JP2007209370A - Opthalmological device - Google Patents

Opthalmological device Download PDF

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JP2007209370A
JP2007209370A JP2006029098A JP2006029098A JP2007209370A JP 2007209370 A JP2007209370 A JP 2007209370A JP 2006029098 A JP2006029098 A JP 2006029098A JP 2006029098 A JP2006029098 A JP 2006029098A JP 2007209370 A JP2007209370 A JP 2007209370A
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tear
image
area
layer
oil layer
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JP4852316B2 (en
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Shigeru Kinoshita
Yutaka Mizukusa
Norihiko Yokoi
茂 木下
則彦 横井
豊 水草
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Shigeru Kinoshita
Kowa Co
Norihiko Yokoi
茂 木下
則彦 横井
興和株式会社
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Abstract

To provide an ophthalmic apparatus capable of quantitatively measuring the severity of dry eye with a simple configuration and with high reliability.
An oil film pattern 10a and noise appearing in an oil layer are removed from an image of a tear fluid layer 10 on an eye cornea 11 to be examined, and an image of the tear fluid layer is smoothed. Subsequently, the smoothed tear oil layer image is scanned with the scan line 12, and the oil layer area is calculated by extracting the contour of the oil layer. The tear oil layer stretches while exhibiting a behavior that can be approximated to a viscoelastic body after cleaving, and the initial stretching speed increases in proportion to the increase in the tear volume. Therefore, the time change rate of the oil layer area at the time of opening is obtained as a value indicating the tear volume. In such a configuration, since the area of the smoothed tear oil layer image is obtained and the time change rate of the area is calculated, the dry eye can be quantified with high reliability.
[Selection] Figure 4

Description

  The present invention relates to an ophthalmic apparatus, and more particularly to an ophthalmic apparatus that quantitatively measures the severity of dry eye.

  In recent years, the number of dry eye patients has increased due to an increase in the number of VDT (visual display terminal) workers and the drying of rooms by air conditioning. Dry eye may cause corneal epithelial disorder, conjunctival disorder, and various other eye disorders. Dry eye diagnosis is an important theme in ophthalmologic diagnosis.

  Conventionally, dry eye was diagnosed by a vital staining test, a tear secretion test using a Schirmer test, etc., but suffering from the subject was unavoidable due to drug instillation and foreign object contact. Therefore, in order to detect dry eye in a non-contact manner, a method of observing color interference fringes (interference patterns) in the tear film by irradiating the eye to be examined with coherent light has been attempted. With these devices, the interference pattern formed by the oil film (oil layer) of the tear film of the eye to be examined is imaged and displayed on a monitor to observe the state of the tear film, thereby simplifying dry eye I have a diagnosis.

  In addition, instead of such a simple diagnosis, the change over time in the dry spot area that occurs when the tear film is crushed after the eye is opened is grasped as the change over time in the area ratio data of the dry spot area. An abnormality in the stability of tears in dry eye is inspected by displaying changes over time in the dry spot area on a monitor (Patent Document 1).

In addition, in order to quantitatively evaluate the severity of dry eye, the intensity of the interference pattern due to the interference of reflected light on the front and back surfaces of the tear fluid layer is measured, and the value indicating the severity of dry eye is determined from the measured value. Calculation (Patent Document 2), or setting a plurality of areas in the image of the interference pattern and evaluating the tear surface layer based on the hue of each area (Patent Document 3), or the time of the hue of the interference fringes A change eye is analyzed to diagnose dry eye (Patent Document 4).
Japanese Patent No. 3699853 JP 2000-287930 A Japanese Patent No. 3556033 Japanese Patent No. 3718104

  The method (Patent Documents 2, 3, and 4) for measuring and evaluating the interference fringes formed by the oil film of the tear film using such a conventional device has a low contrast of the interference fringes and is a reliable dry method. There is a problem that it is difficult to quantify the eye, and as shown in Patent Document 1, a method of measuring a time-dependent change of a dry spot that occurs when a tear film is crushed after the eye is opened. However, there is a problem that it is difficult to specify a dry spot, and similarly, it is difficult to quantify it.

  Accordingly, the present invention has been made to solve such problems, and provides an ophthalmologic apparatus capable of quantitatively measuring the severity of dry eye with a simple configuration and with high reliability. Is an issue.

The present invention
An optical system that projects illumination light onto the tear film on the eye cornea;
An imaging means for receiving reflected light from the tear fluid layer and imaging the tear fluid layer;
An image processing apparatus that processes an image of the taken tear fluid layer to obtain an area of the tear fluid layer on the cornea, and calculates a time change rate of the area at the time of opening as a value indicating the amount of tear fluid. And
The image of the tear fluid layer is smoothed, the area of the smoothed tear fluid layer image is obtained, and the time change rate of the area is calculated.

  In the present invention, the tear oil layer image is smoothed, and the smoothed tear oil layer image is processed to calculate a value that reflects the amount of tear fluid stored in the eye to be examined. The effect is obtained that the severity can be quantified with a simple configuration and with high reliability.

  Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail based on embodiments shown in the drawings.

  FIG. 1 shows a schematic configuration of an ophthalmologic apparatus according to the present invention. In FIG. The light emitted from the white light source 1 illuminates a predetermined point P on the eye E through the lens 3, the half mirror 4, and the lens 5 after passing through the mask 2 that limits the illumination visual field. The position of the point P is selected in the tear film on the cornea of the eye E to be examined. Note that the amount of light of the white light source 1 can be adjusted by a dimming circuit (not shown).

  The reflected light from the point P forms various interference patterns depending on the thickness and other states of the uppermost oil layer (oil film) of the tear film. Reflected light from the tear fluid layer is received by the color CCD camera (imaging means) 7 through the lens 5, the half mirror 4, and the lens 6, and the tear fluid layer is captured as a color image (RGB image) by the CCD camera 7. The image signal (RGB signal) is stored in the image memory 8 b of the image processing device 8. The CPU 8a of the image processing apparatus processes the image stored in the image memory 8b, and quantifies the amount of tear fluid stored in the tear film on the cornea to diagnose dry eye, as will be described in detail below. On the monitor 9, a captured image or a processed image is displayed.

  As shown in FIG. 2, the tear oil layer 10 extends on the cornea 11 as shown from the top to the bottom after opening. In addition, 10a shows the oil film pattern (interference pattern) by interference of the reflected light of the front and back surfaces of the tear fluid layer 10, and 2a shows the image of the mask 2. The image processing apparatus 8 analyzes the degree of extension of the tear film 10 according to the flowchart of FIG.

  Each procedure shown in the flowchart of FIG. 3 is stored as a program in the ROM 8c of the image processing apparatus 8, and the CPU 8a reads this program and executes each procedure. At this time, the RAM 8d provides a working memory and stores various data.

  First, the color image of the tear fluid layer imaged by the CCD camera 7 is sampled every 0.05 seconds, for example, and each sampled image is sequentially recorded in the image memory 8b (step S1).

  Subsequently, the sampled color image of the tear fluid layer is read from the image memory 8b (step S2). At this time, a blink start point (blink start position) and an end point (end position) are set.

  The images from the blink start time, that is, the image from the opening time to the end time are sequentially read out from the image memory 8b. If the image is not the image at the end time (No in Step S3), the process proceeds to Step S4, and B Extract only the components. This is because the largest change in the luminance of the tear film oil film is usually the B component, and the subsequent processing is facilitated.

  Subsequently, in step S5, noise is removed from the tear film layer 10 image using a 3 × 3 averaging filter, and the oil film pattern 10a is removed using a median filter to smooth the tear film image. Is called. As the median filter, a 20 × 20 median filter is used when the image is at a uniform level or a dark oil film increases, and a 10 × 10 median filter is used when a bright oil film increases. FIG. 4A shows an image in an initial state in which the extension of the tear fluid layer 10 has progressed, and FIG. 4B is a smoothed image obtained when the oil film pattern 10a and noise are removed by the processing in step S5. The image is shown.

  Subsequently, in step S6, the inflection point where the luminance changes at the contour of the tear fluid layer 10, that is, the tear fluid layer is extracted. For this purpose, as shown in FIG. 4C, the image is line-scanned by scan lines 12 from top to bottom in the vertical direction (Y) and from left to right in the horizontal direction (X).

  Here, when x is a target address in the vertical direction, y is a target address in the horizontal direction, n is an amount of vertical movement from the target address, and m is a comparison width, the width of the vertical address i before the vertical address n The luminance sum SumPrev (i) of the image of m is

Also, the luminance sum SumAfter (i) of the image of width m after the vertical address n at the vertical address i is

It becomes. Since the luminance of the smoothed image of the tear fluid layer 10 may be smaller or larger than the luminance of the cornea 11 depending on the illumination state of the eye to be examined, the absolute value of both differences is obtained, If it becomes larger than the predetermined threshold value, that is, if | SumPrev (x, y) −SumAfter (x, y) |> threshold value, this is set as the inflection point y (x). This is performed at y = 0 to Ywidth (vertical image size) at each of x = 0 to Xwidth (horizontal image size), and inflection points are sequentially detected. However, in order to avoid images of eyebrows, mask 2, etc., those satisfying the conditions of SumPrev (x, y)> black threshold and SumAfter (x, y)> black threshold are selected.

  The inflection point thus detected is indicated by 10b in FIG. 4 (c). If the inflection point is detected, for example, the noise 13 is detected as an inflection point as in the scan line 12a, or the inflection point cannot be detected as in the scan 12b, the previous and next inflection points are detected. Interpolation is performed at the inflection points to obtain inflection points (step S7).

  The line 10c connecting the inflection points thus detected becomes an inflection point line, and the area below the inflection point line 10c becomes the area of the tear fluid layer 10. As shown in step S8, this area is obtained by counting the number of dots (number of pixels) in a portion having a luminance value up to the image 2a (black portion) of the mask 2 below the inflection point line. . The obtained area is stored in the RAM 8d.

When the area shown in step S8 is obtained for all the sampled images, the process proceeds from step S3 to step S10, and the relationship between each sampling time point (time t) and the area S is plotted. This relationship is illustrated by dotted lines in FIG. An exponential function S (t) = ρ [1-a * exp (−t / λ)] as shown by a solid line in FIG. 5 is obtained from this curve by the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Here, S (t) is an area (mm 2 ), ρ, a is a constant, t is time (sec), and λ is relaxation time (sec).

  As described above, the tear fluid layer 10 extends on the cornea after opening, and the extension speed can be approximated by an exponential function. Therefore, the tear oil layer can be handled as a viscoelastic body, and its extension behavior (change in oil layer area over time) can be analyzed using a rheological model, that is, a Vogt model.

  FIG. 6 schematically illustrates the tear fluid layer 21 on the eyeball 20 in order to explain the modeling of the tear fluid layer. The left end of the tear fluid layer 21 is fixed, and stress is applied to the tear fluid layer 21. It is assumed that σ (force per unit area) acts. The friction between the eyeball 20 and the tear fluid layer 21 is ignored. At this time, the elongation of the tear fluid layer 21 can be regarded as a strain ε (a stretched amount / original length: a dimensionless amount) with respect to the stress σ. The relationship between stress σ and strain ε applied to the tear fluid layer is

It becomes. However, k is an elastic coefficient (spring coefficient), b is a damping coefficient, t is time, and when Equation 3 is integrated,

It becomes. However, C is a constant. This relationship is illustrated with the strain ε on the vertical axis and time t on the horizontal axis, as shown in FIG. 7, and the strain ε of the tear fluid layer when the tear fluid layer is pulled up with a constant stress σ 0. (Change in length).

  Here, 16 eyes and 22 eyes (women in all cases; average age: 67.4 years old) including dry eyes were selected as test eyes and healthy eyes without meibomian gland dysfunction. Along with the flow shown, from the image of each tear oil layer sampled every 0.05 seconds, to determine the change over time of the area S of the tear oil layer 10 during the extension, for all changes over time, The characteristics shown in FIG. 5 appeared, and it was found that the tear oil layer can be regarded as a viscoelastic body and the extension of the tear oil layer can be analyzed by a Forked model.

In step S11 of FIG. 3, the change over time in the area of the tear oil layer is analyzed by applying it to the Forked model, and the initial rate of extension of the tear oil layer (time change rate of the oil layer area at the time of opening), that is, obtained in step S10. The first-order differential S ′ (0) = dS (t) / dt (t = 0) (mm 2 / sec) at time t = 0 of the exponential function is obtained.

  In JP-A-11-267102, the image magnification of the opening projected on the tear film surface is obtained, and the curvature radius R of the tear film surface (tear meniscus) along the lower eyelid edge is calculated from this image magnification, A method for evaluating the severity of dry eye from the radius of curvature R is described, and it has been found that this radius of curvature R is used as a value indicating the amount of tear fluid stored on the eye surface with high reliability.

  Therefore, the tear meniscus radius of curvature R (mm) is measured for each eye described above, and this is examined for the relationship between the tear film initial stretching velocity S ′ (0) obtained in step S11. A significant positive linear correlation of [S ′ (0) = 389.1 × R−29.2] was observed between S ′ (0) and R.

  For this reason, the tear oil layer stretches while exhibiting behavior that can be approximated to a viscoelastic body after opening, and the initial stretching speed increases in proportion to the increase in the tear volume. Turned out to be. Thus, according to the present invention, the amount of tears can be quantified by calculating the time change rate of the area of the tear oil layer at the time of opening (t = 0), and the severity of dry eye can be trusted. It is possible to diagnose with good sexuality.

It is the optical figure which showed schematic structure of the ophthalmic apparatus of this invention. It is explanatory drawing which showed extension of the tear fluid layer. It is the flowchart which showed the flow which quantifies the amount of tears. It is explanatory drawing which showed the flow which calculates | requires the area of the tear fluid layer on a cornea. It is the diagram which showed the time-dependent change of the area of the tear fluid layer on the cornea. It is explanatory drawing which showed the state which models the tear film oil layer on a cornea. It is a diagram which shows the time-dependent change of the modeled tear fluid layer.

Explanation of symbols

2 Mask 7 CCD camera 8 Image processing device 10 Tear oil layer 11 Cornea

Claims (6)

  1. An optical system that projects illumination light onto the tear film on the eye cornea;
    An imaging means for receiving reflected light from the tear fluid layer and imaging the tear fluid layer;
    An image processing apparatus that processes an image of the taken tear fluid layer to obtain an area of the tear fluid layer on the cornea, and calculates a time change rate of the area at the time of opening as a value indicating the amount of tear fluid. And
    An ophthalmologic apparatus characterized in that an image of the tear oil layer is smoothed, an area of the smoothed tear oil layer image is obtained, and a temporal change rate of the area is calculated.
  2.   The ophthalmologic apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a blue component of an image of the tear fluid layer is extracted and smoothing is performed on the blue component image.
  3.   The ophthalmologic apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, wherein an interference pattern and noise appearing in the tear fluid layer are removed, and an image of the tear fluid layer is smoothed.
  4.   The smoothed tear oil layer image is line-scanned, and the tear oil layer contour is extracted by detecting a change in luminance, and the tear oil layer area is calculated. The ophthalmic apparatus according to any one of the above.
  5.   The ophthalmic apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the temporal change in the area of the tear fluid layer is analyzed by modeling the tear fluid layer as a viscoelastic body.
  6.   The ophthalmic apparatus according to claim 5, wherein the tear oil layer is modeled as a Forked model.
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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2009178174A (en) * 2008-01-29 2009-08-13 Kowa Co Ophthalmologic measuring apparatus
JP2010530282A (en) * 2007-06-20 2010-09-09 テイアサイエンス・インコーポレーテツド Tear film measurement
US20100253907A1 (en) * 2009-04-01 2010-10-07 Tearscience, Inc. Ocular surface interferometery (OSI) devices and systems for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
WO2011093209A1 (en) 2010-01-29 2011-08-04 興和株式会社 Ophthalmology device and image categorizing method
JP2013212363A (en) * 2012-03-06 2013-10-17 Kitasato Institute Method for ophthalmologic measurement, ophthalmologic measuring apparatus, and method for evaluating test piece
US8585204B2 (en) 2007-06-20 2013-11-19 Tearscience, Inc. Tear film measurement
US8888286B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2014-11-18 Tearscience, Inc. Full-eye illumination ocular surface imaging of an ocular tear film for determining tear film thickness and/or providing ocular topography
US8915592B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2014-12-23 Tearscience, Inc. Apparatuses and methods of ocular surface interferometry (OSI) employing polarization and subtraction for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
JP2015043929A (en) * 2013-08-29 2015-03-12 学校法人慶應義塾 Perception measurement evaluation device, perception measurement evaluation method, and program
US9339177B2 (en) 2012-12-21 2016-05-17 Tearscience, Inc. Full-eye illumination ocular surface imaging of an ocular tear film for determining tear film thickness and/or providing ocular topography
US9642520B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2017-05-09 Tearscience, Inc. Background reduction apparatuses and methods of ocular surface interferometry (OSI) employing polarization for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
US9795290B2 (en) 2013-11-15 2017-10-24 Tearscience, Inc. Ocular tear film peak detection and stabilization detection systems and methods for determining tear film layer characteristics
US9888839B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2018-02-13 Tearscience, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for determining contact lens intolerance in contact lens wearer patients based on dry eye tear film characteristic analysis and dry eye symptoms
US10278587B2 (en) 2013-05-03 2019-05-07 Tearscience, Inc. Eyelid illumination systems and method for imaging meibomian glands for meibomian gland analysis

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Cited By (27)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US8585204B2 (en) 2007-06-20 2013-11-19 Tearscience, Inc. Tear film measurement
JP2010530282A (en) * 2007-06-20 2010-09-09 テイアサイエンス・インコーポレーテツド Tear film measurement
US8591033B2 (en) 2007-06-20 2013-11-26 Tearscience, Inc. Tear film measurement
JP2009178174A (en) * 2008-01-29 2009-08-13 Kowa Co Ophthalmologic measuring apparatus
US9693682B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2017-07-04 Tearscience, Inc. Ocular surface interferometry (OSI) devices and systems for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
US8545017B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2013-10-01 Tearscience, Inc. Ocular surface interferometry (OSI) methods for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
US10004396B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2018-06-26 Tearscience, Inc. Ocular surface interferometry (OSI) devices and systems for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
US9888839B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2018-02-13 Tearscience, Inc. Methods and apparatuses for determining contact lens intolerance in contact lens wearer patients based on dry eye tear film characteristic analysis and dry eye symptoms
US9642520B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2017-05-09 Tearscience, Inc. Background reduction apparatuses and methods of ocular surface interferometry (OSI) employing polarization for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
US8746883B2 (en) * 2009-04-01 2014-06-10 Tearscience, Inc. Ocular surface interferometery (OSI) devices and systems for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
US8888286B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2014-11-18 Tearscience, Inc. Full-eye illumination ocular surface imaging of an ocular tear film for determining tear film thickness and/or providing ocular topography
US8915592B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2014-12-23 Tearscience, Inc. Apparatuses and methods of ocular surface interferometry (OSI) employing polarization and subtraction for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
US9999346B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2018-06-19 Tearscience, Inc. Background reduction apparatuses and methods of ocular surface interferometry (OSI) employing polarization for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
US20100253907A1 (en) * 2009-04-01 2010-10-07 Tearscience, Inc. Ocular surface interferometery (OSI) devices and systems for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
US9662008B2 (en) 2009-04-01 2017-05-30 Tearscience, Inc. Ocular surface interferometry (OSI) devices and systems for imaging, processing, and/or displaying an ocular tear film
JP2011156030A (en) * 2010-01-29 2011-08-18 Kowa Co Ophthalmologic apparatus and image classifying method
WO2011093209A1 (en) 2010-01-29 2011-08-04 興和株式会社 Ophthalmology device and image categorizing method
US9028065B2 (en) 2010-01-29 2015-05-12 Kowa Company, Ltd. Ophthalmologic apparatus and image classification method
JP2013212363A (en) * 2012-03-06 2013-10-17 Kitasato Institute Method for ophthalmologic measurement, ophthalmologic measuring apparatus, and method for evaluating test piece
US9668647B2 (en) 2012-12-21 2017-06-06 Tearscience Inc. Full-eye illumination ocular surface imaging of an ocular tear film for determining tear film thickness and/or providing ocular topography
US9339177B2 (en) 2012-12-21 2016-05-17 Tearscience, Inc. Full-eye illumination ocular surface imaging of an ocular tear film for determining tear film thickness and/or providing ocular topography
US9993151B2 (en) 2012-12-21 2018-06-12 Tearscience, Inc. Full-eye illumination ocular surface imaging of an ocular tear film for determining tear film thickness and/or providing ocular topography
US10244939B2 (en) 2012-12-21 2019-04-02 Tearscience, Inc. Full-eye illumination ocular surface imaging of an ocular tear film for determining tear film thickness and/or providing ocular topography
US10278587B2 (en) 2013-05-03 2019-05-07 Tearscience, Inc. Eyelid illumination systems and method for imaging meibomian glands for meibomian gland analysis
JP2015043929A (en) * 2013-08-29 2015-03-12 学校法人慶應義塾 Perception measurement evaluation device, perception measurement evaluation method, and program
US9795290B2 (en) 2013-11-15 2017-10-24 Tearscience, Inc. Ocular tear film peak detection and stabilization detection systems and methods for determining tear film layer characteristics
US10512396B2 (en) 2013-11-15 2019-12-24 Tearscience, Inc. Ocular tear film peak detection and stabilization detection systems and methods for determining tear film layer characteristics

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