can adjust the attenuation for adjusting the level of the leakage component of the transmission signal that is going to circulate from the circulator 13 to the receiving unit 12 side. It has been. The variable attenuator circuit 40 is connected between the transmission end and the reception end of the circulator 13 so as to bypass without passing through the circulator 13.

  In such a configuration, by appropriately adjusting the amplitude level of the variable attenuator circuit 40, the amplitude level of the reflection component of the transmission signal reflected by the antenna 1 and the transmission signal to be sneak from the circulator 13 to the receiving unit 12 side. It becomes possible to make the amplitude level of the leakage component substantially the same. As a result, by setting the electrical length D from the circulator 13 to the feeding point S of the antenna 1 to (2n + 1) λ / 4, it is possible to sufficiently cancel out the reflection component and the leakage component that are in opposite phases. It is possible to further reliably reduce reception interference due to the mixture of leakage components.

(2) When it is possible to cope with a plurality of types of frequencies (wavelengths) FIG. 6 is a main part configuration diagram of an interrogator according to this modification. In FIG. 6, the interrogator 100B corresponds to the wavelength λ that is variably set, and switches the path for changing the electrical length from the circulator 13 to the feeding point S of the antenna 1 to be (2n + 1) λ / 4. A portion 45 is provided. The path switching unit 45 has a plurality of (here, three) paths having different line lengths. These paths are selectively switched in conjunction with, for example, a signal sent from the control circuit 4 to the PLL 22 (see FIG. 3) of the transmission unit 11 according to a change in the frequency of the carrier wave.

  For example, when communication is performed while changing the frequency of a carrier wave by frequency hopping, the line length is switched by the path switching unit 45 according to the set frequency, and the electrical length from the circulator 13 to the feeding point S of the antenna 1 is ( 2n + 1) λ / 4. At this time, the wavelength λ is expressed by the following formula.

λ = kC / f
However, k is a shortening rate (1 / √ε in the case of a coaxial cable), ε is a dielectric constant of an insulator of the coaxial cable, C is a speed of light, and f is a frequency.

  In such a configuration, for example, even when used overseas with different frequencies, the electrical length from the circulator 13 to the feeding point S of the antenna 1 is (2n + 1) λ / 4 according to the frequency (wavelength). be able to. Therefore, it becomes possible to cope with a wide frequency.

(3) In the case where a matching circuit is provided FIG. 7 is a main part configuration diagram of an interrogator according to this modification. In FIG. 7, the interrogator 100 </ b> C includes a matching circuit 60 and a phase adjustment circuit 61 provided between the antenna 1 and the circulator 13. The matching circuit 60 is a circuit that matches the impedance on the antenna 1 side with the impedance on the transmission unit 11 side or the reception unit 12 side in order to improve communication efficiency.

  The phase adjusting circuit 61 is a circuit for correcting the line length so that the electrical length from the circulator 13 including the matching circuit 60 to the feeding point S of the antenna 1 is (2n + 1) λ / 4. The phase adjustment circuit 61 has the same configuration as the path switching unit 45 (see FIG. 6) described above, for example, and is controlled in conjunction with a signal sent from the control circuit 4 to the PLL 22 (see FIG. 3) of the transmission unit 11. Is done.

  If the matching circuit 60 is provided between the antenna 1 and the circulator 13, the electrical length from the circulator 13 to the feeding point of the antenna 1 changes compared to before the connection of the matching circuit 60, but the phase for correcting the line length. Since the adjustment circuit 61 is further provided, the total electrical length from the circulator 13 to the feeding point S of the antenna 1 can be maintained at (2n + 1) λ / 4.

(4) When using an array antenna FIG. 8 is a block diagram of an interrogator according to this modification. In FIG. 8, the interrogator 100D includes a plurality of (three in this example) antenna elements 1A for transmitting and receiving signals by wireless communication with the antenna 51 (see FIG. 1) of the RFID circuit element To. 1C and a high frequency circuit 70 for accessing the IC circuit section 52 of the RFID circuit element To through the antenna elements 1A to 1C.

  The antenna elements 1A to 1C are arranged with a predetermined interval, and the directivity of the whole antenna is configured to be electronically controlled by directivity control described later.

  The high frequency circuit 70 includes a directivity switching control unit 71 connected to the antenna elements 1A to 1C in addition to the transmission unit 11 and the reception unit 12 described above.

  The directivity switching control unit 71 includes circulators 13A to 13C, which are transmission / reception separators that selectively connect the transmission unit 11 and the antenna elements 1A to 1C, or the reception unit 12 and the antenna elements 1A to 1C, and the antenna elements 1A to 1C. 1C includes transmission phase control units 72A to 72C, reception phase control units 73A to 73C related to the antenna elements 1A to 1C, and an adder 74 that adds outputs from the reception phase control units 73A to 73C. . The output from the adder 74 is input to the reception first multiplication circuit 31 and the reception second multiplication circuit 35 of the reception unit 12, respectively.

  Further, the electrical length D from the circulators 13A to 13C to the feeding points S of the antenna elements 1A to 1C is (2n + 1) λ / 4 (λ: wavelength of communication radio wave) where n is an integer equal to or larger than 0. .

  The transmission phase control units 72A to 72C receive the transmission phase control signal from the control circuit 4 and phase shifters 75A to 75C for variably setting the phases of the transmission radio wave signals in the antenna elements 1A to 1C, respectively. A transmission-side variable gain amplifier that receives the amplitude control signal included in the transmission phase shift control signal from the control circuit 4, amplifies the signals input from the phase shifters 75A to 75C, and outputs them to the circulators 13A to 13C, respectively. 76A to 76C.

  The reception phase control units 73A to 73C are input with the reception phase control signal from the control circuit 4 and control the phase shifters 77A to 77C for variably setting the phase of the reception radio wave signal in the antenna elements 1A to 1C. Receiving-side variable gain amplifiers 78A to 78C that receive the amplitude control signal included in the reception phase control signal from the circuit 4 and amplify the signals input from the phase shifters 77A to 77C and output the signals to the adder 74 according to the amplitude control signal. It has.

  In the interrogator 100D as described above, since all the electrical lengths D from the circulators 13A to 13C to the feeding points S of the antenna elements 1A to 1C are (2n + 1) λ / 4, the circulators 13A to 13A are similar to the above embodiment. Any leakage component of the transmission signal in 13C can be reduced, and information transmission / reception accuracy can be improved.

At this time, as shown in FIG. 9, the differences L 1 and L 2 between the electrical lengths of the paths from the circulators 13A to 13C to the corresponding antennas 1A to 1C are set to mλ / 2 where m is a positive integer. Also good. In this case, it is possible to improve the degree of freedom of arrangement of the antenna elements 1A to 1C while maintaining the information transmission / reception accuracy. In particular, by arranging the antenna elements 1A to 1C so that the positions of the antenna elements 1A to 1C are aligned in the horizontal direction in the figure (as compared to the case where the antenna elements 1A to 1C are superimposed in the vertical direction in the figure, In the figure, the vertical dimension can be reduced and the size can be reduced.

(5) Considering a phase delay in the circulator When a leakage component occurs in the circulators 13 and 13A to C described above, a phase change (advance or delay) may occur. Therefore, if it is desired to further consider this compensation, the electrical length from the circulator 13 or the like to the antenna feeding point S set in the above embodiment and each of the modifications (1) to (4),
(2n + 1) λ / 4
In addition, the electrical length ΔL for compensating the phase change Δθ is added (or reduced), and the electrical length from the circulator 13 or the like to the antenna feeding point S is
(2n + 1) λ / 4 ± ΔL
And it is sufficient.

FIG. 10 shows an example in which the above-described ΔL is added to the electrical length in the configuration shown in FIG.
(2n + 1) λ / 4 + ΔL
It shows the case. In detail, the compensation electrical length ΔL is:
ΔL = λ · Δθ / 2π
Can be expressed as

In addition, it is not restricted to implement | achieve optimal electric length by adding compensation electric length (DELTA) L like FIG. 10, According to the change (whether it advances or delays) of a phase,
(2n + 1) λ / 4−ΔL
An optimum electrical length may be realized.

(6) Case where selection is possible at the time of mounting etc. When compensating electric length ΔL = λ · Δθ / 2π is provided as in (5) above to compensate for a phase change of the circulator 13 etc., an optimal electric length value is set. The circuit may be newly calculated and calculated in advance, but it is configured so that a plurality of compensation electrical lengths ΔL can be selected in advance, and at a predetermined stage during manufacturing (for example, at the time of mounting) You may make it use selecting suitably.

  As an example of such a configuration, FIG. 11 shows a plurality of (three types in this example) compensation circuits having different electrical lengths ΔL1, ΔL2, and ΔL3 for the compensation electrical length ΔL in the configuration shown in FIG. This shows a case where is prepared to be selectable. And at the time of circuit mounting etc., solder point A1, A2, or solder point B1, B2, or solder point between the both ends of each compensation circuit and the corresponding circulator 13 side and antenna 1 side connection terminals For example, the optimum compensation electric length ΔL can be selected from ΔL1, ΔL2, and ΔL3 by conducting one of C1 and C2 using, for example, solder.

  In addition to those already described above, the methods according to the above-described embodiments and modifications may be used in appropriate combination.

  In addition, although not illustrated one by one, the present invention is implemented with various modifications within a range not departing from the gist thereof.

1 is a system configuration diagram illustrating an overall outline of a wireless tag communication system to which an embodiment of the present invention is applied. FIG. 2 is a functional block diagram illustrating a functional configuration of a wireless tag circuit element provided in the wireless tag illustrated in FIG. 1. It is a functional block diagram showing the detailed function of the high frequency circuit with which the interrogator shown in FIG. 1 was equipped. It is a conceptual diagram for showing the specific example in which the reflection component by an antenna reduces the leakage component in a circulator. It is a principal part block diagram of the interrogator by the modification which added the attenuator circuit. It is a principal part block diagram of the interrogator by the modification which added the path | route switch part. It is a principal part block diagram of the interrogator by the modification which added the matching circuit and the phase adjustment circuit. It is a block diagram of the interrogator by the modification which provided multiple antennas and circulators. It is the schematic showing the suitable arrangement | positioning state of each antenna element shown in FIG. It is a figure showing the modification which provided the compensation circuit which compensates the phase delay in a circulator. It is a figure showing the modification which provided with multiple selectable compensation circuits which compensate the phase delay in a circulator.

Explanation of symbols

1 Antenna (antenna means)
1A to 1C Antenna element (antenna means)
2 High-frequency circuit 3 Signal processing circuit 4 Control circuit 11 Transmitter (information transmitting means)
12 Receiving part (information receiving means)
13 Circulator (Transmission / Reception Separator)
13A-13C Circulator (Transmission / Reception Separator)
40 variable attenuator circuit 45 path switching unit (first electric length adjusting means)
60 Matching circuit (impedance matching circuit)
61 Phase adjustment circuit (first correction adjustment means)
70 RF circuit 100 Interrogator 100A-100D Interrogator S RFID tag communication system To RFID tag circuit element

Claims (12)

  1. Antenna means for both transmission and reception for transmitting and receiving information without contact with the RFID tag circuit element to be interrogated,
    An information transmission means for transmitting a transmission signal including at least a carrier wave having a wavelength λ to the RFID circuit element in a non-contact manner via the antenna means, and performing access;
    Information receiving means for receiving a response signal returned from the RFID circuit element in response to a transmission signal transmitted by the information transmitting means in a non-contact manner via the antenna means;
    A transmission / reception separator for connecting the information transmission means or the information reception means and the antenna means;
    The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system, wherein n is an integer of 0 or more, and an electrical length from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means is (2n + 1) λ / 4.
  2. The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to claim 1,
    In addition to the electrical length (2n + 1) λ / 4 from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means, an electrical length ΔL that compensates for the phase change by the transmission / reception separator is added to the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means. Length is (2n + 1) λ / 4 ± ΔL
    The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system characterized by the above.
  3. The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to claim 1,
    Corresponding to the wavelength λ set variably, it has first electrical length adjusting means for changing the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means to be (2n + 1) λ / 4. An interrogator for a wireless tag communication system.
  4. The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to claim 2,
    Corresponding to the wavelength λ set variably, it has second electrical length adjusting means for changing the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator to the antenna means so as to be (2n + 1) λ / 4 ± ΔL. An interrogator for a wireless tag communication system.
  5. In the interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to claim 1 or 3,
    An impedance matching circuit provided between the transmission / reception separator and the antenna means, for matching the impedance between the antenna means side and the information transmitting unit side or the information receiving unit side;
    And a first correction means for correcting the electrical length so that the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator including the impedance matching circuit to the antenna means is (2n + 1) λ / 4. Interrogator for communication systems.
  6. The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to claim 2 or 4,
    An impedance matching circuit provided between the transmission / reception separator and the antenna means, for matching the impedance between the antenna means side and the information transmitting unit side or the information receiving unit side;
    And a second correction unit for correcting the electrical length so that the electrical length from the transmission / reception separator including the impedance matching circuit to the antenna unit is (2n + 1) λ / 4 ± ΔL. Interrogator for RFID tag communication system.
  7. The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to any one of claims 1, 3, and 5,
    The antenna means includes a plurality of antenna elements respectively connected to the information transmission means or the information reception means via a plurality of the transmission / reception separators.
    The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system, wherein an electrical length of each path from the transmission / reception separator to the corresponding antenna element is (2n + 1) λ / 4, respectively.
  8. The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to any one of claims 2, 4, and 6,
    The antenna means includes a plurality of antenna elements respectively connected to the information transmission means or the information reception means via a plurality of the transmission / reception separators.
    The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system, wherein an electrical length of each path from the transmission / reception separator to the corresponding antenna element is (2n + 1) λ / 4 ± ΔL, respectively.
  9. The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to claim 7 or 8,
    The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system, wherein m is a positive integer, and a difference in electrical length between paths from the transmission / reception separator to the corresponding antenna element is mλ / 2.
  10. The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to any one of claims 1 to 9,
    The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system, wherein the transmission / reception separator is a circulator that selectively connects the information transmission means and the antenna means, or the information reception means and the antenna means.
  11. The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to any one of claims 1 to 9,
    The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system, wherein the transmission / reception separator is a directional coupler that selectively connects the information transmission means and the antenna means or the information reception means and the antenna means .
  12. The interrogator of the RFID tag communication system according to any one of claims 1 to 11,
    An interrogator of an RFID tag communication system, wherein an attenuator circuit is provided so as to connect the information transmission means and the information reception means without going through the transmission / reception separator.
JP2006047027A 2006-02-23 2006-02-23 Interrogator for RFID tag communication system Expired - Fee Related JP4524674B2 (en)

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