JP2007035737A - Wafer holder, and wafer prober provided with wafer holder - Google Patents

Wafer holder, and wafer prober provided with wafer holder Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2007035737A
JP2007035737A JP2005213753A JP2005213753A JP2007035737A JP 2007035737 A JP2007035737 A JP 2007035737A JP 2005213753 A JP2005213753 A JP 2005213753A JP 2005213753 A JP2005213753 A JP 2005213753A JP 2007035737 A JP2007035737 A JP 2007035737A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
chuck top
wafer
support
wafer holder
contact surface
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JP2005213753A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Tomoyuki Awazu
Katsuhiro Itakura
Hirohiko Nakada
Kenji Niima
博彦 仲田
健司 新間
克裕 板倉
知之 粟津
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Sumitomo Electric Ind Ltd
住友電気工業株式会社
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Priority to JP2005213753A priority Critical patent/JP2007035737A/en
Priority claimed from TW095126977A external-priority patent/TW200721363A/en
Publication of JP2007035737A publication Critical patent/JP2007035737A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a wafer holder for a wafer prober capable of preventing deformation even when a high load is applied, effectively preventing poor contact with a wafer, and further preventing temperature rise of a drive system of the wafer holder. .
In a wafer holder 1 comprising a chuck top 2 and a support 4, a thickness variation between the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top 2 and a contact surface with the support 4 and a chuck from the bottom of the support 4 are achieved. Both thickness variations up to the contact surface with the top 2 are set to 50 μm or less. In the structure in which the support 4 is divided into the circular pipe part 42 and the pedestal part 41, the thickness variation between the contact surface of the circular pipe part 42 with the chuck top 2 and the contact surface with the pedestal part 41, and the pedestal part 41. The thickness variation from the bottom surface to the contact surface with the circular tube portion 42 is 25 μm or less.
[Selection] Figure 2

Description

  The present invention relates to a wafer holder used in a wafer prober for inspecting electrical characteristics of a wafer, and a wafer prober on which the wafer holder is mounted.

  Conventionally, in a semiconductor inspection process, a heat treatment (burn-in) has been performed on a semiconductor substrate (wafer) that is an object to be processed. In other words, by heating the wafer to a temperature higher than the normal use temperature, semiconductor chips that may become defective are accelerated and removed to prevent the occurrence of defects after shipment. It was. In this burn-in process, after forming a semiconductor circuit on a semiconductor wafer and before cutting into individual chips, the electrical performance of each chip is measured while heating the wafer to remove defective products.

  In such a burn-in process, a chuck top incorporating a heater for heating the wafer is used. Further, the conventional chuck top is made of metal because the entire back surface of the wafer needs to be in contact with the ground electrode. Then, the wafer is placed on a metal chuck top, and a probe card having a large number of electrode pins for energization is pressed against the wafer while being heated by a built-in heater, and the electrical characteristics of the wafer are inspected. At that time, the operation of moving the wafer holder on which the chuck top is mounted to a predetermined position by the drive system and pressing the wafer against the probe card is repeated. In this burn-in process, reduction of process time is strongly demanded in order to improve throughput.

  However, as described above, the wafer placed on the chuck top is pressed against the probe card with a strong force of several tens of kgf to several hundred kgf. In some cases, contact failure may occur. Therefore, a conventional metal chuck top needs to use a thick metal plate having a thickness of 15 mm or more in order to maintain the rigidity of the chuck top and the wafer holder. As a result, it takes a long time to raise and lower the temperature of the heater built in the chuck top, which is a major obstacle to improving the throughput.

In order to solve this problem, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2001-033484 discloses that a thin metal conductor layer is formed on the surface of a ceramic substrate that is thin but has high rigidity and is difficult to deform, instead of a thick metal plate. A wafer prober has been proposed. The chuck top with a metal conductor layer formed on the surface of this ceramic substrate has high rigidity and is not easily deformed. Therefore, contact failure is not caused, and since the heat capacity is small, the temperature can be raised and lowered in a short time. ing. In addition, it is described that an aluminum alloy, stainless steel, or the like is used as a support for installing the chuck top.
JP 2001-033484 A

  The wafer prober described in JP-A-2001-033484 has a high rigidity and is difficult to be deformed because it uses a ceramic substrate. However, in recent years, with the miniaturization of semiconductor devices, the load per unit area at the time of measurement has increased, so deformation at the time of measurement cannot be sufficiently suppressed, and contact failure cannot be completely prevented It has become.

  Further, with the miniaturization of semiconductor devices, high accuracy is required for alignment between a wafer placed on a wafer prober and a probe card. However, when the wafer is heated to a predetermined temperature, for example, about 100 to 200 ° C., the heat is transmitted to the drive system for moving the wafer holder, and the metal parts of the drive system are thermally expanded, thereby improving the position accuracy. The phenomenon that is damaged is occurring. Due to this, a contact failure is likely to occur in the inspection of a semiconductor wafer having a particularly fine circuit.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above-described conventional circumstances, and an object of the present invention is to provide a wafer holder in which deformation of a chuck top is small even when a high load is applied, and contact failure with a wafer can be effectively prevented. Also provided is a wafer holder for a wafer prober that can prevent a temperature rise of a drive system of the wafer holder when a semiconductor wafer having a fine circuit requiring high accuracy is placed on the chuck top and heated. The purpose is to do.

  In order to achieve the above object, a wafer holder provided by the present invention includes a chuck top for placing and fixing a wafer on a wafer placement surface, and a support for supporting the chuck top. The thickness variation between the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top and the contact surface with the support is 50 μm or less, and the thickness variation between the bottom surface of the support and the contact surface with the chuck top is 50 μm or less. It is characterized by this.

  One of the preferable wafer holders in the present invention has a structure in which the support is divided into a circular tube portion and a pedestal portion, and the pedestal portion from the contact surface with the chuck top of the circular tube portion. The variation in thickness between the contact surface and the contact surface with the circular tube portion is 25 μm or less. Moreover, it is more preferable that all the thickness variations are 10 μm or less.

  In addition, the present invention provides a heater unit for a wafer prober comprising any one of the wafer holders according to the present invention, and a wafer prober comprising the heater unit. .

  According to the present invention, a wafer holder for a wafer prober having a chuck top for mounting / fixing a wafer and a support for supporting the chuck top is high in measuring the electrical performance of the wafer in the burn-in process. Even when a load is applied, deformation of the chuck top is small, and poor contact with the wafer can be effectively prevented. In addition, when measuring a semiconductor wafer having a fine circuit that requires particularly high accuracy, when the wafer is placed on the chuck top and heated, the temperature of the drive system of the wafer holder is prevented from rising. And the positional accuracy of the probe card can be increased.

  One basic example of the wafer holder according to the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. A wafer holder 1 for a wafer prober according to the present invention includes a chuck top 2 having a chuck top conductor layer 3 and a support 4 that supports the chuck top 2. The surface of the chuck top conductor layer 3 is a wafer mounting surface for mounting and fixing a wafer on the chuck top 2. Further, the support 4 of the wafer holder 1 is mounted on a drive system (not shown) for moving the entire wafer holder 1 for a wafer prober.

  In the wafer holder 1 of the present invention, the thickness variation from the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top 2 (the surface of the chuck top conductor layer 3) to the contact surface with the support 4 is 50 μm or less, and the support 4 The thickness variation between the bottom surface and the contact surface with the chuck top 2 is set to 50 μm or less. By controlling the thickness variation of the chuck top 2 and the support 4 as described above, it is possible to effectively suppress deformation and rattling of the chuck top 2 when a load is applied with a probe card at the time of measurement. It is possible to prevent poor contact.

  The thickness of the chuck top 2 (excluding the thickness of the chuck top conductor layer 3) is preferably 8 mm or more. When the thickness of the chuck top is less than 8 mm, when a load is applied at the time of inspection, the deformation of the chuck top is increased, a contact failure occurs, and the wafer may be further damaged. It is more preferable that the thickness of the chuck top is 10 mm or more because the probability of contact failure can be further reduced.

  As another specific example of the wafer holder 1 according to the present invention, as shown in FIG. 2, the support 4 can be divided into a base portion 41 and a circular tube portion 42. In the wafer holder 1 having this structure, as shown in FIGS. 2 to 3, most of the volume of the support 4 is occupied by the gap 5, and the contact interface between the pedestal portion 41 and the circular tube portion 42 is heated. Acts as a resistor. Therefore, in addition to suppressing the deformation and rattling of the chuck top 2 described above, the amount of heat transferred from the chuck top 2 to the drive system (not shown) of the wafer holder 1 through the support 4 is reduced, and the temperature of the drive system rises. Can be prevented.

  As described above, when the support 4 includes the circular pipe portion 42, the thickness of the circular pipe portion 42 is preferably 20 mm or less. This is because if the thickness exceeds 20 mm, the amount of heat transferred from the chuck top 2 to the drive system of the wafer holder 1 through the support 4 increases. However, if the thickness of the circular pipe portion 42 is less than 1 mm, the support 4 is likely to be deformed and damaged by the load of the probe card. Moreover, it is preferable that the height of the circular pipe part 42 is 10 mm or more. This is because if the height is less than 10 mm, the amount of heat transferred from the chuck top 2 to the drive system of the wafer holder 4 through the support 4 increases. Furthermore, the thickness of the pedestal portion 41 is preferably 10 mm or more. If the thickness is less than 10 mm, the support 4 itself may be deformed or damaged by the load of the probe card, which is not preferable.

  As shown in FIG. 2, in the wafer holder 1 having a structure in which the support body 4 includes the circular pipe portion 42, the circular pipe portion 42 is formed in order to maintain the rigidity of the support body 4 and suppress the deformation of the chuck top 2. The thickness variation between the contact surface with the chuck top 2 and the contact surface with the pedestal portion 41 is 25 μm or less, and the thickness variation between the bottom surface of the pedestal portion 41 and the contact surface with the circular tube portion 42 is 25 μm or less. And In this case as well, as in the case of FIG. 1, the thickness variation from the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top 2 to the contact surface with the support 4 needs to be 50 μm or less.

  Furthermore, if all the thickness variations described above are 10 μm or less, the deformation and shakiness of the chuck top can be further reduced. That is, in the wafer holder 1 in FIG. 1, the thickness variation between the wafer placement surface of the chuck top 2 and the contact surface with the support 4, and from the bottom surface of the support 4 to the contact surface with the chuck top 2. It is preferable that the thickness variation between each of these is 10 μm or less. In addition to this, in the wafer holder 1 of FIG. 2, the thickness variation between the contact surface of the circular tube portion 42 with the chuck top 2 and the contact surface with the pedestal portion 41, and the bottom surface of the pedestal portion 41. It is preferable that the thickness variation from the surface to the contact surface with the circular tube portion 42 is 10 μm or less.

  In the semiconductor inspection process, it may not be necessary to heat the wafer mounted and fixed on the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top, but in recent years, heating to about 100 to 200 ° C. is often required. Therefore, it is preferable that the wafer holder of the present invention also includes a heating element 6 as shown in FIG. 4 or FIG. That is, when the support 4 is not in the shape of a circular tube, for example, as shown in FIG. 4, a thin gap 51 is provided on the contact surface of the support 4 with the chuck top 2, and the heating element 6 fixed to the chuck top 2. May be stored in the gap 51. Further, when the support 4 has a circular tube shape, the heating element 6 fixed to the chuck top 2 is accommodated in the gap 5 of the annular portion 42 of the support 4 as shown in FIG.

  As the heating element 6, as shown in FIG. 6, a structure in which a resistance heating element 61 is sandwiched between insulators 62 is preferable because of its simple structure. A metal material can be used for the resistance heating element. For example, nickel, stainless steel, silver, tungsten, molybdenum, chromium, and alloys of these metals can be used, and stainless steel or nichrome is particularly preferable. When stainless steel and nichrome are processed from the metal foil into the shape of the heating element, the resistance heating element circuit pattern can be formed with relatively high accuracy by a technique such as etching. Further, since it is inexpensive and has oxidation resistance, there is an advantage that it can be used for a long period of time even if the use temperature is high.

  The insulator that sandwiches the resistance heating element is not particularly limited as long as it has heat resistance. For example, mica, silicon resin, epoxy resin, phenol resin, or the like can be used. When the insulator is a resin, a filler can be dispersed in the resin for the purpose of increasing the thermal conductivity of the insulator. The filler material is not particularly limited as long as there is no reactivity with the resin, and examples thereof include boron nitride, aluminum nitride, alumina, and silica.

  As a method of forming the heating element or resistance heating element, in addition to the above-described etching of the metal foil, for example, an insulator layer is formed on the surface opposite to the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top by a technique such as spraying or screen printing. There is a method of forming a heating element by forming a resistance heating element layer in a predetermined pattern by a method such as screen printing or vapor deposition. The heating element made of metal foil can be fixed to the chuck top by a mechanical method such as screwing.

  Note that when the chuck top is heated by a heating element to inspect the wafer at 200 ° C., for example, the temperature of the bottom surface of the support of the wafer holder is preferably 100 ° C. or less. This is because if the temperature of the bottom surface of the support exceeds 100 ° C., contact failure occurs due to thermal expansion of the drive system of the wafer holder. Furthermore, when the inspection is performed at room temperature after the inspection at 200 ° C., it takes a long time for cooling, which leads to a deterioration in throughput.

  FIG. 7 is an enlarged view of an example of the vicinity of the power feeding portion to the heating element for the wafer holder in the case where the support is composed of a circular tube portion and a base portion. A through hole 44 is formed in the circular pipe portion 42 of the support 4, and it is possible to insert the electrode wire 7 for supplying power to the heating element 6 or the electrode wire of the electromagnetic shield into the through hole 44. Is preferable because it becomes simple. In this case, the formation position of the through hole 44 is preferably close to the inner peripheral surface of the circular pipe portion 42 because a decrease in strength of the circular pipe portion 42 can be suppressed to a minimum. In the drawings other than FIG. 7, electrode wires and through holes are omitted for simplification.

  In the wafer holder of the present invention, when the support body is composed of a circular pipe part and a pedestal part, the support body may include a plurality of columnar bodies together with the circular pipe part. For example, as shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, a plurality of columnar bodies 43 are arranged between the chuck top 2 and the circular pipe portion 42, and these columnar bodies are combined with the circular pipe portion 42 to form the support body 4. This is preferable because the amount of heat transmitted to the drive system of the wafer holder 4 can be further reduced without increasing the deformation of the support 4 and the chuck top 2.

  Further, when the support body is composed of a circular pipe part and a pedestal part, it is preferable that a support bar 8 is provided near the center part of the circular pipe part 42 of the support body as shown in FIG. The support bar 8 can further suppress deformation of the chuck top when a load is applied by the probe card. The material of the support rod is preferably the same as the material of the circular pipe portion. When the circular tube portion and the support rod are thermally expanded by heat from the heating element, if the materials of the two are different, a step is generated between the circular tube portion and the support rod due to a difference in thermal expansion coefficient.

The support rod preferably has a cross-sectional area of 0.1 to 100 cm 2 . If the cross-sectional area is less than 0.1 cm 2 , the support effect is not sufficient, and the support bar is easily deformed. Moreover, it is not preferable that the cross-sectional area of the support rod exceeds 100 cm 2 because the amount of heat transmitted to the drive system increases. The cross-sectional shape of the support rod is not particularly limited, and may be a cylindrical shape, a triangular prism, a quadrangular prism, or the like. Examples of the method for fixing the support rod to the support include brazing with an active metal, glassing, and screwing, but screwing is particularly preferable. This is because by screwing the support bar to the pedestal portion, it becomes easy to attach and detach, and further, since it is not necessary to perform heat treatment at the time of fixing, deformation due to heat treatment of the support and the support bar can be suppressed.

  In the wafer holder of the present invention, the Young's modulus of the support is preferably 200 GPa or more. By setting the Young's modulus of the support to 200 GPa or more, the deformation of the support can be reduced, so that the chuck top mounted thereon can be supported and the deformation can be effectively suppressed. The thermal conductivity of the support is preferably 40 W / mK or less. By setting the thermal conductivity of the support to 40 W / mK or less, the amount of heat transferred from the chuck top to the drive system of the wafer holder through the support can be further reduced, and the temperature rise of the drive system can be effectively prevented. is there.

  Various ceramic materials can be used as the material for the support having the above Young's modulus and thermal conductivity. Among them, the material for the support is preferably mullite, alumina, or mullite-alumina composite material in consideration of workability and cost.

  On the other hand, the Young's modulus of the chuck top is preferably 250 GPa or more. When the Young's modulus of the chuck top is less than 250 GPa, the deformation of the chuck top is increased when a load is applied during inspection, a contact failure occurs, and the wafer may be damaged. A Young's modulus of 300 GPa or more is more preferable because the probability of poor contact can be further reduced. The thermal conductivity of the chuck top is preferably 15 W / mK or more. If the thermal conductivity is less than 15 W / mK, the uniformity of the temperature of the wafer placed on the chuck top is not preferable. If the thermal conductivity is 15 W / mK or more, it is possible to obtain a soaking property that does not hinder the inspection, and if it is 170 W / mK or more, the soaking property of the wafer is further improved.

  Examples of the material of the chuck top having the above Young's modulus and thermal conductivity include various ceramics and metal-ceramic composite materials. As the metal-ceramic composite material, a material having a relatively high thermal conductivity and which can easily obtain a soaking property when the wafer is heated, for example, a composite material of aluminum and silicon carbide, a composite material of silicon and silicon carbide, or the like. preferable. Among these, a composite material of silicon and silicon carbide (Si—SiC) is particularly preferable because it has a high thermal conductivity of 170 to 220 W / mK and a high Young's modulus.

  When ceramics is used as the material for the chuck top, there is an advantage that it is not necessary to form an insulating layer between the chuck top and the heating element. Among ceramics, alumina, aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, mullite, and a composite material of alumina and mullite are particularly preferable because they have a relatively high Young's modulus and small deformation due to the load on the probe card. Among these, aluminum nitride is preferable in that it has a particularly high thermal conductivity of 170 W / mK.

  Alumina is preferable because it is relatively low cost and has excellent insulation at high temperatures. Alumina generally adds oxides such as silicon and alkaline earth metals to lower the sintering temperature during sintering. However, if the amount of alumina is reduced to increase the purity of alumina, the cost will increase. However, the insulation is further improved. High insulation properties are obtained with a purity of 99.6% or more, and insulation properties are particularly high with a purity of 99.9% or more. Further, when the purity of alumina is increased, the thermal conductivity is improved at the same time as the insulating property, and the thermal conductivity becomes 30 W / mK at a purity of 99.5%. The purity of alumina can be appropriately selected in consideration of insulation, thermal conductivity, and cost. The material forming the chuck top may be a metal, and tungsten, molybdenum, or an alloy thereof is preferable from the viewpoint of Young's modulus and thermal conductivity.

  In the wafer holder of the present invention, the chuck top has a chuck top conductor layer on the surface, and the chuck top conductor layer surface forms a wafer mounting surface. This chuck top conductor layer has a role as a ground electrode when the chuck top is an insulator, in addition to blocking electromagnetic noise from a heating element, corrosive gas, acid or alkali chemicals, It plays a role in protecting the chuck top from organic solvents, water, and the like. As the material of the chuck top conductor layer, copper, titanium, nickel, noble metal, tungsten, molybdenum, or the like can be used.

  For forming the chuck top conductor layer, a method of baking after applying a conductor paste by screen printing, a method such as vapor deposition or sputtering, or a method such as spraying or plating can be used. Of these, thermal spraying and plating are particularly preferable. This is because the thermal spraying method and the plating method do not involve heat treatment when forming the conductor layer, so that the conductor layer can be formed at a low cost without causing warpage of the chuck top due to the heat treatment.

  A method of forming a sprayed film as the chuck top conductor layer and further forming a plating film thereon is particularly preferable. The material to be sprayed (aluminum, nickel, etc.) forms some oxides, nitrides or oxynitrides at the time of thermal spraying, and these compounds can be firmly adhered by reacting with the chuck top surface. However, since the sprayed film contains the above compound, the conductivity of the film is low. On the other hand, the plating film is not as high in adhesion strength with the chuck top surface as the sprayed film, but since a substantially pure metal film is formed, a conductor layer having excellent conductivity can be formed. In addition, since the metal is the main component between the sprayed film and the plated film, both have good adhesion strength. Therefore, if a thermal spray film is formed as a base and a plating film is formed thereon, a chuck top conductor layer having both high adhesion strength and high conductivity can be formed.

  When the chuck top is made of metal, a chuck top conductor layer is newly formed on the wafer mounting surface because, for example, the chuck top is likely to be oxidized or deteriorated or the electrical conductivity is not sufficiently high. May be. In this case, the chuck top conductor layer can be formed by vapor deposition, sputtering, thermal spraying, plating, or the like, as described above.

The surface roughness of the chuck top conductor layer is preferably Ra of 0.1 μm or less. When this Ra exceeds 0.1 μm, when inspecting an element having a large calorific value, heat generated from the element itself cannot be radiated from the chuck top, and the element may be thermally destroyed. In particular, it is more preferable that the surface roughness of the chuck top conductor layer is Ra 0.02 μm or less because heat can be radiated more efficiently.

  The contact surface between the support and the chuck top preferably has a surface roughness Ra of 0.1 μm or more on both the support and the chuck top. By setting the Ra of the contact surface between the support and the chuck top to 0.1 μm or more, the thermal resistance at the contact surface between the support and the chuck top increases, so the amount of heat transmitted to the drive system of the wafer holder is reduced. Can do. The upper limit of the surface roughness is not particularly limited. As a method for making the surface roughness Ra 0.1 μm or more, it is preferable to perform a process such as polishing or sandblasting.

  In addition to the contact surface of the support and the chuck top, the bottom surface of the support and the contact surface of the drive system, the contact surface of the pedestal portion and the circular tube portion of the support, and the circular tube portion and a plurality of columnar bodies are combined. Similarly, with respect to the contact surface between the circular tube portion and the plurality of columnar bodies when used, by setting the surface roughness to Ra of 0.1 μm or more, the thermal resistance is increased and transmitted to the drive system of the wafer holder. This is preferable because the amount of heat can be reduced. A reduction in the amount of heat transmitted to the drive system due to an increase in thermal resistance also leads to a reduction in the amount of power supplied to the heating element.

  In the wafer holder of the present invention, a metal layer is preferably formed on the surface of the support. The electromagnetic wave generated from the heating element for heating the chuck top may be affected by noise when inspecting the wafer. If a metal layer is formed on the support, this electromagnetic wave will be blocked (shielded). Because you can.

  The method for forming this metal layer (electromagnetic shield layer) is not particularly limited. For example, a conductive paste obtained by adding glass frit to a metal powder such as silver, gold, nickel, or copper is applied with a brush or the like. There are a baking method, a method of spraying a metal such as aluminum or nickel, and a method of forming by plating. It is also possible to combine these methods. For example, after baking the conductor paste, a metal such as nickel may be plated, or after the metal is sprayed, plating may be performed. Of these methods, plating is particularly preferable because it has high adhesion strength and high reliability. Thermal spraying is preferable because a metal film can be formed at a relatively low cost.

  Further, as another method of forming the metal layer (electromagnetic shield layer), a tubular conductor can be attached to the side surface of the support. In this case, the material to be used is not particularly limited as long as it is a conductor. For example, a metal foil or a metal plate such as stainless steel, nickel, or aluminum can be used. Furthermore, a metal foil or a metal plate may be attached to the bottom portion of the support, and by connecting it to the metal foil or metal plate attached to the side surface, the effect of blocking electromagnetic waves can be enhanced.

  Further, when the support has a circular pipe portion, a metal foil or a metal plate may be attached in the gap, and by connecting this to the metal foil or metal plate attached to the side surface and the bottom surface, electromagnetic waves are The effect of blocking can be further enhanced. By adopting such a method of attaching a metal foil or metal plate, it is possible to cut off electromagnetic waves at a lower cost than when plating or conductor paste is applied. Although there is no restriction | limiting in particular regarding the method of attaching metal foil or a metal plate to a support body, For example, it can fix using a metal screw. Alternatively, the metal foil or metal plate on the bottom and side surfaces may be integrated in advance and then fixed to the support.

  It is preferable that a metal layer (electromagnetic shield layer) for blocking electromagnetic waves is also formed between the heating element for heating the chuck top and the chuck top. For the formation of the electromagnetic shield layer, a method of forming a metal layer on the side surface of the support can be used, and for example, a metal foil can be inserted between the heating element and the chuck top. There is no restriction | limiting in particular in the material of the metal foil to be used, Stainless steel, nickel, aluminum, etc. can be used.

  Moreover, it is preferable to provide an insulating layer between the electromagnetic shield layer and the chuck top. This insulating layer has a role of blocking noise that is caused by an electromagnetic wave or an electric field generated by a heating element or the like, which affects the wafer inspection. This noise particularly affects the high frequency characteristics of the wafer, and does not significantly affect the normal measurement of electrical characteristics. That is, a considerable part of the noise generated in the heating element is blocked by the electromagnetic shield layer. However, when the chuck top is an insulator, the electromagnetic wave and the chuck top conductor layer formed on the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top are electromagnetic. When the chuck top is a conductor between the shield layer or between the chuck top itself and the heating element, a capacitor on the electric circuit is formed, and this capacitor may affect noise when inspecting the wafer. is there. In order to reduce this influence, it is preferable to form an insulating layer between the electromagnetic shield layer and the chuck top.

About the said insulating layer, the noise at the time of a test | inspection can be reduced significantly by controlling the resistance value, a dielectric constant, and an electrostatic capacitance. That is, the resistance value of the insulating layer is preferably 10 7 Ω or more. When the resistance value is less than 10 7 Ω, a minute current flows toward the chuck top conductor layer due to the influence of the heating element, which becomes noise and affects the inspection. If the resistance value of the insulating layer is set to 10 7 Ω or more, the minute current can be reduced to an extent that does not affect the inspection. In particular, since the miniaturization of circuits formed on a wafer has recently progressed, it is necessary to reduce the above-described noise as much as possible. To further improve the reliability, the resistance value of the insulating layer is set to 10 10 Ω or more. It is preferable to do.

  Further, when the chuck top is an insulator, the capacitance between the chuck top conductor layer and the electromagnetic shield layer, or when the chuck top is a conductor, between the chuck top itself and the electromagnetic shield layer. It is preferable that each capacitance is 5000 pF or less. When the capacitance exceeds 5000 pF, the influence of the insulating layer as a capacitor is increased, which may be affected as noise during inspection, which is not preferable. In particular, a capacitance of 1000 pF or less is preferable because even a minute circuit can be inspected without being affected by noise.

  Furthermore, the dielectric constant of the insulating layer is preferably 10 or less. If the dielectric constant of the insulating layer exceeds 10, it is not preferable because electric charges are easily stored between the electromagnetic shield layer sandwiching the insulating layer and the chuck top, which causes noise generation. In particular, since circuit miniaturization has recently progressed, it is necessary to reduce noise, and the dielectric constant of the insulating layer is preferably 4 or less, and more preferably 2 or less. By reducing the dielectric constant of the insulating layer, it is preferable because the thickness of the insulating layer necessary for securing the above-described insulation resistance value and capacitance can be reduced and the thermal resistance by the insulating layer can be reduced.

  The thickness of the insulating layer is preferably 0.2 mm or more. In order to reduce the size of the device and maintain good heat conduction from the heating element to the chuck top, it is better that the thickness of the insulating layer is smaller. However, if the thickness is less than 0.2 mm, defects in the insulating layer itself and durability This is not preferable because of the problem of sexuality. If the thickness of the insulating layer is 1 mm or more, there is no problem of durability, and the heat conduction from the heating element is good, which is more preferable. However, if the thickness of the insulating layer exceeds 10 mm, although the noise blocking effect is high, the time until the heat generated by the heating element is conducted to the chuck top and the wafer becomes long, and it becomes difficult to control the heating temperature. It is not preferable. Although depending on the inspection conditions, if the thickness of the insulating layer is 5 mm or less, the temperature can be controlled relatively easily.

  In addition, the thermal conductivity of the insulating layer is preferably 0.5 W / mK or more in order to realize good heat conduction from the heating element as described above, and if it is 1 W / mK or more, the heat conductivity is further increased. Is particularly preferable because of the good transmission. In addition, it is necessary to make the diameter of the insulating layer larger than the formation region of the electromagnetic shield layer and the heating element. When the formation region is small, noise may enter from a portion not covered with the insulating layer, which is not preferable.

  As a material for the insulating layer, it is sufficient if it satisfies the above-described characteristics and has heat resistance enough to withstand the temperature at the time of inspection, and ceramics, resins, and the like can be used. Among these, as the resin, for example, a silicon resin or a resin in which a filler is dispersed can be suitably used, and as the ceramic, for example, alumina or the like can be suitably used. The filler dispersed in the resin has a role of increasing the heat conduction of the resin, and the material is not required to be reactive with the resin, and examples thereof include boron nitride, aluminum nitride, alumina, and silica.

Examples of the insulating layer will be described below. First, a silicon resin in which boron nitride is dispersed is used as a material. This material has a thermal conductivity of about 5 W / mK and a dielectric constant of 2. When a boron nitride-dispersed silicon resin is sandwiched between the electromagnetic shield layer and the chuck top as an insulating layer, the diameter is 300 mm if the chuck top is compatible with a 12-inch wafer. At this time, if the thickness of the insulating layer is 0.25 mm, the capacitance can be 5000 pF, and if the thickness is 1.25 mm or more, the capacitance can be 1000 pF or less. Since the volume resistivity of this material is 9 × 10 15 Ω · cm, when the diameter is 300 mm, the resistance value can be 1 × 10 12 Ω or more if the thickness is 0.8 mm or more. Therefore, when the thickness of the insulating layer is 1.25 mm or more, an insulating layer having a sufficiently low capacitance and a sufficiently high resistance value can be obtained.

  In the wafer holder of the present invention, as shown in FIG. 11, in the case of the support body 4 including the pedestal portion 41 and the circular pipe portion 42, the cooling module 9 can be provided in the gap 5 inside the support body 4. . When it is necessary to cool the chuck top 2, the cooling module 9 abuts against the chuck top 2 from the opposite side of the wafer mounting surface by the lifting / lowering means 10, and rapidly cools the chuck top 2 by removing the heat. As a result, throughput can be improved.

  As the material of the cooling module, aluminum, copper, and alloys thereof are preferable because they have high thermal conductivity and can quickly deprive the heat of the chuck top. Stainless steel, magnesium alloy, nickel, and other metal materials can also be used. On the surface of the cooling module, a metal film such as nickel, gold, or silver may be formed using a technique such as plating or thermal spraying in order to impart oxidation resistance. Among these materials, aluminum plated with nickel and copper plated with nickel have excellent oxidation resistance, high thermal conductivity, and are relatively inexpensive. Particularly preferred.

  Ceramics can also be used as the material for the cooling module. Among ceramics, aluminum nitride and silicon carbide are preferable because they have high thermal conductivity and can quickly deprive the chuck top of heat. Silicon nitride and aluminum oxynitride are preferable because they have high mechanical strength and excellent durability. Oxide ceramics such as alumina, cordierite, and steatite are preferable because they are relatively inexpensive. The material of these cooling modules may be appropriately selected in consideration of the use and cost.

  A coolant may flow inside the cooling module. Flowing the coolant is preferable because heat transferred from the chuck top to the cooling module can be quickly removed and the cooling speed of the chuck top can be improved. As the type of refrigerant, liquids such as water, fluorinate, and Galden, or gases such as nitrogen, air, and helium can be selected. However, when used only at 0 ° C. or higher, water is considered in consideration of the specific heat and the price. In the case of cooling to below freezing point, Galden is preferable in consideration of specific heat.

  As a method of forming the flow path for flowing the coolant, for example, two cooling plates for the cooling module are prepared, and the flow path can be formed by machining or the like on one or both of them. Specifically, a flow path is formed on the surfaces of the two cooling plates, and nickel plating is applied to the entire surface in order to improve corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance, and then both are bonded together by means such as screwing or welding. . At this time, it is preferable to insert, for example, a sealing material such as an O-ring around the bonded portion of the flow path so that the refrigerant does not leak.

  As another method for forming the flow path, there is a method of attaching a pipe for flowing a coolant to the cooling plate. In this case, in order to increase the contact area between the cooling plate and the pipe, the cooling plate is subjected to a groove processing substantially the same shape as the pipe, and the pipe is installed in this groove, or the length of a part of the side surface of the pipe is set. It is preferable to form a planar portion along the direction and fix the planar portion to the cooling plate. The fixing method of the cooling plate and the pipe may be screwed through a metal band or the like, or may be welded or brazed. In addition, if a material having deformability such as resin is sandwiched between the cooling plate and the pipe, both can be brought into close contact with each other to improve the cooling efficiency.

  When heating the chuck top, the cooling module is preferably movable because the temperature can be increased efficiently if the cooling module is separated from the chuck top. As a method of making the cooling module movable, lifting means 10 such as an air cylinder can be used as shown in FIG. It should be noted that the probe module is not loaded on the cooling module, and therefore problems such as deformation due to the load do not occur.

  When importance is attached to the cooling speed of the chuck top, the cooling module may be fixed to the chuck top. That is, as shown in FIG. 12, the heating element 6 can be attached to the lower surface of the chuck top 2 opposite to the wafer mounting surface, and the cooling module 9 can be fixed to the lower surface of the heating element 6. As another form, as shown in FIG. 13, there is a method in which the cooling module 9 is directly attached to the lower surface of the chuck top 2 opposite to the wafer mounting surface, and the heating element 6 is fixed to the lower surface. In any form, there is no particular limitation on the fixing method, and for example, it can be fixed by a mechanical method such as screwing or clamping. When fixing the chuck top, the cooling module, and the heating element by screwing, it is preferable to set the number of screws to 3 or more because adhesion between the members is increased, and more preferably 6 or more.

  Further, when the cooling module fixed to the chuck top can be cooled by the refrigerant as described above, it is preferable that the cooling module does not flow when the chuck top is heated or held at a high temperature. This is because the heat generated by the heating element is not lost to the refrigerant, and the temperature can be increased efficiently or kept at a high temperature. Of course, if the refrigerant is allowed to flow again during cooling, the chuck top can be efficiently cooled.

  Furthermore, it is possible to provide a flow path for allowing the coolant to flow inside the chuck top so that the chuck top itself is a cooling module. In this case, the cooling time can be further shortened than when the cooling module is fixed to the chuck top. As a structure of the chuck top in this case, for example, a chuck top conductor layer is formed on one surface of one member to form a wafer mounting surface, and a flow path for flowing a coolant is formed on the opposite surface, The other member is brazed, glassed, or screwed to the surface on which this flow path is formed to be integrated into a chuck top. Further, a flow path may be formed on one side of the other member, and the one member may be integrated on the surface on which the flow path is formed, or a flow path may be formed on both the one member and the other member. Then, the surfaces on which the flow paths are formed may be integrated. The smaller the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between one member and the other, the better. Ideally, the same material is preferred.

  As a material for the chuck top in this case, ceramics or a metal-ceramic composite material can be used, and a metal can also be used. Metals are less expensive than ceramics and metal-ceramic composite materials, and have advantages such as easy formation of flow paths because they are easy to process. However, when a metal chuck top is used, it is easy to deform due to the load of the probe card. Therefore, it is preferable to install a deformation prevention plate on the opposite side of the chuck top from the wafer mounting surface.

  The deformation prevention plate preferably has a Young's modulus of 250 GPa or more, as in the case of using ceramics or a metal-ceramic composite material as the material of the chuck top. Further, the chuck top and the deformation preventing plate may be fixed by a mechanical method such as screwing, or may be fixed by a method such as brazing or glassing. When the chuck top is heated or held at a high temperature, it is possible to efficiently raise and lower the temperature by flowing the refrigerant only during cooling without flowing the refrigerant to the cooling module, as in the case of fixing the cooling module to the chuck top. It is.

  Even in the structure in which the deformation preventing plate is installed on the metal chuck top, the electromagnetic shield layer can be formed as described above. For example, an insulated heating element is installed on the surface of the chuck top opposite to the wafer mounting surface, and after covering the heating element with a metal layer (electromagnetic shield layer), a deformation prevention plate is further installed. What is necessary is just to fix a heat generating body, an electromagnetic shielding layer, and a deformation | transformation prevention board integrally to a chuck | zipper top.

  The wafer holder of the present invention can be suitably used as a wafer prober for inspecting the electrical characteristics of a wafer by providing a drive system for moving the wafer holder. In addition to a wafer prober, for example, it can be applied to a handler device or a tester device. In any application, by using the wafer holder of the present invention, even a semiconductor having a fine circuit can be inspected without contact failure.

  As will be described later and as shown in Table 1 below, the basic structure of the wafer support is an integral type (for example, FIG. 4) and a separate type consisting of a pedestal portion and a circular tube portion (for example, FIG. 4). 5), and three of them were examples of the present invention and the other three were comparative examples. Each of these wafer holders was mounted on a wafer prober, and the semiconductor was inspected under the inspection conditions shown in Table 2 below. Each wafer holder will be described in detail in the following examples and comparative examples.

[Example 1]
As shown in FIG. 4, a wafer holder 1 in which the support 4 is integrated is manufactured. That is, an Si—SiC substrate having a diameter of 310 mm and a thickness of 15 mm was prepared as the chuck top 2. Concentric grooves and through holes for vacuum chucking the wafer were formed on one surface of the substrate, and nickel plating was applied as the chuck top conductor layer 3 to form a wafer mounting surface. Thereafter, the wafer mounting surface was polished and the surface roughness Ra was set to 0.02 μm. Further, the contact surface with the support 4 is polished to finish the entire warpage amount to 10 μm and the thickness variation from the wafer mounting surface to the contact surface with the support 4 to 45 μm. Completed.

  Next, a cylindrical plate made of a mullite-alumina composite material having a diameter of 310 mm and a height of 40 mm was prepared as the support 4. The contact surface and the bottom surface of the support 4 with the chuck top 2 are polished and finished until the thickness variation from the bottom surface to the contact surface with the chuck top 2 becomes 46 μm, and then contact with the chuck top 2. The surface was subjected to countersink processing with an inner diameter of 290 mm and a depth of 3 mm, and a gap 51 for installing the heating element 6 was formed.

  A stainless steel foil insulated with mica was attached to the chuck top 2 as an electromagnetic shield layer, and a heating element 6 sandwiched between mica was further attached. The heating element 6 was formed by etching a stainless steel foil in a predetermined pattern, and the electromagnetic shield layer and the heating element 6 were arranged at a position that fits in the gap 51 provided in the support 4. On the other hand, a through hole was formed in the support 4 in a form similar to that shown in FIG. 7, and an electrode wire for power feeding through the through hole was connected to the heating element 6. Further, aluminum was sprayed on the side surface and the bottom surface of the support 4 to form an electromagnetic shield layer.

  The chuck top 2 to which the heating element 6 and the electromagnetic shield layer are attached is mounted on the support 4 described above, and the support shown in FIG. 4 completes a wafer holder for an integrated wafer prober. The wafer holder was mounted on a wafer prober, the semiconductor was inspected continuously for 10 hours under the three inspection conditions shown in Table 2 below, and the results obtained are also shown in Table 2.

[Comparative Example 1]
Other than finishing the thickness variation from the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top to the contact surface with the support to 54 μm and finishing the thickness variation from the bottom surface of the support to the contact surface with the chuck top to 53 μm, In the same manner as in Example 1, a wafer holder in which the support shown in FIG. The obtained wafer holder was mounted on a wafer prober, the semiconductor was inspected continuously for 10 hours under the three inspection conditions shown in Table 2 below, and the results obtained are also shown in Table 2.

[Comparative Example 2]
Except for finishing the thickness variation from the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top to the contact surface with the support to 45 μm and finishing the thickness variation from the bottom surface of the support to the contact surface with the chuck top to 54 μm. In the same manner as in Example 1, a wafer holder in which the support shown in FIG. The obtained wafer holder was mounted on a wafer prober, the semiconductor was inspected continuously for 10 hours under the three inspection conditions shown in Table 2 below, and the results obtained are also shown in Table 2.

[Comparative Example 3]
Except for finishing the thickness variation from the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top to the contact surface with the support to 53 μm and finishing the thickness variation from the bottom surface of the support to the contact surface with the chuck top to 44 μm. In the same manner as in Example 1, a wafer holder in which the support shown in FIG. The obtained wafer holder was mounted on a wafer prober, the semiconductor was inspected continuously for 10 hours under the three inspection conditions shown in Table 2 below, and the results obtained are also shown in Table 2.

[Example 2]
As shown in FIG. 5, the separation type wafer holder 1 in which the support 4 is composed of a pedestal portion 41 and a circular tube portion 42 was produced. First, a chuck top was manufactured in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the thickness variation from the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top to the contact surface with the support was finished to 46 μm.

  In addition, as a constituent member of the support, a circular pipe portion made of a mullite-alumina composite material having a diameter of 310 mm, a wall thickness of 10 mm, and a height of 30 mm and a pedestal portion made of a mullite-alumina composite material having a diameter of 310 mm and a thickness of 15 mm are prepared. did. The circular pipe part and the pedestal part are polished so that the thickness variation from the contact surface with the chuck top of the circular pipe part to the contact surface with the pedestal part is finished to 22 μm. The thickness variation between the contact surfaces was finished to 23 μm. The circular tube portion and the pedestal portion were combined to form a support.

  Except for the above, the support shown in FIG. 5 was manufactured as a separation type wafer holder in the same manner as in Example 1 including the formation of a heating element and an electromagnetic shield layer. The thickness variation from the bottom surface of the support to the contact surface with the chuck top was 47 μm. The obtained wafer holder was mounted on a wafer prober, the semiconductor was inspected continuously for 10 hours under the three inspection conditions shown in Table 2 below, and the results obtained are also shown in Table 2.

[Example 3]
As shown in FIG. 5, the separation type wafer holder 1 in which the support 4 is composed of a pedestal portion 41 and a circular tube portion 42 was produced. At that time, the thickness variation between the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top and the contact surface with the support is 9 μm, and the thickness variation between the contact surface of the circular tube portion with the chuck top and the contact surface with the pedestal portion. 5 [mu] m and the support shown in FIG. 5 is a separation type wafer holder, except that the thickness variation between the bottom surface of the pedestal portion and the contact surface with the circular tube portion is 4 [mu] m. did. At this time, the thickness variation from the bottom surface of the support to the contact surface with the chuck top was 10 μm.

  The obtained wafer holder was mounted on a wafer prober, the semiconductor was inspected continuously for 10 hours under the three inspection conditions shown in Table 2 below, and the results obtained are also shown in Table 2. In Table 1 below, for the supports of Examples 1 to 3 and Comparative Examples 1 to 3, the thickness variation from the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top to the contact surface with the support (chuck top thickness) Variation), thickness variation between the bottom surface of the support and the contact surface with the chuck top (thickness variation of the support), thickness between the contact surface of the circular tube portion with the chuck top and the contact surface with the base portion The variation (thickness variation of the circular tube portion) and the thickness variation (the thickness variation of the pedestal portion) from the bottom surface of the pedestal portion to the contact surface with the circular tube portion are collectively shown.

  As can be seen from the above results, both the thickness variation of the chuck top and the thickness variation of the support are controlled to 50 μm or less, and the thickness variation of the circular tube portion and the thickness variation of the pedestal portion are both controlled for the support including the circular tube portion. By controlling to 25 μm or less, the wafer holder was not deformed even when a high load was applied, and contact failure during inspection could be eliminated. In particular, if the thickness variation of the circular tube portion and the thickness of the pedestal portion are both controlled to 10 μm or less with respect to the support including the circular tube portion, the wafer holder does not deform even under more severe inspection conditions, resulting in poor contact. I was able to lose it.

It is a schematic sectional drawing which shows one basic example of the wafer holder in this invention. It is general | schematic sectional drawing which shows the other specific example of the fundamental of the wafer holder in this invention. FIG. 3 is a schematic plan view of a support in the wafer holder shown in FIG. 2. It is a schematic sectional drawing which shows one specific example of the wafer holder of this invention. It is a schematic sectional drawing which shows the other specific example of the wafer holder of this invention. It is a schematic sectional drawing which shows one specific example of the heat generating body used for the wafer holder of this invention. It is a schematic sectional drawing which shows the electric power feeding part vicinity to the heat generating body in the wafer holder of this invention. It is a schematic sectional drawing which shows another specific example of the wafer holder of this invention. FIG. 9 is a schematic plan view of a support in the wafer holder shown in FIG. 8. It is a schematic plan view which shows another support body in the wafer holder of this invention. It is general | schematic sectional drawing which shows another specific example of the wafer holder of this invention. It is general | schematic sectional drawing which shows another specific example of the wafer holder of this invention. It is general | schematic sectional drawing which shows another specific example of the wafer holder of this invention.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Wafer holder 2 Chuck top 3 Chuck top conductor layer 4 Support body 41 Base part 42 Circular pipe part 43 Columnar body 44 Through-hole 5 Cavity 51 Cavity part 6 Heating element 61 Resistance heating element 62 Insulator 7 Electrode wire 8 Support rod 9 Cooling module 10 Lifting means


Claims (5)

  1.   In a wafer holder having a chuck top for mounting / fixing a wafer on the wafer mounting surface and a support for supporting the chuck top, the wafer from the wafer mounting surface of the chuck top to the contact surface with the support The wafer holder is characterized in that the thickness variation between them is 50 μm or less, and the thickness variation between the bottom surface of the support and the contact surface with the chuck top is 50 μm or less.
  2.   The support has a structure divided into a circular pipe part and a pedestal part, and the thickness variation between the contact surface with the chuck top of the circular pipe part and the contact surface with the pedestal part is 25 μm or less, 2. The wafer holder according to claim 1, wherein the thickness variation between the bottom surface of the pedestal portion and the contact surface with the circular tube portion is 25 μm or less.
  3.   The wafer holder according to claim 1, wherein all the thickness variations are 10 μm or less.
  4.   A wafer prober heater unit comprising the wafer holder according to claim 1.
  5. A wafer prober comprising the heater unit according to claim 4.


JP2005213753A 2005-07-25 2005-07-25 Wafer holder, and wafer prober provided with wafer holder Pending JP2007035737A (en)

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JP2005213753A JP2007035737A (en) 2005-07-25 2005-07-25 Wafer holder, and wafer prober provided with wafer holder
TW095126977A TW200721363A (en) 2005-07-25 2006-07-24 Wafer holder, heater unit having the wafer holder, and wafer prober having the heater unit
US11/492,223 US20070023320A1 (en) 2005-07-25 2006-07-25 Wafer holder, heater unit having the wafer holder, and wafer prober having the heater unit

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2008227206A (en) * 2007-03-14 2008-09-25 Tokyo Electron Ltd Placement stage
JP2010186765A (en) * 2009-02-10 2010-08-26 Sumitomo Electric Ind Ltd Wafer supporter for wafer prober and wafer prober carrying the same
JP2011124466A (en) * 2009-12-14 2011-06-23 Sumitomo Electric Ind Ltd Wafer holder and wafer prober mounting the same
JP2012079940A (en) * 2010-10-01 2012-04-19 Tokyo Electron Ltd Heat treatment apparatus, heat treatment method, and storage medium
JP2016167100A (en) * 2012-05-17 2016-09-15 エーエスエムエル ネザーランズ ビー.ブイ. Thermal conditioning unit, lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2008227206A (en) * 2007-03-14 2008-09-25 Tokyo Electron Ltd Placement stage
JP2010186765A (en) * 2009-02-10 2010-08-26 Sumitomo Electric Ind Ltd Wafer supporter for wafer prober and wafer prober carrying the same
JP2011124466A (en) * 2009-12-14 2011-06-23 Sumitomo Electric Ind Ltd Wafer holder and wafer prober mounting the same
JP2012079940A (en) * 2010-10-01 2012-04-19 Tokyo Electron Ltd Heat treatment apparatus, heat treatment method, and storage medium
JP2016167100A (en) * 2012-05-17 2016-09-15 エーエスエムエル ネザーランズ ビー.ブイ. Thermal conditioning unit, lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method
US9891541B2 (en) 2012-05-17 2018-02-13 Asml Netherlands B.V. Thermal conditioning unit, lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method
US10191395B2 (en) 2012-05-17 2019-01-29 Asml Neatherlands B.V. Thermal conditioning unit, lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method

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