JP2007194605A - Laser irradiation device and laser irradiation method - Google Patents

Laser irradiation device and laser irradiation method Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2007194605A
JP2007194605A JP2006340751A JP2006340751A JP2007194605A JP 2007194605 A JP2007194605 A JP 2007194605A JP 2006340751 A JP2006340751 A JP 2006340751A JP 2006340751 A JP2006340751 A JP 2006340751A JP 2007194605 A JP2007194605 A JP 2007194605A
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laser
film
laser beam
beam
formed
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JP2007194605A5 (en
Inventor
Koichiro Tanaka
Yoshiaki Yamamoto
良明 山本
幸一郎 田中
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Semiconductor Energy Lab Co Ltd
株式会社半導体エネルギー研究所
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/06Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing
    • B23K26/073Shaping the laser spot
    • B23K26/0732Shaping the laser spot into a rectangular shape
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/06Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing
    • B23K26/062Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by direct control of the laser beam
    • B23K26/0622Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by direct control of the laser beam by shaping pulses
    • B23K26/0624Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by direct control of the laser beam by shaping pulses using ultrashort pulses, i.e. pulses of 1ns or less

Abstract

Since the number of scans of a laser beam increases as the substrate becomes larger, it is more productive to irradiate at once using a plurality of laser oscillators. However, when a semiconductor film is irradiated with a laser beam using a plurality of laser oscillators, not only the apparatus configuration becomes large, but it is necessary to precisely control the irradiation position of each laser beam.
A laser irradiation apparatus includes a laser oscillator, an articulated beam propagator in which a plurality of hollow pipes are connected to each other at a joint, and a laser beam path changing unit at the joint. Among the plurality of hollow pipes, at least one hollow pipe has a transfer lens for suppressing fluctuation in the traveling direction of the laser beam. By having the joint portion, freedom of arrangement of the laser oscillator is created, and by having the transfer lens, it is possible to suppress changes in the beam profile.
[Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to a laser irradiation apparatus for processing an irradiation object by directing and irradiating a laser beam to the irradiation object. In particular, a laser irradiation apparatus for uniformly and efficiently performing annealing as performed on a semiconductor material, a laser irradiation method using the laser irradiation apparatus, and the laser irradiation apparatus and laser irradiation method described above. The present invention relates to a semiconductor device manufactured using the same and a manufacturing method thereof.

  In recent years, a technique for manufacturing a thin film transistor (hereinafter referred to as TFT) on a substrate has greatly advanced, and application development to an active matrix display device, a thin film integrated circuit device, and the like has been advanced. In particular, a TFT using a polycrystalline semiconductor film has higher field effect mobility (also referred to as mobility) than a conventional TFT using a non-single-crystal semiconductor film, and thus can operate at high speed. For this reason, when used in a display device, an attempt has been made to control a pixel, which is conventionally performed using a driver circuit provided outside the substrate, using a driver circuit formed over the same substrate as the pixel.

  As a substrate used for a semiconductor device, a glass substrate is more promising than a single crystal semiconductor substrate from the viewpoint of cost. Since glass substrates are inferior in heat resistance and easily deformed by heat, when crystallizing a semiconductor film to form a TFT using a polycrystalline semiconductor film on the glass substrate, in order to avoid thermal deformation of the glass substrate Laser annealing is used.

  Specifically, a glass substrate on which a semiconductor film is formed is placed on an XYθ stage and irradiated with a laser beam. Here, the laser beam applied to the semiconductor film is shaped by an optical system so that the shape of the beam spot formed on the irradiated surface is linear. Such a laser beam is also called a linear laser. When the substrate is scanned relative to the laser beam by moving the XYθ stage along with the laser beam irradiation, countless crystal nuclei are generated in the semiconductor film completely melted by the laser beam, and the solid-liquid interface moves. At the same time, crystals grow from each crystal nucleus in the scanning direction of the laser beam. In this way, large grain crystals are formed.

  However, “linear” of a linear laser does not mean strictly “line”, but a rectangle or ellipse having a large aspect ratio (as a guide, the aspect ratio is 10 or more, more preferably 100 Above). The shape of the beam spot formed on the object to be irradiated is linear, or a quadrangle or ellipse having a large aspect ratio is for ensuring sufficient energy density for annealing the object to be irradiated. . Therefore, even if the beam spot has a shape such as a quadrangle or an ellipse, there is no problem as long as the object to be irradiated can be sufficiently annealed.

  The length of the linear beam in the minor axis direction needs to be about several μm so that turbulent flow does not occur in the molten semiconductor film. When the turbulent flow is generated, the crystal growth direction becomes random when the semiconductor film melted by the laser beam is crystallized, so that a large grain size region may not be formed. On the other hand, the length of the linear beam in the major axis direction is determined by the type and output of the laser beam emitted from the laser oscillator and the type and thickness of the semiconductor film. In order to prevent the laser crystal of the laser oscillator from being damaged by heat, the output of the laser beam is about 20 W at the maximum. When the length of the laser in the short axis direction is set to several μm, the length in the long axis direction is Becomes about 500 μm.

  As the substrate becomes larger, the number of scans of the laser beam increases. In order to perform this process efficiently, it is more productive to perform the process at once using a plurality of laser oscillators. However, as the number of laser oscillators increases, a place necessary for installing laser oscillators and a place for installing an optical system for condensing a laser beam are required. In addition, it is necessary to suppress variations in the intensity of the laser beam between the laser oscillators. If the crystal state after laser irradiation treatment using a plurality of laser oscillators is different, the yield in one substrate is affected. Furthermore, it is necessary to adjust each laser irradiation position and to precisely control the beam profile. The following methods can be mentioned as means for solving these points.

  The first method is a method in which a laser beam is incident on one end of an optical fiber, the laser beam is propagated through the optical fiber, and the irradiated object is irradiated with the laser beam emitted from the other end of the optical fiber (for example, Patent Document 1). reference).

  The second method is to use a propagation unit having a mirror at the joint that connects the hollow pipes, enter the laser beam at one end of the pipe, and reflect the laser beam at the mirror at the joint while passing through the hollow pipe. This is a method of propagation (see, for example, Patent Document 2).

In the third method, a laser head and an optical system for forming a linear beam are installed on the Y axis, a glass substrate is installed on the Xθ stage, and the laser irradiation position is adjusted by adjusting the interval between the laser heads. It is the method of adjusting and using.
JP-A-6-79487 Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 4-138892

  However, in the laser annealing process for the semiconductor film, it is necessary to precisely control the beam profile, energy distribution, intensity distribution, and the like of the laser beam. Therefore, it is difficult to use the above technique as it is. The reason is as follows.

  The use of the first method has the following problems. Laser light used for laser annealing has a wavelength in the visible region and has a high power density, and therefore needs to propagate using an optical fiber having a large cladding diameter. An optical fiber having a clad diameter large enough to withstand the power density is limited to a multimode optical fiber. However, since the intensity distribution of the laser light that has passed through the multimode optical fiber is multimode, there is a problem with light collection. Further, when the diameter of the cladding is reduced, the spread angle of the emitted light is increased, and it is difficult to make the diameter minute using a condensing lens. If the condensing property of the laser beam is poor, the width of the linear beam in the minor axis direction is increased. Therefore, in order to maintain the energy density necessary for melting the semiconductor film, it is necessary to shorten the length of the linear beam in the long axis direction. Therefore, it is not suitable for crystallization of a semiconductor film.

  When the second method is used, it is necessary to solve the following two problems. In general, a laser beam is characterized by good straightness. However, as a first problem, when the laser beam travels a long distance, the expansion of the beam diameter becomes remarkable.

  A numerical value representing the extent of the beam diameter is called a beam divergence angle. This value is determined by the beam diameter and oscillation wavelength when output from the laser oscillator, and becomes smaller as the wavelength is shorter, and becomes smaller as the beam diameter is larger. Assuming that the beam divergence angle is θ (mrad) and the laser beam output distance is L (m), the value obtained by multiplying tan θ by the beam output distance L is the divergence amount (mm). Since θ may be regarded as θ = tan θ when θ is 50 mrad or less, the spread amount can be obtained by the product of θ and L. For example, after a laser beam having a divergence angle of 1 mrad is output, the beam diameter expands by 1 mm when it reaches 1 m away and 10 mm when it reaches 10 m away.

  As the beam diameter expands, it becomes difficult to focus on a beam of uniform energy. This is because there is a problem of aberration of the optical system. In addition, as the number of optical elements for condensing increases, the accuracy of condensing becomes unstable, and it becomes difficult to precisely control the laser beam. Further, since the beam diameter is easily increased, the beam easily hits the inner wall of the hollow pipe, so that it is difficult to satisfactorily perform laser irradiation on the semiconductor film.

  A second problem in the case of using the second method is that the optical axis fluctuates when the laser beam is emitted from the laser oscillator. There are both short-term fluctuations that occur every moment and long-term fluctuations that occur over time. Particularly problematic are short-term fluctuations. When the laser beam fluctuates at a high speed, the laser beam becomes more blurred than the original beam diameter, which affects the light condensing property.

  When the third method is used, the number of laser heads that can be arranged on the Y-axis stage is limited by the size of the laser head. Further, since the laser head is placed on the Y-axis stage, it is necessary to form the Y-axis stage with a highly rigid gantry head in order to prevent distortion. If it does in this way, a laser irradiation apparatus will become large and it will become difficult to perform maintenance, such as repair, and change of a setting.

  An object of the present invention is to solve the above-mentioned problem, by making it possible to precisely control laser beams emitted from a plurality of laser oscillators and to simultaneously use them for annealing a semiconductor film. is there.

  The laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention includes a laser oscillator and an articulated beam propagator in which a plurality of hollow pipes are connected to each other at joint portions. A means for changing the course of the laser beam is installed at the joint. Further, among the plurality of hollow pipes, at least one hollow pipe has a transfer lens therein, and the transfer lens is arranged so that the plurality of route changing means sandwiching the transfer lens are in a conjugate relationship. Features.

  The laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention includes a laser oscillator, and a plurality of hollow pipes connected to each other at joints, and an articulated beam propagator having at least first and second joints, First course changing means for changing the course of the laser beam is installed in the first joint part, and second course changing means for changing the course of the laser beam is installed in the second joint part. Among the plurality of hollow pipes, at least two hollow pipes are each provided with a transfer lens, and the first transfer lens has a conjugate of the exit of the laser oscillator and the first path changing means. The second transfer lens is characterized in that the first course changing means and the second course changing means are arranged in a conjugate relationship.

  The laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention includes a laser oscillator, and a plurality of hollow pipes connected to each other at joints, and an articulated beam propagator having at least first and second joints, The articulated beam propagator has a slit at the end on the side from which the laser beam is emitted, and a first path changing means for changing the path of the laser beam is installed in the first joint part. In the joint portion, a second course changing means for changing the course of the laser beam is installed, and among the plurality of hollow pipes, at least three hollow pipes each have a transfer lens provided therein, The transfer lens is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator and the first course changing means are in a conjugate relationship, and the second transfer lens is a first course changing means and a second course changing means. And the conjugate relationship It is arranged so that, the third transfer lenses, and the second diverter means, and the slit, characterized in that it is arranged so as to be conjugated to each other.

  In the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention, the first transfer lens, the second transfer lens, and the third transfer lens are arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator and the slit are in a conjugate relationship. It is characterized by.

  Further, the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention has a plurality of laser oscillators and a plurality of articulated beam propagators, and the articulated beam propagator has a plurality of hollow pipes connected to each other at joints, Laser beam path changing means is installed at the joint, and among the plurality of hollow pipes, at least one hollow pipe has a transfer lens provided therein, and the transfer lens has a plurality of path changing means sandwiching the transfer lens. Are arranged in a conjugate relationship.

  The laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention has a slit at the end of the articulated beam propagator on the side from which the laser beam is emitted, and the transfer lens has a conjugate relationship between the exit of the laser oscillator and the slit. It arrange | positions so that it may become.

  The laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention includes an optical system that shapes the beam shape of the laser beam emitted from the end of the articulated beam propagator, means for moving the position of the optical system, and a laser beam that has passed through the optical system. And a means for scanning relative to an irradiation object irradiated with a laser beam.

  In addition, the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention includes a camera for obtaining position information of the marker formed on the irradiation object, and means for determining the irradiation position of the laser beam with reference to the marker.

  In the above laser irradiation apparatus, the transfer lens provided inside the hollow pipe is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator and the irradiation surface irradiated with the laser beam are in a conjugate relationship. It is characterized by that.

  In the above laser irradiation apparatus, the transfer lens provided inside the hollow pipe is arranged so that the slit and the irradiation surface irradiated with the laser beam have a conjugate relationship. To do.

  In the above laser irradiation apparatus, the joint is provided with a joint that can be rotated with respect to a surface connecting the joint and the hollow pipe.

  Further, the laser irradiation apparatus described above is characterized in that a mirror or a prism is provided as a laser beam path changing means included in the joint portion.

  In the laser irradiation apparatus, the length of each hollow pipe can be arbitrarily set.

  Further, in the above laser irradiation apparatus, each transfer lens is arranged so that the exit and the irradiation surface of the laser oscillator sandwiching the articulated beam propagator are conjugate to the articulated beam propagator. And

  In the above laser irradiation apparatus, a slit can be provided at the end of the articulated beam propagator on the side where the laser beam is emitted. At this time, each transfer lens is arranged so that the exit and slit of the laser oscillator sandwiching the articulated beam propagator are conjugate to the articulated beam propagator.

  In addition, a method for manufacturing a semiconductor device of the present invention is a joint type in which a semiconductor film is formed on a substrate, a laser beam is emitted from a laser oscillator, and a plurality of hollow pipes are connected to each other at a joint portion. The laser beam incident on the beam propagator and the laser beam incident on the articulated beam propagator is changed in course by the first course changing means, and then the first course changing means and the second course changing means are conjugated. The semiconductor film is irradiated with a laser beam that has passed through the transfer lens arranged so that the laser beam that has passed through the transfer lens is changed by the second route changing means.

  The laser annealing method referred to here is a technique for crystallizing a damaged region and an amorphous region formed by ion implantation or the like on a semiconductor substrate or a semiconductor film, or a semiconductor film that is not a single crystal formed on a substrate ( The above-mentioned semiconductor films that are not single crystals are collectively referred to as non-single-crystal semiconductor films). It refers to a technique for crystallizing by introducing laser after introduction. Further, it includes a technique applied to planarization and surface modification of a semiconductor substrate or semiconductor film.

  Various effects can be obtained by using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. First, the laser beam can propagate through the beam propagator while the beam diameter is expanded by the transfer lens and the short-term fluctuation of the optical axis is corrected. Therefore, the laser beam emitted from the laser irradiation apparatus can be controlled so as not to hit the inner wall of the hollow pipe, and the semiconductor film can be irradiated while maintaining energy.

  Secondly, by using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention, it is possible to scan the irradiation object with the laser beam even if the space for the beam propagator can be secured, even if the spatial margin is small. For this reason, it becomes possible to irradiate more laser beams at a time than before, and the efficiency of the laser irradiation process is significantly increased.

  Thirdly, the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention does not require the laser head to be mounted on the stage, so that the weight is reduced. Thereby, the configuration of the laser irradiation apparatus itself can be simplified.

  Fourthly, the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention propagates through the hollow pipe while the laser beam is reflected by the mirror, so that the setting such as optical axis alignment is only the minimum necessary. For this reason, the time required for setting is greatly reduced. Furthermore, since there is no direct contact with the laser beam, setting can be performed safely.

  Fifth, in the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention, since the propagation distance of the laser beam does not change even if the position of the hollow pipe is changed, it is not necessary to change the setting. Therefore, the laser irradiation process can be performed uniformly, and the processing state of the irradiated object does not vary.

  The embodiment of the present invention will be described below. However, the present invention can be implemented in many different modes, and it is easy for those skilled in the art to change the modes and details in various ways without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. Understood. Therefore, the present invention is not construed as being limited to the description of this embodiment mode.

  The articulated beam propagator included in the laser irradiation apparatus of the present embodiment is configured by a hollow pipe connected by a rotatable joint. Each hollow pipe is provided with a transfer lens having an effect of suppressing a change in beam profile, and a mirror is provided at a joint portion where the hollow pipes are connected to each other. Moreover, the length of each hollow pipe does not need to be the same, and it can set freely according to surrounding conditions, such as the width of the space which installs a laser irradiation apparatus. Further, it is not always necessary to provide transfer lenses in all the hollow pipes, and it is only necessary that at least one of the hollow pipes of the articulated beam propagator has a transfer lens.

  As shown in FIG. 1A, the laser beam emitted from the laser oscillator 101 is incident on one end of the articulated beam propagator 102. Here, since the laser beam immediately after being emitted from the laser oscillator 101 has a small aperture, the collimating lens may be operated immediately after the laser beam is emitted. By using a collimating lens, a parallel beam can be converted into a parallel beam having a different diameter. Note that it is not necessary to provide a collimating lens if it is not necessary to change the diameter of the laser beam.

  The laser beam incident on the articulated beam propagator 102 propagates through the hollow pipe 103 and is deflected by the mirror of the joint portion 104. At that time, as shown in the enlarged view of FIG. 2A, the laser beam reflected by the mirror 105a of a certain joint 104a passes through the transfer lens 106 provided between the mirrors 105a and 105b. The image is transferred to the mirror 105b of the joint 104b that reaches next.

  Here, as shown in FIG. 2A, the transfer lens 106 is disposed at a position where the mirror 105a and the mirror 105b where the laser beam reaches next are in a conjugate relationship. When the transfer lens 106 is arranged at the above position, the optical path is shifted due to short-term fluctuation of the optical axis, or the laser beam reflected by the mirror 105a spreads from the original optical path 107a to 107b as it propagates. However, the laser beam can be corrected by the transfer lens 106 so that the image of the mirror 105a can reach the mirror 105b. By repeating this, the laser beam can be propagated without hitting the inner wall of the hollow pipe 103.

  Further, the joint portion 104 that connects each hollow pipe 103 is formed of a joint that can freely rotate, and a mirror is provided at the joint. The structure of the joint can be as shown in FIG. FIG. 2B is an enlarged view of the joint portion 104 of FIG. Joints that can be rotated on a surface 109a that connects the hollow pipe 103a and the joint 104 and a surface 109b that connects the joint 104 and the hollow pipe 103b are provided.

  For example, in FIG. 2B, it is assumed that the traveling direction of the laser beam is parallel to the paper surface. Here, when the joint provided on the surface 109b is fixed and the joint provided on the surface 109a is rotated by 90 °, the direction of the laser beam incident from one end of the hollow pipe 103a is perpendicular to the paper surface (on the paper surface). The direction from the back to the front or the direction from the front to the back of the paper). In this way, the traveling direction of the laser beam can be freely changed.

  With the above configuration, the laser beam can be propagated through the hollow pipe 103 after being reflected by the mirror 105 even when the joint is rotated by the surfaces 109a and 109b. Further, when the joints provided on the surfaces 109a and 109b are rotated, the spatial position of the hollow pipe 103 changes, but the laser beam propagates through the hollow pipe 103, so the propagation distance of the laser beam does not change. Therefore, it is not necessary to change the positions of the lenses related to transfer and condensing such as the transfer lens 106 and the imaging lens 108. Further, by having the above configuration, the laser irradiation can be performed uniformly, and the processing state of the irradiation object does not vary.

  In this manner, the laser beam propagates through the hollow pipe 103 by repeatedly reflecting on the mirror 105. When the laser beam is propagated using this method, unlike the case of using an optical fiber, the beam quality is not deteriorated, and a beam having a width of several μm can be easily formed. Note that the articulated beam propagator included in the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention has a hollow pipe in which the emission port of the laser oscillator 101 sandwiching the plurality of hollow pipes 103 and the semiconductor film 112 as the irradiation surface are conjugated. The transfer lens is arranged. For example, the transfer lens may be disposed so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 and the mirror 105a have a conjugate relationship, and the transfer lens may be disposed so that the mirror 105a and the mirror 105b have a conjugate relationship. . With this configuration, an image of the laser beam at the exit of the laser oscillator 101 is transferred to the semiconductor film 112, and the laser beam can be condensed and irradiated on the semiconductor film 112.

  The laser beam emitted from the other end of the articulated beam propagator 102 is shaped into a linear shape by an optical system 115 having an imaging lens 108 (FIGS. 1B, 1C, and 2). (C)). At this time, the arrangement of the imaging lenses 108 differs depending on whether the diameter of the laser beam is sufficiently smaller than the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 103 or not.

First, in the case where the diameter of the laser beam is sufficiently smaller than the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 103, there is almost no need to consider diffraction by the outlet of the hollow pipe 103. Therefore, the imaging lens 108 is arranged so that the mirror 105 reflected last in the articulated beam propagator 102 and the semiconductor film 112 are conjugated.

Conversely, in cases other than the above, the laser beam diffracts at the exit of the hollow pipe 103. If the semiconductor film 112 is irradiated with the laser beam as it is, an interference fringe is formed in the semiconductor film 112, so that the imaging lens 108 needs to be arranged so as to suppress the influence of diffraction. In this case, the imaging lens 108 is disposed so that the outlet of the hollow pipe 103 and the semiconductor film 112 are in a conjugate relationship.

  Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 2C, a slit 119 may be provided near the outlet of the hollow pipe 103. By providing the slit 119, it is possible to remove the end portion of the laser beam with low energy. At that time, if the transfer lens 106 in each hollow pipe 103 is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 sandwiching the plurality of hollow pipes 103 and the slit 119 are conjugated, the laser at the exit of the laser oscillator 101 is arranged. Since the image of the beam can be transferred to the slit, the laser beam can be efficiently condensed using the imaging lens 108. For example, the transfer lens is disposed so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 and the mirror 105a have a conjugate relationship, the transfer lens is disposed so that the mirror 105a and the mirror 105b have a conjugate relationship, and the mirror 105b. A transfer lens may be arranged so that the slit and the slit 119 are in a conjugate relationship. In addition, as described above, the transfer lens is disposed so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 and the semiconductor film 112 that is the irradiation surface are in a conjugate relationship. Therefore, when the transfer lens is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 and the slit 119 are in a conjugate relationship, the slit 119 and the semiconductor film 112 that is the irradiation surface are also in a conjugate relationship by the transfer lens. The material of the slit 119 is not particularly limited, and any material may be used as long as it can remove the end portion of the laser beam having low energy. The slit can be opened and closed using a motor method, a manual method, or the like. Note that a pinhole may be provided instead of the slit 119.

  Further, when the cross-sectional shape of the laser beam is already linear and may be shaped at the same magnification, the optical system 115 is as shown in FIG. In this case, a spherical lens can be used as the imaging lens 108. As described above, the position of the imaging lens 108 may be set according to the relationship between the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 103 and the length of the laser beam diameter. Note that FIG. 1B shows a state where the imaging lens 108 is arranged so that the mirror 105 and the semiconductor film 112 are in a conjugate relationship.

  Further, when the laser beam is shaped in two directions of the major axis direction and the minor axis direction, the optical system 115 is as shown in FIG. The laser beam emitted from the end of the articulated beam propagator 102 causes the imaging lens 108 in the optical system 115 to act in the long axis direction of the laser beam. As the imaging lens 108, a cylindrical lens can be used. The position of the imaging lens 108 differs depending on the relationship between the inner diameter of the hollow pipe and the diameter of the laser beam. When the diameter of the laser beam is sufficiently smaller than the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 103, the imaging lens 108 is arranged so that the mirror 105 and the semiconductor film 112 are in a conjugate relationship. If the laser beam diameter is not sufficiently smaller than the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 103, the imaging lens 108 is arranged so that the outlet of the hollow pipe 103 and the semiconductor film 112 are in a conjugate relationship. Thereafter, the condensing lens 116 is made to act on the short axis direction of the laser beam, and the laser beam shaped into a linear shape is imaged on the semiconductor film 112. A cylindrical lens can be used as the condensing lens 116. FIG. 1C shows a state in which the imaging lens 108 is arranged so that the mirror 105 and the semiconductor film 112 are in a conjugate relationship.

  As shown in FIG. 1A, the laser beam that has passed through the optical system 115 is irradiated onto the semiconductor film 112 formed on the substrate placed on the X-axis stage 110 and the θ stage 111. The semiconductor film 112 is crystallized by annealing by irradiating the linearly shaped beam spot 113 while scanning it relative to the semiconductor film 112 on the substrate. Here, high productivity can be obtained by setting the direction in which the beam spot 113 is scanned to a direction perpendicular to the major axis direction of the beam spot 113.

  At this time, the optical system can be moved by the portal Y-axis stage 114. Specifically, when the optical system 115 moves along the Y-axis stage 114, the connection state of the hollow pipes 103 is changed by a rotatable joint provided in the joint portion 104 of the articulated beam propagator 102. Can do. By combining the joint angle change, the articulated beam propagator 102 can follow the movement of the optical system 115. With this mechanism, since the optical path length from the laser oscillator 101 to the semiconductor film is always constant, there is no need to change the setting. Therefore, the laser irradiation process can be performed uniformly, and the processing state of the irradiated object does not vary.

  The following method can be used to control the irradiation position of the laser beam. The marker 117 is shaped on the semiconductor film 112 in advance. The position information of the marker 117 is acquired by the camera 118 installed adjacent to the optical system 115, and the irradiation position of the laser beam is determined based on this position information. At this time, the X axis and θ axis correction amounts are calculated based on the position information of the marker 117, and the movement amounts corresponding to the correction amounts are transmitted to the X axis stage 110, the θ stage 111, and the Y axis stage 114. You may combine it. By aligning the X axis stage 110, the θ stage 111, and the Y axis stage 114, alignment of the laser beam can be precisely controlled. Although FIG. 1A shows a laser irradiation apparatus having two laser oscillators and two articulated beam propagators, the embodiment of the present invention is not limited to this. That is, one laser oscillator and one articulated beam propagator may be provided, or two or more may be provided.

  In this embodiment, an example in which a laser beam is irradiated using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention will be described. In the embodiment, an example in which the traveling direction of the laser beam is changed using a mirror in the joint portion is shown, but in this embodiment, an example in which the traveling direction of the laser beam is changed using a prism is shown.

  As shown in FIG. 1 (A), the articulated beam propagator 102 included in the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention is configured by hollow pipes 103 respectively connected by rotatable joint portions 104. Each hollow pipe 103 is provided with a transfer lens 106 having an effect of suppressing a change in the beam profile, and a prism is installed at a joint portion 104 to which the hollow pipes 103 are connected. Moreover, the length of each hollow pipe 103 can be set freely.

  In this example, a configuration different from that of the embodiment will be described with respect to a joint part that reflects a laser beam. Similarly to the embodiment, this example also has a joint at the joint, and the spatial position of the hollow pipe 103 can be changed by turning the joint.

FIG. 3A shows a case where a prism 304 is installed instead of a mirror at the joint 303 connecting the hollow pipes 301 and 302. In many cases, the function of the prism 304 as a reflecting mirror uses internal reflection of glass. N 1 the external refractive index of the prism 304, the refractive index n 2 of the prism 304 and the incident angle and theta, when n 1 is greater than n 2 is, sin [theta> and satisfies the condition n 2 / n 1 The light is reflected at the interface. A laser beam can be propagated using this principle.

  When the prism 304 is used, light is often transmitted perpendicular to the incident surface and the exit surface. By forming an antireflection film on the incident surface and exit surface of the prism, not only the efficiency of light is increased, but also the effect of preventing unnecessary reflected light on the transmitting surface and increasing the S / N ratio of the laser beam. Have.

  Similarly to the case of using a mirror, the beam diameter of the laser beam expands as the light advances even when it is reflected using a prism. Therefore, as illustrated in FIG. 3B, the transfer lens 306 is provided so that the reflection surface of the prism 304 a and the reflection surface of the prism 304 b have a conjugate relationship with the transfer lens 306. By providing the transfer lens 306, the expanded laser beam is prevented from hitting the inner wall of the hollow pipe 305 as it is. That is, by providing the transfer lens 306, when the laser beam travels through the hollow pipe 305, it can propagate without hitting the inner wall of the hollow pipe 305 and attenuating the intensity.

  In the laser irradiation method of this example, as in the embodiment, a laser beam is emitted from the end of the articulated beam propagator 102 and is incident on an optical system 115 for shaping the shape of the laser beam (FIG. 1). . Enlarged views of this part are shown in FIGS. The optical system 115 includes an imaging lens 307 as shown in FIGS. 3C and 3D, and shapes the laser beam into a linear shape. A cylindrical lens or the like can be used as the imaging lens 307 for condensing the laser beam that has passed through the optical system 115 into a linear shape. In addition, when condensing only in one axis direction of the minor axis direction, it is sufficient to use one cylindrical lens that acts in the minor axis direction. Alternatively, when condensing light in two axial directions, the long axis direction and the short axis direction, two cylindrical lenses may be used. Alternatively, a spherical lens may be used as the imaging lens 307 when condensing light at equal magnification in all directions.

  In this embodiment, when the laser beam is condensed into a linear shape using the optical system 115, if the diameter of the laser beam is sufficiently smaller than the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 308, the reflecting surface of the prism 304 and the semiconductor film 309 are The imaging lens 307 is arranged so as to have a conjugate relationship. Conversely, when the laser beam diameter is not sufficiently smaller than the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 308, diffraction occurs at the outlet of the hollow pipe 308, so that the outlet of the hollow pipe 308 and the semiconductor film 309 are in a conjugate relationship. An imaging lens 307 is disposed.

  For example, when the cross-sectional shape of the laser beam is already linear and may be shaped at the same magnification, the optical system 115 is as shown in FIG. In this case, a spherical lens can be used as the imaging lens 307. As described above, the position of the imaging lens 307 may be set according to the relationship between the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 308 and the length of the laser beam. In FIG. 3C, since the diameter of the laser beam is sufficiently smaller than the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 308, the imaging lens 307 is installed so that the reflecting surface of the prism 304 and the semiconductor film 309 are in a conjugate relationship. Is shown.

  Further, when the laser beam is shaped in two directions of the major axis direction and the minor axis direction, the optical system is as shown in FIG. The laser beam emitted from the end of the hollow pipe 308 is first acted in the major axis direction of the laser beam by the imaging lens 307. As the imaging lens 307, a cylindrical lens can be used. The position of the imaging lens 307 varies depending on the relationship between the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 308 and the diameter of the laser beam. When the diameter of the laser beam is sufficiently smaller than the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 308, the reflecting surface of the prism 304 and the semiconductor film 309 are arranged in a conjugate relationship. If the laser beam diameter cannot be said to be sufficiently smaller than the inner diameter of the hollow pipe 308, the imaging lens 307 is arranged so that the outlet of the hollow pipe 308 and the semiconductor film 309 are in a conjugate relationship. Further, the condenser lens 310 is caused to act on the minor axis direction of the laser beam to form an image on the semiconductor film 309. A cylindrical lens can be used as the condensing lens 310. FIG. 3D shows an example in which the imaging lens 307 is arranged so that the reflecting surface of the prism 304 and the semiconductor film 309 are in a conjugate relationship.

  As shown above, the laser beam that has passed through the optical system of the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention is, as shown in FIG. 1, the semiconductor film 112 formed on the substrate placed on the X-axis stage 110 and the θ stage 111. Is irradiated. Note that the angle at which the laser beam enters the semiconductor film 112 is substantially constant. At that time, similarly to the embodiment, the transfer lens 106 in each hollow pipe 103 is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 and the semiconductor film 112 are conjugated. For example, the transfer lens may be disposed so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 and the prism 304a have a conjugate relationship, and the transfer lens may be disposed so that the prism 304a and the prism 304b have a conjugate relationship. . With this configuration, an image of the laser beam at the exit of the laser oscillator 101 is transferred to the semiconductor film 112, and the laser beam can be condensed and irradiated on the semiconductor film 112.

  A slit or pinhole may be provided near the exit of the hollow pipe 308. By providing a slit or a pinhole, it is possible to remove the end of the laser beam with low energy. At that time, if the transfer lens 306 in each hollow pipe 308 is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 sandwiching the plurality of hollow pipes 308 and the slit are conjugated, the laser beam at the exit of the laser oscillator 101 is arranged. Therefore, it is possible to efficiently focus the laser beam using the imaging lens 307. For example, the transfer lens is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 and the prism 304a have a conjugate relationship, the transfer lens is arranged so that the prism 304a and the prism 304b have a conjugate relationship, and the prism 304b. A transfer lens may be arranged so that the slit and the slit are in a conjugate relationship. In addition, as described above, the transfer lens is disposed so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 and the semiconductor film 112 that is the irradiation surface are in a conjugate relationship. Therefore, when the transfer lens is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator 101 and the slit or pinhole have a conjugate relationship, the semiconductor film 112 that is the irradiation surface of the slit or pinhole is also conjugated by the transfer lens. It becomes a relationship. There are no particular restrictions on the material of the slit or pinhole, and any material may be used as long as it can remove the end of the laser beam with low energy. In addition, a method using a motor, a manual method, or the like can be used to open and close the slit or pinhole.

  In FIG. 1, when the optical system 115 moves along the Y-axis stage 114, the connection state of the hollow pipes 103 is changed by a rotatable joint provided in the joint portion 104 of the articulated beam propagator 102. be able to. By combining the joint angle change, the articulated beam propagator 102 can follow the movement of the optical system 115.

  In FIG. 1, the optical system 115 is directly moved in the Y-axis direction. However, when a stage capable of moving the substrate in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction is prepared, the optical system 115 needs to be moved. There is no.

  The following method can be used to control the irradiation position of the laser beam. The marker 117 is formed on the semiconductor film 112, and the position information of the marker 117 is acquired by a camera installed adjacent to the optical system 115. Based on this position information, the irradiation position of the laser beam is determined. Here, the X axis and θ axis correction amounts are calculated based on the position information of the marker 117, and the movement amounts corresponding to the correction amounts are transmitted to the X axis stage 110, the θ stage 111, and the Y axis stage 114. You may combine. By aligning the X axis stage 110, the θ stage 111, and the Y axis stage 114, alignment of the laser beam can be precisely controlled.

  Note that there is no particular limitation on the type of laser oscillator that can be used in the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention, and a continuous oscillation laser oscillator, a pulse oscillation laser oscillator with an oscillation frequency of 10 MHz or more, or 1 femtosecond or more 100 Any laser oscillator that oscillates with a pulse width of picoseconds or less can be used.

  Specifically, the following laser oscillator can be used. In this specification, ceramic means an inorganic and non-metallic material that is artificially produced by heating or the like and is solid at room temperature.

(1) single crystal YAG, YVO 4 , forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), YAlO 3 , GdVO 4 , or polycrystalline (ceramic) YAG, Y 2 O 3 , YVO 4 , YAlO 3 , GdVO 4 , Lasers using one or more of Nd, Yb, Cr, Ti, Ho, Er, Tm, and Ta as dopants, medium lasers, alexandrite lasers, solid lasers such as Ti: sapphire lasers, Ar lasers, A continuous wave laser emitted from a gas laser such as a Kr laser, a semiconductor laser such as a GaN laser, a GaAs laser, or an InAs laser can be used.

(2) In single crystal YAG, YVO 4 , forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), YAlO 3 , GdVO 4 , or polycrystalline (ceramic) YAG, Y 2 O 3 , YVO 4 , YAlO 3 , GdVO 4 , Oscillation frequencies such as lasers, Ar ion lasers, Ti: sapphire lasers, etc., in which one or more of Nd, Yb, Cr, Ti, Ho, Er, Tm, and Ta are added as dopants are laser crystals. A pulse laser of 10 MHz or higher can be used.

(3) A laser that oscillates with a pulse width of 1 femtosecond or more and 100 picoseconds or less, such as a Ti: sapphire laser, a laser using a chrome forsterite crystal, a YVO 4 laser, or a Yb: YAG laser can be used. . A laser that oscillates with a pulse width on the order of femtoseconds ( 10-15 seconds) is also referred to as a femtosecond laser, and the pulse width can be set to the femtoseconds by mode locking.

Note that single crystal YAG, YVO 4 , forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), YAlO 3 , GdVO 4 , or polycrystalline (ceramic) YAG, Y 2 O 3 , YVO 4 , YAlO 3 , GdVO 4 , dopants Nd, Yb, Cr, Ti, Ho, Er, Tm, Ta, a laser using a medium added with one or more, an Ar ion laser, or a Ti: sapphire laser should oscillate continuously It is also possible to perform pulse oscillation at an oscillation frequency of 10 MHz or more by performing Q switch operation, mode synchronization, or the like. When the laser beam is oscillated at an oscillation frequency of 10 MHz or more, the semiconductor film is irradiated with the next pulse during the period from when the semiconductor film is melted by the laser to solidification. Therefore, unlike the case of using a pulse laser having a low oscillation frequency, the solid-liquid interface can be continuously moved in the semiconductor film, so that crystal grains continuously grown in the scanning direction can be obtained.

  When ceramic (polycrystal) is used as the medium, it is possible to form a laser crystal in a free shape in a short time and at a low cost. When a single crystal is used, a cylindrical laser crystal having a diameter of several millimeters and a length of several tens of millimeters is usually used. However, when a ceramic is used, a larger one can be made.

  The concentration of dopants such as Nd and Yb in the laser crystal that directly contributes to light emission cannot be changed greatly regardless of whether it is a single crystal or a polycrystal. Therefore, there is a certain limit to improving the laser output by increasing the concentration. However, in the case of ceramic, since the concentration of the dopant in the laser crystal can be made higher than that of the single crystal, a significant improvement in output can be realized.

  Furthermore, in the case of ceramic, it is possible to easily form a laser crystal having an arbitrary shape. Since a laser crystal using ceramic can be formed larger than a single crystal laser crystal, the oscillation optical path can be made longer than when a single crystal laser crystal is used. When the oscillation optical path is long, the amplification becomes large and it is possible to oscillate with a large output.

  Here, when a laser crystal having a parallelepiped shape or a rectangular parallelepiped shape is used, the oscillation light can be made to travel linearly inside the laser crystal, or can be made to zigzag so as to be reflected inside the laser crystal. Since the latter has a longer oscillation optical path than the former, it is possible to oscillate at a higher output. Further, since the laser beam emitted from the laser crystal having such a shape has a quadrangular cross-sectional shape at the time of emission, it is advantageous for shaping into a linear beam compared to a beam having a circular cross-sectional shape. .

  By shaping the emitted laser beam using an optical system, a linear beam having a short side length of 1 mm or less and a long side length of several mm to several m is easily obtained on the semiconductor film. It becomes possible. Further, by uniformly irradiating the laser crystal with the excitation light, the linear beam has a uniform energy distribution in the long side direction.

  Various effects can be obtained by using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention having the above-described configuration. For example, the transfer lens can be propagated through the beam propagator while correcting the expansion of the beam diameter of the laser beam and the short-term fluctuation of the optical axis. Therefore, when passing through the beam propagator, the laser beam can be propagated without hitting the inner wall of the hollow pipe.

  Furthermore, as long as a place where the beam propagator is disposed is secured, it is possible to irradiate the laser beam even if the spatial margin is small. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate more laser beams at a time than before, and the efficiency of the laser irradiation process is significantly improved.

  In addition, setting such as optical axis alignment is only the minimum necessary, and the time required for setting is greatly reduced. When setting, only the joint of the hollow pipe is rotated, so that the setting can be performed safely and easily without touching the laser beam. Since the propagation distance of the laser beam does not change even if the position of the hollow pipe is changed, it is not necessary to change the setting of the optical system such as the condenser lens. Therefore, the laser irradiation process can be performed uniformly, and the processing state of the irradiated object does not vary.

  In this embodiment, an example of a laser crystallization method different from the above-described example will be described. In this embodiment, a laser in which Yb is doped with ceramic YAG is used as the laser oscillator. This laser has a wavelength in the near-infrared region and can output 10 kW. The present embodiment is not limited to this, and a diode laser, an LD-pumped solid state laser, or the like may be used. In this embodiment, a CW laser is used, but a pulse laser having a repetition frequency of 10 MHz or more may be used.

  Since a laser crystal using ceramic can easily form a crystal larger than a single crystal laser crystal, the oscillation optical path can be made longer than when a single crystal laser crystal is used. When the oscillation optical path is long, the amplification becomes large, so that it is possible to oscillate with a large output. Furthermore, when a parallelepiped or rectangular parallelepiped laser crystal is used, the oscillation light can be made to travel in a straight line inside the laser crystal, or can be made to travel in a zigzag manner so as to be reflected inside the laser crystal. In particular, when the oscillation light is reflected inside the laser crystal and proceeds in a zigzag manner to lengthen the oscillation optical path, it becomes possible to oscillate at a higher output.

  The reason for using a laser oscillator having a wavelength in the near-infrared region is as follows. Harmonics are obtained by making a fundamental wave oscillated from a laser crystal enter a nonlinear optical element. However, when the output of the laser oscillator increases, there is a problem that the nonlinear optical element is damaged due to nonlinear optical effects such as multiphoton absorption, leading to breakdown. Therefore, the currently produced pulse laser having a CW in the visible region and a repetition frequency of 10 MHz or more has a maximum output of about 15 W due to the problem of the nonlinear optical element. Therefore, if a fundamental laser beam having a higher output can be used for crystallization, the beam spot on the irradiated surface can be lengthened, so that the laser irradiation process can be performed efficiently. Become.

  In this embodiment, since a laser beam having a wavelength that does not have absorption is used for the semiconductor film, light is absorbed only by the light absorption layer shaped to a predetermined size. The light absorption layer absorbs the laser beam, and the heat generated by this absorption diffuses into the semiconductor film through the insulating film, and a temperature distribution is formed in the in-plane direction of the substrate. Then, the semiconductor film melts. Further, according to the above temperature distribution, the crystal grows from the low temperature portion (region where the light absorption layer is not directly above the semiconductor film) to the high temperature portion (region where the light absorption layer is immediately above the semiconductor film). Progress. That is, crystal growth occurs from a region where there is no light absorption layer toward a region where the light absorption layer is present, and finally the tip of crystal growth collides near the region where the light absorption layer is present. In this way, a polycrystalline semiconductor film is formed.

  A laser oscillator capable of high output of several kW has a relatively poor quality of the output beam due to the structure of the oscillator, and a fine beam spot cannot be formed. Can be used. Examples of the fundamental laser oscillator that can output several kW include a fiber laser, a diode laser, a lamp-pumped or LD-pumped solid-state laser, and the like.

  An example of a specific method for manufacturing a crystalline semiconductor film is described. As shown in FIG. 4A, an insulating substrate such as glass that transmits visible light that is the wavelength of a laser beam used for laser crystallization is used for the substrate 2001. In this embodiment, a glass substrate having a thickness of 0.7 mm is used as the substrate 2001. Note that the material of the substrate 2001 is not limited to glass such as barium borosilicate glass and alumino borosilicate glass, and a heat-resistant plastic substrate that can withstand the processing temperature in this step can be used.

An insulating film such as a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film, or a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen is formed over one surface of the substrate 2001 as the base film 2002. As a typical example, the base film 2002 has a two-layer structure, and a silicon nitride film containing oxygen formed by using SiH 4 , NH 3 , and N 2 O as a reactive gas is 50 to 100 nm, SiH 4 , and N A structure in which a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen formed using 2 O as a reaction gas is formed to a thickness of 100 to 150 nm is employed. Further, as one layer of the two-layer structure of the base film 2002, a silicon nitride film with a thickness of 10 nm or less or a silicon nitride film containing oxygen is preferably used. As another example, the base film 2002 may have a three-layer structure in which a silicon nitride film containing oxygen, a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen, and a silicon nitride film are sequentially stacked. The base film 2002 functions as a blocking layer for preventing ions such as sodium from entering the TFT from the substrate. Further, the base film 2002 functions as a buffer layer.

  Next, an amorphous semiconductor film 2003 is formed. The amorphous semiconductor film 2003 is formed with a thickness of 25 nm to 200 nm (preferably 30 nm to 80 nm) by a known method (a sputtering method, an LPCVD method, a plasma CVD method, or the like). In this embodiment, the film is formed with a film thickness of 70 nm. Here, silicon, silicon germanium, SiC, or the like can be used as a material for the amorphous semiconductor film 2003. In this embodiment, silicon is used as a material for the amorphous semiconductor film 2003. When silicon germanium is used, the germanium concentration is preferably about 0.01 to 4.5 atomic%. In this embodiment and other embodiments, an example of an amorphous silicon film is shown as a semiconductor film, but a polycrystalline silicon film may be used. For example, in the case of a polycrystalline silicon film, a small amount of elements such as nickel, palladium, germanium, iron, tin, lead, cobalt, silver, platinum, copper, and gold are added to the amorphous silicon film after the amorphous silicon film is formed. Then, it can be formed by performing a heat treatment at 550 ° C. for 4 hours. Furthermore, a compound of silicon and carbon may be used as the semiconductor film.

  Further, instead of the amorphous semiconductor film 2003, a semiconductor film having a crystal structure (polycrystalline silicon film, microcrystalline semiconductor film (microcrystalline semiconductor film, semi-amorphous semiconductor) can be formed by performing film formation without separately crystallizing. May also be used).

  Note that thermal annealing is performed on the amorphous semiconductor film 2003 at 500 ° C. for one hour in order to increase the resistance of the amorphous semiconductor film 2003 to the laser beam.

  Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 4B, a process (patterning) for forming the amorphous semiconductor film 2003 into a desired shape is performed using a photolithography technique, so that an island-shaped amorphous semiconductor film 2004 is formed. To do. In this treatment, an ozone-containing aqueous solution is applied to the surface of the island-shaped amorphous semiconductor film 2004 or an oxygen atmosphere in order to protect the island-shaped amorphous semiconductor film 2004 before forming the resist mask. An oxide film can be formed using a method of generating ozone by UV irradiation. The oxide film formed here also has an effect of improving the wettability of the resist.

  If necessary, a small amount of impurity element (boron or phosphorus) is doped through this oxide film in order to control the threshold voltage of the TFT before the pattern forming process. Here, by performing doping, the activation process of the impurity element added in the crystallization process by the laser beam performed later can be performed at the same time, and the process can be reduced. When doping is performed through this oxide film, the oxide film may be removed.

  Next, after cleaning is performed to remove resist residues and unnecessary materials such as a resist stripping solution generated by the pattern forming process, an insulating film 2005 is formed to cover the surface of the island-shaped amorphous semiconductor film 2004.

  The insulating film 2005 is formed by forming an insulating film such as a silicon oxide film or a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen to a thickness of about 50 to 300 nm. Alternatively, the insulating film 2005 may be formed by stacking two or more layers of a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film, or a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen. The insulating film 2005 has a role of preventing elements used as the light absorption layer 2006 from diffusing as impurities and forming deep levels in the semiconductor.

  Further, a light absorption layer 2006 made of a metal element or a semiconductor element is formed. The light absorption layer 2006 is formed for the following reason. As described above, in this embodiment, a fundamental laser beam having a wavelength in the near infrared region is used. However, the light absorption coefficient for a semiconductor film such as a silicon film is low at wavelengths in the near infrared region. Therefore, the semiconductor film cannot be directly melted by a fundamental laser beam having a wavelength in the near infrared region. This is because a light absorption layer having a high absorption coefficient in the near infrared region is provided, and a method of indirectly crystallizing the semiconductor film with heat generated by absorption of the laser beam into the light absorption layer is used.

Specifically, the light absorption layer 2006 is any one of metals having a high melting point such as tungsten (W), molybdenum (Mo), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), chromium (Cr), and cobalt (Co). Alternatively, an alloy of these metals is used. Further, a nitride of these metals (e.g., WN, MoN, TiN, TaN, etc.), or a silicide of the metal (WSi 2, etc. MoSi 2, TiSi 2, TaSi 2 , CrSi 2, CoSi 2, PtSi 2) Two or more layers may be stacked to form the light absorption layer 2006.

  Next, as illustrated in FIG. 4C, the island-shaped amorphous semiconductor film 2004 is crystallized by irradiation with a laser beam using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention, so that the crystalline semiconductor film 2007 is formed. . The island-shaped amorphous semiconductor film 2004 is heated by heat generated by the light absorption layer 2006 absorbing the light of the laser beam. As a result, the island-shaped amorphous semiconductor film 2004 in a region completely melted by the laser beam irradiation grows, and the island-shaped amorphous semiconductor film 2004 is crystallized.

  Note that after the laser beam irradiation, the light absorption layer 2006 may be removed by etching, or may be formed into a desired shape without being etched and used as the gate insulating film 2008. In FIG. 4D, a part of the light absorption layer 2006 is removed and removed by etching.

  Note that the gate electrode is not limited to one layer, and may be a plurality of layers. FIG. 4E illustrates an example in which after forming the light absorption layer 2006 by etching, a paste containing a conductive material is discharged from the injection nozzle 2009 to directly form the conductive film 2010 to form the gate electrode 2012. . Note that the method for forming the gate electrode 2012 is not limited to this method. In addition, the light absorption layer 2006 is formed by etching, a conductive film is formed over the light absorption layer 2006, and the conductive film is formed by etching to form two or more gate electrodes 2012. You can also. In addition, before etching the light absorption layer 2006, a conductive film containing a conductive material is formed, and the gate electrode 2012 is formed by simultaneously etching the light absorption layer 2006 and the conductive film into a predetermined shape. You can also.

  As a material for the conductive film 2010, a material used in the embodiment mode or other examples can be used. In addition, a CVD method or a sputtering method may be used as the formation method, or a method in which a substance in which fine particles of a conductive material are dissolved or dispersed with a solvent may be directly formed in the shape of the gate electrode.

  In the subsequent steps, various semiconductor devices can be manufactured by using a known method.

  Various effects can be obtained by using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. The transfer lens can propagate through the beam propagator while correcting the spread of the laser beam diameter and short-term fluctuation of the optical axis, so that the laser beam can propagate without hitting the inner wall of the hollow pipe. Can do. Therefore, the semiconductor film can be irradiated while maintaining the energy of the laser beam emitted from the laser irradiation apparatus. Furthermore, as long as a place where the beam propagator is disposed is secured, it is possible to irradiate the laser beam even if the spatial margin is small. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate more laser beams at a time than before, and the efficiency of the laser irradiation process is significantly improved. In the case of using a large substrate whose one side exceeds 1 meter, the effect of simultaneously irradiating the semiconductor film with several to several tens of laser beams at a time is enormous.

  In addition, setting such as optical axis alignment is only the minimum necessary, and the time required for setting is greatly reduced. When setting, only the joint of the hollow pipe is rotated, so that setting can be performed safely and easily without touching the laser beam or touching another optical system to shift the optical axis. Since the propagation distance of the laser beam does not change even if the position of the hollow pipe is changed, it is not necessary to change the setting of the optical system such as the condenser lens. Therefore, the laser irradiation process can be performed uniformly, and the processing state of the irradiated object does not vary.

  Note that in this embodiment, the light absorption layer 2006 is formed over the insulating film 2005, the laser beam is directly irradiated onto the light absorption layer 2006, and the heat generated by the light absorption layer 2006 is used for the island-shaped amorphous semiconductor film. Although an example used for melting 2004 is shown, the light absorption layer 2006 does not necessarily have to be the uppermost layer. For example, in the case where an IC tag is manufactured using a semiconductor element such as a TFT, a layer to be peeled is formed below the semiconductor film in order to peel the IC tag from the substrate after completion of the process. The peeling layer may be used as a light absorption layer.

  In this embodiment, an example in which a CMOS transistor is manufactured using an N-channel TFT and a P-channel TFT manufactured using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention is shown.

  FIG. 5A shows a state immediately after laser irradiation using a plurality of laser irradiation apparatuses is performed simultaneously on the amorphous semiconductor film 3002 formed over the substrate 3000 using the present invention. Hereinafter, a manufacturing process as viewed from a cross-section of a dotted line connecting points A and B in FIG. 5 will be described.

  As shown in FIG. 5B, a base film 3001 is formed over a substrate 3000 having an insulating surface. In this embodiment, a glass substrate is used as the substrate 3000. As the substrate used here, a glass substrate such as barium borosilicate glass or alumino borosilicate glass, a quartz substrate, a ceramic substrate, a stainless steel substrate, or the like can be used. In addition, raw materials are plastics typified by PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate), PES (Polyetherulphone Resin: Polyethersulfone Resin), PEN (Polyethylene Naphthalate), and synthetic resins typified by acrylic. In general, the substrate has a lower heat-resistant temperature than other substrates, but any substrate can be used as long as it can withstand the process of this step.

  The base film 3001 is provided to prevent alkali metal such as sodium or alkaline earth metal contained in the substrate 3000 from diffusing into the semiconductor and adversely affecting the characteristics of the semiconductor element. Therefore, an insulating film such as a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film, or a silicon nitride film containing oxygen that can suppress diffusion of an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal into the semiconductor is formed. Further, the base film 3001 may be either a single layer or a stacked structure. In this embodiment, a silicon nitride film containing oxygen is formed to a thickness of 10 to 400 nm by using a plasma CVD method (Chemical Vapor Deposition).

  Note that in the case where a substrate containing a slight amount of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal, such as a glass substrate or a plastic substrate, is used as the substrate 3000, a base film may be provided to prevent diffusion of impurities. Although effective, a base film 3001 is not necessarily provided when a substrate such as a quartz substrate that does not cause much problem of impurity diffusion is used.

  Next, an amorphous semiconductor film 3002 is formed over the base film 3001. The amorphous semiconductor film 3002 is formed with a thickness of 25 to 100 nm (preferably 30 to 60 nm) by a known method (a sputtering method, an LPCVD method, a plasma CVD method, or the like). As the amorphous semiconductor film 3002 used here, silicon, silicon germanium, or the like can be used as a material, but silicon is used in this embodiment. When silicon germanium is used, the concentration of germanium is preferably about 0.01 to 4.5 atomic%.

  Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 5C, crystallization is performed by irradiating the amorphous semiconductor film 3002 with a laser beam 3003 using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. In this embodiment, a continuous wave ceramic YAG laser beam is used as the laser beam 3003. A plurality of dopants such as Nd and Yb are added to the ceramic YAG laser crystal to oscillate. The center wavelength of the fundamental wave of this laser oscillator is 1030 to 1064 nm, and the full width at half maximum of the oscillation wavelength is about 30 nm. The fundamental wave is converted into a second harmonic wave having a center wavelength of 515 to 532 nm and a full width at half maximum of the oscillation wavelength of about 15 nm by a nonlinear optical crystal in the laser oscillator, and after condensing with a cylindrical lens 3004, irradiation is performed. .

Not only the lasers listed here, but also Sapphire, YAG, ceramics YAG, ceramics Y 2 O 3 , KGW, KYW, Mg 2 SiO 4 , YLF, YVO 4 , or GdVO 4 crystals, Nd, Yb, Cr, Ti For example, a laser to which any one or a plurality of dopants, Ho, and Er are added, a Ti: Sapphire laser, or the like can be used. The laser beam 3003 is converted into a harmonic by a known nonlinear optical element. In this embodiment, the laser beam 3003 is converted into the second harmonic by the nonlinear optical element, but may be a harmonic other than the second harmonic.

  By using the above method, a large grain size region 3005 in which crystal grains continuously grown in the scanning direction are formed and a poor crystallinity region 3006 are formed. Further, an island-shaped semiconductor film 3009 is formed by etching (FIG. 6A). Further, a gate insulating film 3010 is formed so as to cover the island-shaped semiconductor film 3009 (FIG. 6B).

  By using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention, the laser beam can be propagated without hitting the inner wall of the hollow pipe when passing through the beam propagator. Therefore, the semiconductor film can be irradiated while maintaining the energy of the laser beam emitted from the laser irradiation apparatus. Furthermore, as long as a place where the beam propagator is disposed is secured, it is possible to irradiate the laser beam even if the spatial margin is small. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate more laser beams at a time than before, and the efficiency of the laser irradiation process is significantly improved. In the case of using a large substrate whose one side exceeds 1 meter, the effect of simultaneously irradiating the semiconductor film with several to a dozen laser beams at a time is enormous.

  In addition, setting such as optical axis alignment is only the minimum necessary, and the time required for setting is greatly reduced. When setting, only the joint of the hollow pipe is rotated, so that setting can be performed safely and easily without touching the laser beam or touching another optical system to shift the optical axis. Since the propagation distance of the laser beam does not change even if the position of the hollow pipe is changed, it is not necessary to change the setting of the optical system such as the condenser lens. Therefore, the laser irradiation process can be performed uniformly, and the processing state of the irradiated object does not vary.

  The gate insulating film 3010 can be formed by a thermal oxidation method, a plasma CVD method, or a sputtering method. For example, a stacked film of a silicon oxide film with a thickness of 5 nm obtained by a thermal oxidation method and a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen with a thickness of 10 to 15 nm obtained by a CVD method may be formed. In addition, the film can be continuously formed by switching the gas.

Note that the gate insulating film 3010 is not limited to the above materials, and (1) a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film containing oxygen, a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen, a silicon nitride film, or a stacked film thereof, and (2) a high dielectric Tantalum oxide, hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ), nitrogen-doped hafnium-silicon oxide (HfSiON), zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ), aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), or an oxide material (also referred to as a high-k material) Rare earth oxides such as lanthanum oxide (La 2 O 2 ) can be used.

  Next, as illustrated in FIG. 6C, a conductive film is formed over the gate insulating film 3010 and formed into a desired shape, whereby gate electrodes 3011 and 3012 are formed. The outline is as follows. First, the material of the conductive film formed over the gate insulating film 3010 may be a film having conductivity. As the material, an element selected from gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), platinum (Pt), aluminum (Al), molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), or A synthetic material or a compound material containing these elements as main components can be used. Furthermore, a laminate of these materials can also be used. In this embodiment, a laminated film of W (tungsten) and TaN (tantalum nitride) is used. However, a conductive film obtained by laminating Mo, Al, and Mo in this order using Al (aluminum) and Mo (molybdenum), and Ti ( A conductive film in which Ti, Al, and Ti are stacked in this order using titanium) and Al may be used. In particular, in the case where the gate insulating film 3010 is formed using the above-described high dielectric constant material (high-k material), when the gate electrodes 3011 and 3012 are formed using the above materials, depletion of the gate electrode is eliminated. Since a large amount of current can be passed, it contributes to lower power consumption of the semiconductor element.

  Then, a resist mask for forming the conductive film into a desired shape is formed. First, a photoresist is applied to the surface of the conductive film by spin coating or the like, and exposure is performed. Next, heat treatment (pre-bake) is performed on the photoresist. The pre-baking temperature is 50 to 120 ° C., which is lower than the post-baking performed later. In this example, the heating temperature was 90 ° C. and the heating time was 90 seconds.

  Next, the exposed resist is developed by dropping a developer onto the photoresist or spraying the developer from a spray nozzle.

  Thereafter, the developed photoresist is subjected to a so-called post-bake in which heat treatment is performed at 125 ° C. for 180 seconds to remove moisture remaining in the resist mask, and at the same time, stability against heat is enhanced. A resist mask is formed by the above steps. Based on the resist mask, the conductive film is etched into a desired shape to form gate electrodes 3011 and 3012.

  Note that as another method, the gate electrodes 3011 and 3012 are formed directly on the gate insulating film 3010 by a droplet discharge method typified by a printing method or an inkjet method capable of discharging a material to a predetermined place. May be.

  By dissolving or dispersing a conductive material in a solvent, a liquid substance having conductivity is formed and discharged. The conductive material that can be used here is gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), platinum (Pt), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), palladium (Pd), indium (In). , Molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iridium (Ir), rhodium (Rh), tungsten (W), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), titanium (Ti) , Zirconium (Zr), barium (Ba) and other metals, or an alloy of these metals. As the solvent, esters such as butyl acetate and ethyl acetate, alcohols such as isopropyl alcohol and ethyl alcohol, organic solvents such as methyl ethyl ketone and acetone can be used.

  Moreover, the viscosity of a composition shall be 300 cp or less. This is for preventing drying and smoothly discharging the composition from the discharge port. Note that the viscosity and surface tension of the composition may be appropriately adjusted according to the solvent to be used and the application.

  Next, as shown in FIG. 7A, the resist used for forming the gate electrode 3011 or the gate electrode 3012 is used as a mask, the portion where the P-channel TFT is formed is covered with a resist 3013, and the N-type is formed. Arsenic (As) or phosphorus (P) as an impurity to be provided is introduced. By this operation, a source region 3014 and a drain region 3015 are formed. Similarly, a portion where an N-channel TFT is to be formed is covered with a resist 3016, and boron (B) which is an impurity imparting P-type is introduced to form a source region 3017 and a drain region 3018 (FIG. 7). (B)).

  Thereafter, sidewalls 3019 and 3020 are formed on the side walls of the gate electrodes 3011 and 3012. For example, an insulating film made of silicon oxide is formed on the entire surface of the substrate by a CVD method. The sidewalls 3019 and 3020 may be formed by performing anisotropic etching on the insulating film (FIG. 7C).

  Next, as shown in FIG. 7D, a portion to be a P-channel TFT is covered with a resist 3021, and ions showing N-type conductivity are introduced, so that an LDD region 3024 is formed. Note that ions exhibiting N-type conductivity are introduced at a higher dose than the previous dose. Similarly, as shown in FIG. 8A, a portion to be an N-channel TFT is covered with a resist 3022, and ions exhibiting P-type conductivity are introduced to form an LDD region 3023. Again, ions exhibiting P-type conductivity are introduced at a higher dose than before.

  When the introduction of impurities is completed as described above, treatment is performed by laser annealing, lamp annealing, or furnace annealing, and activation of the introduced impurities and damage to the crystal lattice due to the introduction of the impurities are recovered. In the case of using a laser annealing method, the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention can be used.

  Through the above steps, the P-channel TFT 3025 and the N-channel TFT 3026 can be formed over the same substrate.

  Subsequently, as shown in FIG. 8B, an insulating film 3027 is formed as a protective film thereof. As the insulating film 3027, a silicon nitride film or a silicon nitride film containing oxygen is formed to a thickness of 100 to 200 nm with a single layer or a stacked structure by using a plasma CVD method or a sputtering method. In the case of combining a silicon nitride film containing oxygen and a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen, continuous film formation can be performed by switching gases. In this embodiment, a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen having a thickness of 100 nm is formed by a plasma CVD method. By providing the insulating film 3027, it is possible to obtain a blocking action that prevents intrusion of various ionic impurities including oxygen and moisture in the air.

  Next, an insulating film 3028 is further formed. Here, a skeleton structure is formed on the surface of the insulating film 3027 by polyimide, polyamide, BCB (benzocyclobutene), acrylic, siloxane (a bond of silicon and oxygen (siloxane bond)) by an SOG (Spin On Glass) method or a spin coat method. An organic resin film such as a substance having a structure in which at least one of fluorine, aliphatic hydrocarbon, or aromatic hydrocarbon is bonded to silicon, and an inorganic interlayer insulating film (silicon such as silicon nitride and silicon oxide). Insulating film) or low-k (low dielectric constant) material can be applied. The insulating film 3028 is preferably a film having excellent flatness because it has a strong meaning of relieving unevenness due to TFTs formed over a glass substrate and flattening.

  Further, the gate insulating film 3010, the insulating film 3027, and the insulating film 3028 are patterned into desired shapes by using a photolithography method, and contact holes reaching the source regions 3014 and 3017 and the drain regions 3015 and 3018 are formed.

  Next, a conductive film is formed using a conductive material, and the wiring 3029 is formed by patterning the conductive film into a desired shape. After that, when an insulating film 3030 is formed as a protective film, a CMOS transistor as shown in FIG. 8C is completed.

  The method for manufacturing a semiconductor device of the present invention is not limited to the manufacturing process described above. In this embodiment, a process of manufacturing a CMOS transistor is shown; however, it can also be used when an N-channel TFT, a P-channel TFT, or both are simultaneously formed on a substrate. In this embodiment, a forward stagger type TFT is manufactured. However, the present invention is not limited to this, and the present invention can also be used when manufacturing an inverted stagger type TFT.

  Further, a crystallization step using a catalytic element may be provided before crystallization with a laser beam. The catalyst elements are nickel (Ni), germanium (Ge), iron (Fe), palladium (Pd), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co), platinum (Pt), copper (Cu). An element such as gold (Au) can be used. In addition, crystallization may be promoted by performing heat treatment after adding the catalyst element, or the heat treatment step may be omitted. Further, after the heat treatment, laser treatment may be performed while maintaining the temperature. The laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention can be used during these processes.

  The method for manufacturing a semiconductor device using the present invention can also be used for a method for manufacturing an integrated circuit or a semiconductor display device.

  In addition, this embodiment can be freely combined with the embodiment mode and other embodiments.

  In this example, light emission is described as an example of manufacturing a semiconductor device using a semiconductor film crystallized by using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and the method described in the embodiment mode or other examples as a material. A light-emitting device using the element and a method for manufacturing the light-emitting device will be described. The light-emitting device described in this embodiment has a structure in which light is extracted from a substrate (referred to as a counter substrate or a sealing substrate) opposite to a substrate having an insulating surface, but is not limited to this structure and has an insulating surface. It can be used in the same manner for a light-emitting device having a structure in which light is extracted from the substrate side and a light-emitting device having a structure in which light is extracted from both the substrate side having an insulating surface and the counter substrate side.

  FIG. 9 is a top view showing the light-emitting device, and FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view of FIG. 9 taken along A-A ′. Reference numeral 4000 denotes a substrate, 4001 indicated by a dotted line is a source signal line driver circuit, 4002 is a pixel portion, and 4003 is a gate signal line driver circuit. Reference numeral 4004 denotes a transparent sealing substrate, and reference numeral 4005 denotes a first sealing material. The inside surrounded by the first sealing material 4005 is filled with a transparent second sealing material 4006. Note that the first sealing material 4005 contains a gap material for maintaining the gap between the substrates.

  Note that a video signal and a clock signal are sent through an FPC (flexible printed circuit) 4007 serving as an external input terminal. This signal is input to the source signal line driver circuit 4001 and the gate signal line driver circuit 4003 via a wiring on the substrate 4000. Although only the FPC 4007 is shown here, a printed wiring board (PWB) may be attached to the FPC 4007.

  Next, a cross-sectional structure will be described with reference to FIG. A driver circuit and a pixel portion are formed over the substrate 4000. Here, a source signal line driver circuit 4001 and a pixel portion 4002 are shown as the driver circuits.

  Note that as the source signal line driver circuit 4001, a CMOS circuit in which an N-channel TFT 4023 and a P-channel TFT 4024 are combined is formed. The TFT forming the driving circuit may be formed by a known CMOS circuit, PMOS circuit or NMOS circuit. In this embodiment, a driver integrated type in which a drive circuit is formed on a substrate is shown, but this is not always necessary. For example, the drive circuit can be formed outside the substrate instead of on the substrate. Further, the structure of a TFT having a polysilicon film as an active layer is not particularly limited, and may be a top gate type TFT or a bottom gate type TFT.

  The pixel portion 4002 is formed of a plurality of pixels including a switching TFT 4011, a current control TFT 4012, and a first electrode (anode) 4013 electrically connected to the drain thereof. The current control TFT 4012 may be an N-channel TFT or a P-channel TFT. However, when connected to the anode, a P-channel TFT is preferable. In addition, it is preferable to appropriately provide a storage capacitor (not shown). Note that here, only a cross-sectional structure of one pixel among the infinitely arranged pixels is shown, and an example in which two TFTs are used for the one pixel is shown. However, three or more TFTs are appropriately used. , May be used.

  Here, since the first electrode (anode) 4013 is in direct contact with the drain of the TFT, the lower layer of the first electrode (anode) 4013 is a material layer that can be in ohmic contact with the drain made of silicon. The uppermost layer in contact with the layer containing an organic compound is preferably a material layer having a high work function. As the first electrode (anode), it is desirable to use one having a work function of 4.0 eV or more. For example, when a three-layer structure of a titanium nitride film, a film containing aluminum as a main component, and a titanium nitride film is used, the resistance as a wiring is low, a good ohmic contact can be obtained, and the film can function as an anode. . The first electrode (anode) 4013 includes indium tin oxide (hereinafter referred to as ITO (indium tin oxide)), indium tin oxide containing silicon oxide (hereinafter referred to as ITSO), gold (Au), platinum ( Pt), nickel (Ni), tungsten (W), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), zinc (Zn), or metal A single layer of a material nitride (such as titanium nitride) may be used, or a stack of three or more layers may be used.

  In addition, insulators (referred to as banks, partition walls, barriers, banks, or the like) 4014 are formed on both ends of the first electrode (anode) 4013. The insulator 4014 may be formed using an organic resin film or an insulating film containing silicon. Here, as the insulator 4014, an insulator having a shape illustrated in FIG. 10 is formed using a positive photosensitive acrylic resin film.

  In order to perform subsequent film formation satisfactorily, a curved surface having a curvature is formed at the upper end portion or the lower end portion of the insulator 4014. For example, when positive photosensitive acrylic is used as the material of the insulator 4014, it is preferable that only the upper end portion of the insulator 4014 has a curved surface with a curvature radius (0.2 μm to 3 μm). As the insulator 4014, either a negative type that becomes insoluble in an etchant by photosensitive light or a positive type that becomes soluble in an etchant by light can be used.

  Alternatively, the insulator 4014 may be covered with a protective film made of an aluminum nitride film, an aluminum nitride oxide film, a thin film containing carbon as its main component, or a silicon nitride film.

Next, an electroluminescent layer 4015 is formed. As a material for forming the electroluminescent layer 4015, there are a low molecular weight, a high molecular weight, and a medium molecular weight material having properties between the low molecular weight and the high molecular weight. In this embodiment, a low molecular material is used to form the electroluminescent layer 4015 by vapor deposition. Both a low molecular material and a high molecular material can be formed by dissolving the solvent in a solvent and applying the solvent together with a spin coating method or an ink jet method. Further, not only organic materials but also composite materials with inorganic materials can be used.

In addition, an electroluminescent layer 4015 is selectively formed over the first electrode (anode) 4013. For example, vapor deposition is performed in a film formation chamber evacuated to a vacuum degree of 0.7 Pa or less, preferably 1.3 × 10 −2 to 1.3 × 10 −4 Pa. During the vapor deposition, the organic compound is vaporized in advance by heating. The vaporized organic compound is evaporated to form an electroluminescent layer 4015 (a hole injection layer, a hole transport layer, a light emitting layer, an electron transport layer, and an electron injection layer from the first electrode side). Note that the structure of the electroluminescent layer 4015 need not be such a stack, but may be a single layer or a mixed layer. Further, a second electrode (cathode) 4016 is formed over the electroluminescent layer 4015.

Note that as the second electrode 4016 (cathode), a metal, an alloy, an electrically conductive compound, a mixture thereof, or the like with a low work function (a work function of 3.8 eV or less is a guide) is preferably used. Specific materials include elements belonging to Group 1 or Group 2 of the Periodic Table of Elements, ie, alkali metals such as Li, Rb, and Cs, and alkaline earth metals such as Mg, Ca, and Sr, and alloys containing these ( In addition to Mg: Ag, Al: Li) and compounds (LiF, CsF, CaF 2 ), transition metals including rare earth metals (such as Yb) can be used. However, since the second electrode (cathode) has translucency in this embodiment, these metals or alloys containing these metals are formed very thin, and ITO, IZO, ITSO or other metals (alloys) Can be formed by lamination.

  Here, a stack of a thin metal film with a small work function and a transparent conductive film (ITO, IZO, ZnO, or the like) is used as the second electrode (cathode) 4016 so that light is transmitted. Thus, an electroluminescent element 4018 including the first electrode (anode) 4013, the electroluminescent layer 4015, and the second electrode (cathode) 4016 is formed.

  In this embodiment, an electroluminescent layer 4015 is formed. The breakdown is as follows. First, a hole injection layer is formed with a thickness of 20 nm using copper phthalocyanine (abbreviation: Cu—Pc) as a material. Next, a hole-transporting first light-emitting layer is formed with a thickness of 30 nm using α-NPD as a material, and a second light-emitting layer is formed on CBP (4,4′-N, N′-dicarbazol-biphenyl) with Pt ( ppy) A substance to which acac is added at 15 wt% is formed to a thickness of 20 nm. Further, an electron transport layer is laminated with a material of BCP (2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenthrololin) at a thickness of 30 nm. Note that since a metal thin film having a low work function is used as the second electrode (cathode) 4016, it is not necessary to use an electron injection layer (calcium fluoride) here.

  The electroluminescent element 4018 thus formed emits white light. Note that here, a color filter including a colored layer 4031 and a light-shielding layer (also referred to as a black matrix (BM)) 4032 (for the sake of simplicity, an overcoat layer is not shown) is provided in order to realize full color. Yes.

  In addition, a transparent protective layer 4017 is formed to seal the electroluminescent element 4018. The transparent protective layer 4017 is composed of a laminate of a first inorganic insulating film, a stress relaxation film, and a second inorganic insulating film. As the first inorganic insulating film and the second inorganic insulating film, a silicon nitride film, a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film containing oxygen, a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen, or carbon as a main component obtained by a sputtering method or a CVD method is used. The thin film (for example, diamond like carbon (DLC) film, carbon nitride (CN) film) can be used. These inorganic insulating films have a high blocking effect against moisture, but as the film thickness increases, the film stress increases and film peeling tends to occur.

  However, by sandwiching the stress relaxation film between the first inorganic insulating film and the second inorganic insulating film, stress can be relaxed and moisture can be absorbed. Even if a minute hole (pinhole or the like) is formed in the first inorganic insulating film for some reason during film formation, it is filled with a stress relaxation film and a second inorganic insulating film is provided thereon. Therefore, it has a very high blocking effect against moisture and oxygen.

Further, as the stress relaxation film, a material having a lower stress than the inorganic insulating film and having a hygroscopic property is preferable. In addition, it is desirable that the material has translucency. Further, as the stress relaxation film, a material film containing an organic compound such as α-NPD, BCP, MTDATA, or Alq 3 may be used, and these material films have a hygroscopic property and are thin. It is almost transparent. MgO, SrO 2 , and SrO have hygroscopicity and translucency, and can be used as a stress relaxation film because a thin film can be obtained by an evaporation method.

In this embodiment, a film formed in an atmosphere containing nitrogen and argon using a silicon target, that is, a silicon nitride film having a high blocking effect against impurities such as moisture and alkali metal is used as the first inorganic insulating film or the first film. 2 is used as an inorganic insulating film, and an Alq 3 thin film is used as a stress relaxation film by vapor deposition. Moreover, in order to allow light emission to pass through the transparent protective laminate, it is preferable to make the total thickness of the transparent protective laminate as thin as possible.

  In order to seal the electroluminescent element 4018, the sealing substrate 4004 is bonded to the first sealing material 4005 and the second sealing material 4006 in an inert gas atmosphere. Note that an epoxy-based resin is preferably used as the first sealing material 4005 and the second sealing material 4006. In addition, the first sealing material 4005 and the second sealing material 4006 are preferably materials that do not transmit moisture and oxygen as much as possible.

  In this embodiment, a plastic substrate made of FRP (Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastics), PVF (polyvinyl fluoride), polyester, acrylic, or the like is used as a material for forming the sealing substrate 4004 in addition to a glass substrate or a quartz substrate. it can. Further, after the sealing substrate 4004 is bonded using the first sealing material 4005 and the second sealing material 4006, it is also possible to seal with a third sealing material so as to cover the side surface (exposed surface).

  By encapsulating the electroluminescent element 4018 in the first sealant 4005 and the second sealant 4006 as described above, the electroluminescent element 4018 can be completely shut off from the outside, and electroluminescence such as moisture and oxygen from the outside. Invasion of a substance that promotes deterioration of the layer 4015 can be prevented. Therefore, a highly reliable light-emitting device can be obtained.

  In addition, when a transparent conductive film is used as the first electrode (anode) 4013, a light-emitting device that can obtain light from both the substrate side and the sealing substrate side can be manufactured.

  This embodiment can be freely combined with the embodiment mode or other embodiments of the present invention. In addition to a display device using a light-emitting element, a display device using liquid crystal can be manufactured using a semiconductor film crystallized using the present invention.

  In this embodiment, as an example of a light-emitting device that emits light by flowing current, an example in which an organic material is used for the light-emitting layer of the electroluminescent layer 4015 is shown; however, zinc sulfide (ZnS), strontium sulfide ( A light-emitting device using an inorganic material such as (SrS) can be manufactured in a similar manner.

  In this embodiment, a liquid crystal display device will be described with reference to the drawings as an example of a semiconductor device manufactured using a semiconductor film crystallized by using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention as a material. In this embodiment, an example in which the pixel portion, the drive circuit, and the terminal portion are formed over the same substrate is shown. However, the present invention is not limited thereto, and the pixel portion and the drive circuit are formed over the same substrate, and the terminal portion is formed separately. Then, they may be connected later by wiring.

  In FIG. 11, a base insulating film 5011 is formed over a substrate 5010. As the substrate 5010, a light-transmitting glass substrate or quartz substrate may be used. Alternatively, a light-transmitting plastic substrate having heat resistance that can withstand the processing temperature may be used. In the case of a reflective liquid crystal display device, a silicon substrate, a metal substrate, or a stainless steel substrate having an insulating film formed thereon may be used in addition to the above-described substrate. Here, a glass substrate is used as the substrate 5010.

  As the base insulating film 5011, an insulating film such as a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film, or a silicon oxynitride film is formed. Although an example in which the base insulating film 5011 is a single layer is shown here, a structure in which two or more insulating films are stacked may be used. Note that the base insulating film 5011 is not necessarily formed if unevenness of the substrate or impurity diffusion from the substrate is not a problem.

Alternatively, the surface of the glass substrate may be directly treated with high-density plasma excited by microwaves, having an electron temperature of 2 eV or less, an ion energy of 5 eV or less, and an electron density of about 10 11 to 10 13 / cm 3. . Plasma generation can be performed using a microwave-excited plasma processing apparatus using a radial slot antenna. At this time, when a nitride gas such as nitrogen (N 2 ), ammonia (NH 3 ), or nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is introduced, the surface of the glass substrate can be nitrided. Since the nitride layer formed on the surface of the glass substrate contains silicon nitride as a main component, it can be used as a blocking layer for impurities diffused from the glass substrate side. A silicon oxide film or a silicon oxynitride film may be formed over the nitride layer by a plasma CVD method to form the base insulating film 5011.

  Next, an island-shaped semiconductor film is formed over the base insulating film 5011. In this method, first, an amorphous semiconductor film is formed by sputtering, LPCVD, plasma CVD, or the like. Note that when the plasma CVD method is used, the base insulating film 5011 and the amorphous semiconductor film 5012 can be stacked successively without being exposed to the air. The amorphous semiconductor film 5012 is formed with a thickness of 25 to 80 nm (preferably 30 to 70 nm). There is no limitation on the material of the crystalline semiconductor film, but the crystalline semiconductor film is preferably formed of silicon or a silicon germanium (SiGe) alloy.

  Next, the amorphous semiconductor film is shaped into a desired shape using a photolithography technique to form an island-shaped semiconductor film. After that, the crystalline semiconductor film 5014 is formed by irradiating the island-shaped semiconductor film with a laser beam using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. As the laser, the laser described in the embodiment mode and other examples can be used.

  Various effects can be obtained by using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. For example, the transfer lens corrects short-term fluctuations in the optical axis of the laser beam and the expansion of the beam diameter of the laser beam, so that the laser beam can propagate through the beam propagator without hitting the inner wall of the hollow pipe. it can. Therefore, the semiconductor film can be irradiated while maintaining the energy of the laser beam emitted from the laser irradiation apparatus. Furthermore, as long as a place where the beam propagator is disposed is secured, it is possible to irradiate the laser beam even if the spatial margin is small. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate more laser beams at a time than before, and the efficiency of the laser irradiation process is significantly improved. In the case of using a large substrate whose one side exceeds 1 meter, the effect of simultaneously irradiating the semiconductor film with several to a dozen laser beams at a time is enormous.

  In addition, setting such as optical axis alignment is only the minimum necessary, and the time required for setting is greatly reduced. When setting, only the joint of the hollow pipe is rotated, so that setting can be performed safely and easily without touching the laser beam or touching another optical system to shift the optical axis. Since the propagation distance of the laser beam does not change even if the position of the hollow pipe is changed, it is not necessary to change the setting of the optical system such as the condenser lens. Therefore, the laser irradiation process can be performed uniformly, and the processing state of the irradiated object does not vary.

If necessary, the crystalline semiconductor film 5014 formed by the laser irradiation treatment is doped with a small amount of impurity element (boron or phosphorus) in order to control the threshold voltage of the TFT. For example, an ion doping method in which diborane (B 2 H 6 ) is plasma-excited without mass separation can be used.

  Next, the oxide film on the surface of the semiconductor film is removed with an etchant containing hydrofluoric acid, and at the same time, the surface of the crystalline semiconductor film 5014 is washed. Further, a gate insulating film 5015 that covers the crystalline semiconductor film 5014 is formed. The gate insulating film 5015 is formed by plasma CVD or sputtering and has a thickness of 1 to 200 nm. It is preferably formed as a single layer or a laminated structure of an insulating film containing silicon by reducing the thickness to 10 nm to 50 nm, and then surface nitriding treatment using plasma by microwaves is performed.

Note that before the gate insulating film 5015 is formed, the surface of the crystalline semiconductor film 5014 is excited by microwaves in the same manner as described above, and the electron temperature is 2 eV or less, the ion energy is 5 eV or less, and the electron density is 10 11. by to 10 13 / cm 3 about a is high-density plasma treatment may be densified by oxidation or nitridation treatment. At this time, the substrate temperature is set to 300 to 450 ° C., and treatment is performed in an oxidizing atmosphere (O 2 , N 2 O, etc.) or a nitriding atmosphere (N 2 , NH 3, etc.), A good interface can be formed.

  Next, a first conductive film with a thickness of 20 to 100 nm and a second conductive film with a thickness of 100 to 400 nm are stacked over the gate insulating film 5015. In this embodiment, a gate electrode 5017 is formed by sequentially stacking a tantalum nitride film having a thickness of 50 nm and a tungsten film having a thickness of 370 nm on the gate insulating film 5015 and shaping the film into a desired shape. In this embodiment, the gate electrode 5017 is formed using a photomask or a reticle.

  Note that although the gate electrode 5017 is a stacked layer of a tantalum nitride (TaN) film and a tungsten (W) film in this embodiment, it is not particularly limited. Specifically, an element selected from Ta, W, Ti, Mo, Al, and Cu, or an alloy material or a compound material containing the element as a main component can be formed. Alternatively, a semiconductor film typified by a polycrystalline silicon film doped with an impurity element such as phosphorus may be used. Further, the present invention is not limited to the two-layer structure. For example, a three-layer structure in which a 50 nm-thickness tungsten film, a 500 nm-thickness aluminum and silicon alloy (Al-Si) film, and a 30 nm-thickness titanium nitride film are sequentially stacked. Also good.

  An ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) etching method is preferably used for etching the first conductive film and the second conductive film (first etching process and second etching process). Using the ICP etching method, the film is formed into a desired taper shape by appropriately adjusting the etching conditions (the amount of power applied to the coil-type electrode, the amount of power applied to the substrate-side electrode, the electrode temperature on the substrate side, etc.) Can be etched.

Next, in order to add an impurity element imparting n-type conductivity to the crystalline semiconductor film 5014, a first doping process is performed in which doping is performed on the entire surface using the gate electrode 5017 as a mask. The first doping process may be performed by an ion doping method or an ion implantation method. The conditions of the ion doping method are a dose amount of 1.5 × 10 13 atoms / cm 2 and an acceleration voltage of 50 to 100 kV. Typically, phosphorus (P) or arsenic (As) is used as the impurity element imparting n-type conductivity.

Next, after forming a resist mask, a second doping step is performed for doping the crystalline semiconductor film 5014 with an impurity element imparting n-type conductivity at a high concentration. The mask includes a channel formation region of the semiconductor layer forming the p-channel TFT in the pixel portion and its peripheral region, a part of the n-channel TFT in the pixel portion, and a semiconductor forming the p-channel TFT in the driver circuit portion. It is provided to protect the channel formation region of the layer and the surrounding region. The conditions of the ion doping method in the second doping step are a dose amount of 1 × 10 13 to 5 × 10 15 / cm 2 and an acceleration voltage of 60 to 100 kV.

  Next, a third doping step is performed for doping the crystalline semiconductor film 5014 with an impurity element imparting p-type conductivity (typically boron) at a high concentration. The mask includes a channel formation region of the semiconductor layer that forms the n-channel TFT in the pixel portion and a peripheral region thereof, a channel formation region of the semiconductor layer that forms the n-channel TFT of the driver circuit portion, and a peripheral region thereof, Provided to protect

  Through the above steps, an impurity region having n-type or p-type conductivity is formed in each crystalline semiconductor film 5014.

Next, an insulating film 5019 containing hydrogen is formed by a sputtering method, an LPCVD method, a plasma CVD method, or the like. The insulating film 5019 is formed using silicon nitride or silicon oxynitride. The insulating film 5019 includes a function as a protective film for preventing contamination of the semiconductor layer. After the insulating film 5019 is deposited, the insulating film 5019 may be hydrogenated by introducing hydrogen gas and performing high-density plasma treatment excited by microwaves as described above. Alternatively, the insulating film 5019 may be nitrided and hydrogenated by introducing ammonia gas. Alternatively, oxygen nitriding treatment and hydrogenation treatment may be performed by introducing oxygen, NO 2 gas, or the like and hydrogen gas. By this method, the surface of the insulating film 5019 can be densified by performing nitriding treatment, oxidation treatment, or oxynitridation treatment. Thereby, the function as a protective film can be strengthened. The hydrogen introduced into the insulating film 5019 can be hydrogenated from the silicon nitride which forms the insulating film 5019 by performing a heat treatment at 400 to 450 ° C. after that.

  Next, a first interlayer insulating film 5021 is formed by a sputtering method, an LPCVD method, a plasma CVD method, or the like. As the first interlayer insulating film 5021, a single layer or a stacked layer of insulating films such as a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film, or a silicon oxynitride film is used. The thickness of the first interlayer insulating film 5021 is 600 nm to 800 nm. Next, a resist mask is formed using a photomask, and the first interlayer insulating film 5021 is selectively etched to form contact holes. Then, the resist mask is removed.

  Next, after a metal film is stacked by a sputtering method, a resist mask is formed using a photomask, and the metal stack film is selectively etched to form an electrode 5023 that functions as a source electrode or a drain electrode of the TFT. To do. The metal laminated film is continuously formed in the same metal sputtering apparatus. Then, the resist mask is removed.

  Through the above steps, top-gate TFTs 5025, 5027, and 5029 using a polysilicon film as an active layer can be manufactured over the same substrate.

  Note that the TFT 5029 arranged in the pixel portion is an n-channel TFT having a plurality of channel formation regions in one TFT. The TFT 5029 is a multi-gate TFT.

  The TFT 5027 arranged in the driver circuit portion is an n-channel TFT having a low concentration impurity region (also referred to as an LDD region) overlapping with the gate electrode, and the TFT 5025 is a p-channel TFT. Both are single-gate TFTs. In the driver circuit portion, a CMOS circuit can be configured by complementarily connecting the TFT 5027 and the TFT 5025, and various types of circuits can be realized. If necessary, a multi-gate TFT can be formed.

  The second interlayer insulating film 5031 is formed by spin coating using an organic resin insulating material such as polyimide or acrylic resin. The second interlayer insulating film 5031 has a function as a planarizing film that does not reflect the influence of the unevenness of the underlying surface on the surface.

  A contact hole is formed in the second interlayer insulating film 5031 to expose the wiring 5033 connected to the n-channel TFT 5029 located in the lower layer, and a pixel electrode 5035 is formed. As the pixel electrode 5035, a transparent conductive film formed using a light-transmitting conductive material may be used. Indium oxide containing tungsten oxide, indium zinc oxide containing tungsten oxide, indium oxide containing titanium oxide, oxide Indium tin oxide containing titanium or the like can be used. Needless to say, indium tin oxide (ITO), indium zinc oxide (IZO), indium tin oxide added with silicon oxide (ITSO), or the like can also be used.

  The composition ratio of the light-transmitting conductive material is described. As an example, the composition ratio of indium oxide containing tungsten oxide can be 1.0 wt% tungsten oxide and 99.0 wt% indium oxide. As an example, the composition ratio of indium zinc oxide containing tungsten oxide can be 1.0 wt% tungsten oxide, 0.5 wt% zinc oxide, and 98.5 wt% indium oxide. As an example, the indium oxide containing titanium oxide can be 1.0 wt% to 5.0 wt% titanium oxide and 99.0 wt% to 95.0 wt% indium oxide. As an example, the composition ratio of indium tin oxide (ITO) can be 10.0 wt% tin oxide and 90.0 wt% indium oxide. As an example, the composition ratio of indium zinc oxide (IZO) can be 10.7 wt% zinc oxide and 89.3 wt% indium oxide. As an example, the composition ratio of indium tin oxide containing titanium oxide can be 5.0 wt% titanium oxide, 10.0 wt% tin oxide, and 85.0 wt% indium oxide. The above composition ratio is an example, and the ratio of the composition ratio may be set as appropriate.

  An alignment film 5037 is formed over the pixel electrode 5035. Similarly, a counter electrode 5041 and an alignment film 5043 are formed using a transparent conductive film formed using a light-transmitting conductive material in the counter substrate 5039.

  Next, the substrate 5010 and the counter substrate 5039 are fixed with a sealant 5045 with a gap therebetween. The distance between the two substrates is held by a spacer 5047. A liquid crystal layer 5049 is formed between the substrate 5010 and the counter substrate 5039. The liquid crystal layer 5049 may be formed by a dropping method before the counter substrate 5039 is fixed.

  Finally, the FPC 5051 is attached to the terminal electrode 5055 by a known method with an anisotropic conductive film 5053 (see FIG. 11). Note that the terminal electrode 5055 is obtained in the same step as the gate electrode 5017.

  Through the above steps, the pixel portion 5056, the driver circuit portion 5057, and the terminal portion 5058 can be formed over the same substrate. This embodiment can be freely combined with the embodiment mode and other embodiments.

  In this embodiment, a photo IC and a manufacturing method thereof will be described with reference to drawings as an example of a semiconductor device manufactured using a semiconductor film crystallized by using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention as a material.

  First, in FIG. 12A, an element is formed over a substrate (first substrate) 6000. Here, AN100 (manufactured by Asahi Glass Co., Ltd.), which is one of glass substrates, is used as the substrate 6000.

  Next, a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen (having a thickness of 100 nm) which serves as the base insulating film 6002 is formed by a plasma CVD method, and the amorphous semiconductor film 6004 is formed to a thickness of 20 nm to 150 nm, preferably 30 nm or more without being exposed to the air. The layers are formed with a thickness of 80 nm or less. In this embodiment, an amorphous silicon film containing hydrogen is formed as the amorphous semiconductor film 6004. A detailed method will be described below.

  The base insulating film 6002 may be stacked using a silicon oxide film, a silicon nitride film, or a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen. For example, as the base insulating film 6002, a film in which a silicon nitride film containing oxygen is stacked to 50 nm and a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen is stacked to 100 nm may be formed. Note that the silicon oxide film or silicon nitride film containing nitrogen functions as a blocking layer for preventing diffusion of impurities such as alkali metal from the glass substrate.

  The amorphous semiconductor film 6004 is crystallized using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention to form, for example, a polycrystalline silicon film 6008 as a kind of semiconductor film having a crystal structure (crystalline semiconductor film). The specific method is as follows.

  In this embodiment, the polycrystalline silicon film 6008 is formed using a crystallization method using a catalytic element. First, a solution containing 10 to 100 ppm of nickel in terms of weight, for example, a solution of nickel acetate is applied to a part or the whole surface of the amorphous semiconductor film 6004 with a spinner. Further, instead of using the above method, a method of dispersing nickel element over the entire surface by sputtering may be used. In addition, it can be added by vapor deposition or plasma treatment. Note that not only nickel but also germanium, iron, palladium, tin, lead, cobalt, platinum, copper, gold, and the like can be used as a catalyst element that can be used here. The catalyst 6006 thus brought into contact with the surface of the amorphous semiconductor film 6004 is shown in FIG.

  Note that when the amorphous semiconductor film 6004 is crystallized, in order to control the crystal growth direction in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the substrate 6000 (longitudinal direction), a solution containing a catalytic element is applied to the entire surface of the semiconductor film. Just apply. In order to control the crystal growth direction in a direction parallel to the surface of the substrate 6000, a solution containing a catalytic element may be applied to a part of the surface of the amorphous semiconductor film 6004.

  Next, heat treatment is performed for crystallization to form a semiconductor film having a crystal structure (here, a polycrystalline silicon film 6008). Here, after heat treatment (500 ° C., 1 hour), heat treatment for crystallization (550 ° C., 4 hours) is performed. By the former heat treatment, the amorphous semiconductor film 6004 and the catalytic element react to form a compound on the surface of the surface where the amorphous semiconductor film 6004 and the catalytic element are in contact. In this embodiment, silicide is formed on the surface of the amorphous silicon film functioning as the amorphous semiconductor film 6004.

  In the next heat treatment, crystal growth occurs with this compound as a nucleus. The lowering and shortening of the crystallization temperature is due to the action of a catalytic metal element. By these heat treatments, a polycrystalline silicon film 6008 can be obtained. When a catalytic element is used, crystallinity is improved.

  Next, the oxide film on the surface of the polycrystalline silicon film 6008 is removed with dilute hydrofluoric acid or the like. Thereafter, in order to increase the crystallization rate and repair defects remaining in the crystal grains, the laser irradiation is performed using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention.

  Note that in the case where the amorphous semiconductor film 6004 is crystallized by a laser crystallization method to obtain a crystalline semiconductor film, or in order to repair defects remaining in crystal grains after a semiconductor film having a crystal structure is obtained, laser irradiation is performed. When performing the above, the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention may be used. The following types of laser beams can be used.

For the laser irradiation, a continuous wave laser beam (CW laser beam) can be used. The types of laser beams that can be used here are single crystal YAG, YVO 4 , forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), YAlO 3 , GdVO 4 , or polycrystalline (ceramic) YAG, Y 2 O 3 , YVO. 4 , YAlO 3 , or GdVO 4 is used as a host crystal, and one or more of Nd, Yb, Cr, Ti, Ho, Er, Tm, and Ta are added as dopants to the host crystal. Lasers for laser crystals, alexandrite lasers, and Ti: sapphire lasers. Of the above laser beams, one oscillated from one or more types can be selected and used. By irradiating with a laser beam of the fundamental wave, second harmonic, third harmonic, or fourth harmonic of such a laser beam, a crystal having a large grain size can be obtained. For example, a second harmonic (532 nm) or a third harmonic (355 nm) of an Nd: YVO 4 laser (fundamental wave 1064 nm) can be used. Energy density of the laser is about 0.01 to 100 MW / cm 2 (preferably 0.1 to 10 MW / cm 2) is required. Then, irradiation is performed at a scanning speed of about 10 to 2000 cm / sec.

  When ceramic (polycrystal) is used as the laser crystal, it can be formed into a free shape in a short time and at low cost. When a single crystal is used, a cylindrical laser crystal having a diameter of several millimeters and a length of several tens of millimeters is usually used. However, when a ceramic is used, a larger one can be made.

  The concentration of dopants such as Nd and Yb in the laser crystal that directly contributes to light emission cannot be changed greatly regardless of whether it is a single crystal or a polycrystal. For this reason, there is a certain limit to the improvement in laser output by increasing the concentration. However, when ceramic is used, since the size of the laser crystal can be remarkably increased as compared with the single crystal, a great improvement in output can be realized.

  Furthermore, when ceramic is used, a laser crystal having an arbitrary shape can be easily formed. Since a laser crystal using ceramic can be formed larger than a single crystal laser crystal, the oscillation optical path can be made longer than when a single crystal laser crystal is used. When the oscillation optical path is long, the amplification becomes large and it is possible to oscillate with a large output. Here, when a laser crystal having a parallelepiped shape or a rectangular parallelepiped shape is used, the oscillation light can be made to travel linearly inside the laser crystal, or can be made to zigzag so as to be reflected inside the laser crystal. Since the latter has a longer oscillation optical path than the former, it is possible to oscillate at a higher output. Further, since the laser beam emitted from the laser crystal having such a shape has a quadrangular cross-sectional shape at the time of emission, it is advantageous for shaping into a linear beam compared to a beam having a circular cross-sectional shape. . By shaping the emitted laser beam using an optical system, it is possible to easily obtain a linear beam having a short side length of 1 mm or less and a long side length of several mm to several m. Become. Further, by uniformly irradiating the laser crystal with the excitation light, the linear beam has a uniform energy distribution in the long side direction.

  By irradiating the semiconductor film with this linear beam, the semiconductor film can be annealed more uniformly. When uniform annealing is required up to both ends of the linear beam, it is more preferable to arrange a slit at both ends to shield the energy attenuation portion.

  Various effects can be obtained by using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. The transfer lens corrects the short-term fluctuation of the optical axis of the laser beam and the spread of the beam diameter of the laser beam, so that the laser beam can propagate through the beam propagator without hitting the inner wall of the hollow pipe. Therefore, the semiconductor film can be irradiated while maintaining the energy of the laser beam emitted from the laser irradiation apparatus. Furthermore, as long as a place where the beam propagator is disposed is secured, it is possible to irradiate the laser beam even if the spatial margin is small. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate more laser beams at a time than before, and the efficiency of the laser irradiation process is significantly improved. In the case of using a large substrate whose one side exceeds 1 meter, the effect of simultaneously irradiating the semiconductor film with several to a dozen laser beams at a time is enormous.

  In addition, setting such as optical axis alignment is only the minimum necessary, and the time required for setting is greatly reduced. When setting, only the joint of the hollow pipe is rotated, so that setting can be performed safely and easily without touching the laser beam or touching another optical system to shift the optical axis. Since the propagation distance of the laser beam does not change even if the position of the hollow pipe is changed, it is not necessary to change the setting of the optical system such as the condenser lens. Therefore, the laser irradiation process can be performed uniformly, and the processing state does not vary.

  Note that in the case where laser irradiation is performed in the air or an oxygen atmosphere, an oxide film is formed on the surface by laser beam irradiation.

  Next, in addition to the oxide film formed on the polycrystalline silicon film 6008 by the laser beam irradiation, the surface is treated with ozone water for 120 seconds to form a barrier layer 6010 made of an oxide film having a total thickness of 1 to 5 nm. This barrier layer is formed to remove a catalyst element added for crystallization, for example, nickel (Ni) from the film. Here, the barrier layer is formed using ozone water, but the surface of the semiconductor film having a crystal structure is oxidized by a method of oxidizing the surface of the semiconductor film having a crystal structure by irradiation with ultraviolet rays in an oxygen atmosphere or the oxygen plasma treatment. The barrier layer may be formed by depositing an oxide film of about 1 to 10 nm by a method, plasma CVD method, sputtering method or vapor deposition method. Alternatively, the oxide film formed by laser beam irradiation may be removed before the barrier layer 6010 is formed.

Next, an amorphous silicon film 6012 containing a rare gas element serving as a gettering site is formed to a thickness of 10 nm to 400 nm over the barrier layer 6010 by a sputtering method in this embodiment, with a thickness of 100 nm (FIG. 12B). ). In this embodiment, a silicon target is used and formed in an atmosphere containing argon. In the case where an amorphous silicon film containing an argon element is formed using a plasma CVD method, the film formation conditions are as follows: the flow ratio of monosilane to argon (SiH 4 : Ar) is 1:99, and the film formation pressure is 6.665 Pa. The RF power density is 0.087 W / cm 2 and the film formation temperature is 350 ° C. The amorphous silicon film 6012 formed here preferably has a lower film density than the polycrystalline silicon film 6008 in order to increase the etching selectivity with respect to the polycrystalline silicon film 6008. As the rare gas element, one or more selected from helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), and xenon (Xe) can be used.

  After that, heat treatment is performed for 3 minutes in a furnace heated to 650 ° C. to remove (gettering) the catalytic element. As a result, the concentration of the catalytic element in the polycrystalline silicon film 6008 is reduced. A lamp annealing apparatus may be used instead of the furnace. By the heat treatment, the catalytic element in the polycrystalline silicon film 6008 moves to the semiconductor film for gettering, that is, the amorphous silicon film 6012 by diffusion as indicated by an arrow.

  Next, the amorphous silicon film 6012 containing an argon element which is a gettering site is selectively removed using the barrier layer 6010 as an etching stopper, and then the barrier layer 6010 is selectively removed with dilute hydrofluoric acid. Note that since nickel tends to move to a region having a high oxygen concentration during gettering, it is desirable to remove the barrier layer 6010 made of an oxide film after gettering.

  Note that in the case where the semiconductor film is not crystallized using a catalytic element, the above-described barrier layer 6010 is formed, the gettering site (amorphous silicon film 6012 containing a rare gas element) is formed, and gettering is performed. Steps such as heat treatment, removal of gettering sites, and removal of the barrier layer are unnecessary.

  Next, after forming a thin oxide film with ozone water on the surface of the obtained semiconductor film having a crystal structure (for example, a crystalline silicon film), a mask made of a resist is formed using a first photomask, Semiconductor films (hereinafter referred to as “island semiconductor films” in this specification) 6014 and 6016 which are separated into islands by etching into a desired shape are formed (see FIG. 12C). After the island-shaped semiconductor film 6014 and the island-shaped semiconductor film 6016 are formed, the mask made of a resist is removed.

Next, if necessary, a small amount of impurity element (boron or phosphorus) is doped in order to control the threshold voltage of the TFT. Here, an ion doping method in which diborane (B 2 H 6 ) is plasma-excited without mass separation is used.

  Next, the oxide film is removed with an etchant containing hydrofluoric acid, and at the same time, the surfaces of the island-shaped semiconductor films 6014 and 6016 are washed, and then an insulating film containing silicon as a main component to be the gate insulating film 6018 is formed (FIG. 13A). )). Here, a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen (composition ratio: Si = 32%, O = 59%, N = 7%, H = 2%) with a thickness of 115 nm is formed by a plasma CVD method.

  Next, after a metal film is formed over the gate insulating film 6018, a process (patterning) for forming the metal film into a predetermined shape is performed using a second photomask, and gate electrodes 6020 and 6022, wirings 6024 and 6026, A terminal electrode 6028 is formed (see FIG. 13A). As this metal film, for example, a film in which tantalum nitride (TaN) and tungsten (W) are stacked in a thickness of 30 nm and 370 nm, respectively, is used.

  Further, as the gate electrodes 6020 and 6022, the wirings 6024 and 6026, and the terminal electrode 6028, in addition to the above, titanium (Ti), tungsten (W), tantalum (Ta), molybdenum (Mo), neodymium (Nd), cobalt (Co ), Zirconium (Zr), zinc (Zn), ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), aluminum (Al), gold (Au) ), Silver (Ag), copper (Cu), or a single layer film made of an alloy material or a compound material containing the element as a main component, or a nitride thereof. For example, a single layer film made of titanium nitride, tungsten nitride, tantalum nitride, or molybdenum nitride can be given.

  Next, an impurity imparting one conductivity type is introduced into the island-shaped semiconductor films 6014 and 6016, so that the source or drain region 6032 of the TFT 6030 and the source or drain region 6036 of the TFT 6034 are formed. In this embodiment, since an n-channel TFT is formed, an impurity imparting n-type conductivity such as phosphorus (P) or arsenic (As) is introduced into the island-shaped semiconductor films 6014 and 6016 (see FIG. 13B).

  Next, a first interlayer insulating film 6038 including a silicon oxide film is formed to a thickness of 50 nm by a CVD method. Further, a step of activating the impurity element added to the source or drain region 6032 of the TFT 6030 and the source or drain region 6036 of the TFT 6034 is performed. This activation step is performed by a rapid thermal annealing method (RTA method) using a lamp light source, a method of irradiating a YAG laser or an excimer laser from the back surface, a heat treatment using a furnace, or a combination of these methods.

  Next, a second interlayer insulating film 6040 including a silicon nitride film containing hydrogen and oxygen is formed with a thickness of 10 nm, for example (FIG. 13C).

  Next, a third interlayer insulating film 6042 made of an insulating material is formed over the second interlayer insulating film 6040 (see FIG. 13C). As the third interlayer insulating film 6042, an insulating film obtained by a CVD method can be used. In this embodiment, in order to improve adhesion, a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen formed with a thickness of 900 nm is formed as the third interlayer insulating film 6042.

  Next, heat treatment (300 to 550 ° C. for 1 to 12 hours, for example, in a nitrogen atmosphere at 410 ° C. for 1 hour) is performed to hydrogenate the island-shaped semiconductor films 6014 and 6016. This step is performed in order to terminate dangling bonds of the island-shaped semiconductor films 6014 and 6016 with hydrogen contained in the second interlayer insulating film 6040. Regardless of the presence of the gate insulating film 6018, the island-shaped semiconductor films 6014 and 6016 can be hydrogenated.

  Further, as the third interlayer insulating film 6042, an insulating film using siloxane and a stacked structure thereof can be used. In this case, after forming the second interlayer insulating film 6040, heat treatment for hydrogenating the island-shaped semiconductor films 6014 and 6016 can be performed, and then the third interlayer insulating film 6042 can be formed. Note that siloxane is a substance having a structure in which a skeleton structure is formed by a bond of silicon and oxygen (siloxane bond), and at least one of fluorine, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons is bonded to silicon.

  Next, a resist mask is formed using a third photomask, and the first interlayer insulating film 6038, the second interlayer insulating film 6040, the third interlayer insulating film 6042, and the gate insulating film 6018 are selectively formed. Etch to form contact holes. Then, the resist mask is removed.

  Note that the third interlayer insulating film 6042 may be formed as necessary. In the case where the third interlayer insulating film 6042 is not formed, the first interlayer insulating film 6038, the second interlayer insulating film 6040, and the gate insulating film 6018 are selectively etched after the second interlayer insulating film 6040 is formed. To form a contact hole.

  Next, as shown in FIG. 13D, after a metal laminated film is formed by a sputtering method, a resist mask is formed using a fourth photomask, and the metal film is selectively etched, A wiring 6044 connected to the wiring 6024, a wiring 6046 connected to the wiring 6026, an electrode (hereinafter referred to as a source electrode or a drain electrode) 6048 connected to a source region or a drain region 6032 of the TFT 6030, and a source region or a drain region 6036 of the TFT 6034 A source or drain electrode 6050 to be connected and a wiring 6052 to be connected to the terminal electrode 6028 are formed. Then, the resist mask is removed. Note that the metal film of this example is formed by stacking three layers of a Ti film with a thickness of 100 nm, an Al film containing a trace amount of Si with a thickness of 350 nm, and a Ti film with a thickness of 100 nm.

  Next, a conductive metal film (such as titanium (Ti) or molybdenum (Mo)) that hardly reacts with a photoelectric conversion layer (typically amorphous silicon) to be formed later is formed. After that, a resist mask is formed using a fifth photomask, and the conductive metal film is selectively etched to cover the wirings 6044 and 6046, the source or drain electrodes 6048 and 6050, and the wiring 6052. A protective electrode 6054 is formed (see FIG. 13D). Here, a 200-nm-thick Ti film obtained by sputtering is used. By covering the wirings 6044 and 6046, the source or drain electrodes 6048 and 6050, and the side surfaces of the wiring 6052 with the protective electrode 6054, the side surfaces of the electrodes on which the Al film is exposed can be covered. Therefore, the protective electrode 6054 can prevent diffusion of aluminum atoms into a photoelectric conversion layer to be formed later.

  Note that FIG. 14A illustrates the case where the wirings 6044 and 6046, the source or drain electrodes 6048 and 6050, and the wiring 6052 are formed using a single-layer conductive film. In this case, the protective electrode 6054 may not be formed if a material that does not diffuse into the photoelectric conversion layer such as aluminum is used as the material of these electrodes. In this case, it is preferable to use a titanium film (Ti film) from the viewpoint of heat resistance and electrical conductivity.

  The material is not limited to titanium, and other materials may be used. As materials other than titanium, tungsten (W), tantalum (Ta), molybdenum (Mo), neodymium (Nd), cobalt (Co), zirconium (Zr), zinc (Zn), ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh) ), Palladium (Pd), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir), platinum (Pt), or a single layer film made of an alloy material or a compound material containing the element as a main component, or these A single layer film made of a nitride such as titanium nitride, tungsten nitride, tantalum nitride, or molybdenum nitride can be used.

  As shown in FIG. 14A, the wirings 6044 and 6046, the source or drain electrodes 6048 and 6050, and the wiring 6052 are formed as a single layer film, whereby the number of depositions can be reduced in the manufacturing process. .

  Next, in the case where the protective electrode 6054 is provided, as shown in FIG. 14B, the p-type semiconductor layer 6056p, the i-type semiconductor layer 6056i, and the n-type semiconductor layer 6056n are included over the third interlayer insulating film 6042. A photoelectric conversion layer 6056 is formed. The p-type semiconductor layer 6056p may be formed by forming an amorphous silicon film containing an impurity element belonging to Group 13 such as boron (B) by a plasma CVD method.

  The wiring 6024 and the protective electrode 6054 are electrically connected to the lowermost layer of the photoelectric conversion layer 6056, in this embodiment, the p-type semiconductor layer 6056p.

  In the case where the protective electrodes are not formed and the wirings 6044 and 6046, the source or drain electrodes 6048 and 6050, and the wiring 6052 are formed using a single-layer conductive film as in FIG. The lowermost layer of the photoelectric conversion layer 6056 is in contact (FIG. 14C).

  Also in this case, as shown in FIG. 14B, after the p-type semiconductor layer 6056p is formed, an i-type semiconductor layer 6056i and an n-type semiconductor layer 6056n are formed in order. Thus, the photoelectric conversion layer 6056 including the p-type semiconductor layer 6056p, the i-type semiconductor layer 6056i, and the n-type semiconductor layer 6056n is formed.

  As the i-type semiconductor layer 6056i, an amorphous silicon film may be formed by a plasma CVD method, for example. As the n-type semiconductor layer 6056n, an amorphous silicon film containing an impurity element belonging to 15 groups, for example, phosphorus (P) may be formed, or an impurity element belonging to 15 groups may be introduced after the amorphous silicon film is formed. Good.

  Further, as the p-type semiconductor layer 6056p, the i-type semiconductor layer 6056i, and the n-type semiconductor layer 6056n, not only an amorphous semiconductor film but also a semi-amorphous semiconductor film may be used.

  Next, a sealing layer 6058 made of an insulating material (for example, an inorganic insulating film containing silicon) is formed over the entire surface with a thickness (1 μm to 30 μm). Here, a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen having a thickness of 1 μm is formed as the insulating material film by a CVD method. Adhesion is improved by using an insulating film formed by a CVD method for the sealing layer 6058.

  Next, after the sealing layer 6058 is etched to provide an opening, terminal electrodes 6060 and 6062 are formed by a sputtering method (FIG. 14C). The terminal electrodes 6060 and 6062 are stacked films of a titanium film (Ti film) (100 nm), a nickel film (Ni) film (300 nm), and a gold film (Au film) (50 nm). The fixing strength of the terminal electrode 6060 and the terminal electrode 6062 thus obtained exceeds 5N, and has a sufficient fixing strength as a terminal electrode.

  Through the above steps, the terminal electrode 6060 and the terminal electrode 6062 that can be soldered are formed, and the structure shown in FIG. 14C is obtained. Note that the element formation layer 6064 includes the base insulating film 6002 to the sealing layer 6058 formed therein.

  Next, a plurality of optical sensor chips are cut out individually. A large amount of optical sensor chips (2 mm × 1.5 mm) can be manufactured from one large-area substrate (for example, 600 cm × 720 cm).

  A cross-sectional view of one cut out optical sensor chip (2 mm × 1.5 mm) is shown in FIG. 15A, a bottom view thereof is shown in FIG. 15B, and a top view thereof is shown in FIG. 15A, the total film thickness including the substrate 6000, the element formation layer 6064, the terminal electrode 6060, and the terminal electrode 6062 is 0.8 ± 0.05 mm.

  In addition, in order to reduce the total film thickness of the optical sensor chip, the substrate 6000 may be thinned by CMP processing or the like, and then individually cut with a dicer to cut out a plurality of optical sensor chips.

In FIG. 15B, one electrode size of the terminal electrodes 6060 and 6062 is 0.6 mm × 1.1 mm, and the electrode interval is 0.4 mm. In FIG. 15C, the area of the light receiving portion 6066 is 1.57 mm 2 . In addition, the amplifier circuit portion 6068 is provided with about 100 TFTs.

  Finally, the obtained optical sensor chip is mounted on the mounting surface of the substrate 6070. Note that solder 6076 and 6078 are used to connect the terminal electrodes 6060 and 6072 and the terminal electrodes 6062 and 6074, respectively, and are previously formed on the electrodes 6072 and 6074 of the substrate 6000 by a screen printing method or the like. After the solder and the terminal electrode are in contact with each other, the solder reflow process is performed for mounting. The solder reflow process is performed, for example, in an inert gas atmosphere at a temperature of about 255 ° C. to 265 ° C. for about 10 seconds. In addition to solder, bumps formed of metal (gold, silver, etc.) or bumps formed of conductive resin can be used. Moreover, you may mount using lead-free solder in consideration of an environmental problem. The optical sensor chip shown in FIG. 16 is completed through the above steps. The light is received from the arrowed portion. Note that the difference between FIG. 16A and FIG. 16B is the presence or absence of the protective electrode 6054.

  This embodiment can be combined with the embodiment mode and other embodiments.

  In this embodiment, a TFT manufactured using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention is a thin film integrated circuit device or a non-contact thin film integrated circuit device (also referred to as a wireless IC tag or RFID (radio frequency identification)). The use is explained. By combining with the manufacturing methods shown in other embodiments, the thin film integrated circuit device and the non-contact thin film integrated circuit device can be used as a tag or a memory.

  Various effects can be obtained by using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. The transfer lens corrects the short-term fluctuation of the optical axis of the laser beam and the spread of the beam diameter of the laser beam, so that the laser beam can propagate through the beam propagator without hitting the inner wall of the hollow pipe. Therefore, the semiconductor film can be irradiated while maintaining the energy of the laser beam emitted from the laser irradiation apparatus. Furthermore, as long as a place where the beam propagator is disposed is secured, it is possible to irradiate the laser beam even if the spatial margin is small. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate more laser beams at a time than before, and the efficiency of the laser irradiation process is significantly improved. In the case of using a large substrate whose one side exceeds 1 meter, the effect of simultaneously irradiating the semiconductor film with several to a dozen laser beams at a time is enormous.

  In addition, setting such as optical axis alignment is only the minimum necessary, and the time required for setting is greatly reduced. When setting, only the joint of the hollow pipe is rotated, so that setting can be performed safely and easily without touching the laser beam or touching another optical system to shift the optical axis. Since the propagation distance of the laser beam does not change even if the position of the hollow pipe is changed, it is not necessary to change the setting of the optical system such as the condenser lens. Therefore, the laser irradiation process can be performed uniformly, and the processing state of the irradiated object does not vary.

  The product quality of thin film integrated circuit devices and non-contact thin film integrated circuit devices manufactured using a semiconductor film crystallized using such a laser irradiation apparatus is good, and it is possible to suppress variations in quality. .

  In this embodiment, an example in which an insulated TFT is used as a semiconductor element used in an integrated circuit of a wireless IC tag is shown. However, a semiconductor element that can be used for an integrated circuit of a wireless IC tag is not limited to a TFT, and other elements can also be used. For example, a memory element, a diode, a photoelectric conversion element, a resistance element, a coil, a capacitor element, an inductor, and the like can be typically given. These elements can be formed similarly.

  A method for manufacturing a wireless IC tag will be described with reference to the following drawings. Actually, after simultaneously forming a plurality of semiconductor elements on a substrate having a side length exceeding 1 meter, the element group is peeled off from the substrate and separated into individual semiconductor elements, and sealing is performed for each semiconductor element. By doing so, a wireless IC tag is manufactured. In addition to the above method, a plurality of semiconductor elements are simultaneously formed on the surface of a substrate having a side length of more than 1 meter, the substrate is thinned from the back side of the substrate, and then the individual substrates and the individual semiconductor elements are formed. It is also possible to use a method of separating and sealing with a film or the like.

  First, as shown in FIG. 17A, a substrate 7000 is prepared. As the substrate 7000, a glass substrate such as barium borosilicate glass or alumino borosilicate glass, a quartz substrate, or the like can be used. In addition to this, a flexible synthetic resin such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), polyether sulphone (PES), acrylic, or the like may be used. Any synthetic resin that can withstand the processing temperature in the manufacturing process of the wireless IC tag can be used as the substrate.

  If the substrate 7000 is made of the materials mentioned above, there are no major limitations on the area and shape. Therefore, as the substrate 7000, for example, if one side is 1 meter or longer and a rectangular shape is used, productivity can be significantly improved. Such an advantage is a great advantage.

  Further, the surface of the substrate made of the above material may be thinned by polishing such as a CMP method. For example, a glass substrate, a quartz substrate, or a semiconductor substrate may be polished, and a semiconductor element may be formed on these substrates using the following method.

  After the substrate 7000 is prepared, an insulating film 7002 is formed over the substrate 7000 (FIG. 17A). The insulating film 7002 is provided with a single-layer structure or a stacked structure of an insulating film containing oxygen or nitrogen such as silicon oxide (SiOx), silicon nitride (SiNx), a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen, or a silicon nitride film containing oxygen. Can do. In this embodiment, a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen is formed as the insulating film 7002 to a thickness of 100 nm. Alternatively, the insulating film 7002 may be oxidized or nitrided by performing high-density plasma treatment.

The high density plasma is generated by using microwaves, for example 2.45 GHz. Specifically, high-density plasma having an electron density of 10 11 to 10 13 / cm 3 , an electron temperature of 2 eV or less, and an ion energy of 5 eV or less is used. As described above, the high density plasma characterized by the low electron temperature has low kinetic energy of the active species. Therefore, it is possible to form a film with less plasma damage and fewer defects than conventional plasma treatment. Plasma generation can be performed using a microwave-excited plasma processing apparatus using a radial slot antenna. The distance from the antenna that generates the microwave to the substrate 7000 is 20 to 80 mm (preferably 20 to 60 mm).

  Next, a peeling layer 7004 is formed (FIG. 17A). In this embodiment, 30 nm of tungsten is formed by plasma CVD. The peeling layer 7004 can be formed using a metal film, a stacked structure of a metal film and a metal oxide film, or the like. As the metal film, tungsten (W), molybdenum (Mo), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), niobium (Nb), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zirconium (Zr), zinc (Zn), A single layer of a film made of an element selected from ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (Rh), palladium (Pd), osmium (Os), iridium (Ir), or an alloy material or compound material containing the above element as a main component Alternatively, they are stacked. Further, these materials can be formed by using known means (various CVD methods such as sputtering and plasma CVD).

  For example, in the case where the separation layer 7004 is formed by stacking a metal film and a metal oxide film, the metal film and the metal oxide film can be provided by a sputtering method or a plasma CVD method, respectively. In other methods, after the metal film is formed, an oxide of the metal can be provided on the surface of the metal film by performing plasma treatment or heat treatment in an oxygen atmosphere. Note that high-density plasma treatment may be performed as the plasma treatment. In addition to the metal oxide film, a metal nitride, a metal nitride containing oxygen, or a metal oxide containing nitrogen may be used. In the case of forming a metal nitride, plasma treatment or heat treatment may be performed on the metal film in a nitrogen atmosphere. In the case of forming a metal nitride containing oxygen or a metal oxide containing nitrogen, plasma treatment or heat treatment may be performed on the metal film in an atmosphere containing nitrogen and oxygen. The type of film to be formed varies depending on the flow rate ratio of the gas used.

When the separation layer 7004 is formed, oxide, nitride, or nitride oxide is formed on the surface. These compounds have a high reaction rate with an etching gas, particularly chlorine trifluoride (ClF 3 ), and can be peeled off easily and in a short time. That is, if any of metal, metal oxide, metal nitride, or metal nitride oxide is removed by the etching gas, peeling is possible.

In addition, when an oxide, nitride, or nitride oxide is formed on the surface of the separation layer 7004, the chemical state may change. For example, when an oxide film containing tungsten (W) is formed, the valence of tungsten oxide (WO x (x = 2 to 3)) changes. As a result, it becomes easy to peel off by physical means. When chemical means and physical means are used in combination, it can be removed more easily and in a short time.

  Note that although the separation layer 7004 is provided over the entire surface of the insulating film 7002 in this embodiment, the separation layer 7004 may be directly provided over the substrate 7000. Further, in the case of being provided directly on the substrate 7000, it may be provided on the entire surface of the substrate 7000, or may be provided at an arbitrary position on the substrate 7000 by using photolithography.

  After the separation layer 7004 is formed, an insulating film 7006 functioning as a base film is formed. In this embodiment, a silicon oxide film having a thickness of 200 nm is formed by sputtering.

  Next, a semiconductor film 7008 is formed. As the semiconductor film 7008, an amorphous semiconductor film may be formed, but a microcrystalline semiconductor film or a crystalline semiconductor film may be used. There is no limitation on the material of the semiconductor film, but silicon or silicon germanium (SiGe) is preferably used. In this embodiment, an amorphous silicon film is formed with a thickness of 25 nm to 200 nm (preferably, 30 nm to 80 nm). Note that after the semiconductor film 7008 is formed, a step of removing hydrogen contained in the semiconductor film 7008 may be performed. Specifically, heating may be performed at 500 ° C. for 1 hour.

Here, the semiconductor film 7008 is crystallized by irradiating the semiconductor film 7008 with the laser beam 7009 using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. In this embodiment, a second harmonic Nd: YVO 4 laser is used. This laser beam is condensed using an optical system, shaped into a linear shape, and irradiated at a scanning speed of 10 to several hundreds cm / sec.

As the laser, a continuous wave laser beam (CW laser beam) can be used. The types of laser beams that can be used here are single crystal YAG, YVO 4 , forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), YAlO 3 , GdVO 4 , or polycrystalline (ceramic) YAG, Y 2 O 3 , YVO. 4 , YAlO 3 , GdVO 4 with one or more of Nd, Yb, Cr, Ti, Ho, Er, Tm, Ta added as dopants as laser crystals, alexandrite laser, Ti: One of sapphire lasers oscillated from one or a plurality of types can be used. By irradiating the fundamental wave of such a laser beam and the second to fourth harmonic laser beams of these fundamental waves, a crystal having a large grain size can be obtained.

  When ceramic (polycrystal) is used as the laser crystal of the laser, the laser crystal can be formed into a free shape in a short time and at a low cost. When a single crystal is used, a cylindrical laser crystal having a diameter of several millimeters and a length of several tens of millimeters is usually used. However, when a ceramic is used, a larger one can be made.

  The concentration of dopants such as Nd and Yb in the laser crystal that directly contributes to light emission cannot be changed greatly regardless of whether it is a single crystal or a polycrystal. Therefore, there is a certain limit to improving the laser output by increasing the concentration. However, in the case of ceramic, since the concentration of the laser crystal can be made higher than that of the single crystal, a significant output improvement can be realized.

  Furthermore, when ceramic is used, a laser crystal having an arbitrary shape can be easily formed. Since a laser crystal using ceramic can be formed larger than a single crystal laser crystal, the oscillation optical path can be made longer than when a single crystal laser crystal is used. When the oscillation optical path is long, the amplification becomes large and it is possible to oscillate with a large output. Here, when a laser crystal having a parallelepiped shape or a rectangular parallelepiped shape is used, the oscillation light can be made to travel linearly inside the laser crystal, or can be made to zigzag so as to be reflected inside the laser crystal. Since the latter has a longer oscillation optical path than the former, it is possible to oscillate at a higher output. Further, since the laser beam emitted from the laser crystal having such a shape has a quadrangular cross-sectional shape at the time of emission, it is advantageous for shaping into a linear beam compared to a beam having a circular cross-sectional shape. . By shaping the emitted laser beam using an optical system, it is possible to easily obtain a linear beam having a short side length of 1 mm or less and a long side length of several mm to several m. Become. Further, by uniformly irradiating the laser crystal with the excitation light, the linear beam has a uniform energy distribution in the long side direction.

  Note that, in the laser crystallization method of this example, metal elements that promote crystallization (nickel (Ni), germanium (Ge), iron (Fe), palladium (Pd), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), When a crystallization method using cobalt (Co), platinum (Pt), copper (Cu), gold (Au), or the like is combined, crystallization is performed more satisfactorily.

  Next, the crystalline semiconductor film 7010 formed by laser irradiation is doped with an impurity element imparting p-type conductivity. Here, boron (B) is doped as an impurity element (FIG. 17C).

  Next, the crystalline semiconductor film 7010 is selectively etched to form a first semiconductor film 7012 and a second semiconductor film 7014 (FIG. 17D).

  Next, a resist mask 7016 is formed so as to cover the first semiconductor film 7012, and then the second semiconductor film 7014 is doped with an impurity element imparting p-type conductivity (FIG. 18A). . In this embodiment, boron (B) is doped as an impurity element.

  Next, the resist mask 7016 is removed, and the first semiconductor film 7012 and the second semiconductor film 7014 are oxidized or nitrided by performing plasma treatment on the first semiconductor film 7012 and the second semiconductor film 7014. First insulating films 7018 and 7020 (oxide films or nitride films) are formed on the surface (FIG. 18B). In this embodiment, plasma treatment is performed in an atmosphere containing oxygen, the first semiconductor film 7012 and the second semiconductor film 7014 are oxidized, and silicon oxide (SiOx) is formed as the first insulating film 7018. In the case where silicon nitride is formed as the first insulating films 7018 and 7020, plasma treatment may be performed in a nitrogen atmosphere.

  In general, a silicon oxide film formed by a CVD method or a sputtering method or a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen has defects in the film, so that the film quality is not sufficient. Therefore, plasma treatment is performed on the first semiconductor film 7012 and the second semiconductor film 7014 in an oxygen atmosphere to oxidize the surface, so that the first semiconductor film 7012 and the second semiconductor film 7014 are over A denser insulating film can be formed than an insulating film formed by a CVD method, a sputtering method, or the like.

  In the case where a conductive film is provided over the first semiconductor film 7012 and the second semiconductor film 7014 with an insulating film provided by a CVD method, a sputtering method, or the like, the first semiconductor film 7012 and the second semiconductor film 7012 There is a possibility that a coating failure may occur due to a disconnection of the insulating film at an end portion of the semiconductor film 7014 and a short circuit may occur between the semiconductor film and the conductive film. However, by oxidizing or nitriding the surfaces of the first semiconductor film 7012 and the second semiconductor film 7014 using plasma treatment in advance, at the end portions of the first semiconductor film 7012 and the second semiconductor film 7014 Generation | occurrence | production of the coating defect of an insulating film can be suppressed.

  Next, a second insulating film 7022 is formed so as to cover the first insulating films 7018 and 7020. The material of the second insulating film 7022 is silicon nitride (SiNx) or a silicon nitride film containing oxygen. Here, a silicon nitride film is formed to a thickness of 4 to 20 nm as the second insulating film 7022 (FIG. 18C).

  Next, plasma treatment is performed on the second insulating film 7022 in an oxygen atmosphere to oxidize the surface of the second insulating film 7022 to form a third insulating film 7024 (FIG. 18C). Note that the plasma treatment can be performed under the above-described conditions. Here, a silicon oxide film or a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen is formed with a thickness of 2 to 10 nm as the third insulating film 7024 on the surface of the second insulating film 7022 by plasma treatment.

  Next, conductive films 7026 and 7028 functioning as gate electrodes are formed over the first semiconductor film 7012 and the second semiconductor film 7014 (FIG. 18D). Note that here, the conductive films 7026 and 7028 are provided in a stacked structure of first conductive films 7026a and 7028a and second conductive films 7026b and 7028b. Here, tantalum nitride is used for the first conductive films 7026a and 7028a, and tungsten is used for the second conductive films 7026b and 7028b. Note that the conductive film that can be used as the gate electrode may be a single layer. In addition, the material of the conductive film is not limited to the above materials, but tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), molybdenum (Mo), aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), chromium One kind of element selected from (Cr), niobium (Nb), etc., an alloy containing a plurality of kinds, or a compound containing these elements can be used. Alternatively, a semiconductor material typified by polycrystalline silicon doped with an impurity element such as phosphorus can be used.

  Next, an impurity element imparting p-type conductivity is introduced into the first semiconductor film 7012 using the conductive film 7026 as a mask, and an impurity element imparting n-type conductivity is introduced into the second semiconductor film 7014 using the conductive film 7028 as a mask. . By this step, a source region and a drain region are formed. After that, an insulating film 7030 is formed to cover the conductive films 7026 and 7028 (FIG. 19A).

  By forming a conductive film 7032 over the insulating film 7030 so as to be electrically connected to a source region or a drain region of the first semiconductor film 7012, a p-type transistor that uses the first semiconductor film 7012 as a channel formation region is formed. An n-type thin film transistor 7036 which uses the thin film transistor 7034 and the second semiconductor film 7014 as a channel formation region is provided (FIG. 19A). Note that although an example in which a top gate type (forward stagger type) TFT is manufactured is shown in this embodiment, the present invention can be used also in manufacturing a TFT such as a bottom gate type (reverse stagger type) TFT. .

  Here, the first semiconductor film 7012, the second semiconductor film 7014, and the conductive film 7032 (that is, the wiring) formed at the same time as these semiconductor films have rounded corners when viewed from the upper surface of the substrate 7000. It is preferable to form as follows. FIG. 22 schematically shows a state where the corners of the wiring are rounded.

  FIG. 22A is a diagram showing a conventional formation method. A first wiring 7054, a second wiring 7056, a third wiring 7058, and a contact hole 7060 are formed over a semiconductor film 7062. In order to form the corners of these wirings, a method of forming a film as a wiring material and etching the film into a desired shape is performed. However, it is not easy to form a fine and complicated wiring with an accuracy of μm or less. When such a fine wiring is formed, the distance between the wirings becomes very narrow, and if dust is generated at the corners of the wiring, it tends to cause a defect.

  FIG. 22B illustrates a state in which the first wiring 7054, the second wiring 7056, the third wiring 7058, and the semiconductor film 7062 are formed by rounding corners and a contact hole 7060 is formed. When the corners are rounded as shown in FIG. 22B, dust generated at the time of wiring formation can be prevented from remaining at the corners of the wiring. Therefore, defects due to dust in the semiconductor device can be reduced and yield can be improved.

  After the thin film transistors 7034 and 7036 are provided, an insulating film 7038 is formed so as to cover the conductive film 7032, and a conductive film 7040 functioning as an antenna is formed over the insulating film 7038. Further, an insulating film 7042 is formed so as to cover the conductive film 7040 (FIG. 19B). Note that the conductive film 7040 and the like (region surrounded by a dotted line) provided above the thin film transistors 7034 and 7036 are collectively referred to as an element group 7044 here.

  The insulating films 7030, 7038, and 7042 may each be a single layer or a plurality of layers, and may be formed using the same material or different materials. As the material, (1) silicon oxide (SiOx), silicon nitride (SiNx), a silicon oxide film containing nitrogen, an insulating film containing oxygen or nitrogen such as a silicon nitride film containing oxygen, (2) DLC (diamond-like carbon) And (3) organic materials such as epoxy, polyimide, polyamide, polyvinylphenol, benzocyclobutene, and acrylic, and siloxane-based materials.

  In addition, since the material mentioned in the above (3) can be formed by using a spin coating method, a droplet discharge method, a printing method, or the like, the planarization is efficiently performed and the processing time is shortened. be able to. Further, the insulating films 7030, 7038, and 7042 can be oxidized or nitrided by plasma treatment.

  As the conductive film 7040, copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), silver (Ag), gold (Au), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W) In addition, a conductive material having one or a plurality of metal compounds including metals such as nickel (Ni) and carbon (C) and the above metals can be used.

Next, an opening 7046 is formed in a region avoiding the element group 7044 by a method such as laser irradiation to expose the peeling layer 7004, and the peeling layer 7004 is removed by introducing an etchant from the opening 7046 ( FIG. 20 (A)). Further, the peeling layer 7004 may be completely removed or may be left partially without being completely removed. By leaving the peeling layer 7004, the thin film transistors 7034 and 7036 can be held over the substrate 7000 even after the peeling layer 7004 is removed with an etchant, and handling becomes easy in a later step. As the etchant, halogen fluoride such as chlorine trifluoride gas or a gas or liquid containing halogen can be used. For example, CF 4 , SF 6 , NF 3 , F 2 and the like can be used.

  Next, a first sheet material 7048 having adhesiveness is attached to the insulating film 7042, and the element group 7044 is separated from the substrate 7000 (FIG. 20B).

  The purpose of bonding the first sheet material 7048 is to maintain the mechanical strength of the element group 7044 to be peeled off in the subsequent process. Therefore, the thickness of the first sheet material 7048 is preferably 50 μm or more. As the first sheet material 7048, a flexible film can be used, and a surface having an adhesive is provided on at least one surface. As an example of the first sheet material 7048, a material in which polyester is used as a base material and an adhesive is provided on an adhesive surface can be used. As the adhesive, a resin material containing an acrylic resin or the like, or a material containing a synthetic rubber material can be used.

  Next, the peeled element group 7044 is sealed with a flexible film. Here, the element group 7044 is attached to the second sheet material 7050, and the element group 7044 is sealed with the third sheet material 7052 (FIGS. 21A and 21B).

  As the second sheet material 7050 and the third sheet material 7052, flexible films can be used. For example, films, paper, and substrates made of polypropylene, polyester, vinyl, polyvinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride, and the like. A laminated film of a film (polyester, polyamide, inorganic vapor deposition film, paper, etc.) and an adhesive synthetic resin film (acrylic synthetic resin, epoxy synthetic resin, etc.) can be used. Further, the film is preferably a film that can be melted by a heat treatment of an adhesive layer provided on the outermost surface of the film or a layer (not an adhesive layer) provided on the outermost layer, and can be adhered by pressing. In the case where the element formation layer is sealed with the first sheet material 7048 and the second sheet material 7050, the same material may be used for the first sheet material 7048.

  Through the above steps, a semiconductor device having a memory element and capable of exchanging data without contact can be obtained. In addition, the semiconductor device described in this embodiment has flexibility. When the element group 7044 is attached to a flexible substrate, a semiconductor device that is thin, light, and difficult to break even when dropped is completed. When an inexpensive flexible substrate is used, a semiconductor device can be provided at low cost. Furthermore, it can be bonded to an object having a curved surface or an irregular shape. Further, by reusing the substrate 7000, a semiconductor device can be manufactured at low cost.

  In this embodiment, the peeling layer is removed by a chemical method, but there are other methods for peeling the substrate and the thin film integrated element. For example, polysilicon is used for the release layer, and laser is irradiated from the back side of the first substrate, that is, the side where the thin film integrated element is not formed, so that hydrogen contained in the polysilicon is released and voids are generated. A method of separating the first substrate can also be used. In addition to this, a method of selectively peeling off using physical means without performing an etching process or the like can also be used.

  Note that a method in which the insulating film 7042 side is fixed when the element group 7044 is completed and the substrate 7000 is polished and thinned by a CMP method or the like can be used. When this method is used, it is not necessary to prepare a substrate to be bonded after peeling, and the labor of peeling and pasting can be saved. As a result, the formed semiconductor element is not warped in the peeling process. Therefore, damage to the semiconductor element in this step can be prevented.

  Note that this embodiment can be appropriately combined with other embodiments.

  Various electronic devices can be completed using a semiconductor material which has been subjected to laser irradiation using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. By using the present invention, the semiconductor film can be subjected to laser irradiation treatment with good throughput and high throughput, so that a semiconductor device can be manufactured with extremely high throughput as compared with the conventional case. Specific examples thereof will be described below.

  FIG. 23A illustrates a display device, which includes a housing 8001, a support base 8002, a display portion 8003, a speaker portion 8004, a video input terminal 8005, a remote controller 8006, and the like. This display device is manufactured by using a TFT formed by a manufacturing method shown in another embodiment for a driver IC, a display portion 8003, or the like. The display device includes a liquid crystal display device, a light emitting display device, and the like, and specifically includes all information display devices such as a computer, a television receiver, and an advertisement display.

  The above display device not only displays general television broadcasts, but also connects to a wired or wireless communication network via a communication device such as a modem, and is unidirectional (sender to receiver) or bidirectional (transmitting). Communication between the receiver and the receiver or between the receivers). The display device can be operated with a switch incorporated in the housing 8001 or a remote controller 8006. The remote controller 8006 may also be equipped with a display unit 8007 that displays information to be output.

  FIG. 23B illustrates a computer, which includes a housing 8011, a display portion 8012, a keyboard 8013, an external connection port 8014, a pointing mouse 8015, and the like. A TFT formed using the present invention can be applied not only to a pixel portion of the display portion 8012 but also to a semiconductor device such as a driver IC for display, a CPU in a main body, and a memory.

  FIG. 23C illustrates a mobile phone, which is a typical example of a mobile terminal. This mobile phone includes a housing 8021, a display portion 8022, operation keys 8023, and the like. The TFT formed using the present invention can be used not only for the pixel portion of the display portion 8022 and the sensor portion 8024 but also for a display driver IC, a memory, an audio processing circuit, and the like. The sensor unit 8024 includes an optical sensor element, and controls the luminance of the display unit 8022 according to the illuminance obtained by the sensor unit 8024, or controls the illumination of the operation key 8023 according to the illuminance obtained by the sensor unit 8024. By suppressing the power consumption, the power consumption of the mobile phone can be suppressed.

  The semiconductor material formed using the present invention is used for electronic devices such as PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants, information portable terminals), digital cameras, small game machines, and portable sound reproducing devices such as the above mobile phones. You can also. For example, functional circuits such as a CPU, a memory, and a sensor can be formed. The present invention can also be applied to a pixel portion of these electronic devices and a display driving IC.

FIGS. 23D and 23E are digital cameras. Note that FIG. 23E illustrates the back side of FIG. This digital camera includes a housing 8031, a display portion 8032, a lens 8033, operation keys 8034, a shutter 8035, and the like. A TFT formed using the present invention can be used for a pixel portion of the display portion 8032, a driver IC for driving the display portion 8032, a memory, or the like.

FIG. 23F illustrates a digital video camera. This digital video camera includes a main body 8041, a display portion 8042, a housing 8043, an external connection port 8044, a remote control receiving portion 8045, an image receiving portion 8046, a battery 8047, an audio input portion 8048, operation keys 8049, an eyepiece portion 8050, and the like. . A TFT formed using the present invention can be used for a pixel portion of the display portion 8042, a driver IC for controlling the display portion 8042, a memory, a digital input processing device, or the like.

  Further, a TFT manufactured using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention can be used as a thin film integrated circuit or a non-contact thin film integrated circuit device (a wireless IC tag, also referred to as RFID (radio frequency identification)). By using the manufacturing method described in another embodiment, the thin film integrated circuit and the non-contact thin film integrated circuit can be used as a tag or a memory.

  For example, there are many patients in hospitals, some of whom have the same family name, and others who cannot communicate their own will due to medical conditions. And it is necessary to perform treatment, medication, examination, meal, etc. according to each patient. It is very important to correctly identify a patient because mistaking the patient will affect the patient's life. However, it is difficult to make a large investment for accurate patient management. Therefore, a wireless IC tag can be used to manage patients more easily and cheaply.

  FIG. 24A illustrates a state where the wireless IC tag 8061 is attached to a human nail. The following methods can be used for reading and storing information. Note that there is a limit to the method used depending on whether or not a memory (RAM: Random Access Memory) that can be written and read at any time is mounted on the wireless IC tag body.

  First, only the read-only memory (ROM: Read Only Memory) is mounted on the wireless IC tag, and when the RAM is not mounted, only the management number 8064 is input to the ROM of the wireless IC tag 8061. . A computer 8063 such as a computer stores individual information 8065 such as name, age, gender, insurance card number, treatment content, medication content, meal content, and test content. As shown in FIG. 24B, the reader 8062 reads the management number 8064 of the wireless IC tag 8061 and transmits the management number 8064 to the computer 8063. Then, the individual information 8065 stored in the computer 8063 is taken out to the reader 8062. In addition, when adding information, as shown in FIG. 24C, the management number of the wireless IC tag 8061 is read by the reader 8062 and the management number 8064 is transmitted to the computer 8063. The individual information 8065 once stored in the computer 8063 is transmitted to the reader 8062. While confirming this information, information 8066 to be added is transmitted to the computer 8063.

  In the case of a wireless IC tag equipped with a RAM, the above method can be used, and another method can be used. For example, all the individual information such as the patient's name, age, sex, insurance card number, treatment content, medication content, meal content, and test content are stored in the RAM of the wireless IC tag 8061. Then, the information 8067 input to the RAM of the wireless IC tag 8061 held by the patient is output by the reader 8062, or new information 8068 is written to the RAM.

  There are several advantages to attaching a wireless IC tag to a nail for patient management. First, the expense of preparing a wristband with name tags is unnecessary. In addition, when using a wristband, after removing it from the wrist when taking a bath, etc., it may be left unattached, lost or damaged, or unexpected situations may occur when it is removed from the wrist, etc. There is a possibility. However, when the wireless IC tag is attached to the nail, the possibility that the above will occur becomes very small.

  Furthermore, in the case of a name tag, there is a possibility that information such as a name may be known to people other than medical personnel, but when a wireless IC tag is attached, information can be read only when a reader is used. it can. Therefore, it is easy to manage patient privacy. Further, it is not necessary to perform an operation for embedding the wireless IC tag in the skin. Therefore, it can be easily attached without pain.

  As another advantage, since the wireless IC tag is thin and small, it is less uncomfortable even if it is attached to the patient's nails, and does not restrict the behavior of the patient. For example, since it is only necessary to read information on a wireless IC tag attached to a nail, it is possible to perform manicure from above the wireless IC tag. Therefore, it becomes possible to improve the quality of life of patients.

  Since the nail grows with time, when the wireless IC tag becomes unnecessary due to discharge or the like, the wireless IC tag can be removed by cutting the nail. Therefore, the wireless IC tag can be removed more easily than when it is embedded in the skin.

  FIG. 25A shows a state where the wireless IC tag 8072 is attached to the passport 8071. Further, a wireless IC tag 8072 may be embedded in the passport 8071. Similarly, a wireless IC tag is pasted or embedded in a driver's license, credit card, banknote, coin, securities, gift certificate, ticket, traveler's check (T / C), health insurance card, resident's card, family register copy, etc. be able to. In this case, only information indicating authenticity is input to the wireless IC tag, and an access right is set so that information cannot be read or written illegally. This can be realized by using a TFT formed by using the present invention. By using it as a tag in this way, it becomes possible to distinguish it from a forged one.

  In addition, a wireless IC tag can be used as a memory. FIG. 25B illustrates an example in which the wireless IC tag 8081 is embedded in a label to be attached to a vegetable package. Further, a wireless IC tag may be attached or embedded in the package itself. The wireless IC tag 8081 includes a production stage process such as a production area, a producer, a manufacturing date, a processing method, a product distribution process, a price, a quantity, an application, a shape, a weight, a shelf life, various authentication information, etc. Can be recorded. Information from the wireless IC tag 8081 is received and read by the antenna 8083 of the wireless reader 8082 and displayed on the display unit 8084 of the reader 8082, so that it is easy for the wholesaler, retailer, and consumer to grasp. Become. In addition, by setting access rights for each of producers, traders, and consumers, a system is incapable of reading, writing, rewriting, and erasing without access rights.

  The wireless IC tag can be used as follows. At the time of accounting, the fact that accounting has been completed is entered in the wireless IC tag, and a check means is provided at the exit to check whether accounting has been written on the wireless IC tag. An alarm sounds when you try to leave the store without checking out. This method can prevent forgetting to pay and shoplifting.

  Furthermore, in consideration of customer privacy protection, the following method can be used. At the stage of accounting at the cash register, (1) lock the data input to the wireless IC tag with a password, (2) encrypt the data itself input to the wireless IC tag, (3) wireless Either the data input to the IC tag is deleted, or (4) the data input to the wireless IC tag is destroyed. These can be realized by using the memories mentioned in the other embodiments. Then, by providing a check means at the exit, it is checked whether any of the processes (1) to (4) has been performed, or whether the wireless IC tag data has not been processed. Check for accounting. In this way, it is possible to check whether or not there is a transaction in the store, and it is possible to prevent information on the wireless IC tag from being read outside the store against the will of the owner.

  Note that there are several methods for destroying the data input to the wireless IC tag (4). For example, (a) a method of writing only “0 (off)” or “1 (on)” or both “0” and “1” into at least a part of electronic data of the wireless IC tag and destroying only the data Alternatively, (b) a method in which a current is excessively supplied to the wireless IC tag and a part of wiring of a semiconductor element included in the wireless IC tag is physically destroyed can be used.

  By using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention, various effects can be obtained when the semiconductor film is crystallized. The transfer lens corrects the short-term fluctuation of the optical axis of the laser beam and the spread of the beam diameter of the laser beam, so that the laser beam can propagate through the beam propagator without hitting the inner wall of the hollow pipe. Therefore, the semiconductor film can be irradiated while maintaining the energy of the laser beam emitted from the laser irradiation apparatus. Furthermore, as long as a place where the beam propagator is disposed is secured, it is possible to irradiate the laser beam even if the spatial margin is small. Therefore, it is possible to irradiate more laser beams at a time than before, and the efficiency of the laser irradiation process is significantly improved. In the case of using a large substrate whose one side exceeds 1 meter, the effect of simultaneously irradiating the semiconductor film with several to a dozen laser beams at a time is enormous.

  In addition, setting such as optical axis alignment is only the minimum necessary, and the time required for setting is greatly reduced. When setting, only the joint of the hollow pipe is rotated, so that setting can be performed safely and easily without touching the laser beam or touching another optical system to shift the optical axis. Since the propagation distance of the laser beam does not change even if the position of the hollow pipe is changed, it is not necessary to change the setting of the optical system such as the condenser lens. Therefore, the laser irradiation process can be performed uniformly, and the processing state of the irradiated object does not vary.

  Since the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention has the above effects, the semiconductor film can be crystallized with good and high throughput. Therefore, a wireless IC tag with high quality and no variation in performance can be manufactured with high throughput, so that cost reduction by mass production can be achieved.

  As described above, the applicable range of the semiconductor device manufactured according to the present invention is so wide that the semiconductor device manufactured according to the present invention can be used for electronic devices in various fields.

  In addition, this embodiment can be used in combination with the embodiment mode and other embodiments.

FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing details of the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. FIG. 3 is a diagram showing another embodiment of the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. 4A and 4B illustrate a semiconductor device using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a method for manufacturing a semiconductor device (CMOS transistor) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. 6A and 6B are diagrams illustrating a semiconductor device (CMOS transistor) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. 7A to 7C are diagrams illustrating a semiconductor device (CMOS transistor) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 8 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (CMOS transistor) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (light emitting device) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. FIG. 10 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (light emitting device) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. FIG. 11 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (liquid crystal display device) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. 12A and 12B illustrate a semiconductor device (photo IC) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 13 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (photo IC) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 14 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (photo IC) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 15 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (photo IC) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 16 illustrates a semiconductor device (photo IC) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 17 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (wireless IC tag) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 18 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (wireless IC tag) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 19 illustrates a semiconductor device (wireless IC tag) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 20 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (wireless IC tag) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 21 is a diagram illustrating a semiconductor device (wireless IC tag) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 22 illustrates a semiconductor device (wireless IC tag) using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention and a manufacturing method thereof. FIG. 23 is a diagram illustrating an example of an electronic apparatus using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. FIG. 24 is a diagram illustrating a method of using a wireless IC chip manufactured using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention. FIG. 25 is a diagram illustrating a method for using a wireless IC chip manufactured using the laser irradiation apparatus of the present invention.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 101 Laser oscillator 102 Articulated beam propagator 103 Hollow pipe 104 Joint part 105 Mirror 106 Transfer lens 108 Imaging lens 110 X-axis stage 111 θ stage 112 Semiconductor film 113 Beam spot 114 Y-axis stage 115 Optical system 116 Condensing lens 117 Marker 118 camera

Claims (14)

  1. A laser oscillator;
    An articulated beam propagator in which a plurality of hollow pipes are connected to each other at the joint,
    Have
    The joint part is provided with a laser beam course changing means,
    Among the plurality of hollow pipes, at least one hollow pipe is provided with a transfer lens therein,
    The laser irradiation apparatus, wherein the transfer lens is arranged such that a plurality of the path changing means sandwiching the transfer lens are in a conjugate relationship.
  2. A laser oscillator;
    A plurality of hollow pipes are connected to each other at a joint, and an articulated beam propagator having at least a first and a second joint,
    Have
    The first joint portion is provided with first course changing means for changing the course of the laser beam,
    The second joint portion is provided with second course changing means for changing the course of the laser beam,
    Among the plurality of hollow pipes, at least two hollow pipes are each provided with a transfer lens inside,
    The first transfer lens is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator and the first path changing means are in a conjugate relationship,
    The laser irradiation apparatus, wherein the second transfer lens is arranged so that the first course changing means and the second course changing means are in a conjugate relationship.
  3. A laser oscillator;
    A plurality of hollow pipes are connected to each other at a joint, and an articulated beam propagator having at least a first and a second joint,
    Have
    The articulated beam propagator has a slit at the end where the laser beam is emitted,
    The first joint portion is provided with first course changing means for changing the course of the laser beam,
    The second joint portion is provided with second course changing means for changing the course of the laser beam,
    Among the plurality of hollow pipes, at least three hollow pipes are each provided with a transfer lens inside,
    The first transfer lens is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator and the first path changing means are in a conjugate relationship,
    The second transfer lens is arranged so that the first course changing means and the second course changing means are in a conjugate relationship,
    The laser irradiation apparatus, wherein the third transfer lens is arranged so that the second path changing means and the slit are in a conjugate relationship.
  4. In claim 3,
    The first transfer lens, the second transfer lens, and the third transfer lens are arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator and the slit are in a conjugate relationship. A laser irradiation device.
  5. A plurality of laser oscillators;
    A plurality of articulated beam propagators, and
    The articulated beam propagator has a plurality of hollow pipes connected to each other at a joint part,
    The joint part is provided with a laser beam course changing means,
    Among the plurality of hollow pipes, at least one hollow pipe is provided with a transfer lens therein,
    The laser irradiation apparatus, wherein the transfer lens is arranged such that a plurality of the path changing means sandwiching the transfer lens are in a conjugate relationship.
  6. In claim 5,
    A slit at the end on which the laser beam of the articulated beam propagator is emitted;
    The laser irradiation apparatus, wherein the transfer lens is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator and the slit are in a conjugate relationship.
  7. In Claims 1 to 6,
    An optical system for shaping the beam shape of the laser beam emitted from the end of the articulated beam propagator;
    Means for moving the position of the optical system;
    A laser irradiation apparatus comprising: means for scanning the laser beam that has passed through the optical system relative to an irradiation object irradiated with the laser beam.
  8. In claim 7,
    A camera for obtaining position information of the marker formed on the irradiated object;
    Means for determining an irradiation position of the laser beam with reference to the marker.
  9. In any one of Claim 5 thru | or Claim 8,
    The transfer lens provided inside the hollow pipe is arranged so that the exit of the laser oscillator and the irradiation surface irradiated with the laser beam are in a conjugate relationship. Irradiation device.
  10. In claim 3, claim 4 or claim 6,
    The transfer lens provided inside the hollow pipe is arranged so that the slit and the irradiation surface irradiated with the laser beam are in a conjugate relationship.
  11. In any one of Claims 1 to 10,
    The laser irradiation apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a joint that can be rotated with respect to a surface connecting the joint and the hollow pipe is installed in the joint.
  12. In any one of Claims 1 to 11,
    A laser irradiation apparatus comprising a mirror or a prism as the laser beam path changing means.
  13. In any one of Claims 1 to 12,
    The length of the said hollow pipe can be set arbitrarily, The laser irradiation apparatus characterized by the above-mentioned.
  14. Create a semiconductor film on the substrate,
    A laser beam is emitted from a laser oscillator,
    The laser beam is incident on an articulated beam propagator in which a plurality of hollow pipes are connected at joints,
    The laser beam incident on the articulated beam propagator is arranged so that the first course changing means and the second course changing means have a conjugate relationship after the course is changed by the first course changing means. Passed through the transfer lens
    A method of manufacturing a semiconductor device in which a laser beam that has passed through the transfer lens is irradiated to the semiconductor film by changing a route by the second route changing means.
JP2006340751A 2005-12-20 2006-12-19 Laser irradiation device and laser irradiation method Withdrawn JP2007194605A (en)

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