JP2007159987A - Radiographic equipment - Google Patents

Radiographic equipment Download PDF

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JP2007159987A
JP2007159987A JP2005363611A JP2005363611A JP2007159987A JP 2007159987 A JP2007159987 A JP 2007159987A JP 2005363611 A JP2005363611 A JP 2005363611A JP 2005363611 A JP2005363611 A JP 2005363611A JP 2007159987 A JP2007159987 A JP 2007159987A
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Prior art keywords
ray
direction
ray detection
generation unit
imaging
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JP2005363611A
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Japanese (ja)
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Makoto Honjo
Masakazu Suzuki
Takahiro Yoshimura
隆弘 吉村
誠 本庄
正和 鈴木
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Morita Mfg Co Ltd
株式会社モリタ製作所
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Abstract

An X-ray imaging apparatus capable of obtaining an X-ray imaging image free from artifacts is provided.
An X-ray imaging apparatus includes an X-ray detection unit that faces an X-ray generation unit and an X-ray generation unit and detects X-rays emitted from the X-ray generation unit. In the X-ray imaging apparatus in which the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit rotate around the rotation axis 29 arranged between the generation unit and the X-ray detection unit, the X-ray detection unit is a first parallel to the rotation axis. X-ray detector 71A having an X-ray detection surface 72A extending in a direction (for example, the vertical direction) and a second direction (for example, the horizontal direction) perpendicular thereto, and the first and second X-ray detection surfaces. A moving mechanism (such as a motor 207) that moves in the direction of.
[Selection] Figure 13

Description

  The present invention relates to an X-ray imaging apparatus.

  In recent dental X-ray imaging apparatuses, panoramic X-ray imaging apparatuses in which an imaging unit is configured by an electrical imaging element that is a two-dimensional image sensor have been widely used. Such an X-ray imaging apparatus typically has a configuration in which an electrical imaging device such as a long and narrow CCD sensor is mounted as an imaging means. The subject is scanned with an X-ray slit beam in accordance with a predetermined imaging trajectory. The transmitted X-rays are traced by an electric imaging device and acquired as image signals, and then these image signals are processed to obtain a single panoramic X-ray image. Also, an object is irradiated with an X-ray cone beam using an X-ray image intensifier or a MOS sensor, and the object is captured using an imaging means of a two-dimensional image sensor such as an X-ray image intensifier or an MOS sensor. An apparatus for performing partial CT imaging is also becoming popular. Patent Document 1 below discloses an X-ray imaging apparatus that performs panoramic X-ray imaging using the above-described electrical imaging element. That is, Patent Document 1 (Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 11-104128) discloses an electrical X-ray image detector such as a CCD sensor formed in a cassette shape that can be mounted on a panoramic X-ray imaging apparatus. An X-ray generator is disposed on the inner surface of the X-ray light receiving unit provided at the center of the X-ray light receiving unit, and an electric X-ray image detector, which is an image sensor in which a plurality of square imaging elements are arranged in a two-dimensional shape so as to be rectangular. And a control signal corresponding to the turning of the swivel arm, which is a support means for supporting the X-ray detection unit, and digitally converting the X-rays into electric signals and digitally generating image signals necessary for generating a panoramic X-ray image Output in the form of a signal. In Patent Document 2 (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-225455), an object is irradiated with an X-ray cone beam, and a two-dimensional image sensor including an electric image sensor such as an X-ray image intensifier or a MOS sensor is disclosed. An X-ray imaging apparatus that performs partial CT imaging of a subject using an imaging unit is disclosed. In this X-ray imaging apparatus, the mode can be switched between partial CT imaging and panoramic X-ray imaging. However, the X-ray detection surface of the two-dimensional image sensor is set in the X-ray detection unit and the rotation axis of the swing arm A configuration that allows movement in a first direction parallel to the first direction and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction is not disclosed. Further, there is not disclosed a configuration capable of further adjusting the position setting of the tomographic image and adjusting the magnification ratio in planar tomography using the imaging means of the two-dimensional image sensor.

  As another form of X-ray imaging apparatus, Patent Document 3 discloses a three-dimensional X-ray CT (computer tomography) apparatus. This three-dimensional X-ray CT apparatus includes an X-ray generation unit and an X-ray detection unit that are opposed to a hollow rotating body having a horizontal center axis (rotation axis) across the horizontal center axis. The X-ray detection unit detects X-rays emitted from the X-ray generation unit and transmitted through the subject while rotating the X-ray detection unit relative to the subject positioned inside the rotator. A three-dimensional tomographic image can be reconstructed using the X-ray image detected by the X-ray detection unit. Further, in Patent Document 3, the X-ray detection surface is offset forward or backward in the turning direction of the X-ray detection unit, so that projection of the entire region of interest is performed while always projecting a part of the region of interest. An X-ray imaging apparatus having an imaging mode for performing X-ray CT imaging is disclosed (hereinafter, a method using this imaging mode is referred to as an “offset scan imaging method”).

  Compared to the full scan imaging method in which the entire subject is always irradiated with X-rays at each time point during imaging, this offset scan imaging method can irradiate a minimum half of the subject with X-rays at each time point during imaging. In other words, since it is not necessary to irradiate the entire subject with X-rays, the distance between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit can be shortened, and as a result, the X-ray imaging apparatus can be downsized. However, in Patent Document 3, the X-ray detection surface of the two-dimensional image sensor has a first direction parallel to the turning axis of the turning arm in the X-ray detection unit, and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction. A configuration that enables movement in the direction of is not disclosed.

JP-A-11-104128 JP-A-10-225455 JP 2002-204796 A

Against this background, the present invention provides a new X-ray imaging apparatus capable of effectively performing X-ray CT and panoramic imaging using a two-dimensional image sensor, An object of the present invention is to provide a new X-ray imaging apparatus in which the X-ray imaging apparatus is improved. Although the two-dimensional type image sensor can be used as a substitute for the conventional X-ray film because of its shape, there is a problem that the acquisition price increases dramatically according to the size of the light receiving part, and the large size It is practically difficult to use the two-dimensional image sensor. Therefore, even if the X-ray detection surface is not so large as to have an imaging region larger than the region of interest of the subject, the X-ray having a large size can be obtained while using an image sensor having a relatively small X-ray detection surface. An X-ray imaging apparatus / X-ray detector having a function comparable to or approaching an X-ray imaging apparatus / X-ray detector using an image sensor on the detection surface has been desired. Also, in tomographic imaging in which a tomographic image of a subject is photographed and a tomographic image is generated from the photographed transmitted image, a large-size two-dimensional image sensor is used to irradiate the subject with an X-ray beam corresponding to the size. If this happens, the exposure X-ray dose to the patient as the subject increases, which causes a problem. For this reason, X-ray imaging is performed by irradiating the subject with an X-ray image by irradiating the subject with an X-ray beam which is not necessary and irradiates the minimum necessary X-ray beam corresponding to a relatively small X-ray detection surface. An apparatus / X-ray detector was desired. Furthermore, as described above, panoramic X-ray imaging apparatuses in which imaging means are configured by an electrical imaging element have been widely used in recent dental X-ray imaging apparatuses. However, in many panoramic X-ray imaging apparatuses, X-rays are used. An X-ray imaging apparatus having the above-described function, which is configured so that the X-ray detection surface cannot be moved up and down in the detection unit, and can be realized only by slightly improving these conventional panoramic X-ray imaging apparatuses. Or an X-ray detector capable of realizing it is desired. Furthermore, there has been a demand for an X-ray imaging apparatus capable of performing CT imaging using the above functions effectively by improving the conventional panoramic X-ray imaging apparatus, or an X-ray detector enabling the realization thereof. The present invention was developed in view of such circumstances, and was developed particularly from the viewpoint of reducing X-ray exposure, effective use of a two-dimensional image sensor, and effective use of a conventional panoramic X-ray imaging apparatus configuration. An object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray imaging apparatus.
Another object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray imaging apparatus capable of adjusting the position setting of a tomographic image and adjusting the magnification ratio in planar tomography in addition to the above object.

  In order to achieve such an object, an X-ray imaging apparatus according to the present invention (Claim 1) detects an X-ray emitted from the X-ray generator while facing the X-ray generator and the X-ray generator. In the X-ray imaging apparatus in which the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit swivel about a turning axis disposed between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit, The line detection unit includes an X-ray detector having an X-ray detection surface, a first direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot axis in the X-ray detection unit, and the first direction. A first moving mechanism is provided that can move in a second direction orthogonal to each other.

  In the X-ray imaging apparatus according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 2), the X-ray generation unit sets the irradiation direction of the X-rays irradiated from the X-ray generation unit to the X-ray detection unit. And a second moving mechanism that can move in the second direction.

  In an X-ray imaging apparatus according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 3), the X-ray generation unit converts X-rays emitted from the X-ray generation unit toward the X-ray detection unit into an X-ray cone beam. A first shaping means for shaping, a second shaping means for shaping X-rays irradiated from the X-ray generation section toward the X-ray detection section into a narrow gap X-ray beam, and the first shaping means, A first switching means for selectively interposing one of the second shaping means between the X-ray source of the X-ray generation section and the X-ray detection surface of the X-ray detection section; The X-ray detection unit receives a first X-ray detection surface that receives the X-ray cone beam shaped by the first shaping means, and a second X-ray detection beam that is shaped by the second shaping means. The X-ray detection surface and any one of the first X-ray detection surface and the second X-ray detection surface are irradiated from the X-ray generation unit. Characterized in that it comprises a second switching means for positioning the irradiation area of the X-ray beam.

  In an X-ray imaging apparatus according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 4), the X-ray generation unit converts X-rays emitted from the X-ray generation unit toward the X-ray detection unit into an X-ray cone beam. A first shaping means for shaping, wherein the X-ray detection unit comprises a first X-ray detection surface that receives the X-ray cone beam shaped by the first shaping means, and the X-ray CT of the region of interest It is characterized by having a photographing mode for photographing.

  An X-ray imaging apparatus according to another embodiment of the present invention (Claim 5) receives panoramic X-ray imaging by receiving the slit X-ray beam formed by the second forming means on the second X-ray detection surface. It is characterized by having a photographing mode for performing.

  In an X-ray imaging apparatus according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 6), the X-ray detection surface is moved in the second direction by the first moving mechanism to turn the X-ray detection unit. It is characterized by having an imaging mode for performing X-ray CT imaging of the region of interest by performing projection over the entire region of interest while always projecting a part of the region of interest by offsetting forward or backward.

  An X-ray detector according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 7) is an X-ray detector that detects an X-ray emitted from the X-ray generator while facing the X-ray generator and the X-ray generator. An X-ray detector provided in an X-ray imaging apparatus in which the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit rotate around a turning axis disposed between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit The X-ray detector includes an X-ray detection surface, a first direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot axis in the X-ray detector, and a direction orthogonal to the first direction. And a first moving mechanism for moving in the second direction.

An X-ray detector according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 8) is an X-ray detector that detects an X-ray emitted from the X-ray generator while facing the X-ray generator and the X-ray generator. The X-ray generator and the X-ray detector rotate around a turning axis disposed between the X-ray generator and the X-ray detector, and the X-ray detector includes an X-ray detector. An X-ray detector provided in an X-ray imaging apparatus in which a mounting portion is displaced in a second direction orthogonal to a first direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot axis,
The X-ray detector includes an X-ray detection surface and a first moving mechanism for moving the X-ray detection surface in the X-ray detector in the first direction.

  An X-ray imaging apparatus according to the present invention (Claim 1) includes an X-ray detector that faces the X-ray generator and the X-ray generator and detects X-rays emitted from the X-ray generator, In the X-ray imaging apparatus in which the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit swivel around a turning axis disposed between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit, the X-ray detection unit has an X-ray detection surface And an X-ray detector having a first direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot axis and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction within the X-ray detection unit A first moving mechanism is provided. According to the X-ray imaging apparatus having such a configuration, the X-ray detection surface can be moved in the first direction, and the X-ray detection surface can be moved in the second direction. Two-dimensional movement of the line detection surface is possible. Therefore, it is comparable to an X-ray imaging apparatus / X-ray detector that uses an image sensor of a large size X-ray detection surface by the above-mentioned two-dimensional movement while using an image sensor of an X-ray detection surface of medium size or smaller. Alternatively, an X-ray imaging apparatus / X-ray detector having a function of approaching can be realized. For example, X-ray CT imaging with an offset scan described later is possible, and an X-ray beam only needs to be irradiated in a range corresponding to an X-ray detection surface having a medium size or less. X-ray CT imaging can be performed without using a 2D image sensor, reducing X-ray exposure, using a 2D image sensor effectively, and using a conventional panoramic X-ray imaging system. It is. Further, X-rays can be irradiated at an imaging angle most suitable for an imaging region of a patient positioned between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit, that is, an angle at which no artifact is generated. Therefore, an X-ray image without artifacts can be obtained. Furthermore, it is possible to provide an X-ray imaging apparatus capable of adjusting the position setting of a tomographic image and adjusting the magnification in planar tomography.

  In the X-ray imaging apparatus according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 2), the X-ray generation unit is configured to change the X-ray irradiation direction from the X-ray generation unit to the X-ray detection unit. And a second moving mechanism that can move in the second direction. Therefore, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus having such a configuration, an imaging angle more appropriate for the imaging region of the patient, that is, an artifact is generated by the cooperation of the first moving mechanism and the second moving mechanism. X-rays can be irradiated at an angle that does not occur. Therefore, an X-ray image without artifacts can be obtained.

  In an X-ray imaging apparatus according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 3), the X-ray generation unit converts X-rays emitted from the X-ray generation unit toward the X-ray detection unit into an X-ray cone beam. A first shaping means for shaping, a second shaping means for shaping X-rays irradiated from the X-ray generation section toward the X-ray detection section into a narrow gap X-ray beam, and the first shaping means, A first switching means for selectively interposing one of the second shaping means between the X-ray source of the X-ray generation section and the X-ray detection surface of the X-ray detection section; The X-ray detection unit receives a first X-ray detection surface that receives the X-ray cone beam shaped by the first shaping means, and a second X-ray detection beam that is shaped by the second shaping means. The X-ray detection surface and any one of the first X-ray detection surface and the second X-ray detection surface are irradiated from the X-ray generation unit. And a second switching means for positioning the irradiation area of the X-ray beam. Therefore, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus having such a configuration, by switching between the first switching means and the second switching means, the X-ray cone beam emitted from the X-ray generation unit at the time of CT imaging is converted to X-ray. The X-ray detection surface corresponding to the X-ray detection unit detects the slit X-ray beam emitted from the X-ray generation unit at the time of panoramic imaging or the like. . Therefore, the most suitable X-ray detection surface can be selected in each of CT imaging and panoramic imaging, and the optimum and necessary minimum X-ray beam can be selected for each X-ray detection surface. Efficiency is good.

  In an X-ray imaging apparatus according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 4), the X-ray generation unit converts X-rays emitted from the X-ray generation unit toward the X-ray detection unit into an X-ray cone beam. A first shaping means for shaping, wherein the X-ray detection unit comprises a first X-ray detection surface that receives the X-ray cone beam shaped by the first shaping means, and the X-ray CT of the region of interest It has a shooting mode for shooting. Therefore, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus having such a configuration, an X-ray tomographic image can be obtained by the full scan X-ray CT that is the first imaging mode or the offset scan imaging mode that is the second imaging mode. .

  An X-ray imaging apparatus according to another embodiment of the present invention (Claim 5) receives panoramic X-ray imaging by receiving the slit X-ray beam formed by the second forming means on the second X-ray detection surface. It has a shooting mode for performing Therefore, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus having such a configuration, an X-ray detection surface most suitable for panoramic X-ray imaging is used, and the optimal and necessary minimum details are provided for the X-ray detection surface. It is possible to efficiently perform panoramic X-ray imaging by irradiating a gap X-ray beam, which is efficient.

  In an X-ray imaging apparatus according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 6), the X-ray detection surface is moved in the second direction by the first moving mechanism to turn the X-ray detection unit. By offsetting forward or backward, an imaging mode for performing X-ray CT imaging of the region of interest by performing projection over the entire region of interest while always projecting a part of the region of interest is provided. Therefore, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus having such a configuration, an X-ray tomographic image of a wide range of subject regions of interest in the second imaging mode (offset scan X-ray CT) can be obtained.

  An X-ray detector according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 7) is an X-ray detector that detects an X-ray emitted from the X-ray generator while facing the X-ray generator and the X-ray generator. An X-ray detector provided in an X-ray imaging apparatus in which the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit rotate around a turning axis disposed between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit The X-ray detector includes an X-ray detection surface, a first direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot axis in the X-ray detector, and a direction orthogonal to the first direction. A first moving mechanism for moving in the second direction is provided. Therefore, according to the X-ray detector having such a configuration, the X-ray detection surface can be moved in the first direction, and the X-ray detection surface can be moved in the second direction to be described later. Scanning X-ray CT imaging is also possible, and the X-ray beam only needs to be irradiated within a range corresponding to the X-ray detection surface. Imaging such as X-ray CT imaging can be performed, and X-ray exposure can be reduced, a two-dimensional image sensor can be effectively used, and a conventional panoramic X-ray imaging apparatus configuration can be effectively used. Further, X-ray irradiation can be performed at an imaging angle most suitable for an imaging region of a patient positioned between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit, that is, an angle at which no artifact is generated. Therefore, an X-ray image without artifacts can be obtained. Further, it is possible to provide an X-ray detector capable of adjusting the position setting of a tomographic image and adjusting the magnification in planar tomography.

An X-ray detector according to another aspect of the present invention (Claim 8) is an X-ray detector that detects an X-ray emitted from the X-ray generator while facing the X-ray generator and the X-ray generator. The X-ray generator and the X-ray detector rotate around a turning axis disposed between the X-ray generator and the X-ray detector, and the X-ray detector includes an X-ray detector. An X-ray detector provided in an X-ray imaging apparatus in which a mounting portion is displaced in a second direction orthogonal to a first direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot axis,
The X-ray detector includes an X-ray detection surface and a first moving mechanism that moves the X-ray detection surface in the X-ray detector in the first direction. On the other hand, in the conventional panoramic X-ray imaging apparatus, in order to feed the film cassette mounted on the cassette holder, in the X-ray detection unit, the X-ray detector mounting unit is in the axial direction of the swing axis of the swing arm. Many of them are configured to be displaced in a second direction orthogonal to the parallel first direction. Therefore, according to the X-ray detector having the above-described configuration, the X-ray detection surface can be moved in the first direction, and the X-ray detection surface can be moved by the mounting portion of the X-ray detector. By moving in the direction of 2, it is possible to perform X-ray CT imaging with an offset scan, which will be described later, and the X-ray beam only needs to be irradiated in a range corresponding to the X-ray detection surface. X-ray CT imaging and the like can be performed without using a wider two-dimensional image sensor that is wider than that, reducing X-ray exposure, effective use of a two-dimensional image sensor, and the configuration of a conventional panoramic X-ray imaging apparatus Effective use is possible. Further, X-ray irradiation can be performed at an imaging angle most suitable for an imaging region of a patient positioned between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit, that is, an angle at which no artifact is generated. Therefore, an X-ray image without artifacts can be obtained. Further, it is possible to provide an X-ray detector capable of adjusting the position setting of a tomographic image and adjusting the magnification in planar tomography.

  Embodiments of an X-ray imaging apparatus according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the following description, terms (for example, “up”, “down”, “left”, “right” and other terms including those terms) meaning a specific direction or place are used. The terminology is used to facilitate understanding of the configuration shown in the drawings, and should not be used to define the technical scope of the invention.

  1 to 5 show the appearance of an X-ray imaging apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. The X-ray imaging apparatus includes various types of imaging (for example, panoramic imaging, linear tomography, linear scan imaging, scanogram imaging) that have been widely known in the dental field, and three-dimensional computer X-ray tomography (Computer Tomography) : Hereinafter abbreviated as “CT”). Although the X-ray imaging apparatus of the embodiment is a dental X-ray imaging apparatus, the application of the present invention is not limited to the dental X-ray imaging apparatus, and detailed image information of the head region is required. The present invention is equally applicable to other medical X-ray imaging apparatuses such as otolaryngology. The illustrated X-ray imaging apparatus is a vertical X-ray imaging apparatus that is used with the patient standing. However, the installation angle of the apparatus and the placement angle of the subject can be arbitrarily set, The present invention can also be applied to a so-called horizontal X-ray imaging apparatus used in a supine state.

  As is apparent from the figure, an X-ray imaging apparatus (hereinafter simply referred to as “imaging apparatus”) 1 is generally provided with a vertical column 2 fixed to the floor surface, and capable of moving up and down along the vertical column 2. A lift frame (first frame) 3 and a swing arm (second frame) coupled to the lift frame 3 so as to be pivotable about a vertical swing axis (described later with reference to FIGS. 6 to 8). Frame) 4.

  As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the lifting frame 3 has a substantially U-shape as a whole, and is roughly connected to the pillar 2 so as to be lifted and lowered, and an upper end and a lower end of the vertical frame 5. The upper frame portion 6 and the lower frame portion 7 extend from the portion toward the front (left side in FIG. 3 and right side in FIG. 4). As will be described later, the upper frame portion 6 rotatably supports the swivel arm 4 disposed between the upper frame portion 6 and the lower frame portion 7. As shown in FIG. 5, the lower frame portion 7 includes a positioning mechanism 8 that positions the head of a person who is a subject. For example, the positioning mechanism 8 of the X-ray imaging apparatus 1 according to the embodiment is positioned with a chin rest 9 that supports the jaw from below and a pair of lateral restriction members 10 that support the patient's head from the left and right sides. In order to maintain stability, the person has a pair of handles 11 held by both hands.

  As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the swivel arm 4 has a substantially reverse concave shape as a whole, and is generally disposed under the upper frame portion 6 and is connected to the upper frame portion 6 via a connecting mechanism described later. 2 has a horizontal arm portion 12 supported in a swingable manner, and first and second suspension portions 13 and 14 extending downward from left and right ends of the horizontal arm portion 12, respectively. The first suspension part 13 has an X-ray generation part 15, and the second suspension part 14 shown on the left side of FIG. 2 has an X-ray detection part 16. The line detectors 16 are opposed to each other with a predetermined interval. A horizontal direction in which the X-ray generation unit 15 and the X-ray detection unit 16 face each other is referred to as a “Y direction”, and a horizontal direction orthogonal thereto is referred to as an “X direction”.

  A connection mechanism (second connection means) for connecting the elevating frame 3 and the swing arm 4 will be described with reference to FIGS. The coupling mechanism includes an XY moving mechanism 18 accommodated in the turning arm housing 17. The XY moving mechanism 18 is fixed to the revolving arm housing 17 and extends in the Y direction, and a Y direction moving frame 20 that can reciprocate in the Y direction along the Y direction guide rails 19. And a pair of X direction guide rails 21 fixed to the Y direction moving frame 20 and extending in the X direction, and an X direction moving frame 22 capable of reciprocating in the X direction along these X direction guide rails 21. The Y-direction moving frame 20 has an appropriate drive transmission mechanism (for example, a screw shaft 24 that is drivingly connected to the motor 23 and a screw shaft 24 that is screwed inwardly to the Y-direction moving motor 23 fixed to the swing arm housing 17. Are coupled to each other via a mechanism including a nut 25 that is fixed to the Y-direction moving frame 20 and driven to be displaced by rotation of the screw shaft 24. The direction moving frame 20 is moved in the Y direction. Similarly, the X-direction moving frame 22 is suitable for an X-direction moving motor 26 fixed to the Y-direction moving frame 20. For example, the X-direction moving frame 22 is screwed inwardly with a screw shaft 27 drivingly connected to the motor 26. The screw shaft 27 is screwed and fixed to the X-direction moving frame 22, and is connected via a mechanism (including a nut 28 that is displaced and driven by the rotation of the screw shaft 27) to drive the X-direction moving motor 26. The X-direction moving frame 22 moves in the X direction based on the above. Thus, in the XY moving mechanism 18, the pair of Y direction guide rails 19, the Y direction moving frame 20 is the Y direction moving mechanism, the Y direction moving motor 23, and the drive transmission mechanism (screw shaft 24, nut 25) is Y. A pair of X direction guide rails 21, an X direction moving frame 22, an X direction moving motor 26, and a drive transmission mechanism (screw shaft 27, nut 28) constitute an X direction moving mechanism. ing.

  A cylindrical or columnar swivel shaft 29 connecting the lift frame 3 and the swivel arm 4 has a lower end fixed to the X-direction moving frame 22 and is built in the upper frame housing 30 of the upper frame portion 6 of the lift frame 3. The bearing (first connecting means) 31 is rotatably supported. Further, a belt winding portion 32 having a circular cross section is formed at the upper end portion of the turning shaft 29, and a belt 33 is wound around the belt winding portion 32. The belt 33 is also hung on another pulley (not shown) built in the upper frame housing 30, and a turning motor 34 built in the upper frame housing 30 is drivingly connected to the other pulley. Based on the drive of the motor 34, the turning shaft 29 and the turning arm 4 fixed thereto are rotated. Considering the pivot axis 29, the pivot axis 29 is disposed between the X-ray generation unit 15 and the X-ray detection unit 16, and the X-ray generation unit 15 and the X-rays around the pivot axis 29. The line detection unit 16 turns. In this embodiment, the swivel shaft 29 extends up and down in the figure. However, as described above, the X-ray imaging apparatus can also be configured as a patient supine, so that it can be configured to extend in the horizontal direction. Well, it can be set to any angle.

  As shown in FIG. 9, the X-ray generator 15 has an X-ray generator housing 35 that encloses various configurations described below. The X-ray generator housing 35 is connected to the revolving arm housing 17 via the X-ray generator rotating mechanism 36. Specifically, in the X-ray imaging apparatus of the embodiment, the X-ray generation unit rotation mechanism 36 is rotatably attached to the rotation arm housing 17 and an X-ray generation unit rotation motor 37 fixed inside the rotation arm housing 17. A vertical shaft 38, an X-ray generator rotating motor 37, a gear mechanism 39 that drives and connects the vertical shaft 38, an X-ray generator housing 35, and a fixing member 40 fixed to the vertical shaft 38. The X-ray generator housing 35 is rotated about a vertical axis 38 based on driving of the generator rotary motor 37.

  An X-ray generator 42 formed by an X-ray blocking case is accommodated inside the X-ray generation unit housing 35, and an X-ray tube (X-ray source) 41, which is an X-ray generation source, is contained in the X-ray generator 42. Is housed. The X-ray tube 41 is surrounded by an X-ray blocking case forming the above-described X-ray generator 42 except for a region facing the X-ray detection unit 16 (region on the left side in FIG. 9). The X-ray generator 42 includes an X-ray emission opening 43 in a region facing the X-ray detection unit 16, and a beam shaping mechanism 44 is disposed outside the X-ray emission opening 43. As shown in FIG. 10, the beam shaping mechanism 44 has a block 47 that is a support frame supported so as to be movable up and down along a plurality of vertical guide rails 46 via a plurality of guide rollers 45. The block 47 includes an X-ray emission port 48 (see FIG. 9) that guides the X-rays emitted from the X-ray tube 41 toward the X-ray detection unit 16, and is fixed to the X-ray generation unit housing 35. The block elevating motor 49 is connected to the block elevating motor 49 via, for example, a screw mechanism so that the block elevating motor 49 can move in a vertical direction indicated by an arrow A (a first direction parallel to the axial direction of the turning shaft 29) based on the drive of the block elevating motor 49. It is. In FIG. 9, the screw shaft extends downward from the block lifting / lowering motor 49, and is screwed into a protruding piece that is threaded inwardly protruding from the block 47, and the screw shaft rotates based on the drive of the block lifting / lowering motor 49. Thus, the block 47 is moved in the vertical direction by moving the protruding piece in the vertical direction. By moving the block 47 in the vertical direction, the irradiation field is changed or switched to a direction parallel to the axial direction of the turning shaft 29.

  A rectangular beam shaping plate (slit plate) 50 that is a beam shaping means for shaping the X-ray beam emitted from the X-ray tube 41 is disposed in front of the block 47, particularly outside the X-ray emission port 48. . The beam shaping plate 50 is supported by a plurality of guide rollers 51 fixed to the front surface of the block 47 so as to be movable in the horizontal direction. Further, the beam shaping plate 50 includes a connecting arm 52, and a nut 53 fixed to the connecting arm 52 is screwed to a horizontal screw shaft 54 that is rotatably supported by a block 47. Further, the horizontal screw shaft 54 is connected to a beam shaping plate moving motor 55 fixed to the block 47. Therefore, the beam shaping plate 50 moves the front portion of the block 47 in the left-right direction indicated by the arrow B (second direction orthogonal to the first direction) based on the drive of the beam shaping plate moving motor 55. Can do.

  In the embodiment, the beam shaping plate 50 has three slits, that is, beam shaping openings (primary shaping openings). Specifically, these three beam shaping openings have rectangular or square CT imaging beam transmission holes (slits) having a predetermined length in the vertical direction (first direction) and the horizontal direction (second direction). ) 56 (first shaping means), a vertically long panoramic photographing beam transmission hole (slit) 57 (second shaping means), and a vertically long cephalo photographing beam transmission hole (slit) 58 (third shaping). Means). Therefore, in a state where the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 is opposed to the X-ray tube 41 via the X-ray emission port 48, the X-rays spread in a pyramid shape from the X-ray generation unit 15 toward the X-ray detection unit 16. A beam is emitted. The beam shaping plate 50 is moved by driving the beam shaping plate moving motor 55, and any one of the three beam shaping openings is moved to the X-ray tube 41 of the X-ray generation unit 15 and the X-ray detection unit 16. It is selectively interposed between the X-ray detection surfaces 72A or 72B described later. The CT transmission beam transmission hole 56, the panoramic imaging beam transmission hole 57, and the cephalo imaging beam transmission hole 58 may have any dimensions and shapes. However, dimensions and shapes of an X-ray detection surface 72A and an X-ray detection surface 72B described later. It is desirable to set the size and shape to form an X-ray beam that coincides with or substantially coincides with. Here, the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 is a first shaping unit for shaping X-rays irradiated from the X-ray generation unit 15 toward the X-ray detection unit 16 into an X-ray cone beam, which will be described later. The imaging beam transmission hole 57 and the cephalo imaging beam transmission hole 58 are the second shaping for shaping the X-rays irradiated from the X-ray generator 15 toward the X-ray detector 16 into a slit X-ray beam described later. The beam shaping plate 50, the beam shaping plate moving motor 55, the connecting arm 52, the nut 53, and the horizontal screw shaft 54 are first switching means. Beam shaping mechanism 44, block raising / lowering motor 49, guide roller 45, vertical guide rail 46, X-ray exit port 48, CT imaging beam transmission hole 56, beam shaping plate 50, guide roller 51, beam shaping plate moving motor 55, connection The arm 52, the nut 53, and the horizontal screw shaft 54 move the X-ray irradiation direction irradiated from the X-ray generation unit 15 to the X-ray detection unit 16 in the first direction and the second direction described above. It is a moving mechanism. Since the X-ray beam has the same vertical and horizontal dimensions of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56, the cross section perpendicular to the beam traveling direction has a square shape. The X-ray beam for CT imaging of the present invention may be a cone beam or a pyramid beam, and in the present application, these cone beam and pyramid beam are referred to as an X-ray cone beam. The X-ray cone beam is required in the present application because the CT imaging in the present embodiment irradiates the region of interest with the X-ray beam and rotates the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit by a minimum of 180 °. This is because CT imaging of the entire region of interest is performed. Therefore, the X-ray cone beam basically has a conical shape or a pyramid shape, but may have any shape as long as the above object can be achieved. When CT imaging is CT imaging by offset scanning described later, it is sufficient that the X-ray cone beam is wide enough to irradiate half of the region of interest. Further, when the panoramic imaging beam transmission hole 57 or the cephalo imaging beam transmission hole 58 is opposed to the X-ray tube 41 via the X-ray emission port 48, the X-ray generation unit 15 moves to the X-ray detection unit 16. On the other hand, strictly speaking, although it is a truncated pyramid, a plate-like X-ray flat beam having a longitudinal length longer than a lateral length on a transverse section is emitted. In the present application, a plate-like X-ray flat beam is referred to as a slit X-ray beam.

  19 and 20 are modifications of the second moving mechanism of FIGS. 9 and 10, only the plurality of CT imaging beam transmission holes having different heights are provided in place of the elevating mechanism of the beam shaping mechanism 44 in the embodiment shown in FIGS. 19 and 20 includes a plurality of guide rollers 45, a plurality of vertical guide rails 46, and a block 47 that is a support frame supported so as to be movable up and down along the vertical guide rails 46. I do not have. However, in the embodiment of FIGS. 9 and 10, the beam shaping plate 50 is provided with only one CT imaging beam transmission hole, whereas in the embodiments of FIGS. A plurality of CT imaging beam transmission holes 56 a and 56 b having different heights are provided in a direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot shaft 29. The CT imaging beam transmission hole 56a is arranged at a low position, and the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56b is arranged at a high position. 20, the panoramic imaging beam transmission hole (slit) 57 is shown, but the cephalometric imaging beam transmission hole 58 is omitted. Driving of the beam shaping plate moving motor 55 To move the beam shaping plate 50, select one of the three beam shaping openings and place it in front of the X-ray generator 42. Select one of the CT imaging beam transmission holes 56a and 56b. When the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56a is selected, the X-ray cone beam is irradiated in the lower direction, and the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56b is selected. Then, the X-ray cone beam is irradiated in a high direction.

FIGS. 21A and 21B are diagrams schematically showing the state. FIG. 21A shows a state in which the CT transmission beam transmission hole 56 a at a low position is arranged in front of the X-ray generator 42.
The X-ray cone beam formed by the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56a is applied to the irradiation field 100 at a lower position. FIG. 21B shows a state in which the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 b at a high position is arranged in front of the X-ray generator 42. The X-ray cone beam formed by the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56b is applied to the irradiation field 101 at a high position. In this way, the beam forming plate 50 is displaced in the direction indicated by arrow B, so that the irradiation field is changed or switched to the direction indicated by arrow R. From the figure, it can be seen that the irradiation field is changed or switched to a direction parallel to the axial direction of the turning shaft 29. The irradiation field does not need to be changed or switched in a direction that coincides with the axial direction of the pivot axis 29. In short, the height of the irradiation direction may be changed or switched. It may be changed or switched. The oblique displacement can be easily realized by adding a displacement in the direction indicated by arrow B of the beam shaping plate 50 to the selection of the CT imaging beam transmission holes 56a and 56b. The number of CT imaging beam transmission holes is not particularly limited, and may be two or more.

  22 and 23 show a beam shaping plate 50 in which a CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 is provided separately from the beam shaping plate 50 of FIGS. 9 and 10 and is displaced in a direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot axis A. It is an Example of another 2nd moving mechanism currently formed in '. FIG. 22 is a side view for explaining the structure of the beam shaping mechanism 44 in principle, and FIG. 23 is a perspective view of the beam shaping mechanism 44. The “front surface” described below is a front surface viewed from the direction in which the X-ray generator 42 emits the X-ray beam. The block 47 is fixed to the front surface of the X-ray generator 42. An X-ray exit 48 in the block 47 allows the X-ray beam from the X-ray generator 42 to pass. Guide roller fixing plates 47a and 47a are fixed to the front surface of the block 47 at positions where the passage of the X-ray beam from the X-ray generator 42 is not obstructed. Among them, the vertical screw shaft 49a to which the beam shaping plate moving motor 49 ′ is rotationally driven is fixed downward at the bottom of the lower guide roller fixing plate 47a. The beam shaping plate 50 ′ is guided by four guide rollers 49 c provided on the two guide roller fixing plates 47 a and 47 a and is displaced in a direction parallel to the axial direction of the turning shaft 29. The beam shaping plate 50 'is formed with a CT imaging beam transmission hole 56f for shaping the X-ray beam from the X-ray generator 42 into an X-ray cone beam, and an opening 57' that is largely opened for the purpose described later. Yes. The vertical width of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56f is the same as that of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 shown in FIG. 10, but the lateral width of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56f is shown in FIG. It is set wider than the lateral width of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56. This is to cope with the movement of the X-ray detection surface 72A described later in the left-right direction. The beam shaping plate 50 ′ is provided with a connecting arm 49b threaded inside and driven by a vertical screw shaft 49a. Accordingly, when the connecting arm 49b is driven, the beam shaping plate 50 'is displaced in the vertical direction indicated by the arrow S, that is, in a direction parallel to the axial direction of the turning shaft 29.

  Two guide roller fixing plates 47c, 47c are sandwiched between the front surfaces of the guide roller fixing plates 47a, 47a by four pins 47b so as not to hinder the movement of the displaced beam forming plate 50 '. Fixed. Four guide rollers 51 are provided on the front surfaces of the guide roller fixing plates 47c and 47c. A horizontal screw shaft 54 on which the beam shaping plate moving motor 55 rotates is fixed to the upper portion of the upper guide roller fixing plate 47c so as to be directed sideways. A beam shaping plate 50 is disposed in front of the guide roller fixing plates 47c and 47c, and is guided by four guide rollers 51 so as to be movable in the horizontal direction. The beam shaping plate 50 includes a connecting arm 52, and a nut 53 fixed to the connecting arm 52 is screwed to the horizontal screw shaft 54. Therefore, the beam shaping plate 50 can move the front portion of the block 47 in the left-right direction indicated by the arrow T based on the drive of the beam shaping plate moving motor 55. The beam shaping plate 50 is formed with a panoramic imaging beam transmission hole 57 and a cephalo imaging beam transmission hole 58.

  In the case of CT imaging, the beam shaping plate 50 ′ is displaced by the beam shaping plate moving motor 49 ′ so that the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 f is positioned to restrict the X-ray beam. By adjusting the amount of displacement, it is possible to adjust the displacement of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56f in the direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot axis 29. Can be changed to a direction parallel to In this case, the beam shaping plate 50 is displaced by the beam shaping plate moving motor 55 so that the opening 56c comes in front of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56f. The opening 56c is set to such a size that the X-ray cone beam that has passed through the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56f is not blocked.

  In the case of panoramic imaging, the beam shaping plate 50 is displaced by the beam shaping plate moving motor 55 so that the panoramic imaging beam transmission hole 57 is positioned to restrict the X-ray beam. At this time, the beam shaping plate 50 ′ is arranged so that the opening 57 ′ is behind the panorama shooting beam transmission hole 57 so that the X-ray beam passing through the panorama shooting beam transmission hole 57 is not blocked. It is displaced by the forming plate moving motor 49 '. The opening 57 'is set to a size that does not prevent the passage of the X-ray beam passing through the panoramic imaging beam transmission hole 57.

  In the case of a cephalostat, the operation is the same except that the panoramic imaging beam transmission hole 57 at the time of panoramic imaging is replaced with the cephalo imaging beam transmission hole 58, and therefore detailed description is avoided.

  FIG. 24 is a modification of FIG. In the embodiment of FIG. 24, the opening 56c only replaces the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56d, and the other description is omitted. The embodiment of FIG. 24 is characterized in that in the case of CT imaging, the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56d and the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56f overlap to change the irradiation field in cooperation. The horizontal width of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56d is set to the same size as the horizontal width of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 of FIG. 10, and the vertical width of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56d is the CT imaging of FIG. It is set longer than the vertical width of the beam transmission hole 56 for use. By adjusting the amount of displacement of the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56d and the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56f, the irradiation field can be controlled two-dimensionally vertically and horizontally.

  Various other configurations of the second moving mechanism can be considered. Although not described in detail, for example, the X-ray generator 42 is provided with respect to the base end of the X-ray generation unit 15 via a rotating member, and the irradiation end of the X-ray generator is configured to be able to swing vertically and horizontally. You can also. FIGS. 9 and 10 show an embodiment in which the X-ray generator 42 is provided without being raised and lowered with respect to the base end of the X-ray generator 15 and the beam shaping mechanism 44 is provided so as to be raised and lowered. The beam shaping mechanism 44 may be provided without moving up and down with respect to the base end of the portion 15, and the X-ray generator 42 may be provided so as to be able to move up and down. Further, both the X-ray generator 42 and the beam shaping mechanism 44 may be provided with respect to the base end of the X-ray generator 15 without being raised and lowered, and only the beam shaping plate 50 may be provided to be raised and lowered.

  As shown in FIG. 11, the X-ray detector 16 has an X-ray detector housing 59 that encloses various configurations described below. The X-ray detector housing 59 is connected to the revolving arm housing 17 via the X-ray detector rotating mechanism 60. Specifically, in the X-ray imaging apparatus of the embodiment, the X-ray detection unit rotation mechanism 60 is vertically held with the lower end portion fixed to the X-ray detection unit housing 59 while being rotatably held inside the turning arm housing 17. It has a shaft 61, an X-ray detector rotating motor 62 fixed inside the revolving arm housing 17, and a gear mechanism 63 that drives and connects the X-ray detector rotating motor 62 and the vertical shaft 61 to rotate the X-ray detector Based on the drive of the motor 62, the X-ray detector housing 59 rotates around the vertical shaft 61. The rack 63 a of the gear mechanism 63 is fixed to the upper part of the X-ray detection unit housing 59, and the gear 63 b of the gear mechanism 63 is fixed to a drive shaft that extends downward from the X-ray detection unit rotation motor 62. By rotating the drive shaft of the X-ray detector rotating motor 62 to rotate the gear 63b and displacing the rack 63a, the X-ray detector housing 59 is also displaced.

  Inside the X-ray detection unit housing 59, a mechanism (second movement mechanism) for moving the X-ray detection surface in the vertical and horizontal directions is provided. More specifically, the X-ray detection unit housing 59 includes an X-ray detector 64A formed in an X-ray detection plate shape (cassette) for CT imaging described later and an X-ray for panoramic imaging (and for cephalo imaging). A detector holder 65 for detachably storing the detector 64B is provided. In FIG. 11, the X-ray detector 64 is shown as an X-ray detector 64A or an X-ray detector 64B. The detector holder 65 is supported so as to be movable in the horizontal direction (second direction) along the holder guide rail 66, and is connected to an X-ray detector moving motor 67 fixed to the X-ray detector housing 59. The X-ray detector moving motor 67 is driven to move in the horizontal direction. In FIG. 11, a roller provided on a drive shaft extending downward from the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67 contacts the back surface of the detector holder 65 to transmit rotational force, and the detector holder 65 is displaced in the horizontal direction. It is supposed to be.

When CT imaging is performed, the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67 uses an X-ray cone beam irradiation region in which the X-ray detection surface 72A of the image sensor 71A of the X-ray detector 64A is formed by the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56. The detector holder 65 is driven to be displaced in the horizontal direction so as to be positioned in the horizontal direction.
Further, when panoramic imaging is performed, the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67 has a slit X-ray beam in which the X-ray detection surface 72B of the image sensor 71B of the X-ray detector 64B is formed by the panoramic imaging beam transmission hole 57. The detector holder 65 is displaced in the horizontal direction so as to be positioned in the irradiation region. The detector holder 65, the X-ray detectors 64 </ b> A and 64 </ b> B, and the X-ray detector moving motor 67 are the X-ray beams irradiated from the X-ray generator 15 on either the X-ray detector surface 72 </ b> A or the X-ray detector surface 72 </ b> B. It is the 2nd switching means located in the irradiation area. The X-ray detector 64 is a foundation on which an image sensor is provided. It is not always necessary to make the X-ray detector 16 detachable. The X-ray detector 64 may be fixed to the X-ray detector 13 or may be integrally formed. When the X-ray detector 64 is formed integrally with the X-ray detector 13, it may be considered that the entire structure of the X-ray detector 16 constitutes the X-ray detector 64 as one unit.

  As shown in FIG. 12A, the detector holder 65 has a plurality of 2 on the side facing the X-ray generation unit 15 corresponding to the plurality of beam transmission holes 56 and 57 of the X-ray generation unit 15 described above. The X-ray generation unit has beam openings (secondary forming openings) 68 and 69 which are the next slits, and is driven by the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67 (see FIG. 11) according to the imaging mode. The beam openings 68 and 69 of the X-ray detection unit 16 corresponding to the 15 beam transmission holes are positioned on the extensions of the X-ray tube 41 and the beam transmission holes 56 and 57 of the X-ray generation unit 15, respectively. is there. In the embodiment of FIG. 12A, the X-ray detector 64B is inserted from the left of the detector holder 65, and is inserted at a position where the left side of the detector holder 65 and the left side of the X-ray detector 64B coincide. If it stops, the dimension is set so that the beam opening 69 and the X-ray detection surface 72B may correspond in position. Similarly, if the X-ray detector 64A is inserted from the right of the detector holder 65 and the insertion is stopped at a position where the right side surface of the detector holder 65 and the right side surface of the X-ray detector 64A coincide, The dimensions are set so that the line detection surface 72A coincides in position.

  The X-ray detectors 64A and 64B have image sensors 71A and 71B each having an X-ray detection surface extending in the vertical direction (first direction) and the horizontal direction (second direction). As shown in the drawing, one CT imaging image sensor 71A has a square or a rectangular X-ray detection surface 72A formed by arranging a large number of image sensors in the vertical and horizontal directions. The other panoramic image sensor 71B has a vertically long X-ray detection surface 72B that is considerably smaller in the horizontal direction than the vertical direction. These image sensors 71A and 71B are configured by XII (X-ray image intensifier) or a semiconductor X-ray detection element. As the semiconductor X-ray detection element, a MOS sensor, a TFT sensor, a CCD sensor, a MIS (Metal Insulator Semiconductor) sensor, or an X-ray solid-state imaging element can be suitably used. The MOS sensor includes a CMOS sensor and a CdTe-CMOS sensor (a MOS sensor using cadmium telluride as a semiconductor). Here, the X-ray detection surface 72A is a first X-ray detection surface that receives the X-ray cone beam formed by the above-described first forming unit, and the X-ray detection surface 72B is formed by the above-described second forming unit. It is the 2nd X-ray detection surface which receives the shape | molded slit X-ray beam. The vertical length of the X-ray detection surface 72B can be further increased to provide an X-ray detection surface for cephalometric imaging (cephalostat, that is, cephalometric radiography). It can be formed as an X-ray detection surface for cephalometric imaging and can also be used as an X-ray detection surface for panoramic imaging.

  For example, as shown in FIG. 25, the cephalostat is an X-ray detector and an X-ray generator 42 having an X-ray detection surface 72B having a length capable of sufficiently photographing the human head o as a subject. With the human head facing the head, the X-ray detector and the X-ray detection surface 72B are moved from the front of the head to the rear or the opposite direction, from the upper part of the head to the lower side or the opposite direction. It is imaging | photography which moves so that the whole can be image | photographed and acquires the transparent image of a head.

In the illustrated example, the X-ray generator 42 is fixed, and a Cephalo imaging beam transmission hole 58 long enough to irradiate a slit X-ray beam long enough to image a human head is provided as an X-ray detection surface. Shoot in synchronization with 72B. In the example of FIG. 25, the cephalometric imaging beam transmission hole 58 and the X-ray detection surface 72B are synchronously moved in parallel in the same direction. For this type of imaging, the configuration of Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2003-245277 according to the application of the applicant of the present application can be appropriately employed.
For example, the X-ray imaging apparatus 1 is provided with a long horizontal arm for a cephalostat having a well-known configuration, and the X-ray detection is provided with the X-ray detection surface 72B at the second X-ray detection unit at the tip of the arm. The above-described photographing can be performed by providing the device so as to be able to move synchronously.

  FIGS. 26A and 26B show examples of the shapes of the X-ray detection surface 72A and the X-ray detection surface 72B. The example of FIG. 26A is an example in which the X-ray detection surface 72A and the X-ray detection surface 72B are rectangular and rectangular as in the example of FIG. The shape may be rounded, or may be polygonal, circular, elliptical, etc., and is arbitrary.

  Here, the vertical maximum width dimension of the X-ray detection surface 72B is W1f, the vertical maximum width dimension of the X-ray detection surface 72A is W1g, and the horizontal maximum width dimension of the X-ray detection surface 72B is W2f, X. If the dimension of the horizontal maximum width of the line detection surface 72A is W2g, the relationship can be set such that W1f> W1g and W2f <W2g. These vertical and horizontal dimensions can also be set from a ratio, and may be set to have a relationship of W1f / W2f> W1g / W2g. For example, if W2f is 1, W1f may be set at a ratio of 3-30, and if W2g is 1, W1g may be set at a ratio of 0.3-2.

  More specifically, W1f is set to a range of 150 mm or 150 mm ± 30 mm, which is most suitable for panorama, and W2f is set to a range of 10 mm or 10 mm ± 5 mm, which is also suitable for clearly capturing a target tomography. W1g is suitable for imaging only several dentitions or ear stapes, and W2g is also used for imaging only several dentitions or ear stapes. It may be set to a range of 120 mm or 120 mm ± 30 mm suitable for the above.

  The setting of the above dimensions is the setting of the dimensions of the X-ray detection surface, but the spread of the X-ray beam irradiation field is exactly the same for each of the X-ray detection surface 72A and the X-ray detection surface 72B. Can be set. For example, the vertical maximum width dimension of the panoramic irradiation field is W1f, the vertical maximum width dimension of the CT irradiation field is W1g, and the horizontal maximum width dimension of the panoramic irradiation field is W2f, for CT. If the dimension of the maximum width next to the irradiation field is W2g, it can be set so that W1f> W1g and W2f <W2g.

  FIG. 12B is a modification of FIG. FIG. 12A shows an example of a detector holder 65 in which the X-ray detector 64A and the X-ray detector 64B are configured separately, and one of them can be mounted, but FIG. 12B shows an X-ray detector. A single X-ray detector 64 having both the image sensor 71A movable in the vertical direction, the same as the detector 64A, and the vertically long image sensor 71B, the same as the X-ray detector 64B, is mounted on the same surface. It is an Example of the detector holder 65. FIG. The X-ray detector 64 can also be regarded as a configuration in which a vertically long image sensor 71B is also provided on the same surface of the X-ray detector 64A on the image sensor 71A side. The horizontal width of the X-ray detector 64 and the horizontal width of the detector holder 65 are set to be approximately the same. If the X-ray detector 64 is inserted so as to be accommodated in the detector holder 65, the beam aperture 69 and the X The line detection surface 72B coincides in position, and the beam aperture 68 and the X-ray detection surface 72A coincide in position. Depending on the imaging mode, the beam openings 68 and 69 of the X-ray detection unit 16 corresponding to the beam transmission holes of the X-ray generation unit 15 are driven based on the drive of the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67 (see FIG. 11). The X-ray tube 41 and the X-ray generator 15 are positioned on the extensions of the beam transmission holes 56 and 57, respectively.

  As shown in FIG. 13, the CT imaging image sensor 71A is housed in a vertically long opening 200 formed in the X-ray detector 64A, and is movable in the vertical direction indicated by an arrow C. The horizontal width of the image sensor 71 </ b> A shown in FIG. 13 is set to be slightly smaller than the horizontal width of the opening 200, so that both side surfaces of the image sensor 71 </ b> A are in contact with the opposing vertical inner surfaces of the opening 200. The vertical width of the image sensor 71 </ b> A is smaller than the vertical width of the opening 200, and is set such that the image sensor 71 </ b> A can move up and down within a certain range inside the opening 200. In order to smoothly move the image sensor 71A up and down, in the embodiment, the longitudinal inner surface 201 forming the opening 200 and the side surface 202 of the image sensor 71A facing the guide portion (the inner surface 201) are respectively provided. And a projection 204) fitted to the vertical groove 203 provided in the image sensor 71A. The detection plate 64A also includes a screw shaft 205 that traverses the opening 200 in the vertical direction and is rotatably supported by the detection plate 64A. The screw shaft 205 is formed in the screw hole (or nut) 206 of the image sensor 71A. Has been inserted. One end of the screw shaft 205 is connected to an image sensor lifting / lowering motor 207 fixed to the image sensor 71A. Therefore, the image sensor 71A can be moved up and down by driving the image sensor lifting motor 207.

  Motor 67, roller provided on drive shaft extending downward from motor 67, detector holder 65, X-ray detector 64A, image sensor 71A, opening 200, vertical groove 203, protrusion 204, screw shaft 205, screw hole ( 206 or the image sensor lifting / lowering motor 207 can move the X-ray detection surface 72A in the X-ray detection unit 16 in a first direction parallel to the turning shaft 29 and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction. The first moving mechanism is as follows. On the other hand, the panoramic image sensor 71B is fixed to the X-ray detector 64B.

  These two X-ray detectors 64A and 64B are selectively used according to the imaging mode. For example, when performing CT imaging, an X-ray detector 64A for CT imaging is prepared, and this is mounted on the detector holder 65, and the X-ray detection surface 72A is disposed opposite to the beam transmission hole 68. Further, the X-ray generator 15 drives the block lifting / lowering motor 49 of the beam shaping mechanism 44 to move the X-ray exit port 48 up and down according to the imaging region of the subject, and the beam shaping plate. The moving motor 55 is driven to move the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 in the left-right direction. In response to this, the X-ray detector 16 drives the X-ray detector moving motor 67 to move the detector holder 65 and its beam transmission hole 68 to the left and right, and drives the image sensor lifting motor 207. The image sensor 71A and its X-ray detection surface 72A are moved up and down.

  When performing panoramic imaging, a panoramic (cephalo) imaging X-ray detector 64 </ b> B is prepared, which is mounted on the detector holder 65, and the X-ray detection surface 72 </ b> B is disposed opposite to the beam opening 69. Further, the X-ray generator 15 drives the block raising / lowering motor 49 of the beam shaping mechanism 44 to move the X-ray emission port 48 up and down, and also drives the beam shaping plate moving motor 55 for panorama or cephalometric imaging. The beam transmission holes 57 and 57 are moved in the left-right direction. In response to this, the X-ray detector 16 drives the X-ray detector moving motor 67 to move the detector holder 65 to the left and right to move the X-ray detection surface 72A and the beam opening 69 of the image sensor 71A to X. It moves on the extension of the X-ray beam emitted from the line generator 15. Further, the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67 and the detector holder 65 are arranged so that either the first X-ray detection surface or the second X-ray detection surface is irradiated from the X-ray generation unit 15. It is the 2nd switching means located in the irradiation area | region of a beam.

  The basic operation of the X-ray imaging apparatus having such a configuration will be described with reference to the block diagram of FIG. 14 and the flowchart of FIG. As shown in FIG. 14, the Y-direction moving motor 23, the X-direction moving motor 26, the turning motor 34, the X-ray generating unit rotating motor 37, the block lifting / lowering motor 49, the beam shaping plate moving motor 55, and the X-ray detecting unit rotating. Corresponding to the motor 62, the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67, and the image sensor lifting / lowering motor 207, the X-ray imaging apparatus 1 includes sensors 80 to 88 that detect movement amounts of members that are rotated, turned, or moved by the respective motors. I have. The operation unit 89 (see FIGS. 1, 4 and 5) of the X-ray imaging apparatus 1 includes an imaging start switch 90, an imaging mode selection switch 91, a full scan CT imaging mode (first imaging mode) or an offset scan CT. Full / offset mode selection switch 92 for selecting one of the shooting modes (second shooting mode), a shooting area selection switch 93 for enlarging or reducing the shooting area, and a shooting height adjustment switch 94 for adjusting the shooting position in the vertical direction Is provided. Note that the imaging area selection switch 93 for enlarging or reducing the imaging area is effective only when the offset scan CT imaging mode is selected.

  The CPU 95 receives input from each switch, accesses the storage unit 97 and the X-ray image storage unit 96, and moves the Y-direction movement motor 23, the X-direction movement motor 26, the turning motor 34, the X-ray generation unit rotation motor 37, and the block lifting / lowering. It controls the motor 49, the beam shaping plate moving motor 55, the X-ray detector rotation motor 62, the X-ray detector moving motor 67, and the image sensor lift motor 207, and functions as a controller 95 that receives signals from each sensor.

  First, as shown in FIG. 5, the patient is positioned on the X-ray imaging apparatus 1 by the positioning mechanism 8 prior to imaging. At this time, the patient stands in front of the lower frame portion 7 of the elevating frame 3 and grasps the handle 11 with both hands, and the left and right lateral regulating members 10 regulate the left and right movement of the head, Place on chin rest 9.

  The operator operates the imaging mode selection switch 91 to select an imaging mode (panoramic imaging, CT imaging, etc.). Further, the photographing area selection switch 93 is operated to enlarge or reduce the photographing area. Further, with the CT imaging mode selected, the full / offset mode selection switch 92 is operated to select either the full scan imaging mode or the offset scan CT imaging mode. Here, the full scan imaging mode refers to the X-ray cone beam emitted from the X-ray generator 15 by turning the turning arm 4 about the turning axis 29 set on the region of interest of the subject as a fixed center. 16 is a mode in which X-ray CT imaging of the region of interest of the subject is performed. In the present application, this full scan CT imaging mode is defined as a first imaging mode.

  In addition, the offset scan CT imaging mode is a method in which the X-ray detection surface 72A is moved in the second direction by the first moving mechanism described above to be offset forward or backward in the turning direction of the X-ray detection unit 16. , A mode in which X-ray CT imaging of the region of interest is performed by projecting the entire region of interest while always projecting a part of the region of interest. In the present application, this offset scan CT imaging mode is set as a second imaging mode.

  FIGS. 17A and 17B are plan views showing the locus of the X-ray beam for full scan CT imaging and the locus of the X-ray beam for offset scan CT imaging, respectively. FIG. 17A shows a trajectory for normal CT imaging, and FIG. 17B shows a trajectory for offset scan CT imaging. At the time of normal CT imaging, the X-ray generator 42 and the X-ray detection surface 72A rotate at least 1/2 turn with the turning axis 29 aligned with the center of the region of interest R as the turning axis of the optical system. The above operations are performed synchronously so that the entire region of interest R is always projected onto the X-ray detection surface 72A. On the other hand, at the time of offset scan CT imaging, the X-ray generator 42 and the X-ray detection surface 72A are respectively set to the center of the region of interest R, and the turning axis 29 is the turning axis of the optical system. With the X-ray detection surface 72A being offset forward or backward in the turning direction of the X-ray detection unit 16 with respect to the region of interest R, the X-ray detection unit 16 rotates in at least one turn synchronously and is ½ of the region of interest R. The above proportion is always projected on the X-ray detection surface 72A. As described above, in offset scan CT imaging, the X-ray detection surface 72A is offset forward or backward in the turning direction of the X-ray detection unit 16, so that the region of interest is always projected while part of the designated region of interest R is projected. Projection over all R is performed, and X-ray CT imaging of the region of interest R is performed. The offset of the X-ray detection surface 72A can be realized by moving the X-ray detection surface 72A in the second direction by the first moving mechanism described above. In the present application, such an imaging method is referred to as “offset scan”.

  When the photographing mode is started by operating the photographing start switch 90, if necessary, the controller 95 drives a necessary motor to move the turning arm 4 to an initial position (photographing start position). Next, a program corresponding to the selected imaging mode is read from the storage unit (ROM) 97, a necessary motor is driven according to this program, and the X-ray tube 41 is activated to generate X-rays.

  Specifically, an example of the operation of the X-ray imaging apparatus will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG. 15. First, the controller 95 determines whether the imaging mode selected by the imaging mode selection switch 91 is the panoramic imaging mode or the CT imaging mode. Is determined (step # 1).

  When the panorama shooting mode is selected, the controller 95 drives the beam shaping plate moving motor 55 so that the panorama shooting beam transmission hole 57 corresponding to the selected panorama shooting mode faces the X-ray tube 41 (step). # 2). At this time, if necessary, the controller 95 drives the block lifting / lowering motor 49 according to the imaging mode to move the X-ray emission port 48 up and down. Next, the controller 95 reads out a program (not shown) corresponding to the selected panoramic shooting mode from the storage unit 97 (step # 3), and if necessary, based on this program, the Y-direction moving motor 23 is read out. Then, one or more of the X-direction moving motor 26 and the turning motor 34 are driven simultaneously or sequentially to move the turning arm 4 to the initial photographing position. In the program, the timing for driving each motor is specified, whereby a plurality of operations based on driving of a plurality of motors (for example, swivel arm swiveling, X-direction movement, Y-direction movement, rotation of the X-ray generation unit) , Rotation of the X-ray detector, etc.) are combined to obtain a necessary captured image. Subsequently, when an imaging start command is input by operating the imaging start switch 90 (step # 4), the controller 95 activates the X-ray tube 41 to generate X-rays and is necessary according to the above-described program. The motor is driven (step # 5). At this time, the rotation amount of each motor is detected by a corresponding sensor, whereby the rotation amount is feedback-controlled. The X-ray emitted from the X-ray tube 41 is irradiated to the subject through the X-ray transmission hole 48 of the block 47 and the panoramic imaging beam transmission hole 57 of the beam shaping plate 50. The X-ray transmitted through the subject is detected by the X-ray detection surface 72B of the image sensor 71B of the X-ray detector 64B attached to the X-ray detector 16 through the beam opening 69. The X-ray detection unit 16 stores data corresponding to the detected X-ray image in the X-ray image storage unit 96 (see FIG. 14) at regular intervals. The image data stored in the X-ray image storage unit 96 is subjected to necessary processing later and displayed on a display (not shown).

  When the CT imaging mode is selected by the imaging mode selection switch 91, the controller 95, based on the signal from the full / offset mode selection switch 93, performs the full scan imaging mode (first imaging mode) or the offset scan CT. It is determined whether any of the shooting modes (second shooting mode) is selected (step # 6).

  When the full scan CT imaging mode is selected, the controller 95 drives the beam shaping plate moving motor 55 so that the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 corresponding to the selected CT imaging mode faces the X-ray tube 41. (Step # 7). If necessary, the block raising / lowering motor 49 of the X-ray generation unit 15 is driven to move the X-ray emission port 48 up and down, or the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67 of the X-ray detection unit 16 is driven. Then, the detector holder 65 and the X-ray detector 64A attached thereto are moved in the left-right direction. Further, when the height of the X-ray detection surface 72A is designated by the photographing height adjustment switch 94, the image sensor lifting motor 207 is driven to adjust the height of the image sensor 71A to the designated height. Next, the controller 95 reads a program (not shown) of the selected full scan CT imaging mode from the storage unit 97 (step # 8), and if necessary, based on this program, the Y-direction moving motor 23 is read out. Then, one or more of the X-direction moving motor 26 and the turning motor 34 are driven simultaneously or sequentially to move the turning arm 4 to the initial photographing position. Usually, in this state, the drive shaft is on a line connecting the X-ray generator 15 (X-ray beam generation start position of the X-ray tube 41) and the X-ray detector 16 (center of the X-ray detection surface 72A of the image sensor 71A). The center of (swivel axis 29) is placed. Subsequently, when an imaging start command is input by operating the imaging start switch 90 (step # 9), the controller 95 activates the X-ray tube 41 to generate X-rays and is necessary according to the above-described program. The motor is driven (step # 10). At this time, the rotation amount of each motor is detected by a corresponding sensor, whereby the rotation amount is feedback-controlled. The X-ray emitted from the X-ray tube 41 is irradiated to the subject through the X-ray irradiation port 48 of the block 47 and the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 of the beam shaping plate 50. The X-ray transmitted through the subject is detected by the X-ray detection surface 72A of the image sensor 71A of the X-ray detector 64A through the beam opening 68 in the X-ray detector 16. The X-ray detection unit 16 stores data corresponding to the detected X-ray image in the X-ray image storage unit 96 (see FIG. 14) at regular intervals. The image data stored in the X-ray image storage unit 96 is subjected to necessary processing later and displayed on a display (not shown). At this time, in the X-ray CT imaging of the region of interest of the subject, the turning arm 4 is turned about the turning axis 29 set on the region of interest of the subject as a fixed center, and the X-ray cone beam emitted from the X-ray generation unit 15 is used. The detection is performed by the X-ray detection unit 16, and as described in the description of FIG. 17 described later, image data obtained by detecting X-rays transmitted through the regions on both sides of the turning shaft 29 are obtained. The necessary images are played back. Regarding the X-ray beam, when discussing the positional relationship between the X-ray generator or the X-ray generator and the X-ray detector or the X-ray detector, strictly speaking, in the X-ray tube in the X-ray generator of the X-ray generator. The X-ray beam generation start position and the position of the detection surface of the image sensor in the X-ray detector of the X-ray detector should be discussed. The position of the X-ray generator, the X-ray detector, and the X-ray detector will be discussed.

  When the offset scan CT imaging mode is selected, the controller 95 drives the beam shaping plate moving motor 55 so that the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 corresponding to the selected CT imaging mode faces the X-ray tube 41. (Step # 11). If necessary, the block raising / lowering motor 49 of the X-ray generation unit 15 is driven to move the X-ray emission port 48 up and down, or the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67 of the X-ray detection unit 16 is driven. Then, the detector holder 65 and the X-ray detector 64A attached thereto are moved in the left-right direction. Further, when the height of the X-ray detection surface 72A is designated by the photographing height adjustment switch 94, the image sensor lifting motor 207 is driven to adjust the height of the image sensor 71A to the designated height. Next, the controller 95 reads a program (not shown) corresponding to the selected offset scan photographing mode from the storage unit 97 (step # 12), and if necessary, based on this program, a Y-direction moving motor. 23, one or more of the X-direction moving motor 26 and the turning motor 34 are driven simultaneously or sequentially to move the turning arm 4 to the initial photographing position. The initial setting process at this time will be described later.

  Subsequently, when an imaging start command is input by operating the imaging start switch 90 (step # 13), the controller 95 activates the X-ray tube 41 to generate X-rays and is necessary according to the above-described program. The motor is driven (step # 14). At this time, the rotation amount of each motor is detected by a corresponding sensor, whereby the rotation amount is feedback-controlled. The X-ray emitted from the X-ray tube 41 is irradiated to the subject through the X-ray irradiation port 48 of the block 47 and the CT imaging beam transmission hole 56 of the beam shaping plate 50. The X-ray transmitted through the subject is detected by the X-ray detector 64BA through the beam opening 68 in the X-ray detector 16. The X-ray detection unit 16 stores data corresponding to the detected X-ray image in the X-ray image storage unit 96 at regular intervals. The image data stored in the X-ray image storage unit 96 is subjected to necessary processing later and displayed on a display (not shown). At this time, a necessary image is reproduced using the image data obtained by detecting the X-ray transmitted through the region on one side of the turning shaft 29.

  In the above description, as shown in FIG. 13, the X-ray detector for CT imaging 64A can move the X-ray detector 71A only in the vertical direction, but as shown in FIG. In the X-ray detector 64A, the X-ray detector may be moved in the vertical and horizontal directions indicated by arrows D and E. Specifically, in the form shown in FIG. 16, the X-ray detector 64 </ b> A has a rectangular outer frame 300. A rectangular inner frame 302 is accommodated in the opening 301 formed inside the outer frame 300. The vertical width of the inner frame 302 shown in FIG. 16A is slightly smaller than the vertical width of the opening 301, and is set such that the upper and lower outer surfaces of the inner frame 302 are in contact with the upper and lower inner surfaces of the opening 301. The lateral width of the inner frame 302 is smaller than the lateral width of the opening 301, and is set to such an extent that the inner frame 302 can move within a certain range from side to side as indicated by arrow E inside the opening 301. The inner frame 302 includes a pair of lateral rails 303 (upper rails not shown) formed on the upper and lower inner surfaces of the outer frame 300 and a pair of engaging protrusions 304 (upper upper surfaces) formed on the upper and lower outer surfaces of the inner frame 302. The engaging projection is movable in the left-right direction in the outer frame 300 based on the combination with the projection. The outer frame 300 rotatably supports a screw shaft 305 that penetrates the opening 301 in the horizontal direction, and the screw shaft 305 is screwed into a screw 306 (or a nut) provided on the upper portion of the inner frame 302. And penetrates the inner frame 302 in the horizontal direction. Further, one end of the screw shaft 305 is connected to a horizontal drive motor 307 fixed to the outer frame 300. Accordingly, the screw shaft 305 is rotationally driven based on the drive of the horizontal drive motor 307, and the inner frame 302 moves in the horizontal direction through the opening 301 of the outer frame 300.

  The inner frame 302 includes an image sensor 72A in the inner opening 310 as in the embodiment of FIG. The image sensor 71A has a pair of vertical rails 312 (one is not shown) formed on the inner surface facing the inner frame 302 and a pair of engaging protrusions 313 (one on the outer surface of the X-ray detector 71A). One is not shown in the figure, and can be moved in the vertical direction indicated by arrow D in the inner frame 302. Further, the inner frame 302 rotatably supports a screw shaft 314 passing through the inner opening 310 in the vertical direction. The screw shaft 314 is attached to a screw 315 (or a nut) provided in the X-ray detector 71A. It is screwed together and penetrates the image sensor 71A in the vertical direction. Further, one end of the screw shaft 314 is connected to a vertical drive motor 316 fixed to the inner frame 302. Accordingly, the screw shaft 314 is rotationally driven based on the drive of the vertical drive motor 316, and the image sensor 71A moves up and down the opening 310 of the inner frame 302.

  When the CT imaging detection plate 64A configured as described above is attached to the X-ray detection unit 16, the horizontal drive motor 307 and the vertical drive motor 316 are replaced by the controller 95 and motor drive power supply (not shown) shown in FIG. Connected to. The horizontal drive motor 307 and the vertical drive motor 316 are driven based on a command from the controller 95 in accordance with the program of the selected imaging mode, and the image sensor 71A and its X-ray detection surface 72A are moved vertically and horizontally. . Outer frame 300, inner frame 302, lateral rail 303, engagement protrusion 304, screw shaft 305, screw 306, horizontal drive motor 307, image sensor 71A, vertical rail 312, engagement protrusion 313, screw shaft 314, screw 315 The vertical drive motor 316 allows the X-ray detection surface 72A to move in the X-ray detection unit 16 in a first direction parallel to the turning shaft 29 and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction. Make a moving mechanism.

  Therefore, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus / X-ray detector of the above-described embodiment, the image sensor and the X-ray detection plane are orthogonal to each other according to the selected X-ray imaging mode (for example, the vertical direction and the horizontal direction). (Direction) can be freely adjusted. Therefore, even if the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67 holder guide rail 66, which is a mechanism for moving the detector holder 65 shown in FIG. 11 in the horizontal direction, is omitted, the above-described offset scan CT imaging is possible. It is possible to simplify the configuration of the X-ray detector of the X-ray imaging apparatus. Further, depending on the imaging region of the patient, X-rays can be imaged at an angle or a direction where the artifact is least likely to occur.

  FIGS. 16B, 16C, and 16D are modifications of the embodiment of FIG. Since the driving mechanism of the moving mechanism for moving the X-ray detection surface 72A is only different from that of FIG. 16A, the description of the common configuration is omitted. 16B includes a gear 305b, a rack 306b, and a horizontal drive motor 307b instead of the screw shaft 305, the screw 306, and the horizontal drive motor 307 of FIG. 16A, and a screw shaft 314, a screw 315, and a vertical drive motor. Instead of 316, a gear 314b, a rack 315b, and a vertical drive motor 316b are provided. A rack 306b extending in the horizontal direction is provided on the outer frame 300, a horizontal drive motor 307b is fixed to the inner frame 302, and a gear 305b is fitted on a drive shaft of the horizontal drive motor 307b. The gear 305b meshes with the rack 306b. By driving the horizontal drive motor 307b, the gear 305b is rotationally driven, and the inner frame 302 moves in the horizontal direction indicated by the arrow G. A rack 315b extending in the vertical direction is provided on the inner frame 302, a vertical drive motor 316b is fixed to the image sensor 71A, and a gear 314b is fitted on a drive shaft of the vertical drive motor 316b. The gear 314b meshes with the rack 315b. By driving the vertical drive motor 316b, the gear 314b is rotationally driven, and the image sensor 71A moves in the vertical direction indicated by the arrow F. This moving mechanism is a first moving mechanism that allows the X-ray detection surface 72A to move in the X-ray detection unit 16 in a first direction parallel to the turning axis 29 and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction. Make. 16 (b-1) is a view of the vertical drive motor 316b, the gear 314b, and the rack 315b in the range H ′ indicated by the alternate long and short dash line, as viewed from the direction indicated by the arrow H, and FIG. 2) is a view of the horizontal drive motor 307b, the gear 305b, and the rack 306b in the range indicated by the alternate long and short dash line as viewed from the direction indicated by the arrow I.

  FIG. 16C includes a drive shaft 305c, a belt 306c, and a plurality of guide pulleys 306c ′ horizontal drive motor 307c instead of the screw shaft 305, the screw 306, and the horizontal drive motor 307 of FIG. 314, screw 315, and vertical drive motor 316 are replaced by a drive pulley 314c, a belt 315c, and a vertical drive motor 316c. A horizontal drive motor 307c is fixed at the center of the upper side of the outer frame 300, and a drive pulley 305c is fitted on the drive shaft of the horizontal drive motor 307c. A belt 306 c is wound around the drive pulley 305 c, and the belt 306 c is guided by a plurality of guide pulleys 306 c ′ fixed inside the outer frame 300, and both ends thereof are directed inward from the left and right sides of the outer frame 300. And are fixed to the left and right sides of the inner frame 302, respectively. By driving the horizontal drive motor 307c, the drive pulley 305c is rotationally driven, the belt 306c is driven, and the inner frame 302 moves in the horizontal direction indicated by an arrow K. A vertical drive motor 316c is fixed to the center of the right side of the inner frame 302, and a drive pulley 314c is fitted on the drive shaft of the vertical drive motor 316c. A belt 315c is wound around the drive pulley 314c, and the belt 315c is guided by a plurality of guide pulleys 315c ′ fixed inside the inner frame 302, and both ends thereof are directed inward from the upper and lower sides of the inner frame 302, respectively. And are fixed to the upper and lower sides of the image sensor 71A. By driving the vertical drive motor 316c, the drive pulley 314c is rotationally driven, the belt 315c is driven, and the image sensor 71A moves in the vertical direction indicated by the arrow J. This moving mechanism is a first moving mechanism that allows the X-ray detection surface 72A to move in the X-ray detection unit 16 in a first direction parallel to the turning axis 29 and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction. Make. 16 (c-1) is a view of the vertical drive motor 316c, the drive pulley 314c, and the belt 315c in the range of L ′ indicated by the alternate long and short dash line, as viewed from the direction indicated by the arrow L. FIG. -2) is a view of the horizontal drive motor 307c, the drive pulley 305c, and the belt 306c in the range indicated by the alternate long and short dash line as viewed from the direction indicated by the arrow M.

  16D includes a roller 305d, a back plate 306d, and a horizontal drive motor 307d instead of the screw shaft 305, the screw 306, and the horizontal drive motor 307 of FIG. 16A, and a screw shaft 314, a screw 315, and a vertical drive. Instead of the motor 316, a roller 314d, a back plate 315d, and a vertical drive motor 316d are provided. A back plate 306d is provided on the entire rear surface of the outer frame 300, a horizontal drive motor 307d is fixed to the inner frame 302, and a roller 305d is fitted on the drive shaft of the horizontal drive motor 307d. The roller 305d is in contact with the back plate 306d. By driving the horizontal drive motor 307d, the roller 305d is rotationally driven, and the roller 305d itself is displaced with respect to the back plate 306d by friction, so that the inner frame 302 moves in the horizontal direction indicated by an arrow O. A back plate 315d is provided over the entire back surface of the inner frame, a vertical drive motor 316d is fixed to the image sensor 71A, and a roller 314d is fitted on the drive shaft of the vertical drive motor 316d. The roller 314d is in contact with the back plate 315d. By driving the vertical drive motor 316d, the roller 314d is rotationally driven, and the roller 314d itself is displaced with respect to the back plate 315d by friction, so that the image sensor 71A moves in the vertical direction indicated by an arrow N. This moving mechanism is a first moving mechanism that allows the X-ray detection surface 72A to move in the X-ray detection unit 16 in a first direction parallel to the turning axis 29 and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction. Make. FIG. 16D-1 is a view of the vertical drive motor 316d, the roller 314d, and the back plate 315d in the range of P ′ indicated by the alternate long and short dash line, as viewed from the direction indicated by the arrow P, and FIG. -2) is a view of the horizontal drive motor 307d, the roller 305d, and the back plate 306d in the range of Q ′ indicated by the alternate long and short dash line, as viewed from the direction indicated by the arrow Q. According to the X-ray imaging apparatus / X-ray detector of the above-described embodiment, planar tomography as shown in FIGS. 18A to 18F is possible in addition to CT imaging.

  Planar tomography itself is a well-known imaging method. As shown in FIG. 18G, for example, a specific tomography OL existing in a direction orthogonal to the dental arch is detected by the X-ray generator 42 ′ and the X-ray detection. The X-ray generator and the X-ray detector are moved in the same direction with the X-ray generator and X-ray detector moving central axes set at the center of the specific tomography OL. Move to, and take a picture. The X-ray generator 42 ′ and the X-ray detection surface 72 ′ may move linearly while maintaining the same distance from each other about the movement center axis C, or the X-ray generator 42 ′ and the X-ray detection surface 72 ′. May perform a circular motion with respect to the movement center axis (swivel axis) C as a fulcrum. Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 7-136158 relating to the application of the present applicant discloses an X-ray imaging apparatus for performing such planar tomography.

  FIGS. 18A and 18B show a case where the pivot axis 29 and the tomography OL to be imaged coincide with each other, and FIGS. 18C and 18D show the tomography OL to be imaged. 18 (e) and 18 (f) show a case where the tomography OL to be imaged is closer to the X-ray detection surface 72A side than the pivot axis 29. FIG. The case where it is located is shown. In either case, the trajectory drawn by the X-ray generator 42 and the X-ray detector 64A is the same, but by controlling the movement of the X-ray detection surface 72A of the image sensor 71A in the left-right direction, as described above. This makes it possible to adjust the position setting of the tomographic OL. The position setting of the tomography OL can be adjusted, and the enlargement ratio can also be adjusted.

  More specific description will be given below. For planar tomography, the X-ray detector 64A shown in FIGS. 16A to 16D is used. 18A to 18F, the X-ray generator 42 moves in a circular arc from the position pA through the position pB to the position pC, and the X-ray detector 64A is positioned from the position pA ′ through the position pB ′. The arc moves to pC '. 18A, 18C, and 18E are schematic plan views showing the movement, and FIGS. 18B, 18D, and 18F show the X-ray detector 64A at the position pA ′, It is typical explanatory drawing seen from the front in position pB 'and position pC', respectively. In the case of FIGS. 18A and 18B, the inner frame 302 moves to the center inside the outer frame 300 of the X-ray detector 64A at any of the positions pA ′, pB ′, and pC ′. Not. Therefore, the X-ray detection surface 72A of the image sensor 71A in the inner frame is also located at the center of the outer frame. The movement center axis (swivel axis) C of the X-ray generator 42 ′ and the X-ray detection surface 72 ′ set at the center of the tomography OL coincides with the pivot axis 29.

  In the case of FIGS. 18C and 18D, inside the outer frame 300 of the X-ray detector 64A, the inner frame 302 is on the right side at the position pA ′, at the center at the position pB ′, and at the position pC ′. Is moving to the left. Therefore, while the X-ray detector 64A moves from the position pA ′ to the position pC ′ via the position pB ′, the X-ray detection surface 72A of the image sensor 71A in the inner frame also moves from the right side to the left side of the outer frame. By such movement of the X-ray detection surface 72A, the movement central axis (swivel axis) C of the X-ray generator 42 ′ and the X-ray detection surface 72 ′ is positioned closer to the X-ray generator 42 side than the swing axis 29. Will do. The tomography OL is imaged with the movement center axis (swivel axis) C set at the center thereof, and therefore is located closer to the X-ray generator 42 side than the pivot axis 29.

  In the case of FIGS. 18E and 18F, inside the outer frame 300 of the X-ray detector 64A, the inner frame 302 is on the left side at the position pA ′, at the center at the position pB ′, and at the position pC ′. Is moving to the right. Therefore, while the X-ray detector 64A moves from the position pA ′ through the position pB ′ to the position pC ′, the X-ray detection surface 72A of the image sensor 71A in the inner frame also moves from the left side to the right side of the outer frame. By such movement of the X-ray detection surface 72A, the movement central axis (swivel axis) C of the X-ray generator 42 'and the X-ray detection surface 72' is positioned closer to the X-ray detection surface 72A side than the swing shaft 29. Will do. The tomography OL is imaged with the movement center axis (swivel axis) C set at the center thereof, and therefore is located closer to the X-ray detection surface 72A side than the pivot axis 29. In this way, the position setting of the tomography OL can be adjusted, and the enlargement ratio can be adjusted.

  In the above description, the example in which the X-ray detector 64A of FIGS. 16A to 16D is used to perform planar tomography as shown in FIGS. 18A to 18F has been described. If a mechanism such as the X-ray detection unit moving motor 67 and the detector holder 65 is used for moving the detection surface 72A in the second direction, the X-ray imaging apparatus as shown in FIG. Planar tomography as shown in (f) can be performed. In addition, according to the X-ray imaging apparatus / X-ray detector of the above-described embodiment, although not shown, the X-ray detection surface 72A of the image sensor 71A of the X-ray detectors 64, 64a, 64b for CT imaging is used. For example, it is possible to take a simple X-ray fluoroscopic image of the temporomandibular joint (X-ray fluoroscopic image shooting). In this case, the size of the X-ray detection surface 72A is sufficient if it is large enough to image the temporomandibular joint. In the X-ray fluoroscopic image capturing of the temporomandibular joint, the position of the X-ray detection surface 72A is set in the first direction parallel to the axial direction of the turning shaft 29 in the X-ray detection unit 16 and the first direction as described above. Since it can move in a second direction orthogonal to the direction of 1, it can be easily controlled in accordance with the position of the positioned temporomandibular joint of the patient. In addition, another beam transmission hole 57a (not shown) having the same horizontal width and a shorter vertical width than that of the panoramic photographing beam transmission hole (slit) 57 is further provided. It is also possible to perform curved tomography of the temporomandibular joint using a known X-ray beam trajectory for curved tomography of the temporomandibular joint by irradiating a part of the X-ray detection surface 72A with the passed slit X-ray beam. is there.

  In the above description, the beam shaping transmission hole for CT imaging in the X-ray generation unit is substantially square, and the pyramid-shaped X-ray beam is irradiated from the X-ray generation unit toward the X-ray detection unit. The shape of the shaping transmission hole is not limited to this, and if the beam shaping transmission hole is circular or elliptical, a conical beam (cone beam) is formed.

1 is a perspective view of an X-ray imaging apparatus according to the present invention. 1 is a front view of an X-ray imaging apparatus according to the present invention. The right view of the X-ray imaging apparatus which concerns on this invention. 1 is a left side view of an X-ray imaging apparatus according to the present invention. The perspective view which shows the X-ray imaging apparatus which concerns on this invention, and the patient positioned by this. FIG. 2 is a perspective view in which a part of a turning arm of the X-ray imaging apparatus shown in FIG. 1 is cut away. Sectional drawing which shows XY movement mechanism of a turning arm. The figure which looked at the XY movement mechanism of the turning arm from the lower part. Sectional drawing of a X-ray generation part. The perspective view which shows the beam shaping board etc. which were incorporated in the X-ray generation part. The front view which excised a part of turning arm. It is a perspective view of a X-ray detector and a detector holder, (a) is an example of the detector holder which can comprise X-ray detector 64A and X-ray detector 64B separately, and the one can be mounted | worn. It is a perspective view of a X-ray detector and a detector holder, (b) is an example of the detector holder which mounts | wears with one X-ray detector 64 which provided both image sensors 71A and 71B on the same surface. . The perspective view of the X-ray detector for CT imaging. 1 is a block diagram of an X-ray imaging apparatus. The flowchart which shows the control program of X-ray imaging apparatus. It is a figure of the X-ray detector for CT imaging of another form, (a) is an example which moves image sensor 71A with a screw shaft. It is a figure of the X-ray detector for CT imaging of another form, (b), (b-1), (b-2) is an example which moves image sensor 71A with a rack and a gear. It is a figure of the X-ray detector for CT imaging of another form, (c), (c-1), (c-2) is an example which moves image sensor 71A with a pulley and a belt. It is a figure of the X-ray detector for CT imaging of another form, (d), (d-1), (d-2) is an example which moves image sensor 71A with a roller and a backplate. It is a top view which shows the locus | trajectory of the X-ray generator, X-ray detector, and X-ray beam for CT imaging, (a) is the locus | trajectory for full scan CT imaging | photography, (b) is for offset scan CT imaging | photography. Show the trajectory. It is a schematic diagram explaining planar tomography, (a) is a schematic plan view which shows the locus | trajectory of an X-ray generator, an X-ray detector, and an X-ray beam, (b) is X in FIG. It is typical explanatory drawing which looked at the line detector from the front in each different position. It is a schematic diagram explaining planar tomography, (c) is a schematic plan view which shows the locus | trajectory of an X-ray generator, an X-ray detector, and an X-ray beam, (d) is X in FIG. It is typical explanatory drawing which looked at the line detector from the front in each different position. (E) is a schematic plan view showing the trajectory of the X-ray generator, X-ray detector, and X-ray beam, and (f) is an X-ray detector viewed from the front at different positions in FIG. FIG. It is a schematic diagram explaining planar tomography, (g) is a schematic plan view which shows the prior art example of planar tomography. Sectional drawing of the X-ray generation part which is a modification of FIG. The perspective view which shows the beam shaping board etc. which were incorporated in the X-ray generation part which is a modification of FIG. It is a figure which shows the position of the irradiation field of an X-ray cone beam, (a) is a perspective view in the case of irradiating the irradiation field of a low position, (b) is a perspective view in the case of irradiation of the irradiation field of a high position. FIG. Sectional drawing of the X-ray generation part which is a modification of FIG. The perspective view which shows the beam shaping board etc. which were incorporated in the X-ray generation part which is a modification of FIG. The perspective view which shows the beam shaping board etc. which were incorporated in the X-ray generation part which is a modification of FIG. Schematic plan view explaining the cephalostat

Explanation of symbols

1: X-ray imaging apparatus, 2: pillar, 3: lifting frame, 4: turning arm, 5: vertical frame part, 6: upper frame part, 7: lower frame part, 8: positioning mechanism, 9: chin rest, 10: Lateral direction regulating member, 11: handle, 12: horizontal arm part, 13: first suspension part, 14: second suspension part, 15: X-ray generation part, 16: X-ray detection part, 17: swivel arm housing 18: XY moving mechanism, 19: Y direction guide rail, 20: Y direction moving frame, 21: X direction guide rail, 22: X direction moving frame, 23: Y direction moving motor, 24: Screw shaft, 25: Nut , 26: X direction moving motor, 27: screw shaft, 28: nut, 29: swing shaft, 30: upper frame housing, 31: bearing, 32: belt winding part (pulley), 33: belt, 34: swing motor , 35 X-ray generation unit housing, 36: X-ray generation unit rotation mechanism, 37: X-ray generation unit rotation motor, 38: Vertical rotation shaft, 39: Gear mechanism, 40: Fixed member, 41: X-ray tube, 42: X-ray Generator: 43: X-ray exit opening, 44: Beam shaping mechanism, 45: Guide roller, 46: Vertical guide rail, 47: Block, 48: X-ray exit, 49: Block lift motor, 50: Beam shaping plate , 51: guide roller, 52: connecting arm, 53: nut, 54: screw shaft, 55: beam shaping plate moving motor, 56: beam transmission hole for CT imaging, 57: beam transmission hole for panoramic imaging, 58: cephalometric imaging Beam transmission hole, 59: X-ray detector housing, 60: X-ray detector rotation mechanism, 61: Vertical axis, 62: X-ray detector rotation motor, 63: Gear mechanism, 64: X-ray detector, 64A: X-ray detection 64B: X-ray detector 65: Detection plate holder 66: Holder guide rail 67: X-ray detector moving motor 68, 69, 70: Beam shaping opening 71A: Image sensor 71B: Image sensor 72A: X-ray detection surface, 72B: X-ray detection surface, 80-88: sensor, 89: operation unit, 90: imaging start switch, 91: imaging mode selection switch, 92: full / offset mode selection switch, 93: Imaging area selection switch, 94: Imaging height adjustment switch, 95: Controller, 97: Storage unit (ROM), 96: X-ray image storage unit (RAM), 203: Vertical groove, 204: Projection, 205: Screw shaft, 206: Screw hole, 207: Image sensor lifting motor, 300: Outer frame, 302: Inner frame, 303: Lateral rail, 304: Engagement protrusion, 30 5: Screw shaft, 306: Screw hole, 314: Screw shaft, 315: Screw hole, 316: Vertical drive motor.

Claims (8)

  1. An X-ray detection unit is provided that faces the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray generation unit and detects X-rays emitted from the X-ray generation unit, and is disposed between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit. In the X-ray imaging apparatus in which the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit rotate around the rotation axis,
    The X-ray detection unit includes an X-ray detector having an X-ray detection surface;
    A first moving mechanism configured to move the X-ray detection surface in a first direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot axis and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction in the X-ray detection unit; An X-ray imaging apparatus characterized by that.
  2.   The X-ray generation unit includes a second moving mechanism that enables the X-ray irradiation direction irradiated from the X-ray generation unit to the X-ray detection unit to move in the first direction and the second direction. The X-ray imaging apparatus according to claim 1, wherein:
  3. The X-ray generator is
    First shaping means for shaping X-rays irradiated from the X-ray generation unit toward the X-ray detection unit into an X-ray cone beam;
    A second shaping means for shaping the X-rays irradiated from the X-ray generation unit toward the X-ray detection unit into a slit X-ray beam;
    A first switch for selectively interposing one of the first shaping means and the second shaping means between the X-ray source of the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection surface of the X-ray detection unit. Means,
    The X-ray detection unit is
    A first X-ray detection surface that receives the X-ray cone beam formed by the first forming means;
    A second X-ray detection surface that receives the slit X-ray beam formed by the second forming means;
    Second switching means is provided for positioning one of the first X-ray detection surface and the second X-ray detection surface in an irradiation region of the X-ray beam irradiated from the X-ray generation unit. The X-ray imaging apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that:
  4. The X-ray generator is
    A first shaping unit for shaping X-rays emitted from the X-ray generation unit toward the X-ray detection unit into an X-ray cone beam;
    The X-ray detection unit is
    A first X-ray detection surface that receives the X-ray cone beam formed by the first forming means;
    The X-ray imaging apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising an imaging mode for performing X-ray CT imaging of a region of interest of a subject.
  5. The imaging mode for performing panoramic X-ray imaging by receiving the slit X-ray beam formed by the second forming means on the second X-ray detection surface is provided. X-ray imaging device.
  6.   While the X-ray detection surface is moved in the second direction by the first moving mechanism and offset forward or backward in the turning direction of the X-ray detection unit, a part of the region of interest is always projected. The X-ray imaging apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising an imaging mode that performs projection over the entire region of interest and performs X-ray CT imaging of the region of interest.
  7. An X-ray detection unit is provided that faces the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray generation unit and detects X-rays emitted from the X-ray generation unit, and is disposed between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit. An X-ray detector provided in an X-ray imaging apparatus in which the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit rotate around the rotation axis,
    The X-ray detector includes an X-ray detection surface,
    A first moving mechanism configured to move the X-ray detection surface in the X-ray detector in a first direction parallel to the axial direction of the pivot axis and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction; An X-ray detector characterized by that.
  8. An X-ray detection unit is provided that faces the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray generation unit and detects X-rays emitted from the X-ray generation unit, and is disposed between the X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit. The X-ray generation unit and the X-ray detection unit rotate around the swivel axis, and the X-ray detector mounting unit in the X-ray detection unit is orthogonal to a first direction parallel to the axial direction of the swivel axis. An X-ray detector provided in an X-ray imaging apparatus displaced in a second direction,
    The X-ray detector comprises an X-ray detection surface and a first moving mechanism for moving the X-ray detection surface in the X-ray detector in the first direction. vessel.
JP2005363611A 2005-12-16 2005-12-16 Radiographic equipment Pending JP2007159987A (en)

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JP2009115462A (en) * 2007-11-01 2009-05-28 Omron Corp Inspection method of solder electrode by x-ray tomographic image, and substrate inspecting device using this method
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