JP2007108190A - Photonic crystal and its manufacturing method - Google Patents

Photonic crystal and its manufacturing method Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2007108190A
JP2007108190A JP2004014252A JP2004014252A JP2007108190A JP 2007108190 A JP2007108190 A JP 2007108190A JP 2004014252 A JP2004014252 A JP 2004014252A JP 2004014252 A JP2004014252 A JP 2004014252A JP 2007108190 A JP2007108190 A JP 2007108190A
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Prior art keywords
photonic crystal
optical fiber
hollow
hollow optical
crystal according
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Japanese (ja)
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Masahiro Furuta
正寛 古田
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Nikon Corp
株式会社ニコン
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Priority to JP2004014252A priority Critical patent/JP2007108190A/en
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Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/10Light guides of the optical waveguide type
    • G02B6/12Light guides of the optical waveguide type of the integrated circuit kind
    • G02B6/122Basic optical elements, e.g. light-guiding paths
    • G02B6/1225Basic optical elements, e.g. light-guiding paths comprising photonic band-gap structures or photonic lattices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y20/00Nanooptics, e.g. quantum optics or photonic crystals
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/02Optical fibre with cladding with or without a coating
    • G02B6/02295Microstructured optical fibre
    • G02B6/02309Structures extending perpendicularly or at a large angle to the longitudinal axis of the fibre, e.g. photonic band gap along fibre axis
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/02Optical fibre with cladding with or without a coating
    • G02B6/02295Microstructured optical fibre
    • G02B6/02314Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes
    • G02B6/02319Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes characterised by core or core-cladding interface features
    • G02B6/02323Core having lower refractive index than cladding, e.g. photonic band gap guiding
    • G02B6/02328Hollow or gas filled core
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/02Optical fibre with cladding with or without a coating
    • G02B6/02295Microstructured optical fibre
    • G02B6/02314Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes
    • G02B6/02342Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes characterised by cladding features, i.e. light confining region
    • G02B6/02347Longitudinal structures arranged to form a regular periodic lattice, e.g. triangular, square, honeycomb unit cell repeated throughout cladding
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/02Optical fibre with cladding with or without a coating
    • G02B6/02295Microstructured optical fibre
    • G02B6/02314Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes
    • G02B6/02342Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes characterised by cladding features, i.e. light confining region
    • G02B6/02361Longitudinal structures forming multiple layers around the core, e.g. arranged in multiple rings with each ring having longitudinal elements at substantially the same radial distance from the core, having rotational symmetry about the fibre axis

Abstract

A method for easily producing a three-dimensional photonic crystal.
SOLUTION: A three-dimensional photonic crystal can be easily created by cutting or forming holes 4 at predetermined intervals in a hollow optical fiber 1 in which hollow holes 2 called photonic crystal fibers are regularly arranged. can do. In addition, by forming such a three-dimensional photonic crystal on the end face of the photonic crystal fiber, it is possible to easily manufacture an integrated spectroscopic element and fiber.
[Selection] Figure 7

Description

The present invention relates to a method for producing a photonic crystal used in an optical device such as an optical branching unit for optical communication or a WDM transceiver module.

A production method using a single-period structure mold for producing a single-period structure which is a conventional photonic crystal will be described.
Specifically, an uneven pattern is formed by pressing the substrate surface with a mold. Next, by anodizing the substrate having the uneven pattern in oxalic acid, the substrate becomes a metal oxide thin film having a periodic nanohole structure. In this way, a basic lattice of a photonic crystal is manufactured, and a groove that becomes a waveguide structure is formed by irradiating the metal oxide thin film with an ion beam, thereby manufacturing an optical waveguide using the photonic crystal. There is.

As another method for producing a basic lattice of a three-dimensional photonic crystal, there is a technique in which minute square bars are laminated like a cross beam.
However, these production methods have a problem that production takes time and labor, and the cost and labor for obtaining a three-dimensional photonic crystal are extremely large.

JP 2000-258650 A

In view of the above problems, an object of the present invention is to easily obtain an optical element using a three-dimensional photonic crystal.

The present invention has been made to solve the above problems.
A first invention is a photonic crystal characterized in that a plurality of cuts are provided at predetermined intervals in a hollow optical fiber in which hollow holes are regularly arranged.

A second invention is the photonic crystal according to the first invention, wherein the shape of the regularly arranged hollow holes is a square or a hexagon.
According to a third invention, in the photonic crystal of the first or second invention, when the interval between adjacent hollow holes in the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a, the period interval of the cuts is a / The photonic crystal is 2 to 2 × a.

  According to a fourth invention, in the photonic crystal according to any one of the first to third inventions, when the interval between adjacent hollow holes in the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a, the width of the region to be cut is a It is a photonic crystal characterized by being / 4 to a.

  According to a fifth invention, in the photonic crystal according to any one of the first to fourth inventions, the width of the region to be cut when a diameter of a hollow hole or a length of one side in a cross section of the hollow optical fiber is d. Is a photonic crystal characterized by d / 2 to 2 × d.

A sixth invention is the photonic crystal according to any one of the first to fifth inventions, wherein the refractive index of the material constituting the hollow optical fiber is n, the width of the cut region is b, and the region remaining after the cut The photonic crystal is characterized in that the value of b is n × c / 2 to 2 × n × c, where c is the width of.

  According to a seventh invention, in the photonic crystal of any one of the first to sixth inventions, the hollow hole and the cut region are filled with a material having a refractive index different from that of the material constituting the hollow optical fiber. It is a photonic crystal characterized by this.

An eighth invention is the photonic crystal according to the seventh invention, wherein the materials having different refractive indexes are liquid materials.
A ninth invention is the photonic crystal according to the eighth invention, wherein the liquid material is a material which is cured by heating or irradiation with light.

A tenth invention is the photonic crystal according to any one of the seventh to ninth inventions, wherein a refractive index of a material constituting the hollow optical fiber is n1, a refractive index of a material used for the embedding is n2, and the hollow optical fiber is used. When the width of the region to be cut is b and the width of the region remaining after the cut is c, the value of b is changed from (n1 × c) / (2 × n2) to (2 × n1 × c).
) / N2.

  An eleventh aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to any one of the first to sixth aspects, wherein a part of the hollow hole of the hollow optical fiber is made of a material having a refractive index equal to the refractive index of the material constituting the hollow optical fiber. It is a photonic crystal characterized by being embedded.

A twelfth invention is a photonic crystal according to any one of the first to eleventh inventions, wherein the hollow optical fiber has a polygonal outer periphery in cross section.
A thirteenth aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to the twelfth aspect of the present invention, wherein the outer periphery of the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a quadrangle or a hexagon.

A fourteenth invention is an optical element comprising the photonic crystal of any one of the first to thirteenth inventions.
A fifteenth invention is an optical fiber characterized in that the optical element having the photonic crystal of the fourteenth invention is provided on the end face of the hollow optical fiber.

  According to a sixteenth aspect of the present invention, in producing the photonic crystal according to any one of the first to fifteenth aspects, a step of applying a resist to a side surface of the hollow optical fiber, and a remaining on the side surface of the hollow optical fiber by an exposure device A method for producing a photonic crystal, comprising: a step of baking and developing a pattern of a region; and a step of etching a region into which a hollow optical fiber having a resist pattern formed on the side surface is cut by ion etching or ion milling. It is.

  In a seventeenth aspect of the present invention, in producing the photonic crystal according to any one of the first to fifteenth aspects, a step of cutting a side surface of the hollow optical fiber to form a flat surface, and applying a resist to the cut side surface of the hollow optical fiber A step of baking and developing a pattern of a region remaining on the side surface of the hollow optical fiber by an exposure apparatus; and a region of the hollow optical fiber having a resist pattern formed on the side surface is etched by ion etching or ion milling. This is a method for producing a photonic crystal, characterized by being produced by steps.

According to an eighteenth aspect of the present invention, in producing the photonic crystal according to any one of the first to fifteenth aspects, the side surface of the hollow optical fiber is irradiated with a focused ion beam narrowed to a desired size to produce a cut. Is a method of manufacturing a photonic crystal characterized in that it is manufactured by periodically repeating the above.

According to a nineteenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a photonic crystal characterized in that a plurality of holes are provided at a predetermined periodic interval from a side surface of a hollow optical fiber in which hollow holes are regularly arranged.
According to a twentieth aspect of the present invention, in the photonic crystal according to the nineteenth aspect of the present invention, the unit cell periodically formed by the hollow holes adjacent to the shortest in the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a triangle or a quadrangle. It is a nick crystal.

  A twenty-first aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to any one of the nineteenth and twentieth aspects, wherein the hollow holes regularly arranged in the hollow optical fiber have a square or hexagonal shape. It is a crystal.

  According to a twenty-second invention, in the photonic crystal according to any one of the nineteenth to twenty-first inventions, when the interval between adjacent hollow holes in the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a, the period in which the holes are formed is It is a photonic crystal characterized by a / 2 to 2 × a.

  According to a twenty-third aspect, in the photonic crystal according to any one of the nineteenth to twenty-second aspects, when the interval between adjacent hollow holes in the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a, the width in which the holes are formed is The photonic crystal is a / 4 to a.

A twenty-fourth aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to any one of the nineteenth to twenty-third aspects, wherein the diameter of the hole formed when the diameter of the hollow hole or the length of one side in the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is d. Alternatively, the photonic crystal is characterized in that the length of one side is d / 2 to 2 × d.

A twenty-fifth aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to any one of the nineteenth to twenty-fourth aspects, wherein n is a refractive index of a material constituting the hollow optical fiber, and b is a width or diameter of a region where holes are formed. When the width of the region remaining after the formation of the holes is c, the value of b is n × c /
The photonic crystal is 2 to 2 × n × c.

  According to a twenty-sixth aspect of the present invention, in the photonic crystal according to any one of the nineteenth to twenty-fifth aspects, the region in which the hollow hole and the hole are formed is filled with a material having a refractive index different from that of the material constituting the hollow optical fiber. This is a photonic crystal characterized by that.

A twenty-seventh aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to the twenty-sixth aspect of the present invention, wherein the material having a different refractive index is a liquid material.
A twenty-eighth aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to the twenty-seventh aspect, wherein the liquid material is a material that is cured by heating or irradiation with light.

A twenty-ninth aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to any of the twenty-sixth to twenty-eighth aspects, wherein the refractive index of the material constituting the hollow optical fiber is n1, the refractive index of the material used for embedding is n2, and the hollow optical fiber Where b is the diameter or width of the holes formed in, and c is the width of the region remaining after the hole formation, the value of b is from (n1 × c) / (2 × n2) to (2 × It is a photonic crystal characterized by n1 × c) / n2.

A thirtieth aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to any one of the nineteenth to twenty-fifth aspects, wherein a part of the hollow hole of the hollow optical fiber is made of a material having the same refractive index as that of the material constituting the hollow optical fiber. It is a photonic crystal characterized by being embedded.

  A thirty-first invention is the photonic crystal according to any one of the nineteenth to thirtieth inventions, wherein an outer periphery of a cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a polygon.

A thirty-second invention is the photonic crystal according to the thirty-first invention, wherein the outer periphery of the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a quadrangle or a hexagon.
A thirty-third invention is a photonic crystal according to any one of the nineteenth to thirty-second inventions, wherein a position of a hole to be formed intersects with the hollow hole.

  A thirty-fourth aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to any one of the nineteenth to thirty-third aspects, wherein the unit cell that is periodically formed by a hollow hole adjacent to the shortest in the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is square and formed. The photonic crystal is characterized in that holes are provided perpendicular to the hollow holes.

  A thirty-fifth aspect of the present invention is the photonic crystal according to the thirty-fourth aspect of the present invention, wherein holes are further provided so as to be perpendicular to the hollow hole of the hollow optical fiber and the formed hole, respectively. It is a nick crystal.

A thirty-sixth aspect of the invention is an optical element comprising the photonic crystal according to any of the nineteenth to thirty-fifth aspects of the invention.
A thirty-seventh invention is an optical fiber characterized in that an optical element having the photonic crystal of the thirty-fifth invention is provided on an end face of a hollow optical fiber.

  In a thirty-eighth aspect of the invention, in producing the photonic crystal of any of the nineteenth to thirty-seventh aspects, a resist is applied to the side surface of the hollow optical fiber, and a hole is formed in the side surface of the hollow optical fiber by an exposure device. A method for producing a photonic crystal, comprising: a step of baking and developing a pattern of a region not to be developed; and a step of etching a hollow optical fiber having a resist pattern formed on the side surface by ion etching or ion milling. is there.

  In a thirty-ninth aspect of the invention, in the production of the photonic crystal according to any of the nineteenth to thirty-seventh aspects, a step of cutting the side surface of the hollow optical fiber to form a flat surface, and applying a resist to the side surface of the hollow optical fiber that has been cut A step of baking and developing a pattern in a region where no hole is formed on the side surface of the hollow optical fiber by an exposure apparatus; a step of etching the hollow optical fiber having a resist pattern formed on the side surface by ion etching or ion milling; This is a method for producing a photonic crystal characterized by being produced by

In a fortyth aspect of the present invention, when producing the photonic crystal according to any of the nineteenth to thirty-seventh aspects, a side surface of the hollow optical fiber is irradiated with a focused ion beam focused to a desired size to provide a hole. This is a method for producing a photonic crystal, which is produced by repeating steps.

According to the present invention, there is an effect that a three-dimensional photonic crystal that has been extremely difficult to manufacture can be easily manufactured.
In addition, by providing the three-dimensional photonic crystal on the end face of the optical fiber, the conventional technique of connecting the spectroscopic element to the emission surface of the optical fiber for spectroscopic analysis can integrate the optical fiber and the three-dimensional photonic crystal. It is easy to use with a simple structure and can be easily manufactured.

  In this embodiment, a method for manufacturing a three-dimensional photonic crystal by photolithography will be described.

  In this embodiment, a so-called photonic crystal fiber having hollow holes 2 regularly formed therein is used as shown in FIG. 1A is a perspective view of a photonic crystal fiber, FIG. 1B is a cross-sectional view of the photonic crystal fiber, and FIG. 1C is a side view of the photonic crystal fiber. The photonic crystal fiber has four adjacent holes that are adjacent to each other in the shortest cross section, and forms a square when the apexes are connected. The pitch of the hollow holes 2 is 3.5 μm, the diameter of the hollow holes 2 is 2 μm, and the two holes are regularly arranged.

  A part of the side surface of the hollow optical fiber 1 is scraped to form a flat surface. The shaved photonic crystal fiber is shown in FIG. FIG. 2A is a perspective view of a photonic crystal fiber with a part of its side cut off, FIG. 2B is a cross-sectional view, and FIG. 2C is a side view. A resist is applied on the formed plane.

  A desired pattern is printed on the photonic crystal fiber coated with resist by an exposure apparatus. By performing development thereafter, the photonic crystal fiber is formed with a resist layer 3 having a width of 1.5 μm and a resist layer 3 having a width of 2 μm as shown in FIG. A periodic pattern is formed.

Thereafter, dry etching of the photonic crystal fiber on which the resist pattern is formed is performed. Dry etching is performed by reactive ion etching (RIE). Specifically, after the photonic crystal fiber on which the photoresist pattern is formed is installed in a vacuum chamber so as to support the side surfaces from both sides, the chamber is evacuated by a vacuum pump. The pressure inside the chamber at this time is 1 × 10 −3 Pa or less. Thereafter, CF 4 is introduced into the chamber, and an electric field is applied to the cathode to generate plasma. In the plasma, CF 4 is separated, fluorine and the like are generated, and a region where the resist layer 3 of the photonic crystal fiber is not formed is etched by the separated particles. The pressure inside the chamber at this time is about 1 Pa. Note that the region where the photoresist pattern is formed and the portion that supports the side surfaces of the photonic crystal fiber from both sides are not exposed to plasma and are not etched. By this process, a three-dimensional photonic crystal can be created.

The three-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by this process is shown in FIG. FIG. 4A is a cross-sectional view of the obtained three-dimensional photonic crystal, and FIG. 4B is a side view. This is a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a period of 3.5 μm, in which the glass part having a refractive index of 1.4 constituting the photonic crystal fiber is 1.5 μm and the hollow part 4 having a refractive index of 1 is 2 μm. It can be used for an element.

The photonic crystal thus obtained can be used by immersing it in a liquid such as oil having a high refractive index. In this case, unlike the case of air, the space portion needs to be narrowed in consideration of the refractive index.

Moreover, even if it has a high refractive index, inconvenience may occur in the case of using it. In such a case, a high refractive index ultraviolet curable material is used, and after being immersed in this, it is hardened by irradiating with ultraviolet rays. This makes it easier to use.

Incidentally, by forming this three-dimensional photonic crystal on the end face of the photonic crystal fiber, it becomes possible to perform spectroscopy on the end face of the photonic crystal fiber.

In addition, the hollow two portions of the photonic crystal fiber are embedded with a material having the same refractive index as the material constituting the fiber, and the three-dimensional photonic crystal can be used by leaving the portion to be used as an optical waveguide. .

In this embodiment, a method for manufacturing a three-dimensional photonic crystal by lithography will be described.
In this embodiment, a photonic crystal fiber shown in FIG. 1 in which hollow holes 2 are regularly formed is used. The photonic crystal fiber has four adjacent holes that are adjacent to each other in the shortest cross section, and forms a square when the apexes are connected. The pitch of the hollow holes 2 is 3.5 μm, the diameter of the hollow holes 2 is 2 μm, and the two holes are regularly arranged.

As shown in FIG. 6 (a), the hollow optical fiber 1 is processed and formed so that the side surface is cut off and the outer shape of the cross section becomes a square.
The resist is applied to all the surfaces of the side surfaces of the photonic crystal fiber whose side surfaces have been removed in this way. A desired pattern is printed on one surface of the photonic crystal fiber coated with resist by an exposure apparatus.

  Thereafter, development is performed to form a resist pattern having a region in which a 2 μm square resist layer is not formed at a period of 3.5 μm in length and width on the side surface of the photonic crystal fiber. The region where the resist layer is not formed is aligned so as to penetrate through the two hollow portions of the photonic crystal fiber.

Thereafter, dry etching of the photonic crystal fiber on which the resist pattern is formed is performed. Dry etching is performed by reactive ion etching (RIE). Specifically, after a photonic crystal fiber on which a photoresist pattern is formed is placed in a vacuum chamber, the chamber is evacuated by a vacuum pump. The pressure inside the chamber at this time is 1 × 10 −3 Pa or less. Thereafter, CF 4 is introduced into the chamber, and an electric field is applied to the cathode to generate plasma. In the plasma, CF 4 is separated to generate a fluorine component, and the region where no resist pattern is formed is etched by the generated particles. The pressure inside the chamber at this time is about 1 Pa. By this etching, holes 5 are provided so that the two hollow portions of the photonic crystal fiber penetrate.

Note that the region where the photoresist pattern is formed is not exposed to plasma and is not etched. After that, the photoresist is removed as shown in FIG.
Shown in b).

Thereafter, the photoresist is again applied to the entire side surface of the photonic crystal fiber provided with the holes 5 from the cross section. A pattern similar to the previous pattern is baked on the surface where the holes 5 are not provided (the upper surface in FIG. 6C) by applying this photoresist. In this case as well, the resist pattern is baked so as to be etched through the two hollow portions and the holes 5 of the photonic crystal fiber.

Thereafter, development is performed to form a pattern having a region in which a 2 μm square resist layer is not formed with a period of 3.5 μm in length and width on the side surface of the photonic crystal fiber.
This surface is similarly etched by reactive ion etching to provide holes 6. Etching is performed until the holes 6 penetrate the opposite surface. The three-dimensional photonic crystal thus completed is shown in FIG.

When etching the photonic crystal fiber, the holes 6 are provided so as to penetrate through the two hollow portions, so that the amount to be etched is relatively small.
By this process, a three-dimensional photonic crystal is formed so as to intersect two hollow portions of the photonic crystal fiber.

The three-dimensional photonic crystal obtained by this process is a three-dimensional 3.5 μm period in which the glass part of refractive index 1.4 constituting the photonic crystal fiber is 1.5 μm and the space where the refractive index is 1 is 2 μm. It is a photonic crystal and can be used for various optical elements.

It is also possible to immerse the photonic crystal thus obtained in a liquid such as oil having a high refractive index. In this case, unlike the case of air, the space portion needs to be narrowed by considering the refractive index.

In addition, even if the refractive index is high, there may be a problem with the liquid in use. In such a case, an ultraviolet curable material having a high refractive index is used, soaked in this, and then irradiated with ultraviolet rays. It becomes easy to use by hardening.

Incidentally, by forming this three-dimensional photonic crystal on the end face of the photonic crystal fiber, it becomes possible to perform spectroscopy on the end face of the photonic crystal fiber.

In addition, it is possible to use the remaining portion of the photonic fiber as a base by cutting away a part of the side surface of the photonic fiber. FIG. 5 shows a conceptual diagram of the structure in this case. FIG. 5A is a cross-sectional view, and FIG. 5B shows a side view. At this time, this portion does not need to be dry etched until it penetrates.

In this embodiment, a method for manufacturing a three-dimensional photonic crystal using a focused ion beam processing apparatus will be described.
In this embodiment, an optical fiber called a photonic crystal fiber as shown in FIG. 1 in which hollow holes 2 are regularly formed is used. The photonic crystal fiber has four adjacent holes that are adjacent to each other in the shortest cross section, and forms a square when the apexes are connected. The pitch of the hollow holes 2 is 3.5 μm, the diameter of the hollow holes 2 is 2 μm, and the two holes are regularly arranged.

  A focused ion beam is irradiated from the side in a vertical direction so that the hollow hole 2 portion of the photonic crystal fiber penetrates. Holes 5 are provided from the side surface of the photonic crystal fiber portion by the focused ion beam.

  Specifically, the apparatus for providing the holes 5 in the photonic crystal fiber is a focused ion beam processing apparatus provided with an ECR ion source inside a vacuum chamber, and oxygen ions or gallium ions are generated from the generated ion source. It is generated and etching is performed with these ions.

A photonic crystal fiber is installed inside the chamber of the focused ion beam processing apparatus, and the surface to be processed is set facing the ion source. Thereafter, the inside of the chamber is evacuated to a pressure of 1 × 10 −3 Pa or less by a vacuum pump.

  After that, alignment is performed so that the adjacent hollow holes 2 of the photonic crystal fiber are connected from the side surface by the irradiated ion beam, and then the ion beam is irradiated to form a 2 μm square hole 5.

  Similarly, the process of providing the holes 5 by this focused ion beam is performed two-dimensionally in a vertical and horizontal direction so as to penetrate through the two hollow portions of the photonic crystal fiber at a period of 3.5 microns, as shown in FIG. A structure is formed.

  Thereafter, the photonic crystal fiber is further irradiated with a focused ion beam on the side surface where the holes 5 are not provided to open the holes 6. At this time, the focused ion beam is irradiated so as to be perpendicular to the hollow two portions of the photonic crystal fiber and the holes 5 provided earlier.

By repeating this process, a three-dimensional hole is provided as shown in FIG. 6D, and a three-dimensional photonic crystal is formed.
This three-dimensional photonic crystal has a refractive index of 1.4 that constitutes a photonic crystal fiber, and a refractive index of 1 for hollow and hole portions, and can be used for various optical elements.

It is also possible to immerse the photonic crystal thus obtained in a liquid such as oil having a high refractive index. In this case, unlike the case of air, the spatial region needs to be narrowed by considering the refractive index.

  Also, liquids such as oil with a high refractive index may cause inconvenience in use. In such a case, after immersion in an ultraviolet curable material with a high refractive index, it can be used by irradiating it with ultraviolet rays and solidifying it. It becomes easy.

Incidentally, by forming this three-dimensional photonic crystal on the end face of the photonic crystal fiber, it is possible to perform spectroscopy on the end face of the photonic crystal fiber.

These are the block diagrams of the photonic crystal fiber used for this invention. These show the stage in the middle of the process of producing the three-dimensional photonic crystal concerning the present invention, and are the figures which showed the state where a part of surface was shaved off. These show the stage in the middle of the process of producing the three-dimensional photonic crystal concerning the present invention, and are the figures showing the state where the photoresist pattern was formed in the cut surface. These are the figures which showed the three-dimensional photonic crystal produced by the 1st Example of this invention, and showed an example of the three-dimensional photonic crystal based on this invention. These are figures which showed an example of the three-dimensional photonic crystal produced by the 2nd or 3rd Example of this invention. These are figures which showed an example of the three-dimensional photonic crystal produced by the 2nd or 3rd Example of this invention, and its production process. These are the side views of the photonic crystal optical fiber which provided the three-dimensional photonic crystal in the end surface of the hollow optical fiber in 1st Example of this invention.

Explanation of symbols

1 Hollow optical fiber 2 Hollow hole (hollow)
3 resist layer 4 hole 5 hole 6 hole

Claims (40)

  1. A photonic crystal characterized in that a plurality of cuts are provided at predetermined intervals in a hollow optical fiber in which hollow holes are regularly arranged.
  2. 2. The photonic crystal according to claim 1, wherein the shape of the regularly arranged hollow holes is a square or a hexagon.
  3. 3. The photonic crystal according to claim 1, wherein when the interval between adjacent hollow holes in the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a, the incision period interval is a / 2 to 2 × a. A photonic crystal characterized by
  4. 4. The photonic crystal according to claim 1, wherein when the interval between adjacent hollow holes in the cross-section of the hollow optical fiber is a, the width of the cut region is a / 4 to a. A photonic crystal characterized by
  5. 5. The photonic crystal according to claim 1, wherein a width of the cut region is d / when a diameter of a hollow hole or a length of one side in a cross section of the hollow optical fiber is d. A photonic crystal characterized by being 2 to 2 × d.
  6. 6. The photonic crystal according to claim 1, wherein a refractive index of a material constituting the hollow optical fiber is n, a width of a region to be cut is b, and a width of a region remaining by the cutting is c. In this case, the photonic crystal is characterized in that the value of b is from n × c / 2 to 2 × n × c.
  7. The photonic crystal according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the hollow hole and the cut region are filled with a material having a refractive index different from that of the material constituting the hollow optical fiber. Photonic crystal.
  8. 8. The photonic crystal according to claim 7, wherein the materials having different refractive indexes are liquid materials.
  9. 9. The photonic crystal according to claim 8, wherein the liquid material is a material that is cured by heating or irradiation with light.
  10. 10. The photonic crystal according to claim 7, wherein a refractive index of a material constituting the hollow optical fiber is n1, a refractive index of a material used for the embedding is n2, and the hollow optical fiber is cut. The value of b is (n1 × c) / (2 × n2) to (2 × n1 × c) / n2 where b is the width of the region and c is the width of the region remaining after cutting. Photonic crystal characterized by
  11. 7. The photonic crystal according to claim 1, wherein a part of a hollow hole of the hollow optical fiber is embedded with a material having a refractive index equal to a refractive index of a material constituting the hollow optical fiber. A photonic crystal characterized by
  12. 12. The photonic crystal according to claim 1, wherein an outer periphery of a cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a polygon.
  13. 13. The photonic crystal according to claim 12, wherein an outer periphery of a cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a quadrangle or a hexagon.
  14. An optical element comprising any one of the photonic crystals according to claim 1.
  15. An optical fiber, wherein the optical element having the photonic crystal according to claim 14 is provided on an end face of a hollow optical fiber.
  16. In producing the photonic crystal according to any one of claims 1 to 15,
    Applying a resist to a side surface of the hollow optical fiber;
    A step of baking and developing a pattern of a region remaining by cutting on a side surface of the hollow optical fiber by an exposure device;
    Etching a region into which a hollow optical fiber having a resist pattern formed on the side surface is cut by ion etching or ion milling;
    A method for producing a photonic crystal, which is produced by the method described above.
  17. In producing the photonic crystal according to any one of claims 1 to 15,
    Scraping a side surface of the hollow optical fiber to form a flat surface;
    Applying a resist to the shaved side of the hollow optical fiber;
    A step of baking and developing a pattern of a region remaining by cutting on a side surface of the hollow optical fiber by an exposure device;
    Etching a region into which a hollow optical fiber having a resist pattern formed on the side surface is cut by ion etching or ion milling;
    A method for producing a photonic crystal, which is produced by the method described above.
  18. In producing the photonic crystal according to any one of claims 1 to 15,
    A method for producing a photonic crystal, which is produced by periodically repeating a step of producing a cut by irradiating a side surface of the hollow optical fiber with a focused ion beam narrowed to a desired size.
  19. A photonic crystal characterized in that a plurality of holes are provided at predetermined intervals from the side surface of a hollow optical fiber in which hollow holes are regularly arranged.
  20. 20. The photonic crystal according to claim 19, wherein a unit cell periodically formed by a hollow hole adjacent to the shortest in a cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a triangle or a quadrangle.
  21. 21. The photonic crystal according to claim 19, wherein the shape of the hollow holes regularly arranged in the hollow optical fiber is a square or a hexagon.
  22. The photonic crystal according to any one of claims 19 to 21, wherein a period in which the holes are formed is from a / 2, where a is a distance between adjacent hollow holes in a cross section of the hollow optical fiber. A photonic crystal characterized by being 2 × a.
  23. 23. The photonic crystal according to any one of claims 19 to 22, wherein when the interval between adjacent hollow holes in the cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a, the width in which the holes are formed is from a / 4. A photonic crystal, which is a.
  24. 24. The photonic crystal according to any one of claims 19 to 23, wherein a diameter of a hollow hole or a length of one side is defined as d when a diameter or a side length of a hollow hole in a cross section of the hollow optical fiber is d. Is a photonic crystal characterized by being d / 2 to 2 × d.
  25. 25. The photonic crystal according to any one of claims 19 to 24, wherein n is a refractive index of a material constituting the hollow optical fiber, b is a width or diameter of a region where a hole is formed, and When the width of the remaining region is c, the value of b is changed from n × c / 2 to 2 ×
    A photonic crystal characterized by being n × c.
  26. The photonic crystal according to any one of claims 19 to 25, wherein a region in which the hollow hole and the hole are formed is filled with a material having a refractive index different from a refractive index of a material constituting the hollow optical fiber. A photonic crystal.
  27. 27. The photonic crystal according to claim 26, wherein the material having a different refractive index is a liquid material.
  28. 28. The photonic crystal according to claim 27, wherein the liquid material is a material that is cured by heating or irradiation with light.
  29. 29. The photonic crystal according to any one of claims 26 to 28, wherein a refractive index of a material constituting the hollow optical fiber is n1, and a refractive index of a material used for the embedding is n2, and the hollow optical fiber is formed. When the diameter or width of the hole is b and the width of the region remaining after the hole formation is c, the value of b is changed from (n1 × c) / (2 × n2) to (2 × n1).
    Xc) / n2.
  30. 26. The photonic crystal according to claim 19, wherein a part of a hollow hole of the hollow optical fiber is embedded with a material having a refractive index equal to a refractive index of a material constituting the hollow optical fiber. A photonic crystal characterized by
  31. 31. The photonic crystal according to claim 19, wherein an outer periphery of a cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a polygon.
  32. 32. The photonic crystal according to claim 31, wherein an outer periphery of a cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a quadrangle or a hexagon.
  33. 33. The photonic crystal according to any one of claims 19 to 32, wherein a position of a hole to be formed intersects with the hollow hole.
  34. 34. The photonic crystal according to any one of claims 19 to 33, wherein a unit cell periodically formed by a hollow hole adjacent to the shortest in a cross section of the hollow optical fiber is a quadrangle, and the formed void is the square A photonic crystal characterized by being provided perpendicular to the hollow hole.
  35. 35. The photonic crystal according to claim 34, wherein holes are further provided so as to be perpendicular to the hollow hole of the hollow optical fiber and the formed hole, respectively.
  36. 36. An optical element comprising the photonic crystal according to any one of claims 19 to 35.
  37. 36. An optical fiber, wherein the optical element having the photonic crystal according to claim 35 is provided on an end face of a hollow optical fiber.
  38. In producing the photonic crystal according to any one of claims 19 to 37, a step of applying a resist to a side surface of the hollow optical fiber;
    A step of printing and developing a pattern of a region where no hole is formed on a side surface of the hollow optical fiber by an exposure device;
    Etching the hollow optical fiber having a resist pattern formed on the side surface by ion etching and ion milling;
    A method for producing a photonic crystal, which is produced by the method described above.
  39. In producing a photonic crystal according to any one of claims 19 to 37, a step of cutting a side surface of the hollow optical fiber to form a plane;
    Applying a resist to the shaved side of the hollow optical fiber;
    A step of printing and developing a pattern of a region where no hole is formed on a side surface of the hollow optical fiber by an exposure device;
    Etching the hollow optical fiber having a resist pattern formed on the side surface by ion etching and ion milling;
    A method for producing a photonic crystal, which is produced by the method described above.
  40. 38. When producing any one of the photonic crystals according to claim 19 to 37, the step of irradiating the side surface of the hollow optical fiber with a focused ion beam narrowed to a desired size and providing a hole is repeated. A method for producing a photonic crystal, which is produced by the method described above.
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US9823415B2 (en) 2012-09-16 2017-11-21 CRTRIX Technologies Energy conversion cells using tapered waveguide spectral splitters
US9952388B2 (en) * 2012-09-16 2018-04-24 Shalom Wertsberger Nano-scale continuous resonance trap refractor based splitter, combiner, and reflector

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US9823415B2 (en) 2012-09-16 2017-11-21 CRTRIX Technologies Energy conversion cells using tapered waveguide spectral splitters
US9952388B2 (en) * 2012-09-16 2018-04-24 Shalom Wertsberger Nano-scale continuous resonance trap refractor based splitter, combiner, and reflector

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