JP2007024859A - Erosion measuring device and its execution method and real-time monitoring system - Google Patents

Erosion measuring device and its execution method and real-time monitoring system Download PDF

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JP2007024859A
JP2007024859A JP2005366490A JP2005366490A JP2007024859A JP 2007024859 A JP2007024859 A JP 2007024859A JP 2005366490 A JP2005366490 A JP 2005366490A JP 2005366490 A JP2005366490 A JP 2005366490A JP 2007024859 A JP2007024859 A JP 2007024859A
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erosion
device
measurement
real
sensor
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JP4859454B2 (en
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Takuya Niimura
Hiroaki Sasaki
Masamichi Watanabe
博明 佐々木
卓也 新村
眞道 渡辺
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Pacific Consultants Co Ltd
パシフィックコンサルタンツ株式会社
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an erosion measuring apparatus in which the outflow of a sensor is performed in a state close to nature without impairing an actual erosion form.
An erosion measuring apparatus includes a plurality of sensors (11, 12) having trigger means for notifying outflow when flowing out from an embedded site by erosion of flowing water, and in cooperation with these trigger means, Measuring means 21 for discriminating the presence or absence of outflow and the sensor that has flowed out, communication means 22 for transmitting the discrimination result by this measuring means by a low-frequency magnetic field, and reception for receiving the discrimination result installed at a location different from the buried location Device 30. In particular, at least one of the size and specific gravity of the sensor is set to a value at which the outflow is almost natural.
[Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to an erosion measuring apparatus for measuring the degree of erosion of river beds, riverbanks, coasts, and the like, a construction method thereof, and a real-time monitoring system.

  In an alluvial river whose channel is made of material that changes with flowing water such as sand and gravel, the riverbed, riverbank, coast, etc. may be eroded by the action of flowing water during flooding. The river bank and coastal bank may become unstable (decrease in strength) due to the progress, and the function may be lost (break).

  In order to cope with such a problem, a river bed lowering measuring apparatus has been proposed (for example, see Patent Document 1). This river bed lowering measuring device includes a sensor unit embedded in a river bed in a river channel and having a built-in transmitter, a receiver that receives radio waves transmitted from the sensor unit via an antenna, and a reception status received by the receiver. It consists of a receiving recorder that records. The receiver is usually installed on the ground side away from the river bed, for example, at a high position on the bank. The river bed lowering measuring apparatus also includes a plurality of sensors in a state where the sensor unit is stacked downward at a height corresponding to a target measurement range from the river bed. Each sensor has a circular base, and a transmitter is provided at the axial center of the base. A reed switch is provided below the transmitter, and an outer cylinder is provided on the base so as to surround the transmitter. Furthermore, one end of a wire is attached to the outer cylinder via an attachment member, and a magnet is provided on the other end of the wire. The reed switch acts as a trigger means when the sensor flows out in cooperation with the magnet.

  In this river bed degradation measuring device, a plurality of sensors are removed in order from the top depending on the level of erosion of the river bed, so the amount of river bed degradation is measured by the number of detached sensors and a predetermined height (embedding depth). . That is, when the river bed is scoured due to flooding or the like and the sensor flows out, the built-in transmitter is activated by the trigger means, and the activated transmitter transmits a signal including an identification number unique to the sensor. The receiver on the ground side receives the signal transmitted from the sensor that has flowed out, and measures the scour amount of the riverbed by determining the identification number.

  By the way, in this river bed lowering measuring apparatus, since communication between a sensor and a receiver located relatively far from the sensor is performed by radio waves, the outflowed sensor needs to be floated on the water. This is because, apart from short distances of about several meters, it is difficult to communicate by radio waves in water or in the ground. For this reason, a foam material is provided around the outer cylinder in order to make it easier for the sensor to float on the water during outflow. That is, the foam material acts as a float. However, such a foam material may adversely affect the flow-out form of the sensor. For example, underwater, large buoyancy acts on the sensor, and the scouring depth may rise and flow out before reaching the predetermined height (embedding depth). Become. In addition, in this state, a dent is generated after the sensor comes out, and a local eddy current is generated in the dent. The eddy current expands the scour locally around the pit or in the depth direction, and shows a behavior far from the actual phenomenon. Such a local scouring phenomenon causes a large error in the actual scouring amount measurement, and also causes an adverse effect on surrounding structures.

JP 2002-365046 A

  An object of the present invention is to solve the above-described problem, and to provide an erosion measurement apparatus in which the outflow of a sensor is performed in a state close to nature.

  Another object of the present invention is to provide an erosion measuring apparatus that does not require a sensor to be floated on water.

  Still another object of the present invention is to provide a real-time monitoring system that uses various measuring devices including the erosion measuring device and can monitor the erosion status and others in real time using data from these various measuring devices. It is in.

  The erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention includes one or more sensors having trigger means for notifying outflow when flowing out from a buried site due to erosion action of flowing water, and the outflow of the sensor in cooperation with the trigger means. Measuring means for determining presence / absence and outflow sensor, communication means for wirelessly transmitting the determination result by the measurement means, and receiving means for receiving the determination result installed in a place different from the embedded location, It is characterized in that at least one of the size and specific gravity of the sensor is set to a value at which the outflow is close to natural.

  The communication means preferably transmits the discrimination result as a low frequency magnetic field signal.

  In this erosion measuring apparatus, it is desirable to set at least one of the size and specific gravity of the sensor in consideration of the average particle size and specific gravity of gravel in the peripheral region including the embedded site.

  The sensor in the erosion measuring apparatus considers at least one of the average particle size and the specific gravity by embedding the trigger means inside the gravel itself having the average particle size in the peripheral region including the buried portion. Alternatively, the trigger means may be covered with a jacket material so that the size of the entire sensor is adjusted to the average particle size of gravel in the surrounding area including the embedded portion, and the outer A specific gravity adjusting material may be mixed with the material to adjust the specific gravity of the entire sensor to the specific gravity of gravel in the peripheral region including the buried portion.

  The plurality of sensors are respectively embedded at different depths in the embedded portion, and the measuring means and the communication means are housed in a housing and embedded at a position deeper than the sensor at the deepest part as a detection device.

  The sensor may further include a transmission means for transmitting a signal indicating the sensor outflow by the trigger means by radio waves. In this case, the measurement means has a reception means for receiving a signal from the transmission means. The presence or absence of sensor outflow and the sensor outflow are determined from the received signal.

  The detection apparatus may further include timer means for periodically starting the communication means to transmit a signal including at least identification information of the detection apparatus.

  According to this invention, the construction method of the said erosion measuring apparatus is also provided. In this construction method, a jig for integrally assembling the plurality of sensors and the detection device is used. The jig includes a plurality of holding spacers for holding each sensor from both sides in the depth direction, and a plurality of height adjusting spacers disposed so as to be interposed between the holding spacer and the sensor. And a plurality of support columns penetrating the peripheral edge of each holding spacer and detachable from the detection device. This construction method is characterized in that after the plurality of sensors and the detection device are integrally assembled by the jig, the assembly is embedded in an embedded portion, and then the plurality of columns are extracted.

  According to the present invention, there is also provided a real-time monitoring system that includes at least one of any of the erosion measurement devices described above and processes a signal from the erosion measurement device to monitor the erosion status in real time. The real-time monitoring system includes a transmission / reception device that receives the low-frequency magnetic field signal and transmits the received signal wirelessly or by wire, a reception device that receives a signal from the transmission / reception device and converts the signal into a digital signal, and the digital A processing device that processes a signal based on a predetermined program, a storage device that stores a processing result of the processing device, and a display device that displays the processing result, the processing device creating a database of the processing result The erosion status is displayed on at least one of a graph and a numerical value by the display device.

  The real-time monitoring system may include at least one infiltration line measuring device embedded in the dike interior soil. In this case, the infiltration line measuring device measures the infiltration lines of running water and rainwater in the soil in the dike and transmits the measurement result as a low-frequency magnetic field signal different from the low-frequency magnetic field signal. The signal is transmitted to the processing device via the transmitting / receiving device also used as the erosion measuring device or the transmitting / receiving device dedicated to the infiltrating wire measuring device and the receiving device, and the processing device receives the signal from the infiltrating wire measuring device. The display device displays the state of the infiltrating line in the soil in the levee at least one of a graph and a numerical value.

  In this real-time monitoring system, the erosion situation and the state of the infiltration line are displayed on another screen that can be switched, and the erosion situation is embedded in a cross-sectional view of the measurement point where the erosion measuring device is embedded. The bar graph indicating the current measurement result of the erosion measurement apparatus, the identification information given to the embedded erosion measurement apparatus, and the numerical value indicating the latest measurement result are displayed in an superimposed image. , A cross-sectional view of the measurement point where the infiltration line measuring device is embedded, a bar graph representing the current measurement result of the embedded infiltration line measurement device, identification information given to the embedded infiltration line measurement device, and the latest A numerical value indicating the measurement result can be displayed as an overlapped image.

  In this real-time monitoring system, the image showing the erosion status by the cross-sectional view and the past measurement result of the embedded erosion measuring device are either a bar graph or a list of numerical values for a preset time. An image to be displayed as a change with time is displayed on one erosion status real-time monitoring screen, or an image displaying the status of the infiltrating line by the cross-sectional view and a past measurement result of the embedded infiltrating line measuring device. An image to be displayed as a change with time in either a bar graph or a list of numerical values for a preset time can be displayed on one infiltration line state real-time monitoring screen.

  In the real-time monitoring system, a water level measuring device and a rainfall measuring device may be installed near a measurement point by the erosion measuring device. In this case, these measurement results are displayed on the erosion status real-time monitoring screen or the infiltration line status real-time monitoring screen at least one of a graph and a numerical value.

  In the real-time monitoring system, the erosion measuring device and the infiltrating line measuring device are further installed at a plurality of points spaced apart from each other, and the processing device is configured to measure the erosion line measurement results of the erosion measuring devices at the plurality of points. Predetermined user terminals that collectively manage the measurement results of the apparatus, perform centralized management, and store the same image information as the image displayed on the display apparatus and information stored in a database in the storage apparatus Can be transmitted to the user terminal via a network in response to a request from the user.

  According to the present invention, there is further provided a program that is stored in the storage device in the real-time monitoring system and that causes the processing device to execute display control of the display device. The program includes a first step for displaying a screen for prompting input of a user ID and password, and a screen for switching the screen when the user ID and password input in the first step are valid. A second step of displaying a list image of the measurement points indicating the installation location and an image indicating the measurement points on a map on one screen; and the measurement points on the screen displayed in the second step. When any one of these is selected, the screen is switched to display the erosion status real-time monitoring screen or the infiltration line status real-time monitoring screen, and the third step displayed in the third step. List of the bar graph and the numerical value on the erosion status real-time monitoring screen or the infiltration line status real-time monitoring screen If the history data search screen display is specified while one of them is displayed, the measurement results for the specified period in the past are used as the time change instead of the screen showing the time change of the measurement results from the past to the current time. And a fourth step of displaying one of the bar graph and the list of numerical values.

  According to the first aspect of the present invention, since at least one of the sensor size and the specific gravity is set to a value that allows the outflow to be close to natural, there is an effect that the measurement error of the erosion amount can be reduced.

  According to the invention described in claim 2, since communication between the detection device in water or in the soil and the reception device located relatively far from the detection device can be performed with a low-frequency magnetic field signal, There is no need to float the spilled sensor on the water, and therefore the sensor need not be provided with components such as foam.

  According to the eighth aspect of the invention, since the signal indicating the detection device is periodically transmitted from the detection device to the reception device, the soundness of the detection device side is accurately confirmed on the reception device side. can do.

  According to the ninth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to carry out the burying construction of the erosion measuring apparatus with a simple operation.

  According to the invention of claim 10, by developing means for monitoring the situation of river erosion and coastal erosion, etc., which has not been provided so far, the actual situation of river erosion and coastal erosion changes in time series A real-time monitoring system that can be grasped in real time can be provided. In other words, this real-time monitoring system contributes to ensuring and improving the safety of river facilities such as levee against erosion, among erosion and infiltration lines. Further, even when a plurality of measuring devices are installed at a plurality of measurement points, it is suitable for receiving signals from these measuring devices and centrally managing them in real time.

  First, an embodiment of an erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

  FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a basic configuration of a first embodiment of an erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention. In FIG. 1, the erosion measuring apparatus includes a plurality of sensors 11 and 12 (only two are shown here for convenience), a detecting device 20 in which a measuring means 21 and a communication means 22 are built in a sealed housing, and a ground side. Receiving device 30. The receiving device 30 is installed by selecting a place where there is little risk of outflow due to flooding or the like.

  The sensors 11 and 12 and the detection device 20 are embedded in a river bed, a high water bed, or the like, and each sensor incorporates trigger means described later. Each sensor only needs to be embedded so as to overlap with the upper part of the detection device 20, and is configured to flow out from the top in accordance with the amount of erosion of the embedded part due to flooding or the like. A combination of the plurality of sensors 11 and 12 and the detection device 20 is normally embedded in a plurality of different locations such as a river bed and a high water fountain. When embedded in a plurality of locations, information such as an identification number is assigned to each detection device in order to identify the detection device. About the detection apparatus 20, it is preferable to install so that it may not flow out easily. Moreover, although the detection apparatus 20 has a built-in battery (not shown) as a power source, power may be supplied from another place by wire.

  When the burial site is scoured due to flooding or the like, the sensor flows out in ascending order of burial depth as the scouring progresses. When the sensor flows out, the built-in trigger means generates a trigger signal. This trigger signal is detected by the measuring means 21. As will be described later, the measuring means 21 includes a transmission circuit and an information generation circuit that generates identification information indicating the sensor corresponding to the detected trigger signal, that is, the sensor that has flowed out. As a result, the measuring means 21 outputs a signal carrying identification information indicating the sensor that has flowed out to the signal generated by the transmission circuit. In this way, the measuring unit 21 determines the outflow of the sensor and sends the determination result to the communication unit 22. The communication means 22 transmits the received discrimination result to the receiving device 30 on the ground side by a low frequency magnetic field signal together with identification information indicating the detection device 20. The low frequency magnetic field signal is a magnetic field signal having a frequency of about 1 kHz to 10 kHz as is well known. For this reason, the receiving device 30 includes a receiving unit for receiving a low-frequency magnetic field signal. According to the low-frequency magnetic field signal, it is possible to receive the signal from the receiving device 30 on the ground side that is relatively distant from the water or the soil. Although it depends on the surrounding environmental conditions, for example, reception is sufficiently possible within a radius of about 100 m.

  By the way, discrimination of which sensor has flowed out can be realized by various methods. The simplest example is a configuration in which a switch corresponding to the sensor is arranged in the measuring means 21 and a wire is connected to the sensor, and when the sensor flows out, the switch is activated by this wire. Alternatively, it is possible to easily know which sensor generated the trigger signal by providing the receiving unit for the trigger signal from each sensor individually in the measuring means 21. Further, identification information may be individually given to the trigger signal generated by each sensor, and the measurement unit 21 may identify it. This is the same in any of the embodiments described below.

  In any case, the measuring unit 21 sends a signal indicating a discrimination result indicating which sensor has flowed out to the communication unit 22. The communication means 22 uses a low-frequency magnetic field to transmit a signal including this determination result and information such as an identification number assigned to the detection device 20, so that it can be a signal transmitted from either underwater or underground. The receiving device 30 on the ground side can receive this and determine which sensor of which detecting device has flowed out in time series.

  Note that the receiving device 30 may include a recording device. Furthermore, in addition to the measurement unit 21 and the communication unit 22, a timer (not shown) that outputs an activation signal for activating the communication unit 22 at regular intervals may be incorporated in the detection device 20. In this case, even when scouring does not occur, the communication means 22 can be periodically activated by the activation signal from the timer, and the signal can be transmitted to the ground side receiving device 30 by the low frequency magnetic field. This signal includes information such as the identification number of the detection device 20. Thereby, in the receiving device 30 that has received this signal, it is possible to confirm that the embedded sensor and the detecting device 20 are operating soundly.

  With reference to FIG. 2, a specific example of the combination of the trigger unit and the measurement unit 21 will be described.

  In this example, a capacitor is used as the trigger means. In the example of FIG. 2, four sensors 11 to 14 each including capacitors C1 to C4 are provided, and these are stacked on the detection device 20 at intervals and embedded in a river bed or the like. Each of the capacitors C1 to C4 is hermetically embedded in a case, for example, an insulating cylindrical case, is electrically connected in parallel, and is connected to the measuring means 21 via a capacitor C5 installed on the detection device 20 side. . As the wiring connecting the sensors 11 and 12, 12 and 13, 13 and 14, and the sensor 14 and the detection device 20, it is preferable to use a signal line that is easily cut when the sensor flows out.

  Since the capacitor is disconnected from the measuring unit 21 every time the sensor flows out from the upper side due to the erosion of the buried portion, the capacitance measured by the measuring unit 21 decreases. This can be considered that the trigger means built in the sensor that has flowed out generates a trigger signal upon the flow out. From this, the number of sensors connected can be measured by measuring the change in capacitance in the information generating circuit of the measuring means 21. Of course, since sensor outflow occurs in order from the top, it is possible to know in time series which sensor has flowed out by measuring the change in capacitance. In this way, when the capacitance changes, the measuring means 21 sends a signal indicating which sensor has flowed out to the communication means 22. The communication means 22 transmits a signal including this signal and identification information indicating the detection device 20 to the ground-side reception device 30 (FIG. 1) using a low-frequency magnetic field.

  A sensor incorporating a resistor may be used instead of the capacitor. In this case, since a plurality of resistors are connected in parallel to the measuring means 21, the resistance value measured by the measuring means 21 increases each time the sensor flows out from the upper side due to erosion of the buried portion. From this, the number of sensors connected can be measured by measuring the amount of increase in the resistance value in the information generation circuit of the measuring means 21. Of course, since sensor outflow occurs in order from the top, it is possible to know which sensor has flowed out by measuring the increase in resistance value. Thus, when the resistance value increases, the measuring means 21 sends a signal indicating which sensor has flowed out to the communication means 22. The communication means 22 transmits a signal including this signal and identification information indicating the detection device 20 to the reception device 30 on the ground side by a low frequency magnetic field. In the case of using a resistor, the resistance value of the resistor to be connected is made lower than the resistance value of the river or riverbed so that the resistance value is not affected by changes in the resistance value due to the buried environment or flood.

  In any case, this embodiment has an advantage that it is not necessary to incorporate a battery in the sensor.

  Next, the structure of the sensor, which is one of the features of the present invention, will be described with reference to FIGS. In the present invention, the specification of the sensor, here, the size and the specific gravity are taken into consideration. That is, in the erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention, the sensor that is the target of the outflow flows out in a state as close as possible, and the size of the sensor so that the presence of the sensor does not adversely affect the scouring of the buried area such as the riverbed, At least one of the specific gravity is set.

  FIG. 3 shows an example in which the sensor 11 is configured by using gravel 40 existing at an embedded location or its peripheral region. In particular, the gravel 40 measures the average particle diameter and specific gravity based on various types of gravel, and selects and uses the gravel having a value close to the measured average particle diameter and specific gravity. Speaking of the average particle size, it is usually about several centimeters to several tens of centimeters. An insulating hermetically sealed case 11-1 with a built-in trigger means is embedded in the selected gravel 40 by making a hole. Although not shown, when sealing the case 11-1 including the trigger means in the gravel 40, a signal line for connecting the trigger means to the measurement means is led out from the hole.

  FIG. 4 shows an example in the case where an object similar to the gravel 40 of FIG. 3 is artificially made. Here, the case 11-1 having a built-in trigger means is sealed using a high-strength concrete material 11-2. The overall size is matched to the measured average particle size of gravel as in the example of FIG. When a desired specific gravity cannot be obtained with only the high-strength concrete material 11-2, a specific gravity adjusting material having a large specific gravity such as iron or lead may be mixed. Also in this example, signal lines derived from the case 11-1 are not shown.

  FIG. 5 shows a second embodiment of the erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention, and a receiving device similar to the receiving device 30 shown in FIG. 1 is not shown. In the present embodiment, the sensors 15 and 16 and the detection device 25 communicate with each other wirelessly, particularly with radio waves. That is, the sensors 15 and 16 include the wireless transmission devices 15-2 and 16-2 in addition to the trigger units 15-1 and 16-1, respectively. For this reason, it is not necessary to connect each sensor and the detection apparatus 25 with a wire. On the other hand, the detection device 25 includes a measurement unit 26 including a receiving unit including an antenna that receives a radio signal from each sensor, and communication that adds the identification number of the detection device 25 to the received signal and transmits the signal in a low-frequency magnetic field. The means 27 is built in the sealed casing. Of course, both the sensor and the detection device incorporate a battery as a power source. As the trigger means used in the present embodiment, for example, a tilt sensor can be used. The tilt sensor is turned on when the sensor tilts during outflow and activates the wireless transmission device.

  With such a configuration, for example, when the sensor 15 flows out, the built-in wireless transmission device 15-2 is activated by the trigger means 15-1, and transmits a signal including identification information of the sensor 15 to the detection device 25 by radio waves. In this case, even if the sensor 15 is in water, the distance between the sensor 15 and the detection device 25 is usually within a few meters and is not large, so that even radio waves can be sufficiently communicated. In the detection device 25, the reception means 26 receives the radio signal from the sensor 15, and the communication means 27 further adds the identification information of the detection device 25 to this and transmits it to the reception device 30 (FIG. 1) in a low frequency magnetic field.

  FIG. 6 shows the mechanism of erosion in rivers. The erosion is divided into “lateral erosion” in which high water is eroded from the side of the low channel by flowing water and “direct erosion” in which the surface of the embankment and the bottom of the ridge are scoured. Broadly divided.

  The erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention can measure the erosion amount in time series for both the side erosion and the direct erosion. For example, when measuring lateral erosion using the erosion measuring apparatus shown in FIG. 5, as shown on the left side of FIG. 6, a plurality of sensors 15-19 are linearly spaced apart in the lateral direction. The detection device 25 is embedded at a position farthest from the waterside. In this case, the distance in the horizontal direction is the embedding depth. On the other hand, when measuring direct erosion, as shown in the right side of FIG. 6, a plurality of sensors 15 to 18 are linearly arranged at intervals in the vertical direction, and the detection device 25 is located at the deepest depth position. Buried in

  As described above, when the embedded sensor flows out after being scoured, a signal notifying the occurrence of erosion is transmitted from the outflow sensor to the detection device 25 by radio waves. The detection device 25 transmits the received radio wave signal to the reception device 30 (FIG. 1) provided at a remote position by using a low frequency magnetic field.

  FIG. 7 is a view for explaining the outflow mechanism of the sensor in the erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention.

  The erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention is particularly suitable for an environment with a lot of gravel, that is, a rapid stream (gravel river). As described above, the sensor according to the present invention measures gravel having various sizes and specific gravity actually existing in or around the buried site, and considers the average particle size and specific gravity. Because it is. Such a sensor behaves in a state close to nature during a flood, behaving in the same way as gravel surrounding it against running water and scouring. This means that when a plurality of sensors according to the present invention are embedded at different positions at the same depth, the scouring depth when the sensors flow out does not vary from sensor to sensor and is substantially uniform. In other words, it means that the measurement error of the scouring depth, that is, the erosion amount is reduced. In addition, the flow field is not changed by the presence of the sensor.

  However, this does not mean that the application location of the erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention is limited to only rapid rivers (gravel rivers), and monitors erosion of slow-flow rivers and sandy beaches such as clayey and sandy land. It can also be applied in coastal environments where necessary. Originally, if the gravel actually present at or near the buried site has an appropriate size, it can be said that there is little need to adjust the specific gravity when used as a sensor. However, when making a sensor artificially, there is a limit to the size that can be processed as a sensor. For this reason, if the size of gravel existing in and around the burial site is smaller than the size of the sensor that can be artificially created, the artificial sensor is realized by adjusting the specific gravity instead of selecting the size. This is preferable from the viewpoint of the similarity rule. In other words, in the above case, the specific gravity may be adjusted so that the outflow is performed in a natural state in consideration of the environment of the buried portion, for example, the speed of running water.

  Next, with reference to FIG. 8, an example of the construction method of the erosion measuring apparatus by this invention is demonstrated. When constructing the erosion measuring apparatus, a jig as shown in FIG. 8 is used. This jig is devised for the following two points.

1. The detection device and a plurality of sensors can be embedded integrally.
2. Two types of spacers were created to ensure that the sensor could be installed.

  In FIG. 8, a jig 50 includes a plurality of holding spacers 51 for holding a plurality (here, three) of sensors 15, 16, and 17 from both sides (here, up and down) in the depth direction, and each sensor. And a spacer 52 for adjusting the height of the sensor disposed between the holding spacer 51 and the holding spacer 51, and each holding spacer 51 extending in the vertical direction so as to be sandwiched from both sides at the peripheral edge thereof, and detected. It includes a plurality of (two in this case) support columns 53 that can be attached to and detached from the housing of the device 25 by screwing. The holding spacer 52 may be sandwiched by the support pillars 53 through a recess provided in the peripheral portion of the holding spacer 51, or may be performed by providing a hole in the peripheral portion.

  The support column 53 is made of steel and has a male screw portion provided at the tip thereof, and a female screw portion into which the male screw portion can be screwed is provided on the detection device 25 side. Plural types of support columns 53 having different lengths depending on the embedding depth may be prepared. The holding spacer 51 and the height adjusting spacer 52 are made of, for example, mortar. In particular, a plurality of types of height adjusting spacers 52 having different thicknesses are prepared. In addition, as shown in FIG. 8, if the sensor has a spherical shape or a shape close thereto, it is desirable that the height adjusting spacer 52 has a curved portion capable of receiving it. Since the holding spacer 51 can be easily moved up and down with respect to the support column 53, when changing the height (embedding depth) position of the sensor, the height adjusting spacer 52 having a thickness suitable for it is selected. And interposed between the sensor and the holding spacer 51.

  At the time of construction, excavation of the buried part is carried out first. When the excavation is finished, the assembled assembly as shown in FIG. When the assembly is finished, the excavated sand, gravel, etc. are backfilled. When the assembly is backfilled to the level before excavation, the column 53 is turned and removed from the detection device 25. Since the column 53 is only screwed into the detection device 25, the column 53 can be easily removed by simply turning the column 53. This is the end of the burial operation.

  Although the above construction method is the same as that in the first embodiment, it is needless to say that the construction method described above is a preferable example, and the construction method of the erosion measuring apparatus of the present invention is not limited to this. For example, the erosion measuring apparatus may be embedded without a jig as shown in FIG.

  As described above, the sensor according to the present invention is effective particularly when the erosion measuring apparatus is embedded in the river bed because the size and specific gravity are taken into consideration. That is, when embedding this type of erosion measuring device in a river bed, the detection device and the sensor are normally buried by excavating the river bed after damming the periphery of the buried region. However, even if weiring is performed, water is unavoidable, and in order to embed a sensor having a foam material as shown in Patent Document 1, it is necessary to perform embedment work while suppressing the rise of the sensor. . On the other hand, since the sensor according to the present invention does not need such, the embedding work becomes very easy. This is the same even in places where water is likely to spring out when digging, even in high water beds.

  In addition, as described above, when the erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention is installed in an environment with a lot of gravel, the gravel generated by excavation of the river bed can be used for backfilling as it is.

  As mentioned above, although two embodiments of the erosion measuring apparatus by this invention were described, the erosion measuring apparatus by this invention is not limited to these two embodiments. For example, the trigger means is not limited to the capacitor, resistor, and tilt sensor described above, and a combination of a permanent magnet and a reed switch may be used. In this case, the trigger means is configured such that the permanent magnet and the reed switch are adjacently opposed for each sensor, and the reed switch is activated by separating the permanent magnet from the reed switch when the sensor flows out by scouring. . Then, the measuring means detects the operation of the reed switch as a trigger signal.

  In addition to one-way communication from the detection device side to the reception device side, bidirectional communication is performed by providing the detection device with a low-frequency magnetic field signal reception means and the reception device with a low-frequency magnetic field transmission means. May be. In this case, for example, the timer function described above can be realized on the receiving device side.

  Next, an example of a real-time monitoring system using the erosion measurement apparatus according to the above embodiment will be described with reference to FIGS. 9 and 10. The real-time monitoring system according to this example uses at least one, preferably a plurality of combinations of one or more erosion measuring devices and receiving devices that receive low-frequency magnetic field signals therefrom, and adds a transmission function to the receiving devices. As a relay means, low-frequency magnetic field signals from multiple receivers are centrally managed in real time by executing predetermined processing at locations such as management centers and management offices (hereinafter referred to as management centers). Suitable for doing.

  For example, when a region where erosion is to be measured in a river (hereinafter referred to as measurement points) is scattered in multiple regions (multiple measurement points) that are separated from each other, a low-frequency magnetic field from the erosion measurement device A transmitting / receiving device that receives a signal with a receiving antenna, converts the received signal into a signal suitable for wireless or wired transmission, and transmits the signal to the management center is arranged at each measurement point. The management center includes a receiving device that receives signals from each transmitting / receiving device, a processing device such as a computer that executes predetermined processing using the received signals, a display device that displays processing results, a printer that prints processing results, and the like Is placed. The processing device also displays on the display device when it is necessary to issue an alarm according to the processing result, for example. In addition, an alarm device may be installed in an area (area) adjacent to each measurement point, and a warning from the processing device may be transmitted to prompt local residents to evacuate. The processing device includes a storage device. The storage device stores a measurement result and a processing result, and also stores a program for executing the predetermined processing.

  FIG. 9 schematically shows a combination of a plurality of (four sets in this case) erosion measurement apparatuses 101-1 to 101-4 included in the real-time monitoring system as described above and one transmission / reception apparatus 110 having a reception antenna. It shows. In this example, in addition to the erosion measuring device, which is also called a wireless erosion sensor, a rainfall measuring device (not shown), a water level measuring device (not shown), infiltration line measuring devices 121-1, 121-2, and measurement points as necessary A TV camera (not shown) that obtains a monitoring image of the area is installed in each measurement point area, and the rainfall, river level, and infiltration lines on the bank are measured, and the measurement results are transmitted periodically. The TV camera is preferably capable of remote control. When the power is on, the monitoring image data of the measurement point area is continuously transmitted. These measuring devices are well known. For example, with respect to the infiltrating line measuring device, for example, a so-called wireless pore water pressure gauge with a built-in battery can be used. This type of infiltration line measuring device is embedded in the embankment soil at intervals in the width direction at each measurement point, and measures the infiltration line in the embankment soil due to river flooding and rainfall itself in real time. Is. Like the erosion measuring device, the infiltrating wire measuring devices 121-1 and 121-2 transmit the measurement results to the transmission / reception device 110 by communication means using a low-frequency magnetic field signal. Since the rainfall measuring device and the water level measuring device are installed on the ground, it is not necessary to use the low-frequency magnetic field signal. When the low-frequency magnetic field signal is not used, the transmitting / receiving device has a function of receiving these signals. Of course, the signal from the rainfall measuring device, the signal from the water level measuring device, the monitoring image data from the TV camera, the low frequency magnetic field signal from the erosion measuring devices 101-1 to 101-4, the infiltrating wire measuring devices 121-1, 121. The low frequency magnetic field signal from -2 is added with identification information for identifying each of them and identification information such as a number for specifying the device itself. Further, even when signals are simultaneously received from a plurality of types of measuring devices, the respective signals can be identified.

  Strictly speaking, the levee consists of a levee body and the foundation ground below the front and bottom edges of the dam body. The infiltration line measuring device measures the water level in the soil in the levee body, and the infiltration line (or infiltration surface) in the soil in the levee body is measured by connecting the measurement results of a plurality of infiltration line measuring devices. .

  FIG. 10 shows a system configuration on the management center side in the real-time monitoring system. As described above, a plurality of types of measuring devices (here, only the erosion measuring device 101-1 and the infiltrating line measuring device 121-1 are illustrated) at a plurality of measurement points (here, only one location is given a reference number). ) And the transmission / reception device 110 are installed. On the management center side, as described above, a receiving device 210 that receives signals from a plurality of transmitting / receiving devices including the transmitting / receiving device 110 and converts them into digital data, and a processing device 200 for processing the digital data from the receiving device 210. A storage device 220 for storing raw data and processing results before processing, a display device 230 for displaying processing results, and a printer 240 for printing out processing results. The processing results and the like are stored in the storage device 220 (server) as a database and stored in a specific user terminal 250 or management center determined in advance via a LAN (local area network), an intranet, the Internet, or the like. It can be provided to other terminals outside the management center. The transmission / reception device 110 and the reception device 210 may be realized by one device when the measurement point and the management center are close to each other.

  As is clear from the above brief description, the real-time monitoring system according to the present invention has developed a new means for monitoring the situation of river erosion and coastal erosion that has not been provided so far. It is possible to grasp the actual situation such as changes in real time in a time series.

  This real-time monitoring system is also equipped with a means to monitor the condition of river water in the river levee (strictly, the levee body) and the infiltration line due to rainfall separately from the erosion status. The situation of the infiltration line can be grasped in real time in time series.

  The reason why it is necessary to monitor the state of the infiltrating lines in the dike soil is as follows. When the amount of water penetration into the dike soil increases, the water level in the dike soil rises. In FIG. 9, the infiltrating line is indicated by a curve in the cross-sectional portion of the bank body. When this water level exceeds a certain value, the risk of bank breakage (breakwater) increases. Therefore, the water level in the levee soil is monitored, and some measures are taken before the water level exceeds a certain value.

  As can be understood from the above points, this real-time monitoring system contributes to ensuring and improving the safety of river facilities such as dikes against erosion and infiltration.

  The real-time monitoring system according to the present invention receives and processes the above-described real-time observation information of measurement data and image data by the processing device 200 via the transmission / reception device 110 and the reception device 210, and processes the processing result using the Internet or the like. Through communication, distribution can be automatically performed to a predetermined user terminal that can use the network. The user terminal can centrally manage the real-time observation information on the web (unified management), and can perform remote monitoring / operation (for example, turning on / off the TV camera). In addition, an alarm can be issued if necessary.

  The recorded data stored in the storage device 220 is automatically made into a database that can be collected and organized in order to improve the efficiency of analysis work in subsequent verification. Along with the display of the list of recorded data, it is possible to output to CSV format (Comma Separated Value Format). In addition, a record data search function for a necessary period in the past is added as history data.

  In particular, as real-time observation information on erosion, the sensor ID of the sensor in the erosion measuring device, the departure time, the measured value of the river water level, and the like can be distributed as a time-varying diagram.

  In addition, as real-time observation information for infiltration, it is possible to distribute infiltration lines in the bank at the measurement point, river water level, real-time measurement values of rainfall data, etc. as a time-varying diagram.

  Although a server is provided to distribute data via the Internet, an intranet, or a LAN, the illustration is omitted in FIG. As for the processing device 200 side, the combination of the processing device 200 and the storage device 220 itself may have a server function.

  Below, the display form in the display apparatus 230 in this real-time monitoring system is demonstrated. The following display modes are realized by the processing device 200 executing display control of the display device 230 based on a program stored in the storage device 220.

  In this real-time monitoring system, it is possible to display the latest state of cross-sectional view information and measurement result information of a selected measurement point among a plurality of measurement points. Further, the change over time of the measurement result information can be switched and displayed as either graph information or list format information based on measurement values. Furthermore, the measurement result information can be automatically updated to the latest information at a set time pitch.

  The following seven types of display screens are given as main examples of display forms.

1. System login screen (not shown)
2. Measurement point position screen (Figure 11)
3. Real-time monitoring screen (Figure 12)
4). History data search screen (Fig. 15)
5. System management information menu screen (Fig. 16)
6). User management screen (Fig. 17)
7). Measurement time setting screen (Figure 18)

  Hereinafter, the display function will be described with reference to FIG. 19 which is a flowchart showing the display progress of the main screen among the display functions realized by the program according to the present invention.

[System login screen]
As is well known, the system login screen is a screen that is displayed to prompt the user to input a user ID and password when logging into the system (step S11 in FIG. 19). If the user ID and password entered on this screen are valid (steps S12 and S13 in FIG. 19), the measurement location map screen is normally displayed (step S14 in FIG. 19).

  If the user ID and password input in step S13 are not valid, the process proceeds to step S13-1 to prompt re-input.

[Measurement location map]
As shown in FIG. 11, on the measurement point position map screen, a plan view (FIG. 11a) of the main area of the river to be measured is initially displayed in the area on the left side of the screen. Here, four locations A, B, C, and D of the river are shown as measurement points. The measurement points are mainly set at meandering points in rivers, and in particular, there are many shores (water impingement parts) where water currents collide, but this is not restrictive. Further, a list guidance (FIG. 11b) for indicating which of the four measurement points to select is displayed in the area on the right side of the screen. Here, in order to simplify the explanation, the measurement points A and D are 6.0 km and 10.0 km upstream from the estuary, respectively, and the infiltration line measuring device is installed. , C shows that erosion measuring devices are installed on the right bank and the left bank 7.0 km and 8.0 km upstream from the estuary, respectively. Of course, as described with reference to FIG. 9, both the erosion measurement device and the infiltration line measurement device are usually installed at the same measurement point.

  When one of the measurement points (points) on the plan view is designated with a cursor and clicked on such a display screen (step S15 in FIG. 19), the [real-time monitoring screen] of the corresponding location is displayed ( Step S16 in FIG. 19).

  In the case of a display screen on the user terminal 250 to which the administrator authority is granted, a transition button (not shown) to a “system management information menu screen” described later on the screen can be pressed by a cursor.

  In addition, when the number of measurement points increases in the future for the displayed plan view and it becomes necessary to manage more detailed installation points, the map will be enlarged to update the map information of the plan view to a more detailed one. -Equipped with an expansion function that can be reduced.

Explanation of Selection Items on Display Screen Measurement Point Designation Button: Number buttons (A to D in FIG. 11) are displayed at the measurement point on the plan view of the target river on the left side of the screen. By clicking any number button, the [Real-time monitoring screen] of the corresponding measurement point is displayed.

  Real-time situation measurement point list button: The current measurement point list for the real-time situation (upper side in FIG. 11b) is displayed on the right side of the screen. Also from here, by clicking the button of any measurement point, the [real-time monitoring screen] of the corresponding measurement point is displayed in the same manner as the measurement point designation button.

  History data search measurement point list button: A list of current measurement points for history data search (upper side in FIG. 11b) is displayed on the right side of the screen. From here, by clicking one of the measurement point buttons (step S17 in FIG. 19), the [history data search screen] of the corresponding measurement point is displayed (step in FIG. 19) in the same manner as the measurement point designation button. S18). Note that there are various types of screen switching in step S18 of FIG. 19, as will be described later. Further, in FIG. 19, for the sake of simplicity, only the display-off step S19 is shown after the screen switching.

  System management information button: A button for displaying a menu screen of system management information. This button is displayed in the upper right area of FIG. 11 only when administrator authority is given to the logged-in user terminal (not shown).

  Logout button: A button for ending the screen of FIG. 11 and displaying the above-mentioned [system login screen] (not shown).

[Real-time monitoring screen]
There are two types of real-time monitoring screens: an erosion measurement device (FIG. 12) and an infiltration line measurement device (FIG. 13). First, FIG. 12 will be described.

  As shown in FIG. 12, the real-time monitoring screen displays the cross-sectional view information (FIG. 12c) of the selected measurement point and the change over time of the measurement data (FIG. 12d). The temporal change of measurement data can be displayed by switching between a graph format (FIG. 12d) and a numerical list format (described later). This screen is automatically updated with the latest information at a set time pitch.

Explanation of selection items on display screen Measurement point designation: As shown in FIG. 12 (a), as in FIG. 11 (b), all measurement points A to D are displayed in a list, and the measurement points currently selected and displayed. The column (here, measurement point C) is displayed in red. At the same time, since “erosion” is selected from “erosion” and “penetration”, the display method of the cross-sectional view of the measurement point is set to the display method of “erosion”. In other words, in the case of “erosion”, a cross section of the high waterbed of the river is mainly displayed as shown in FIG. 12C in addition to FIG. In addition to FIG. 13A similar to FIG. 13A, a cross section including a dike as shown in FIG. 13B is displayed.

  In FIG. 12 (c), four erosion measuring devices C1-1-1, C1-1-2, C1-1-3, C1-1-4 are embedded at intervals in the river width direction. Is displayed by displaying these device numbers. In particular, the erosion measuring device C1-1-4 at the location closest to the flow (ordinary riverbank) indicates that a plurality of sensors are embedded side by side in order to measure “lateral erosion”. Is displayed. The graphic indicating each erosion measuring device is made to express the erosion depth by coloring the grid, and a numerical value indicating the current erosion depth is displayed below each graphic. At present, the measurement results by the erosion measuring devices C1-1-1, C1-1-2, C1-1-3, and C1-1-4 are 0.00m, 0.90m, 1.40m, and 1.60m, respectively. Is displayed.

  In FIG. 12C, the measurement result by the water level measuring device is also displayed in real time as a bar graph and a numerical value. At present, it is displayed that the water level is 20.0m, but for the display of this water level, here is the altitude display (the altitude standard is set to altitude standard 0, and the height is displayed from there) Adopted.

  In this example, in particular, an arrow is displayed below the bar graph of the water level. This arrow indicates that the water level is in a parallel state when facing right, as shown in the figure, and indicates that the water level is rising and is downward when it is downward. Such discrimination is made by comparing the current water level with the previous water level.

  In the real-time monitoring screen, in addition to FIGS. 12A and 12C, graph information shown in FIG. 12D is displayed on one screen as a time-dependent change diagram. In FIG. 12 (d), with respect to the rainfall by the rainfall measuring device, the change with time up to the present time is displayed on the horizontal axis by a bar graph. On the other hand, with regard to the water level (elevation display) by the water level measuring device and the erosion depth by the erosion measuring devices C1-1-1 to C1-1-4, the change over time up to the present time is displayed on the horizontal axis by a line graph. Yes.

  In general, a plurality of erosion measuring devices are installed at intervals in the width direction of the river. However, these erosion measuring devices are grouped into one group, and the plurality of groups are spaced in the direction of the river flow at the same measurement point. In some cases, it is installed. For example, in the case where three groups, each of which has four erosion measuring devices, are installed at the measurement point C, when the measurement point C in FIG. 12 (a) is selected, as shown in FIG. 12 (b). The four erosion measuring devices C1-1-1 to C1-1-4, C2-1-1 to C2-1-4, and C3-1-1 to three locations C1, C2, and C3 of the measurement point C, respectively. It is displayed that C3-1-4 is installed. In this case, for example, the measurement points C1, C2, and C3 are selected by clicking the buttons of the measurement points C1, C2, and C3. Then, a cross-sectional view of the selected measurement point is displayed as shown in FIG. Needless to say, FIG. 12B is not displayed when only one group is installed at the same measurement point.

  Water level information display designation: As described in FIG. 12 (c), the water level information measured by the water level measuring device is displayed. The display method is the altitude display, and the actual water level display at the measurement point (for example, table glue) It is possible to select either of the bottom (inside of the bank) altitude value with zero point altitude).

  Display switching button: By clicking the measurement point or water level information display button, the measurement point can be switched or the display method of the water level information can be switched.

  “Refresh” button: Re-acquire the current measurement data and redisplay the cross-sectional view and changes over time with the latest information.

  “Screen Print” button: Prints out the measurement data displayed on the current screen.

  “History data search” button: Displays past measurement data as a “history data search screen” (described later). This [history data search screen] is displayed on the [real-time monitoring screen] together with the images of FIG. 12 (c) and FIG. 13 (b).

  “Graph Enlarge Display” button: Click to open another screen and enlarge the currently displayed graph.

  “List display” button: Changes the displayed graph notation of the time-dependent change to a numerical list format. A list-format display screen will be described later.

  “Return” button: This screen is terminated and the “Measurement point position diagram screen” of FIG. 11 is displayed.

  Next, the [real-time monitoring screen] by the infiltrating line measuring device will be described, but the difference from FIG. 12 is only the difference of the measuring device.

  As shown in FIG. 13, the “real-time monitoring screen” displays cross-sectional information (FIG. 13 b) of the selected measurement point, and changes over time of the measurement data. The time-dependent change of the measurement data can be displayed by switching between graph information (FIG. 13c) and numerical list format information (described later). This screen also automatically updates the latest information at a set time pitch.

Explanation of selection items on display screen Measurement point designation: As shown in FIG. 13 (a), as in FIG. 11 (b), all measurement points A to D are displayed as a list, and currently selected and displayed. The column (here, measurement point D) is displayed in red. At the same time, since “penetration” is selected from “erosion” and “penetration”, the cross-sectional view display method of the measurement point is set to the “penetration” display method. That is, in the case of “penetration”, a cross section mainly including a bank is displayed as shown in FIG. 13B in addition to FIG.

  In FIG. 13 (b), four infiltration line measuring devices D1-1-1, D1-1-2, D1-1-3, D1-1-4 are embedded at intervals in the width direction of the levee body. Is displayed by displaying these device numbers. And in the screen position corresponding to each infiltration line measuring device, the water level in the soil is represented by the above-mentioned altitude display by a bar graph, and a numerical value indicating the current water level in the soil is below each bar graph. It is displayed. At present, the measurement results by the infiltration line measuring devices D1-1-1, D1-1-2, D1-1-3, and D1-1-4 are 15.2 m, 15.8 m, 18.0 m, and 19. 2m is displayed. Also in the case of the soil water level, an arrow is displayed below the bar graph, similar to the river water level. As described above, when the arrow points to the right, it indicates that the soil water level is in a parallel state, upward indicates that it is rising, and downward indicates that it is falling. This determination is also made by comparing the current water level with the previous water level.

  Also in FIG. 13B, the measurement result by the water level measurement device is displayed in real time in the form of a graph and a numerical value. At the present time, it is displayed that the water level (altitude display) is 20.0 m. Below the bar graph of the water level, an arrow indicating whether the water level is currently in a parallel state, rising or falling is shown.

  In the [real-time monitoring screen] by the infiltration line measuring device, in addition to FIGS. 13 (a) and 13 (b), graph information shown in FIG. 13 (c) is displayed on one screen as a change with time. In FIG. 13C as well, with respect to the rainfall by the rainfall measuring device, the change with time up to the present time is displayed on the horizontal axis by a bar graph. On the other hand, for the river water level by the water level measuring device and the in-soil water level by the infiltrating line measuring devices D1-1-1 to D1-1-4, the change over time up to the present time is displayed on the horizontal axis by a line graph. Yes.

  A plurality of infiltration line measuring devices are usually installed at intervals in the width direction of the dike, but these infiltration line measuring devices are grouped into one group, and the plurality of groups are spaced in the river flow direction at the same measurement point. In some cases, it is installed. In such a case, the display as described with reference to FIG.

  Water level information display designation: As described in Fig. 13 (b), the water level information measured by the water level measuring device is displayed, and the display method is selected from either altitude display or actual water level display at the measurement point. it can.

  Display switching button: By clicking the measurement point or water level information display button, the measurement point can be switched or the display method of the water level information can be switched.

  “Refresh” button: Re-acquire the current measurement data and re-display the cross-sectional view and time-varying diagram with the latest information.

  “Screen Print” button: Prints out the measurement data displayed on the current screen.

  “History data search” button: Displays past measurement data as a “history data search screen” (described later). This [history data search screen] is also displayed on the [real-time monitoring screen] together with the images of FIG. 13 (a) and FIG. 13 (b) instead of the graph information (or list format) of FIG. 13 (c). .

  “Enlarge graph” button: Click this button to open a separate window and enlarge the currently displayed graph.

  "List display" button: Changes the displayed graph notation of the change over time to a numerical list format (described later).

  “Return” button: This screen is terminated and the “Measurement point position diagram screen” of FIG. 11 is displayed.

Extended function of real-time monitoring screen The following extended functions are given to the above-mentioned [Real-time monitoring screen].

  Automatic cross-section creation function with the increase in the number of measurement points and the number of measurement devices installed: automatic cross-sectional views as shown in FIGS. 12 (c) and 13 (b) in case the number of measurement points or each measurement device is increased. It has a creation (automatic drawing) function.

  Live video display: A live video display of the local (measurement point) by a TV camera is displayed on the [Real-time monitoring screen] (or another window).

  Warning message display: A warning value is set for each measuring device, and a warning message is displayed on the screen when the latest measured value exceeds the warning value.

  Next, the “list form screen” will be described.

  When the “List display” button displayed in the [Real-time monitoring screen] is clicked, the part displayed in the graph as shown in FIG. 13C is changed into a list form with numerical values as shown in FIG. The display can be changed as a figure. That is, a list of measured values for the past predetermined time (for example, 24 hours) from the latest (most recent) state is displayed. Since it is a display screen by the infiltration line measuring apparatus in FIG. 14, the measured values to be displayed are the rainfall data, the measurement data of the infiltration line measuring apparatus installed at the designated measurement point, and the water level data of the river. .

Explanation of Selected Items on Display Screen “CSV Output” Button: The currently displayed list information can be output to a CSV file.

  “Graph” button: Returns the displayed list format to the graph format.

  Next, the “history data search screen” will be described.

  When the “history data search” button described above is clicked in the “real time monitoring screen” in the case of the infiltration line measuring device, a history data search screen as shown in FIG. 15 is displayed. FIG. 15 shows a history data search screen in the case of the infiltrating line measuring apparatus as described in FIG. 13, a condition input section on the upper side of the screen, a sectional view of the middle measurement point, and a history data display on the lower side. Consists of parts. The same applies to the [Real-time monitoring screen] in the case of the erosion measuring apparatus. By specifying conditions such as “measurement point” and “display period” in the condition input section of this history data search screen, information measured in the past is read from the storage device 220 in the database and displayed at the bottom of the screen. Displayed as history data. As with the [Real-time monitoring screen], changes over time can be displayed by selecting either graph format or list format. For convenience, FIG. 15 shows both the graph format and the list format for the rainfall, the infiltrating line (the soil water level), and the river water level.

Explanation of selection items on the display screen Specify measurement point: Select the measurement point you want to search and display.

  Specify display period: Enter the measurement period (start to end) you want to search and display.

  Display interval specification: Enter the display interval (measurement interval) of the measurement data to be searched and displayed.

  Section view display period designation: Designates the date and time to be displayed in the section view.

  Water level information display specification: Select the display method of the displayed water level information (altitude display / actual water level display at the measurement point).

  “Search execution” button: Clicking the search execution button on the screen searches and displays past measurement data based on the search conditions specified above.

  “Screen Print” button: Prints the currently displayed measurement data.

  “Close” button: Click the “Close” button on the screen to exit this screen and return to the [Real-time monitoring screen].

Extended function of history data search screen Registration of famous floods: “Famous floods” can be registered for the measured rainfall data, and the history data can also be searched based on the information.

  Next, the [system management information menu screen] will be described. This screen is displayed when the transition button to the [System management information menu screen] is clicked with the cursor on the [Measurement point position map screen] described above.

  As shown in FIG. 16, management information (user information, various measurement management information, etc.) necessary for managing the real-time monitoring system is displayed as a menu.

Explanation of Selected Items on Display Screen “User Management” Button: When the “User Management” button on the system management information menu screen in FIG. 16 is clicked, a “User Management Screen” to be described later is displayed.

  “Measurement time setting” button: When a “measurement time setting” button on the system management information menu screen of FIG. 16 is clicked, a “measurement time setting screen” to be described later is displayed.

  “Return” button: When the “return” button in the “system management information menu screen” in FIG. 16 is clicked, the screen returns to the “measurement location map” screen in FIG.

  Next, [User Management Screen] will be described. This screen is displayed when the “user management” button is clicked on the “system management information menu screen” described above.

  User information using the real-time monitoring system can be registered / updated using the [User Management Screen] shown in FIG. The user information manages the name, password, usage authority, etc. of each user terminal.

Explanation of selection items on the display screen “New registration” button: When a new user is registered, the new registration button at the upper left of the screen is clicked.

  Registered user list information: Displays a list of currently registered user information. When updating registered user information, No. at the left end of the list. Click the column to display the corresponding information in the individual user information column on the right side of the screen, and correct each value.

  Individual user information: This field is used when newly registering user information, or when updating / deleting already registered user information. When the “New Registration” button at the top left of the screen is clicked, “New User Information” is displayed at the top of this column. When a user (No. column) in the registered user list information on the left side of the screen is selected, the upper part of this column displays “existing user information”, and information on the selected user is displayed in the following user setting items. (When updating / deleting an existing user)

  User ID: Enter the user ID for registration / update.

  User name: Enter the user name to be registered / updated.

  Password: Enter the password to register / update (input value is displayed in mask).

  Password (re-enter): Re-enter the password to confirm the input (the input value is displayed as a mask).

  Authority: The authority that the applicable user can use for this real-time monitoring system can be specified. The authority is selected from “administrator” and “general”.

  “Register” button: Registers / updates user information with the input value.

  “Delete” button: Deletes the selected user information.

  Input description: Displays the description of the input item.

  “Return” button: Exits this screen and displays the [System Management Information Menu Screen].

Extended function of user management screen Sending an alarm when the warning value is exceeded When the measured value exceeds the warning value, it has a function to deliver e-mails etc. to each user terminal via the network. In that case, a “warning mail delivery presence / absence” item is added to the management item of the user management information, and a detailed delivery content can be set. As a display form of the alarm by the display device, for example, in addition to the list guidance of the measurement points as shown in Fig. 11 (b), there is a measuring instrument that exceeds the warning value on the red background! Check the following measurement points! >> A comment such as “>>” and a measurement point exceeding the warning value, the sensor type, the sensor number, and the like are displayed in white under the comment.

  Next, the [Measurement time setting screen] will be described. This screen is displayed when the “measurement time setting” button is clicked on the [system menu management screen] described above.

  [Measurement time setting screen] is a screen for managing the measurement time (interval) of each measurement device used for measurement, as shown in FIG. The measurement time that can be set can be specified for each measuring device.

Explanation of selection items on display screen Measurement point designation: When a measurement point to be searched is selected, a list of measurement devices at the target measurement point is displayed below.

  Registered measurement device measurement time information: Lists each measurement device at the measurement point specified above. If you want to update the registered measurement time, select No. Click the column to display the corresponding information in the individual measuring device information column at the bottom of the screen and correct each value. Depending on the device type (connection type) of the measuring device, the measurement / recording time may be updated immediately, or may be updated after a certain time. And “time during which the measuring apparatus is operating (latest)” are displayed.

  Individual measuring device information: Use this field when updating measuring device measuring time information already registered. When the corresponding measuring device (No. column) of the registered measuring device measurement time information at the top of the screen is selected, the information of the selected measuring device is displayed in each of the following measuring device information items (“No.”, “Measurement”). "Point", "Measurement device", and "Measurement symbol" fields cannot be updated.)

  Measurement time: Select the measurement time for registration / update.

  Recording time: Select the recording time to register / update.

  “Update” button: Updates the measurement / recording time with the input value.

  “Cancel” button: Cancels the entered information and does not update the information.

  Input description: Displays the description of the input item.

  “Return” button: Exits this screen and displays the [System management information menu screen].

Automatic change control of the measurement interval on the measurement time setting screen The measurement time is managed in two times, “normal time” and “at the time of flood”, and the pitch of the measurement time is automatically set when the measurement value exceeds the warning value Can be switched to. For example, measurement is performed at intervals of 1 hour during normal times, and measurement is performed at intervals of 10 minutes during floods. With such a function, it is possible to extend the battery life of the battery built-in type measuring device.

  By inputting the management coefficient (initial value, correction coefficient, etc.) of each measuring apparatus on this screen, it becomes possible to operate the apparatus adjustment of the measuring apparatus by the system administrator.

  The display form by the display device 230 has been described above, but the above display form is only an example, and the display form in the real-time monitoring system according to the present invention is not limited to the above form. Needless to say, the above display form can be displayed on the display device of the user terminal as well. That is, not only measurement data is simply provided to the user terminal, but information is provided in the above display form.

  Further, in the above-described real-time monitoring system, the case where an infiltration line measuring device is provided in addition to the erosion measuring device has been described. What is necessary is just to provide the measuring apparatus.

FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a basic configuration of a first embodiment of an erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a diagram for explaining a specific example of the combination of the trigger unit and the measurement unit shown in FIG. FIG. 3 is a view for explaining the structure of the sensor shown in FIG. FIG. 4 is a diagram for explaining another example of the structure of the sensor shown in FIG. FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing a basic configuration of the second embodiment of the erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention. FIG. 6 is a diagram for explaining a case where lateral erosion and direct erosion are measured by the erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention. FIG. 7 is a view for explaining the outflow mechanism of the sensor in the erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention. FIG. 8 is a diagram for explaining an example of the construction method of the erosion measuring apparatus according to the present invention. It is a figure for demonstrating schematic structure of embodiment of the real-time monitoring system using the erosion measuring apparatus by this invention. It is the figure which showed the block configuration of the real-time monitoring system by this invention. It is the figure which showed the measurement point position map screen as an example of the display form by the display apparatus in the real-time monitoring system of FIG. It is the figure which showed the real-time monitoring screen at the time of using an erosion measuring apparatus as an example of the display form by the display apparatus in the real-time monitoring system of FIG. It is the figure which showed the real-time monitoring screen at the time of using an infiltration line measuring apparatus as an example of the display form by the display apparatus in the real-time monitoring system of FIG. It is the figure which showed the list display screen as an example of the display form by the display apparatus in the real-time monitoring system of FIG. It is the figure which showed the log | history data search screen at the time of using an infiltration line measuring apparatus as an example of the display form by the display apparatus in the real-time monitoring system of FIG. It is the figure which showed the system management information menu screen as an example of the display form by the display apparatus in the real-time monitoring system of FIG. It is the figure which showed the user management screen as an example of the display form by the display apparatus in the real-time monitoring system of FIG. It is the figure which showed the measurement time setting screen as an example of the display form by the display apparatus in the real-time monitoring system of FIG. It is a flowchart for demonstrating the display progress of the main screens among the display functions implement | achieved by the program by this invention.

Explanation of symbols

11 to 19 Sensor 11-1 Case 11-2 High-strength concrete material 15-1, 16-1 Trigger unit 15-2, 16-2 Wireless transmission device 20, 25 Detection device 21, 26 Measuring unit 22, 27 Communication unit 30 Receiving device 40 Gravel 50 Jig 101-1 to 101-4, C1-1-1 to C1-1-4 Erosion measuring device 121-1, 121-2, D1-1-1 to D1-1-4 Infiltrating line measuring device

Claims (16)

  1. One or more sensors having built-in trigger means for informing outflow when flowing out from an embedded location due to erosion of flowing water, and the presence or absence of outflow of the sensor and the outflow sensor are determined in cooperation with the trigger means. Measurement means, communication means for wirelessly transmitting the determination result by the measurement means, and receiving means for receiving the determination result installed in a place different from the embedded location,
    An erosion measuring apparatus characterized in that at least one of a size and a specific gravity of the sensor is set to a value that allows the outflow to occur in a state close to nature.
  2.   The said communication means transmits the said discrimination | determination result by a low frequency magnetic field signal, The erosion measuring apparatus of Claim 1 characterized by the above-mentioned.
  3.   3. The erosion measuring apparatus according to claim 1, wherein at least one of a size and a specific gravity of the sensor is set in consideration of an average particle size and a specific gravity of gravel in a peripheral region including the embedded portion.
  4.   The sensor is a sensor in which at least one of the average particle diameter and the specific gravity is taken into consideration by embedding the trigger means inside the gravel itself having the average particle diameter in the peripheral region including the embedded portion. The erosion measuring apparatus according to claim 3.
  5.   The sensor is configured such that the trigger means is covered with a jacket material, and the size of the entire sensor is adjusted to the average particle size of gravel in a peripheral region including the buried portion, and a specific gravity adjusting material is applied to the jacket material as necessary. 4. The erosion measuring apparatus according to claim 3, wherein mixing is performed so that the specific gravity of the entire sensor is matched with the specific gravity of gravel in a peripheral region including the buried portion.
  6.   A plurality of sensors are embedded at different depths in the embedded locations, respectively, and the measuring means and the communication means are housed in a housing and embedded at a position deeper than a sensor in the deepest part as a detection device. The erosion measuring apparatus in any one of 1-5.
  7.   The sensor further includes a transmitting means for transmitting a signal indicating sensor outflow by the trigger means by radio waves, and the measuring means has a receiving means for receiving a signal from the transmitting means. The erosion measuring apparatus according to claim 1, wherein presence / absence of outflow and a sensor that has flowed out are determined.
  8.   8. The erosion according to claim 5, further comprising timer means for periodically starting the communication means to transmit a signal including at least identification information of the detection apparatus. measuring device.
  9. It is the construction method of the erosion measuring apparatus in any one of Claims 6-8,
    A jig for integrally assembling the plurality of sensors and the detection device is used,
    The jig includes a plurality of holding spacers for holding each sensor from both sides in the depth direction, and a plurality of height adjusting spacers disposed so as to be interposed between the holding spacer and the sensor. A plurality of support columns penetrating the peripheral edge of each holding spacer and detachable from the detection device,
    The construction method of the erosion measuring apparatus characterized by extracting the said several support | pillar after embedding the assembly which assembled | assembled these sensors and the said detection apparatus integrally with the said jig | tool at the embedding location.
  10. A real-time monitoring system comprising at least one erosion measuring device according to any one of claims 2 to 8, and processing a signal from the erosion measuring device to monitor an erosion state in real time,
    A transmission / reception device that receives the low-frequency magnetic field signal and transmits the received signal wirelessly or by wire;
    A receiving device that receives a signal from the transmitting / receiving device and converts the signal into a digital signal;
    A processing device for processing the digital signal based on a predetermined program;
    A storage device for storing a processing result of the processing device;
    A display device for displaying the processing result,
    The real time monitoring system characterized in that the processing device makes a database of processing results and stores them in the storage device, and displays the erosion status on at least one of a graph and a numerical value by the display device.
  11. The real-time monitoring system according to claim 10,
    Furthermore, it includes at least one infiltration line measuring device embedded in the embankment soil, the infiltration line measurement device measures the infiltration lines of running water and rainwater in the embankment soil, and the measurement result is referred to as the low-frequency magnetic field signal. Transmits with another low frequency magnetic field signal,
    The other low frequency magnetic field signal is transmitted to the processing device via the transmitting / receiving device also used as the erosion measuring device or a transmitting / receiving device dedicated to the infiltrating line measuring device, and the receiving device,
    The processing device is also configured to process a signal from the infiltration line measuring device and display the state of the infiltration line in the soil in the levee by the display device at least one of a numerical value and a numerical value. Real-time monitoring system.
  12. The real-time monitoring system according to claim 11,
    Display the erosion status, the status of the infiltration line on another screen that can be switched,
    For the erosion status, a cross-sectional view of the measurement point where the erosion measurement device is embedded, a bar graph representing the current measurement result of the embedded erosion measurement device, identification information given to the embedded erosion measurement device, and A numerical value indicating the latest measurement result is displayed as a superimposed image.
    The state of the infiltrating line is given to the cross-sectional view of the measurement point where the infiltrating line measuring device is embedded, the bar graph representing the current measurement result of the embedded infiltrating line measuring device, and the embedded infiltrating line measuring device. A real-time monitoring system, wherein the identification information and the numerical value indicating the latest measurement result are displayed as superimposed images.
  13. The real-time monitoring system according to claim 12,
    An image that displays the erosion status by the cross-sectional view, and an image that displays past measurement results of the embedded erosion measurement device as a change over time in either a bar graph or a list of numerical values for a preset time. Display on one erosion status real-time monitoring screen,
    The image showing the state of the infiltrating line according to the cross-sectional view and the past measurement result of the embedded infiltrating line measuring device are displayed as changes over time in either a bar graph or a list of numerical values for a preset time. A real-time monitoring system that displays images on a single infiltration line real-time monitoring screen.
  14. The real-time monitoring system according to claim 13,
    Further, a water level measuring device and a rainfall measuring device are installed near the measurement point by the erosion measuring device, and these measurement results are displayed on the erosion status real-time monitoring screen or the infiltration line status real-time monitoring screen, and at least one of numerical values Real-time monitoring system characterized by display.
  15. The real-time monitoring system according to claim 13,
    The erosion measuring device and the infiltrating line measuring device are installed at a plurality of points at a distance,
    The processing device performs centralized management by collectively processing the measurement results of the erosion measurement devices at these multiple points, the measurement results of the infiltration line measurement device,
    The same image information as the image displayed on the display device and information stored in a database in the storage device are transmitted to the user terminal via a network in response to a predetermined request from the user terminal A real-time monitoring system characterized by
  16. A program stored in the storage device in the real-time monitoring system according to claim 15 for causing the processing device to execute display control of the display device,
    A first step of displaying a screen prompting input of a user ID and password;
    When the user ID and password input in the first step are valid, the screen is switched, and a list image of the measurement device and the measurement point indicating the installation location, and an image indicating the measurement point on the map, and A second step of displaying on a single screen;
    When any of the measurement points is selected on the screen displayed in the second step, the screen is switched to display either the erosion status real-time monitoring screen or the infiltration line status real-time monitoring screen. 3 steps,
    The history data search screen display is specified in the state where one of the bar graph and the list of numerical values is displayed on the erosion status real-time monitoring screen displayed in the third step or the infiltration line status real-time monitoring screen. Then, in place of the screen showing the change over time of the measurement results from the past to the present, the fourth graph is displayed in the bar graph and the list of numerical values as the changes over time in the past designated period. A program comprising steps.
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