JP2006343267A - Insulation resistance measuring instrument of dc circuit, electrostatic capacitance measuring instrument, insulation resistance measuring method and electrostatic capacitance measuring method - Google Patents

Insulation resistance measuring instrument of dc circuit, electrostatic capacitance measuring instrument, insulation resistance measuring method and electrostatic capacitance measuring method Download PDF

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JP2006343267A
JP2006343267A JP2005170688A JP2005170688A JP2006343267A JP 2006343267 A JP2006343267 A JP 2006343267A JP 2005170688 A JP2005170688 A JP 2005170688A JP 2005170688 A JP2005170688 A JP 2005170688A JP 2006343267 A JP2006343267 A JP 2006343267A
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ground
value
insulation resistance
resistance
measuring
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Susumu Kawahigashi
Ten Kusaka
Minoru Matsumura
Eiji Nishiyama
Mitsuhiro Nonogami
Sohei Takaoka
進 川東
天 日下
稔 松村
英治 西山
満洋 野々上
宗平 高岡
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Chugoku Electric Power Co Inc:The
中国電力株式会社
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To accurately and easily measure an insulation resistance and an electrostatic capacitance of a DC circuit to the ground in a live-wire state.
SOLUTION: A ground resistors 3 is grounded at the positive/negative terminal of the DC circuit D. A stable voltage value for stabilizing a voltage between terminals of the ground resistor 3 is measured at the positive/negative terminal. The insulation resistances Rp, Rn are calculated, based on the stable voltage values. A transition duration (time constant) is measured, until the voltage between the terminals of the ground resistor 3 reaches a predetermined voltage. The electrostatic capacitance (Cp+Cn) is calculated, based on the transition duration and the insulation resistances Rp, Rn.
COPYRIGHT: (C)2007,JPO&INPIT

Description

本発明は、電気所などにおける直流電源系統の直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を活線状態(運用状態)のままで測定することができる測定器と測定方法とに関し、さらに、直流回路の対地静電容量値を測定することができる測定器と測定方法とに関する。 The present invention relates to a measuring method and measuring device which can measure the ground insulation resistance of the DC circuit for a DC power supply system, such as in the substation remain active line state (operating state), further ground static DC circuit measuring instrument can measure the capacitance value between about the measuring method.

直流電源系統の絶縁劣化に伴う電力機器への障害などを予防するために、直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を測定する必要がある。 To prevent such damage to electrical equipment due to the insulation deterioration of the DC power supply system, it is necessary to measure the ground insulation resistance of the DC circuit. 従来、この絶縁抵抗値を測定する場合、すべての直流回路を停電させることが実務上不可能であるため、定期点検などで停電させた箇所を部分的に測定していた。 Conventionally, when measuring the insulation resistance value, making it possible to power failure all DC circuit for a impracticable, were measured points obtained by a power failure or the like periodic inspections partially. このため、直流回路全体の絶縁抵抗値を把握できないのが実情であった。 Therefore, it can not grasp the insulation resistance of the entire DC circuit was circumstances. このような実情から、直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を活線状態のままで測定できる方法や測定器の確立が望まれており、そのような絶縁抵抗計も知られている(例えば、特許文献1参照。)。 From such circumstances, remains and establish methods and measuring devices is desired to be measured by the hot-line state to ground insulation resistance of the DC circuit is also known that such an insulating resistance meter (e.g., Patent Documents 1 reference.). この絶縁抵抗計は、直流回路の正極側と大地間および、負極側と大地間に切換開閉器を介して漏洩電流計が設けられ、この漏洩電流計によって、正極側対大地間絶縁抵抗または負極側対大地間絶縁抵抗を流れる漏洩電流を測定する。 The insulation resistance meter, and between the positive electrode side and the ground of the DC circuit, the leakage current meter via the diverter switch is provided between the anode side and earth, this leakage current meter, the positive electrode side pairs across ground insulation resistance or negative measuring the leakage current through the insulation resistance between the side-to-ground. そして、測定された漏洩電流と直流電圧とから絶縁抵抗値を演算するものである。 Then, those for calculating the insulation resistance from the measured leakage current and the DC voltage.

また、地絡による被害の軽減とその波及の防止とを図るために、直流制御回路地絡継電器(日本電機工業会規格の64D)などの地絡継電器を設け、この地絡継電器によって地絡を検出し、遮断器を動作させる方法もとられている。 In addition, in order to reduce damage caused by a ground fault and the prevention of the spread, it provided the land 絡継 electronics, such as direct-current control circuit ground 絡継 Electric (64D of the Japan Electrical Manufacturers' Association standard), a ground fault by this land 絡継 Electric Appliances how detected, to operate the circuit breaker is also taken.
特開平7−63801号公報 JP 7-63801 discloses

ところで、上記特許文献1に記載されているような絶縁抵抗計では、対地絶縁抵抗値を活線状態のままで測定できるものの、測定精度が低い場合があり、また、測定のための設計などが必要となる。 Incidentally, the insulation resistance tester, as described in Patent Document 1, although the ground insulation resistance can be measured while the live-line state, may lower the accuracy in measurement, and designed for the measurement is required. すなわち、このような絶縁抵抗計では、直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値が大きな値であるために、漏洩電流が極めて微小かつ不安定なものとなり、このような漏洩電流に基づいて絶縁抵抗値が演算(測定)されると、漏洩電流によっては測定精度が低い(ばらつく)場合がある。 That is, in such an insulating resistance meter, for ground insulation resistance value of the DC circuit is a large value, the leakage current becomes extremely small and unstable, the insulation resistance value based on such leakage current operation when (measured), the measurement accuracy is low (it varies) depending leakage current sometimes. また、このような絶縁抵抗計を用いて測定する場合、絶縁抵抗計を測定する直流回路に合わせて設計する必要があり、汎用性が低かった。 Also, when measuring using such an insulating resistance meter, must be designed for the direct current circuit for measuring an insulation resistance meter, versatility is low.

一方、地絡継電器は継電器単体での地絡検出試験のみが行われており、実際の直流回路(実運用状態)での検出感度については、把握されていないのが実情であった。 On the other hand, the earth 絡継 collectors are performed only earth fault detection test at relay itself, for the detection sensitivity of the actual direct current circuits (active production), not been grasped was circumstances. このため、継電器単体での試験では地絡検出感度が正常であっても、実際の直流回路では検出感度が低下することがあり、正常に地絡を検出できないために大きな事故につながる危険性があった。 Thus, even normal sensitivity ground fault detecting in the test at the relay itself, the actual DC circuit may detection sensitivity is lowered, the risk of leading to a big accident to not detect the ground fault normally there were. そして、このような危険性は、継電器の地絡検出感度によるものであるとともに、直流回路の対地静電容量値が把握できていないことによるものであった。 Then, this risk, as well as those due to the ground fault detection sensitivity of the relay, earth capacitance value of the DC circuit was due to not be grasped.

そこで本発明は、直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を活線状態のままで高精度かつ容易に測定することができ、さらに、直流回路の対地静電容量値を測定することができる測定器および測定方法を提供することを目的とする。 The present invention, the ground insulation resistance of the DC circuit can be accurately and easily measured remain active line state, further, instrument and can measure the earth capacity value of the DC circuit measurement an object of the present invention to provide a method.

上記目的を達成するために請求項1に記載の発明は、直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を測定する絶縁抵抗測定器であって、直流回路の正極側と大地間および負極側と大地間に切換手段を介して切換接続される地絡抵抗と、この地絡抵抗の端末間電圧を測定する電圧測定手段と、この電圧測定手段によって測定された地絡抵抗の安定電圧値に基づいて直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を演算する演算部とを有することを特徴としている。 The invention according to claim 1 in order to achieve the above object, an insulation resistance measuring device for measuring the ground insulation resistance of the DC circuit, the positive electrode side and the ground and between the switching between the negative electrode side and the ground of the direct current circuit a ground fault resistor to be switched for connection via means, voltage measurement means for measuring a terminal voltage of the ground fault resistance, the DC circuit based on a stable voltage value of the measured ground fault resistance by the voltage measuring means It is characterized by having a calculation unit for calculating the ground insulation resistance value.
(作用) (Action)
直流回路の正極側と大地間に地絡抵抗が接続されると、この地絡抵抗と正極側絶縁抵抗とが並列状態となり、その端末間電圧が安定した値が正極側の安定電圧値となる。 When the positive electrode side and the ground fault resistor between ground of the DC circuit is connected, this will fault resistance and the positive electrode side insulation resistance and a parallel state, the terminal voltage becomes stable voltage value of the stable value is positive side . 同様に、直流回路の負極側と大地間に地絡抵抗が接続されると、この地絡抵抗と負極側絶縁抵抗とが並列状態となり、その端末間電圧が安定した値が負極側の安定電圧値となる。 Similarly, between the negative electrode side and earth ground fault resistor to the DC circuit is connected, this will fault resistance and the negative electrode side insulation resistance and a parallel state, the terminal voltage is stabilized value is on the negative electrode side stable voltage It becomes a value. そして、これらの接続回路に基づいて、演算部によって、正極側の安定電圧値、負極側の安定電圧値および、地絡抵抗の抵抗値、直流回路の両極間電圧(電源電圧)値から、正極側絶縁抵抗値と負極側絶縁抵抗値とが演算(測定)される。 Based on these connection circuits, by the computation unit, a stable voltage value of the positive electrode side, stable voltage value and the negative electrode side, the resistance value of the ground fault resistor, the electrode-to-electrode voltage (power supply voltage) value of the DC circuit, the positive electrode side insulation resistance value and the negative electrode side insulation resistance value is calculated (measured). しかも、直流回路の正/負極側と大地間に地絡抵抗が接続され、その端末間電圧が測定されるだけであるため、直流回路を停電させることなく活線状態のままで測定できる。 Moreover, the ground fault resistor is connected between the positive / negative electrode and earth of the direct current circuit, since it is only the terminal voltage is measured, can be measured while the hot-line state without power failure the DC circuit.

請求項2に記載の発明は、請求項1に記載の絶縁抵抗測定器において、地絡抵抗の端末間電圧が所定の電圧に達するまでの過渡時間を測定する計時手段を有し、この計時手段によって測定された過渡時間と演算された対地絶縁抵抗値とに基づいて、演算部が直流回路の対地静電容量値を演算することを特徴としている。 The invention according to claim 2, in the insulation resistance measuring instrument according to claim 1, comprising a timer means terminal voltage of the ground fault resistor to measure the transient time to reach a predetermined voltage, the timer means on the basis of the transient time and the computed ground insulation resistance value measured by the arithmetic unit is characterized by calculating the earth capacity value of the DC circuit.
(作用) (Action)
例えば、所定の電圧を初期電圧(地絡直前の電圧)の36.8%に設定することで、過渡時間が時定数となり、時定数=静電容量×抵抗の関係式に基づいて、演算部によって対地静電容量値が演算される。 For example, by setting a predetermined voltage to 36.8% of the initial voltage (ground 絡直 previous voltage), becomes the time constant transient time, time constant = based on relationship of the capacitance × resistance calculation unit earth capacitance value is calculated by.

請求項3に記載の発明は、直流回路の対地静電容量値を測定する静電容量測定器であって、直流回路の正極側と大地間または負極側と大地間に接続される地絡抵抗と、この地絡抵抗の端末間電圧を測定する電圧測定手段と、端末間電圧が所定の電圧に達するまでの過渡時間を測定する計時手段と、この計時手段によって測定された過渡時間と地絡抵抗が接続された極性側の対地絶縁抵抗値とに基づいて直流回路の対地静電容量値を演算する演算部とを有することを特徴としている。 According to a third aspect of the invention, a capacitance measuring device for measuring a ground electrostatic capacitance value of the DC circuit, ground fault resistance connected between the positive electrode side and the ground or between the negative electrode side and the ground of the direct current circuit When a voltage measuring means for measuring a terminal voltage of the ground fault resistance, and clock means terminal voltage measures the transient time to reach a predetermined voltage, the transient time measured by the time measuring unit ground fault resistance is characterized by having a calculator for calculating the earth capacity value of the DC circuit on the basis of the ground insulation resistance value of the connected polarity side.
(作用) (Action)
対地絶縁抵抗値が既知である場合、請求項2に記載の発明と同様にして、計時手段によって測定された過渡時間に基づいて、演算部によって対地静電容量値が演算される。 If it is known to ground insulation resistance, as in the invention of claim 2, based on the transit time measured by the timer means, the earth capacitance value is computed by the computation unit.

請求項4に記載の発明は、請求項1から3のいずれかに記載の絶縁抵抗測定器または静電容量測定器において、演算部による演算結果を表示する表示手段を有することを特徴としている。 According to a fourth aspect of the invention, the insulation resistance meter or capacitance measuring device according to any one of claims 1 to 3, is characterized by comprising display means for displaying an operation result by the arithmetic unit.
(作用) (Action)
表示手段によって演算結果、すなわち、直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値と対地静電容量値とが表示されるため、目視によって測定(演算)結果を迅速かつ容易に認識できる。 Operation result by the display means, that is, because the ground insulation resistance and earth capacitance value of the DC circuit is displayed, quickly and easily recognize the measurement (calculation) results visually.

請求項5に記載の発明は、請求項1から4のいずれかに記載の絶縁抵抗測定器または静電容量測定器において、警報を発信する警報発信手段を有し、演算された対地絶縁抵抗値または対地静電容量値が異常値である場合に警報を発信することを特徴としている。 The invention described in claim 5 is the insulation resistance meter or capacitance measuring instrument according to any one of claims 1 to 4, having an alarm transmitter means for transmitting an alarm, computed ground insulation resistance value or earth capacitance value is characterized by transmitting an alarm if an abnormal value.
(作用) (Action)
測定(演算)された対地絶縁抵抗値または対地静電容量値が異常値である場合、警報発信手段によって警報が発信されるため、即座に異常を認識し、詳細な調査、対策などを迅速かつ的確にとることができる。 Measurement case (operation) has been ground insulation resistance value or capacitance to ground value is an abnormal value, since the alarm is originated by the warning transmitting unit immediately recognize abnormal, detailed investigation, measures and rapid and it is possible to take accurate.

請求項6に記載の発明は、直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を測定する絶縁抵抗測定方法であって、直流回路の正極側と大地間に地絡抵抗を接続して、この地絡抵抗の端末間電圧が安定する正極側安定電圧値を測定し、直流回路の負極側と大地間に地絡抵抗を接続して、この地絡抵抗の端末間電圧が安定する負極側安定電圧値を測定し、正極側安定電圧値と負極側安定電圧値とに基づいて、直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を演算することを特徴としている。 The invention described in claim 6, an insulation resistance measuring method for measuring ground insulation resistance value of the DC circuit, by connecting a ground fault resistance between the positive electrode side and the ground of the DC circuit, the ground fault resistor terminal during voltage measured positive side stable voltage value stabilizes, by connecting a ground fault resistance between the anode side and ground of the DC circuit, the terminal voltage of the ground fault resistance is measured negative side stable voltage value stabilizes , based on the positive electrode side stable voltage value and the negative stable voltage values, and wherein computing the ground insulation resistance of the DC circuit.
(作用) (Action)
地絡抵抗が接続された接続回路に基づいて、正極側安定電圧値、負極側安定電圧値および、地絡抵抗の抵抗値、直流回路の両極間電圧値から、正極側絶縁抵抗値と負極側絶縁抵抗値とを演算(測定)できる。 Based on the connection circuit ground fault resistance is connected, the positive side stable voltage values, and the negative electrode side stable voltage value, the resistance value of the ground fault resistor, the electrode-to-electrode voltage value of the DC circuit, the positive electrode side insulation resistance value and the negative the insulation resistance can be calculated (measured). しかも、直流回路の正/負極側と大地間に地絡抵抗を接続し、その端末間電圧を測定するだけであるため、直流回路を停電させることなく活線状態のままで測定できる。 Moreover, by connecting a ground fault resistance between the positive / negative electrode and earth of the direct current circuit, since it only measures the voltage between the terminals can be measured while the hot-line state without power failure the DC circuit.

請求項7に記載の発明は、請求項6に記載の絶縁抵抗測定方法において、地絡抵抗の端末間電圧が所定の電圧に達するまでの過渡時間を測定し、この過渡時間と演算された対地絶縁抵抗値とに基づいて、直流回路の対地静電容量値を演算することを特徴としている。 Ground invention described in claim 7 is the insulation resistance measuring method according to claim 6, the terminal voltage of the ground fault resistance is measured transient time to reach a predetermined voltage, which is calculated with the transient time based on the insulation resistance, it is characterized by computing the earth capacity value of the DC circuit.
(作用) (Action)
例えば、所定の電圧を初期電圧の36.8%に設定することで、過渡時間が時定数となり、時定数=静電容量×抵抗の関係式に基づいて、対地静電容量値を演算できる。 For example, by setting a predetermined voltage to 36.8% of the initial voltage, it becomes time constant transient time, time constant = based on relationship of the capacitance × resistance, can be calculated to ground capacitance value.

請求項8に記載の発明は、直流回路の対地静電容量値を測定する静電容量測定方法であって、直流回路の正極側と大地間または負極側と大地間に地絡抵抗を接続して、この地絡抵抗の端末間電圧が所定の電圧に達するまでの過渡時間を測定し、この過渡時間と地絡抵抗が接続された極性側の対地絶縁抵抗値とに基づいて、直流回路の対地静電容量値を演算することを特徴としている。 The invention of claim 8 is an electrostatic capacity measuring method for measuring a ground electrostatic capacitance value of the DC circuit, a ground fault resistance is connected between the positive electrode side and the ground or between the negative electrode side and the ground of the direct current circuit Te, the terminal voltage of the ground fault resistance is measured transient time to reach a predetermined voltage, on the basis of the ground insulation resistance of polarity of the transient time and the ground fault resistor is connected, the DC circuit It is characterized by calculating a ground capacitance value.
(作用) (Action)
対地絶縁抵抗値が既知である場合、請求項7に記載の発明と同様にして、過渡時間に基づいて対地静電容量値を演算できる。 If it is known to ground insulation resistance, as in the invention described in claim 7, it calculates the ground electrostatic capacitance value based on the transient time.

請求項9に記載の発明は、請求項1から8のいずれかに記載の絶縁抵抗測定器、静電容量測定器、絶縁抵抗測定方法または静電容量測定方法において、地絡抵抗の抵抗値が、地絡事故が発生しても直流回路に影響を与えない高い値に設定されていることを特徴としている。 The invention according to claim 9, the insulation resistance measuring instrument according to any one of claims 1 to 8, a capacitance measuring device, the insulation resistance measuring method or an electrostatic capacity measuring method, the resistance of the ground fault resistor It is characterized in that even if a ground fault occurs is set to a high value which does not affect the DC circuit.
(作用) (Action)
地絡抵抗の抵抗値が高い値に設定されているため、測定中に万一地絡事故が発生したとしても、電力機器などに影響(障害)を与えることがない。 Since the resistance of the ground fault resistor is set to a higher value, even emergency ground fault in the measurement occurs, never give influences such as power equipment (failure).

請求項10に記載の発明は、地絡抵抗の安定電圧値が測定される請求項1から9のいずれかに記載の絶縁抵抗測定器または絶縁抵抗測定方法において、安定電圧値が所定の電圧範囲内に収まるように、地絡抵抗の抵抗値が設定されていることを特徴としている。 The invention according to claim 10, in the insulation resistance measuring instrument or the insulation resistance measuring method according to any one of claims 1 to stabilize the voltage value of the ground fault resistance is measured 9 for a stable voltage value is in a predetermined voltage range to fit within, and wherein the resistance of the ground fault resistor is set.
(作用) (Action)
例えば、電圧を高い精度で安定して測定できる電圧範囲内に地絡抵抗の安定電圧値が収まるように、地絡抵抗の抵抗値を設定することで、直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値および対地静電容量値が高い精度で安定して測定される。 For example, as the voltage stable steady voltage value of the ground fault resistance in the voltage range that can be measured falls at a high accuracy, by setting the resistance value of the ground fault resistance, ground insulation resistance value of the DC circuit and ground electrostatic capacitance value is stably measured with high accuracy.

請求項11に記載の発明は、過渡時間が測定される請求項2〜10のいずれか1項に記載の絶縁抵抗測定器、静電容量測定器、絶縁抵抗測定方法または静電容量測定方法において、過渡時間が所定の時間範囲内に収まるように、地絡抵抗の抵抗値が設定されていることを特徴としている。 The invention according to claim 11, the insulation resistance measuring instrument according to any one of claims 2-10 which transient time is measured, the capacitance measuring device, the insulation resistance measuring method or an electrostatic capacity measuring method as the transient time within a predetermined time range, it is characterized in that the resistance value of the ground fault resistor is set.
(作用) (Action)
例えば、時間を容易かつ安定して測定できる時間範囲内に過渡時間が収まるように、地絡抵抗の抵抗値を設定することで、直流回路の対地静電容量値が高い精度で安定して測定される。 For example, as time transition time fits the easy and stable within a time range that can be measured, by setting the resistance value of the ground fault resistance, stably measured with the earth capacitance value is high accuracy of the DC circuit It is.

請求項1に記載の発明によれば、地絡抵抗が直流回路の正/負極側と大地間に接続され、地絡抵抗の安定電圧値に基づいて対地絶縁抵抗値が測定(演算)されるため、微小かつ不安定な漏洩電流に基づく測定に比べて、安定で高精度、かつ広範囲な(被測定抵抗値の範囲が広い)測定が可能となる。 According to the invention described in claim 1, the ground fault resistor is connected between the positive / negative electrode and earth of the direct current circuit, ground insulation resistance value is measured (operation) based on the stable voltage value of the ground fault resistor Therefore, in comparison with the measurement based on small and unstable leakage current, thereby enabling stable high precision and a wide range (range of the measured resistance value is large) measurements. また、地絡抵抗を接続し、その端末間電圧を測定するだけでよいため、測定器の設計、構造が容易、簡単となり、かつ、測定範囲が広く汎用性の高い測定器にすることができる。 Also, connect the ground fault resistance, because it is only necessary to measure the terminal voltage, instrument design, easy construction, becomes simple and the measurement range is wide can be highly versatile instrument .

しかも、計時手段を設けることで、過渡時間と対地絶縁抵抗値とに基づいて、対地静電容量値が測定(演算)される。 Moreover, by providing the counting means, based on the transient time and the ground insulation resistance, capacitance to ground values ​​are measured (operation). そして、直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値と対地静電容量値とが測定されることで、活線状態における直流回路の絶縁状態を的確に診断することが可能となり、この診断に基づいて、地絡事故による電力機器への障害などを未然かつ的確に防止することが可能となる。 Then, by the ground insulation resistance and earth capacitance value of the DC circuit is measured, it is possible to accurately diagnose the insulation state of the DC circuit in the active line state, on the basis of this diagnosis, ground such damage to electrical equipment due to accident can be prevented in advance and accurately.

請求項6に記載の発明によれば、地絡抵抗を接続して、正極側安定電圧値と負極側安定電圧値とを測定するだけで、正極側絶縁抵抗値と負極側絶縁抵抗値とを測定(演算)できるため、容易かつ迅速な測定が可能となる。 According to the invention described in claim 6, by connecting a ground fault resistance, only measures the positive side stable voltage value and the negative stable voltage value, and a positive electrode side insulation resistance value and the negative insulation resistance because be measured (operation), it is possible to easily and quickly measure. しかも、過渡時間を測定するだけで、対地静電容量値を測定(演算)できる。 Moreover, only measures the transient time can be measured earth capacitance value (arithmetic). そして、対地絶縁抵抗値と対地静電容量値とを現地において容易かつ迅速に測定できることで、定期的に絶縁状態を診断することが実効的に可能となり、地絡事故の予防、対策を確立できる。 Then, by the ground insulation resistance and earth capacitance value can be easily and quickly measured at the site, it becomes effectively possible to diagnose regularly insulated, can be established prevention of ground fault, the measures .

以下、本発明を図示の実施形態に基づいて説明する。 Hereinafter will be described based on the illustrated embodiments of the present invention.

図1は、本発明の実施形態に係る絶縁抵抗測定器1を直流回路Dに接続した状態を示す概略回路図である。 Figure 1 is a schematic circuit diagram showing a state in which the insulation resistance of the measuring device 1 is connected to a DC circuit D according to an embodiment of the present invention. この絶縁抵抗測定器1は、直流回路Dの正極側と大地間および負極側と大地間に切換スイッチ2(切換手段)を介して切換接続される地絡抵抗3と、この地絡抵抗3の端末間電圧などを測定する電圧測定部4(電圧測定手段)と、測定結果などを表示する表示部5(表示手段)と、警報音を発する警報部6(警報発信手段)と、これらの制御などを行う制御部7とを備えている。 The insulation resistance meter 1 is provided with a ground fault resistor 3 which is switched for connection through the switch 2 (switching means) between the positive electrode side and the ground and between the negative electrode side and the ground of the DC circuit D, the ground fault resistor 3 a voltage measuring unit 4 that measures such as a terminal voltage (voltage measuring means), a display unit 5 for displaying the measurement result (display means), an alarm unit 6 (the warning transmitting means) for emitting an alarm sound, these control and a control unit 7 which performs like.

切換スイッチ2は、スイッチ2a,2b,2cを有し、スイッチ2aに正極側導線8が接続され、スイッチ2cに負極側導線9が接続されている。 Selector switch 2 has a switch 2a, 2b, and 2c, positive-side conductor 8 to the switch 2a is connected, the negative electrode side conductor 9 is connected to the switch 2c. また、スイッチ2a,2b間および、スイッチ2b,2c間には、バランス抵抗10が設けられ、本実施形態では、このバランス抵抗10の抵抗値は、50Ω程度に設定されている。 The switch 2a, 2b and between, between switches 2b, 2c, balancing resistor 10 is provided, in this embodiment, the resistance value of balancing resistor 10 is set to about 50 [Omega.

地絡抵抗3は、一端部が各スイッチ2a,2b,2cに接続され、他端部には接地導線11が接続されている。 Ground fault resistor 3 has one end each of the switches 2a, 2b, connected to 2c, the other end is connected to the ground conductor 11. そして、スイッチ2a,2b,2cは、いずれも常時はオフ(開)状態であり、スイッチ2aがオン(閉)されると、正極側導線8、スイッチ2a、地絡抵抗3および接地導線11がつながり、スイッチ2cがオンされると、負極側導線9、スイッチ2c、地絡抵抗3および接地導線11がつながるようになっている。 Then, the switch 2a, 2b, 2c are both always is off (open) state, the switch 2a is turned on (closed), the positive side conductor 8, the switch 2a, the grounding resistor 3 and the grounding conductor 11 connection, the switch 2c is oN, the negative electrode side conductor 9, so that the switch 2c, the ground fault resistor 3 and the ground conductor 11 is connected. また、本実施形態では、地絡抵抗3の抵抗値は500kΩに設定されているが、その設定基準については後述する。 Further, in the present embodiment, the resistance value of the ground fault resistor 3 is set to 500 k [Omega], it will be described below its set reference.

電圧測定部4は、地絡抵抗3の両端末と正極側導線8および負極側導線9に接続され、地絡抵抗3の端末間電圧および正負極間電圧などを測定する高抵抗電圧計である。 Voltage measuring unit 4 is connected to both the terminal and the positive-side conductor 8 and the negative electrode side conductor 9 of the ground fault resistor 3, is a high-resistance voltmeter for measuring the like terminal voltage and the positive and negative electrodes a voltage of the ground fault resistor 3 . また、A/D変換手段を備え、測定した電圧値をデジタル変換し、RAM(デュアルポートRAMなど)に書き込むようになっている。 Also includes an A / D converting means, the measured voltage value and digital conversion, and is written into the RAM (such as dual-port RAM).

表示部5は、制御部7からの出力命令によって測定(演算)結果や測定状態などを表示し、警報部6はスピーカーを備え、制御部7からの出力命令によって警報音を発するものである。 The display unit 5, such as to display the measurement (calculation) results and the measurement state by the output command from the control unit 7, the warning unit 6 is provided with a speaker, in which emits an alarm sound by an output command from the control unit 7.

制御部7は、切換スイッチ2の開閉、電圧測定部4の動作、表示部5および警報部6の出力などを制御するとともに、時間を計測する計時部(計時手段)と、直流回路Dの対地絶縁抵抗値や対地静電容量値を演算する演算部とを備えている。 Control unit 7, the opening and closing of the switch 2, the operation of the voltage measuring unit 4, controls the output structure of the display unit 5 and an alarm unit 6, a timer unit for measuring a time (timing means), ground of the DC circuit D and a calculator for calculating the insulation resistance values ​​and the capacitance to ground value. そして、電圧測定部4のRAMに書き込まれた電圧値を監視しながら、計時部によって地絡抵抗3の端末間電圧が所定の電圧に達するまでの過渡時間を測定する。 Then, while monitoring the voltage value written in the RAM of the voltage measuring unit 4, the terminal voltage of the ground fault resistor 3 to measure the transient time to reach a predetermined voltage by the timekeeping unit. また、演算部によって、電圧測定部4で測定された地絡抵抗3の安定電圧値に基づいて直流回路Dの対地絶縁抵抗値を演算し、この対地絶縁抵抗値と計時部で測定された過渡時間とに基づいて、直流回路Dの対地静電容量値を演算するものである。 Further, the calculation unit calculates the ground insulation resistance of a DC circuit D on the basis of the stable voltage value of the ground fault resistor 3 measured by the voltage measuring unit 4, measured in the ground insulation resistance value and timing unit transient based on the time and is intended for calculating the earth capacity value of the DC circuit D. そしてこの演算結果は、出力命令とともに表示部5に送信されるとともに、演算結果が異常値である場合には、警報音出力命令が警報部に送信される。 The result of the calculation, while being sent to the display unit 5 together with the output instruction, if the operation result is an abnormal value, an alarm sound output command is transmitted to the alarm unit. なお、具体的な演算方法などについては後述する。 Note that for such specific calculation method will be described later.

次に、このような構成の絶縁抵抗測定器1の測定動作について説明する。 It will now be described insulation measurement operation of the resistance measuring device 1 having such a configuration.

本実施形態では、測定対象である直流電源系統の直流回路Dの電源電圧Vは、110Vであり、正極母線D1と負極母線D2との間に直流制御回路地絡継電器(以下「64D」という)が接続されている。 In this embodiment, the power supply voltage V of the DC circuit D which is the measured DC power supply system is 110V, DC control circuit locations 絡継 collector between the positive electrode bus D1 and the negative bus D2 (hereinafter referred to as "64D") There has been connected. また、図1中、Rpは直流回路Dの正極側絶縁抵抗(値)、Rnは負極側絶縁抵抗(値)、Cpは正極側静電容量(値)、Cnは負極側静電容量(値)を示している。 Further, in FIG. 1, Rp is the positive electrode side insulation resistance (value) of the DC circuit D, Rn is the negative electrode side insulation resistance (value), Cp is positive-side capacitance (value), Cn is the negative electrode side capacitance (value ) shows.

まず、絶縁抵抗測定器1を直流回路Dに接続する。 First, connect the insulation resistance meter 1 to the DC circuit D. すなわち、正極側導線8を正極母線D1に接続し、負極側導線9を負極母線D2に接続するとともに、接地導線11を接地母線D3に接続する。 That is, to connect the positive side conductor 8 to positive electrode bus D1, as well as connect the negative side conductor 9 to the negative bus D2, connect the ground wire 11 to ground bus D3. このとき、切換スイッチ2はすべてオフ状態となっている。 At this time, the all change-over switch 2 is turned off. 次に、64Dを「切」状態とし、絶縁抵抗測定器1を起動させる。 Then, the 64D and the "OFF" state, activates the insulation resistance meter 1. これにより、図2に示すフローチャートに従って、自動測定が行われる。 Thus, according to the flowchart shown in FIG. 2, an automatic measurement is performed.

まず、スイッチ2bがオンされ、短時間後にスイッチ2bがオフされるとともに、スイッチ2aがオンされる(ステップS1)。 First, the switch 2b is turned on, the switch 2b is turned off after a short time, the switch 2a is turned on (step S1). これにより、図3(a)に示すように、地絡抵抗3が直流回路Dの正極側に接地され、地絡抵抗3と正極側絶縁抵抗Rpとが並列状態となる。 Thus, as shown in FIG. 3 (a), the ground fault resistor 3 is grounded to the positive side of the DC circuit D, comprising ground fault resistor 3 and the positive electrode side insulation resistance Rp is the parallel state. 次に、地絡抵抗3の端末間電圧が所定の電圧に達するまでの過渡時間が測定される(ステップS2)。 Next, the terminal voltage of the ground fault resistor 3 is measured transient time to reach a predetermined voltage (step S2). ここで、本実施形態では所定の電圧を、初期電圧(地絡直前の電圧)の36.8%、すなわち、電源電圧V×1/2×0.368=20.24Vとし、これにより、過渡時間は時定数τpとなる。 Here, the predetermined voltage is in the present embodiment, 36.8% of the initial voltage (ground 絡直 previous voltage), i.e., the power supply voltage V × 1/2 × 0.368 = 20.24V, thereby, transient time is the time constant τp. 続いて、地絡抵抗3の端末間電圧が安定する正極側安定電圧値Vpが測定され(ステップS3)、これら時定数τpと正極側安定電圧値Vpとが制御部7のRAMに記憶される。 Subsequently, the terminal voltage of the ground fault resistor 3 is positive-side stable voltage value Vp is measured (step S3), and stores these time and a constant τp and the positive side stable voltage value Vp in the RAM of the control unit 7 for stabilizing . その後、スイッチ2aがオフされ、スイッチ2bがオンされることで復旧し(ステップS4)、負極側に対して同様な測定が行われる。 Thereafter, the switch 2a is turned off, recovered by the switch 2b is turned on (step S4), and similar measurement with respect to the negative electrode side is performed. すなわち、短時間後にスイッチ2bがオフされるとともに、スイッチ2cがオンされる(ステップS5)。 That is, the switch 2b is turned off after a short time, the switch 2c is ON (step S5). これにより、図3(b)に示すように、地絡抵抗3が直流回路Dの負極側に接地され、地絡抵抗3と負極側絶縁抵抗Rnとが並列状態となる。 Thus, as shown in FIG. 3 (b), the ground fault resistor 3 is grounded to the negative electrode side of the DC circuit D, comprising ground fault resistor 3 and the negative electrode side insulation resistance Rn is parallel state. 続いて、正極側の場合と同様にして、過渡時間(時定数τn)と負極側安定電圧値Vnとが測定され(ステップS6,S7)、その測定値が制御部7のRAMに記憶される。 Subsequently, as in the case of the positive electrode side, the transient time (time constant .tau.n) and the negative electrode side stable voltage value Vn is measured (step S6, S7), the measured value is stored in the RAM of the control section 7 . そして、スイッチ2cがオフされ(ステップS8)、次のようにして、直流回路Dの正極側絶縁抵抗値Rp、負極側絶縁抵抗値Rnおよび、静電容量値C(正極側静電容量値Cpと負極側静電容量値Cnとを合わせた等価静電容量値)が演算される(ステップS9)。 Then, the switch 2c is off (step S8), and as follows, positive side insulation resistance value Rp of the DC circuit D, the negative electrode side insulation resistance Rn and the capacitance value C (positive electrode side capacitance value Cp the equivalent capacitance value of the combined and the negative capacitance value Cn) is calculated (step S9).

すなわち、図3(a)、(b)の回路図から、次の関係式が成り立つ。 That is, FIG. 3 (a), the circuit diagram of (b), holds the following relationship. ここで、R3は地絡抵抗3の抵抗値とする。 Here, R3 is the resistance of the ground fault resistor 3.

Vp:(V−Vp)=Rp×R3/(Rp+R3):Rn Vp: (V-Vp) = Rp × R3 / (Rp + R3): Rn
Vn:(V−Vn)=Rn×R3/(Rn+R3):Rp Vn: (V-Vn) = Rn × R3 / (Rn + R3): Rp
この関係式から、次の演算式が得られる。 From this relationship, the following operation is obtained.

Rp=(V−Vn−Vp)×R3/Vn Rp = (V-Vn-Vp) × R3 / Vn
Rn=(V−Vn−Vp)×R3/Vp Rn = (V-Vn-Vp) × R3 / Vp
そして、この演算式に測定された安定電圧値Vp,Vnなどを代入することで、直流回路Dの正極側絶縁抵抗値Rpと負極側絶縁抵抗値Rnとが演算されるものである。 Then, the measured stabilized voltage value of the calculation equation Vp, by substituting such Vn, in which the positive electrode side insulation resistance Rp and the negative insulation resistance value Rn of the DC circuit D is calculated.

また、直流回路Dの静電容量Cと地絡抵抗3および、正極側絶縁抵抗Rpまたは負極側絶縁抵抗Rnとは、図4(a)に示す回路図状態となり、この回路図と時定数=静電容量×抵抗の関係式(図4(b)参照)とから、次の演算式が得られる。 Further, the DC circuit D electrostatic capacitance C and ground fault resistor 3 and, in the positive electrode side insulation resistance Rp or the negative electrode side insulation resistance Rn, becomes circuit diagram state shown in FIG. 4 (a), the circuit diagram and the time constant = since the capacitance × the resistance relationship (see FIG. 4 (b)), the following operation is obtained.

C=τp×(1/Rp+1/R3)=τn×(1/Rn+1/R3) C = τp × (1 / Rp + 1 / R3) = τn × (1 / Rn + 1 / R3)
そして、この演算式に測定された時定数τpまたはτnと、正極側絶縁抵抗値Rpまたは負極側絶縁抵抗値Rnを代入することで、直流回路Dの静電容量値Cが演算されるものである。 Then, a constant τp or τn when measured on the calculation equation, by substituting a positive electrode side insulation resistance value Rp or the negative electrode side insulation resistance value Rn, in which the capacitance value C of the DC circuit D is calculated is there.

例えば、正極側安定電圧値Vpが1.063V、負極側安定電圧値Vnが2.657Vで、時定数τpおよびτnが1.0秒だとし、これらの値と電源電圧V=110V、R3=500kΩとを上記の演算式に代入すると、以下の演算結果が得られる。 For example, the positive side stable voltage value Vp is 1.063V, the negative electrode side stable voltage value Vn is 2.657V, the time constant τp and τn are that it 1.0 seconds, these values ​​and the supply voltage V = 110V, R3 = When a 500kΩ is assigned to the above arithmetic expressions, the following calculation results.

正極側絶縁抵抗値Rp=20.0MΩ Positive side insulation resistance Rp = 20.0MΩ
負極側絶縁抵抗値Rn=50.0MΩ Negative electrode side insulation resistance Rn = 50.0MΩ
静電容量値C=2μF The capacitance value C = 2 .mu.F
そして、これらの演算(測定)結果が表示部5に表示される(ステップS10)とともに、演算された絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnまたは静電容量値Cが異常値であるか否かが判断され(ステップS11)、異常値である場合には、警報部6から警報音が発せられる(ステップS12)。 Then, these operations (measurement) result is displayed on the display unit 5 together with (step S10), and the calculated insulation resistance value Rp, whether Rn or capacitance value C is an abnormal value is judged ( step S11), and when an abnormal value, an alarm sound is issued from the alarm unit 6 (step S12). ここで、異常値であるか否かの判断は、本実施形態では、絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnが1MΩ以下、または、静電容量値Cが200μFを越す場合を異常値としている。 Here, whether or not an abnormal value determination, in the present embodiment, the insulation resistance value Rp, Rn is 1MΩ or less, or the capacitance value C is an abnormal value when in excess of 200 F. なお、この異常値の判断基準は、電力機器などの重要性や運用状況などによって決められ、また、異常値の判断基準を変更可能にしてもよい。 The determination criterion for this outlier, is determined by such importance and operational conditions such as power devices, may allow changing the criteria outliers.

以上のように、本絶縁抵抗測定器1によれば、地絡抵抗3が直流回路Dの正/負極側に接地され、地絡抵抗3の安定電圧値Vp,Vnに基づいて絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnが測定(演算)されるため、微小かつ不安定な漏洩電流に基づく測定に比べて、安定で高精度、かつ広範囲な(被測定抵抗値の範囲が広い)測定が可能となる。 As described above, according to the present insulation resistance meter 1, the ground fault resistor 3 is grounded to the positive / negative electrode side of the DC circuit D, ground fault resistance 3 stable voltage value Vp, the insulation resistance value based on Vn Rp , since Rn is measured (operation), in comparison with the measurement based on small and unstable leakage current, stable and accurate, and broad (the range of the measured resistance value is large) it is possible to measure. また、直流回路Dの正/負極側に地絡抵抗3が接地され、その端末間電圧が測定されるだけであるため、直流回路Dを停電させることなく活線状態のままで測定できる。 Further, the ground fault resistor 3 is grounded to the positive / negative electrode side of the DC circuit D, since it is only the terminal voltage is measured, can be measured while the hot-line state without power failure the DC circuit D. さらに、地絡抵抗3を接地し、その端末間電圧を測定するだけでよいため、本絶縁抵抗測定器1の設計、構造が容易、簡単となり、かつ、測定範囲が広く汎用性の高い測定器にすることが可能となる。 Furthermore, grounding the ground fault resistance 3, since it is only necessary to measure the voltage between the terminals, the insulation resistance meter 1 design, easy construction, becomes simple and the measurement range is wide versatile instrument it is possible to to.

一方、過渡時間(時定数τp,τn)が測定されることで、この過渡時間と絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnとに基づいて、静電容量値Cが自動測定(演算)される。 On the other hand, the transient time (time constant .tau.p, .tau.n) is measured, the transient time and the insulation resistance value Rp, based on the Rn, the capacitance value C is automatically measured (operation). このようにして、直流回路Dの絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnと静電容量値Cとが測定されることで、活線状態における直流回路Dの絶縁状態を的確に診断することが可能となり、この診断に基づいて、地絡事故による電力機器への障害などを未然かつ的確に防止することが可能となる。 In this way, by insulation resistance value Rp of the DC circuit D, and the Rn and the capacitance value C is determined, it is possible to accurately diagnose the insulation state of the DC circuit D in the active line state, the based on the diagnosis, the like damage to electrical equipment due to a ground fault can be prevented from occurring and accurately. 例えば、従来、静電容量値Cが未知数であったために、遮断器トリップ回路の接地時に誤遮断(ミストリップ)を生じるおそれがあったが、本絶縁抵抗測定器1によって静電容量値Cを正確に把握できることで、このような誤遮断を防止することが可能となる。 For example, conventionally, in order capacitance value C was unknown, breaker erroneous interruption during ground trip circuit but there is a possibility to produce (miss trip), the capacitance value C by the insulation resistance meter 1 the ability to accurately grasp, it is possible to prevent such erroneous cutoff.

また、表示部5によって測定結果である絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnと静電容量値Cとが表示されるため、目視によって測定結果を迅速かつ容易に認識できる。 Further, since the insulation resistance is the result measured by the display unit 5 Rp, and the Rn and the capacitance value C is displayed, quickly and easily recognize the measurement results visually. さらに、測定された絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnまたは静電容量値Cが異常である場合、警報部6によって警報音が発せられるため、即座に異常を認識し、詳細な調査、対策などを迅速かつ的確にとることができる。 Furthermore, if the measured insulation resistance value Rp, Rn or capacitance value C is abnormal, since the alarm sound is emitted by the warning unit 6, immediately recognize the abnormal, and further investigation, measures and rapid it is possible to take accurate.

ところで、地絡抵抗3の抵抗値R3は、次のようにして設定(選定)される。 Incidentally, the resistance value R3 of the ground fault resistor 3 is set as follows (selection). なお、この設定方法は、後述する絶縁抵抗測定方法および静電容量測定方法の場合も同様である。 Note that this setting process is the same when the insulation resistance measuring method and capacitance measuring method described later.

第1に、測定中に万一地絡事故が発生したとしても、直流電源系統(直流回路)に影響を与えない高い値に抵抗値R3を設定する。 First, even emergency ground fault in the measurement occurs, setting the resistance value R3 to a higher value that does not affect the DC power supply system (DC circuit). 例えば、直流制御回路地絡継電器(64D)の整定値が10kΩであるとすると、この10kΩ以上に設定する。 For example, setting value of the DC control circuit locations 絡継 Electric (64D) is When a 10 k.OMEGA, set above this 10 k.OMEGA. これにより、万一地絡事故が発生したとしても、電力機器などに影響(障害)を与えることを防止できる。 Thus, even ground fault event occurs, it is possible to prevent the Influence such power equipment (failure). また、抵抗値R3を10kΩとした場合、被測定極性以外の極が直流地絡を起こしたとしても、地絡抵抗3に流れる電流は11mA程度であり、これによる発熱量も1.2W程度であるため、短時間であれば熱的にも問題がないと考えられる。 Further, when the resistance value R3 and 10 k.OMEGA, even as a very non-polar object to be measured has caused a DC ground fault, the current flowing through the ground fault resistor 3 is about 11 mA, the amount of heat generated by this be about 1.2W there therefore, believed that there is no thermally and problems for short periods.

第2に、安定電圧値Vp,Vnが所定の電圧範囲内に収まるように、抵抗値R3を設定する。 Second, as a stable voltage value Vp, Vn is within a predetermined voltage range, setting the resistance value R3. すなわち、電圧測定部4による測定誤差や、人が電圧値を読み取る場合の読み取り誤差を考慮すると、安定電圧値Vp,Vnが1V程度以上で10V程度以下であることが好ましい。 That, and the measurement error due to the voltage measurement unit 4, when a person is considered a read error when reading a voltage value, a stable voltage value Vp, it is preferable Vn is below about 10V above about 1V. 図5は、被測定回路の絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnと地絡抵抗3の抵抗値R3との組み合わせにおける安定電圧値Vp,Vnを示したものであり、カッコ内のパーセンテージは、絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnに対する抵抗値R3の大きさ(割合)を表したものである。 5, the insulation resistance of the measurement circuit Rp, Rn and stability voltage value in combination with a resistance value R3 of the ground fault resistor 3 Vp, and shows the Vn, percentages in parentheses, the insulation resistance value Rp is a representation magnitude of the resistance value R3 for Rn (the ratio). この図から、安定電圧値Vp,Vnが1V程度以上で10V程度以下に収まるようにするには、抵抗値R3を絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnの1〜10%程度に設定する必要があると言える。 It said from this figure, stable voltage value Vp, To Vn falls below about 10V above about 1V is the resistance value R3 insulation resistance Rp, and it is necessary to set to about 1-10% of Rn . そして、このような値に抵抗値R3を設定することで、安定電圧値Vp,Vnが高い精度で安定して測定され、直流回路Dの絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnおよび静電容量値Cが高い精度で安定して測定できる。 Then, by setting the resistance value R3 to such values, a stable voltage value Vp, Vn is stably measured with high precision, high insulation resistance value Rp, Rn and the capacitance value C of the DC circuit D stable and can be measured with accuracy.

第3に、過渡時間である時定数τp,τnが所定の時間範囲内に収まるように、抵抗値R3を設定する。 Third, constant τp when a transient time, as τn is within a predetermined time range, sets the resistance value R3. すなわち、計時部による測定誤差や、地絡抵抗3への地絡継続時間を考慮すると、過渡時間が5〜60秒程度が好ましい。 That, and the measurement error due to timing unit, taking into account the ground fault duration to ground fault resistor 3, the transient time is preferably about 5 to 60 seconds. 図6は、被測定回路の静電容量値Cと地絡抵抗3の抵抗値R3との組み合わせにおける過渡時間を示したものである。 Figure 6 shows the transient time in combination with the resistance value R3 of the electrostatic capacitance value C and the ground fault resistor 3 of the circuit under test. この図から、過渡時間が5〜60秒程度に収まるようにするには、静電容量値Cが500μF以下の場合、抵抗値R3を0.1〜0.5MΩ程度に設定する必要があると言える。 From this figure, so that the transient time falls to around 5 to 60 seconds, when the electrostatic capacitance value C is less than 500MyuF, if the resistance value R3 must be set to about 0.1~0.5MΩ it can be said. そして、このような値に抵抗値R3を設定することで、過渡時間が高い精度で、容易にかつ安定して測定され、直流回路Dの静電容量値Cが高い精度で安定して測定できる。 Then, by setting the resistance value R3 to such values, in the transient time high accuracy, it is easily and stably measured, can be stably measured by the electrostatic capacitance value C is high accuracy of a DC circuit D .

ここで、第2の設定基準と第3の設定基準とは、相反する面がある。 Here, the second set criteria and the third set reference, there are conflicting surface. すなわち、安定電圧値Vp,Vn、ひいては絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnの測定精度の面からは、地絡抵抗3の抵抗値R3が大きい方が、安定電圧値Vp,Vnが大きいために測定誤差が小さい。 That is, a stable voltage value Vp, Vn, is thus the insulation resistance value Rp, from the viewpoint of measurement accuracy of Rn, towards the resistance value R3 of the ground fault resistor 3 is large, stable voltage value Vp, the measurement error due Vn is large small. しかしながら、静電容量値Cの測定精度の面からは、安定電圧値Vp,Vnが大きいと、過渡時間(時定数τp,τn)の誤差(バラツキ)が大きくなるために、静電容量値Cの測定精度が低くなるというものである。 However, from the viewpoint of measurement accuracy of the capacitance value C, stable voltage value Vp, the Vn is large, the transient time (time constant .tau.p, .tau.n) for error (variation) is large, the capacitance value C measurement accuracy of is that low. このため、絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnと静電容量値Cとの必要測定誤差を考慮して、地絡抵抗3の抵抗値R3を設定する必要がある。 Therefore, the insulation resistance value Rp, taking into account the necessary measurement error between Rn and the capacitance value C, it is necessary to set the resistance value R3 of the ground fault resistor 3.

以上のようにして、地絡抵抗3の抵抗値R3が設定されるが、実務上は、例えば次のようにして設定される。 As described above, the resistance value R3 of the ground fault resistor 3 is set, the practice is set, for example, as follows.

まず、絶縁抵抗測定器1の内部抵抗値を含めて、地絡抵抗3の抵抗値R3を500kΩとして測定する。 First, including an internal resistance value of the insulation resistance meter 1, to measure the resistance value R3 of the ground fault resistor 3 as 500 k [Omega]. そして、過渡時間(時定数τp,τn)が60秒以内であれば、そのまま測定を続行し、安定電圧値Vp,Vnを測定する。 The transient time (time constant .tau.p, .tau.n) If the 60 seconds, it continues the measurement, stable voltage value Vp, measures the Vn. 一方、60秒を過ぎても地絡抵抗3の端末間電圧が上記の所定電圧に達しない場合(過渡時間が60秒を超す場合)には、地絡抵抗3の抵抗値R3を100kΩとして、測定をし直す。 On the other hand, when the terminal voltage of the even ground fault resistance 3 past 60 seconds does not reach the predetermined voltage of the (if transient time more than 60 seconds), the resistance value R3 of the ground fault resistor 3 as 100 k.OMEGA, re-measurement. あるいは、安定電圧値Vp,Vnが10V以上であり、静電容量値Cの測定精度を高める必要がある場合には、地絡抵抗3の抵抗値R3を100kΩとして、測定をし直す、というものである。 Alternatively, stable voltage value Vp, and the Vn is 10V or more, what if there is a need to improve the measurement accuracy of the capacitance value C, the resistance value R3 of the ground fault resistor 3 as 100 k.OMEGA, re-measurement, that it is. なお、直流回路Dの正極側および負極側には、同じ抵抗値R3の地絡抵抗3を接地する必要がある。 Incidentally, the positive electrode side and the negative side of the DC circuit D, it is necessary to ground the ground fault resistance 3 of the same resistance value R3.

ところで、本実施形態では、絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnと静電容量値Cとを同時に測定できるようにしているが、どちらか一方のみを測定する測定器にすることもできる。 Incidentally, in this embodiment, the insulation resistance value Rp, although to be able to simultaneously measure and Rn and the capacitance value C, may also be a measuring device to measure only either one. すなわち、地絡抵抗3の安定電圧値Vp,Vnのみを測定し、絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnのみを演算する絶縁抵抗測定器であってもよい。 That is, a stable voltage value Vp of the ground fault resistor 3, Vn only measure the insulation resistance value Rp, it may be an insulating resistance meter for calculating a Rn only. また、絶縁抵抗値RpまたはRnの少なくともどちらか一方が既知である場合に、その既知の極性側の過渡時間(時定数τpまたはτn)のみを測定し、静電容量値Cのみを演算する静電容量測定器であってもよい。 Further, in the case of at least one of the insulation resistance value Rp or Rn is known, electrostatic its known polarity transition time of only (time constant τp or .tau.n) was measured, to calculate only the capacitance value C it may be a capacitance meter. なお、このような静電容量測定器の場合、既知の絶縁抵抗値RpまたはRnを測定器に入力して、静電容量値Cを測定することになる。 In the case of such a capacitance meter, enter the known insulation resistance Rp or Rn to the instrument will measure the capacitance value C. そして、このような絶縁抵抗測定器または静電容量測定器にすることで、測定器の構成のさらなる簡素化、測定時間の短縮化などを図ることができる。 Then, by such a insulation resistance meter or capacitance meter, it is possible to achieve further simplification of the measuring instrument configuration, etc. shortening of measuring time.

また、本実施形態では、初期電圧(電源電圧Vの1/2)の36.8%の電圧を所定電圧とし、この電圧に達した時点(時定数τpまたはτn)を過渡時間としているが、所定電圧をこの電圧値に限らなくても、静電容量値Cを演算することができる。 Further, in the present embodiment, 36.8% of the voltage of the initial voltage (half the supply voltage V) to a predetermined voltage, the time of reaching to the voltage (time constant τp or .tau.n) Although the transition period, without necessarily a predetermined voltage to the voltage value, it is possible to calculate the capacitance value C. すなわち、図4(b)に示すような電圧の時間的変化曲線に基づいて、他の電圧値とその過渡時間とから時定数を算出して、静電容量値Cを演算することができる。 That is, it is possible on the basis of a temporal change curve of the voltage as shown in FIG. 4 (b), to calculate the time constant from other voltage value and its transient time, calculates the capacitance value C. さらに、地絡による過渡現象が安定しても、上記のように安定電圧値VpまたはVnが残るため、静電容量値Cを厳密に演算するには、初期電圧(電源電圧Vの1/2)から安定電圧値VpまたはVnを差し引いた値の36.8%を所定電圧として演算する必要がある。 Furthermore, even if transient stability by ground fault, since the stable voltage value Vp or Vn as above remains, the strict calculation of the electrostatic capacitance value C, the initial voltage (power supply voltage V 1/2 ) it must be calculated as a predetermined voltage 36.8% of the value obtained by subtracting the stable voltage value Vp or Vn from. しかしながら、上記のように安定電圧値Vp,Vnが5V程度以下であれば、これらの値を差し引かなくても、演算誤差は小さい。 However, as described above stably voltage value Vp, if Vn is less than about 5V, without subtracting these values, calculation error is small.

ところで、本絶縁抵抗測定器1と同様な測定手順によって、人手による測定(絶縁抵抗測定方法および静電容量測定方法)もできる。 Incidentally, the same measurement procedure as the insulation resistance meter 1, the measurement manual (insulation resistance measuring method and capacitance measurement method) can also. すなわち、地絡抵抗とテスター(電圧測定手段)と時計(計時手段)とを用意し、上述した図2に示すフローチャートに従って、安定電圧値Vp,Vnおよび過渡時間を測定することで、絶縁抵抗値Rp,Rnと静電容量値Cとをその場で計算(演算)することができる。 That is, providing a ground fault resistance and testers (voltage measuring means) and a clock (clock means), according to the flowchart shown in FIG. 2 described above, by measuring the stable voltage value Vp, Vn and transient time, the insulation resistance value rp, and Rn and the capacitance value C may be calculated (operation) in situ. このように、特殊な計器などを用意しなくても、地絡抵抗やテスターなどを用意することで容易に測定することができるため、どの現場(現地)や直流電源系統においても、容易、迅速な測定が可能で、かつ、緊急時にも対応が可能となる。 Thus, even without preparing and special instruments, because it can be easily measured by providing a like ground fault resistance and testers, at any site (local) or DC power supply system, easy, fast You can Do measurement, and also it is possible to correspond to an emergency. この結果、定期的な設備診断パトロールなどにおいて、直流回路Dの絶縁状態を的確に診断することが実効的に可能となり、地絡事故の予防、対策を確立できる。 As a result, in such regular equipment diagnosis patrol, possible to accurately diagnose the insulation state of the DC circuit D becomes effectively possible, be established prevention of ground fault, countermeasures.

本発明の実施形態に係る絶縁抵抗測定器を直流回路に接続した状態を示す概略回路図。 Schematic circuit diagram showing a state of connecting to a DC circuit insulation resistance measuring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. 本発明の実施形態に係る絶縁抵抗測定器の測定フローを示すフローチャート。 Flowchart showing the measurement flow of the insulation resistance measuring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention. 本発明の実施形態に係る絶縁抵抗測定器によって、地絡抵抗が直流回路の正極側に接地された状態を示す一部回路図(a)と、負極側に接地された状態を示す一部回路図(b)。 The insulation resistance measuring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention, part circuit diagram showing a state of being grounded to the positive electrode side of the ground-fault resistance DC circuit and (a), partial schematic illustrating a state of being grounded to the negative Figure (b). 本発明の実施形態に係る絶縁抵抗測定器によって、地絡抵抗が直流回路に接地された状態における静電容量との関係を示す概略回路図(a)と、電圧の時間的変化を示す図(b)。 Shows the insulation resistance measuring apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention, a schematic circuit diagram showing the relationship between the electrostatic capacitance in a state where the ground fault resistance is grounded in a direct current circuit and (a), the temporal change of the voltage ( b). 本発明の実施形態において、被測定回路の絶縁抵抗値と地絡抵抗の抵抗値との組み合わせにおける安定電圧値を示す図。 In an embodiment of the present invention, it shows a stable voltage value in combination with the insulation resistance value and the resistance value of the ground-fault resistance of the circuit under test. 本発明の実施形態において、被測定回路の静電容量値と地絡抵抗の抵抗値との組み合わせにおける過渡時間を示す図。 In an embodiment of the present invention, it shows the transient time in combination with the capacitance value and the resistance value of the ground-fault resistance of the circuit under test.

符号の説明 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1 絶縁抵抗測定器 2 切換スイッチ(切換手段) 1 insulation resistance meter 2 change-over switch (switching means)
3 地絡抵抗 4 電圧測定部(電圧測定手段) 3 grounding resistor 4 voltage measuring unit (voltage measuring means)
5 表示部(表示手段) 5 display portion (display means)
6 警報部(警報発信手段) 6 alarm part (alarm transmission means)
7 制御部(計時手段、演算部) 7 control unit (timekeeping means, calculating section)
D 直流回路 Rp 正極側絶縁抵抗(値) D DC circuit Rp positive side insulation resistance (value)
Rn 負極側絶縁抵抗(値) Rn negative electrode side insulation resistance (value)
Cp 正極側静電容量(値) Cp positive side capacitance (value)
Cn 負極側静電容量(値) Cn negative electrode capacitance (value)
64D 直流制御回路地絡継電器 64D DC control circuitry land 絡継 Electric Appliances

Claims (11)

  1. 直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を測定する絶縁抵抗測定器であって、 An insulating resistance meter for measuring the ground insulation resistance value of the DC circuit,
    直流回路の正極側と大地間および負極側と大地間に切換手段を介して切換接続される地絡抵抗と、この地絡抵抗の端末間電圧を測定する電圧測定手段と、この電圧測定手段によって測定された前記地絡抵抗の安定電圧値に基づいて前記直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を演算する演算部とを有する、 A ground fault resistor to be switched for connection through the switching means between the positive electrode side and the ground and between the negative electrode side and the ground of the DC circuit, and a voltage measuring means for measuring a terminal voltage of the ground fault resistance, by the voltage measuring means based on the measured stabilized voltage value of the grounding resistor and a calculator for calculating the ground insulation resistance of the DC circuit,
    ことを特徴とする絶縁抵抗測定器。 Insulation resistance meter, characterized in that.
  2. 前記地絡抵抗の端末間電圧が所定の電圧に達するまでの過渡時間を測定する計時手段を有し、この計時手段によって測定された過渡時間と前記演算された対地絶縁抵抗値とに基づいて、前記演算部が前記直流回路の対地静電容量値を演算する、 A timer means terminal voltage of the grounding resistor to measure the transient time to reach a predetermined voltage, on the basis of said computed ground insulation resistance value has been a transient time determined by the time counting means, the calculation unit calculates the ground electrostatic capacitance value of the DC circuit,
    ことを特徴とする請求項1に記載の絶縁抵抗測定器。 Insulation resistance measuring instrument according to claim 1, characterized in that.
  3. 直流回路の対地静電容量値を測定する静電容量測定器であって、 A capacitance measuring device for measuring a ground electrostatic capacitance value of the DC circuit,
    直流回路の正極側と大地間または負極側と大地間に接続される地絡抵抗と、この地絡抵抗の端末間電圧を測定する電圧測定手段と、前記端末間電圧が所定の電圧に達するまでの過渡時間を測定する計時手段と、この計時手段によって測定された過渡時間と前記地絡抵抗が接続された極性側の対地絶縁抵抗値とに基づいて前記直流回路の対地静電容量値を演算する演算部とを有する、 A ground fault resistance connected between the positive electrode side and the ground or between the negative electrode side and the ground of the DC circuit, and a voltage measuring means for measuring a terminal voltage of the ground fault resistance, until the terminal voltage reaches a predetermined voltage calculating timing means, the earth capacitance value of the DC circuit on the basis of the ground insulation resistance measured transient time and the grounding resistor is connected polarity by the time measuring means for measuring the transit time of and a calculator for,
    ことを特徴とする静電容量測定器。 Capacitance meter, characterized in that.
  4. 前記演算部による演算結果を表示する表示手段を有する、 A display means for displaying the calculation result by the arithmetic unit,
    ことを特徴とする請求項1〜3のいずれか1項に記載の絶縁抵抗測定器または静電容量測定器。 Insulation resistance meter or capacitance measuring instrument according to claim 1, characterized in that.
  5. 警報を発信する警報発信手段を有し、前記演算された対地絶縁抵抗値または対地静電容量値が異常値である場合に警報を発信する、 Has an alarm transmitter means for transmitting an alarm, the computed ground insulation resistance value or capacitance to ground value originates an alarm if an abnormal value,
    ことを特徴とする請求項1〜4のいずれか1項に記載の絶縁抵抗測定器または静電容量測定器。 Insulation resistance meter or capacitance measuring instrument according to claim 1, characterized in that.
  6. 直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を測定する絶縁抵抗測定方法であって、 An insulating resistance measurement method for measuring ground insulation resistance value of the DC circuit,
    直流回路の正極側と大地間に地絡抵抗を接続して、この地絡抵抗の端末間電圧が安定する正極側安定電圧値を測定し、 Connect a ground fault resistance between the positive electrode side and the ground of the DC circuit, the terminal voltage of the ground fault resistance is measured positive side stable voltage value stabilizes,
    前記直流回路の負極側と大地間に前記地絡抵抗を接続して、この地絡抵抗の端末間電圧が安定する負極側安定電圧値を測定し、 Connect the grounding resistor between the anode side and ground of the DC circuit, the terminal voltage of the ground fault resistance is measured negative side stable voltage value stabilizes,
    前記正極側安定電圧値と負極側安定電圧値とに基づいて、前記直流回路の対地絶縁抵抗値を演算する、 Wherein based on the positive electrode side stable voltage value and the negative stable voltage value, calculates the ground insulation resistance of the DC circuit,
    ことを特徴とする絶縁抵抗測定方法。 Insulation resistance measurement method, wherein.
  7. 前記地絡抵抗の端末間電圧が所定の電圧に達するまでの過渡時間を測定し、この過渡時間と前記演算された対地絶縁抵抗値とに基づいて、前記直流回路の対地静電容量値を演算する、 Terminal voltage of the grounding resistor measures the transient time to reach a predetermined voltage, on the basis of said computed ground insulation resistance value and the transient time, calculates the ground electrostatic capacitance value of the DC circuit to,
    ことを特徴とする請求項6に記載の絶縁抵抗測定方法。 Insulation resistance measuring method according to claim 6, characterized in that.
  8. 直流回路の対地静電容量値を測定する静電容量測定方法であって、 A capacitance measuring method for measuring a ground electrostatic capacitance value of the DC circuit,
    直流回路の正極側と大地間または負極側と大地間に地絡抵抗を接続して、この地絡抵抗の端末間電圧が所定の電圧に達するまでの過渡時間を測定し、この過渡時間と前記地絡抵抗が接続された極性側の対地絶縁抵抗値とに基づいて、前記直流回路の対地静電容量値を演算する、 Connect a ground fault resistance between the positive electrode side and the ground or between the negative electrode side and the ground of the DC circuit, the terminal voltage of the ground fault resistance is measured transient time to reach a predetermined voltage, said this transient time on the basis of the ground insulation resistance of the ground fault resistor connected polarity, it calculates the ground electrostatic capacitance value of the DC circuit,
    ことを特徴とする静電容量測定方法。 Capacitance measurement wherein the.
  9. 前記地絡抵抗の抵抗値が、地絡事故が発生しても前記直流回路に影響を与えない高い値に設定されている、 Resistance value of the grounding resistor is set to a higher value even ground fault occurs no influence on the DC circuit,
    ことを特徴とする請求項1〜8のいずれか1項に記載の絶縁抵抗測定器、静電容量測定器、絶縁抵抗測定方法または静電容量測定方法。 According insulation resistance measuring instrument according to any one of claim 1 to 8, a capacitance measuring device, the insulation resistance measurement method or an electrostatic capacity measuring method characterized by.
  10. 前記地絡抵抗の安定電圧値が測定される請求項1〜9のいずれか1項に記載の絶縁抵抗測定器または絶縁抵抗測定方法において、 In the insulation resistance meter or the insulation resistance measurement method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, stabilized voltage value of the grounding resistor is measured,
    前記安定電圧値が所定の電圧範囲内に収まるように、前記地絡抵抗の抵抗値が設定されている、 The stable voltage value to fall within a predetermined voltage range, the resistance value of the grounding resistor is set,
    ことを特徴とする絶縁抵抗測定器または絶縁抵抗測定方法。 Insulation resistance meter or the insulation resistance measurement method, characterized in that.
  11. 前記過渡時間が測定される請求項2〜10のいずれか1項に記載の絶縁抵抗測定器、静電容量測定器、絶縁抵抗測定方法または静電容量測定方法において、 Insulation resistance measuring instrument according to any one of claims 2-10, wherein the transition time is measured, the capacitance measuring device, the insulation resistance measuring method or an electrostatic capacity measuring method,
    前記過渡時間が所定の時間範囲内に収まるように、前記地絡抵抗の抵抗値が設定されている、 Said transient time so as to fall within a predetermined time range, the resistance value of the grounding resistor is set,
    ことを特徴とする絶縁抵抗測定器、静電容量測定器、絶縁抵抗測定方法または静電容量測定方法。 Insulation resistance meter, characterized in that, the capacitance measuring device, the insulation resistance measurement method or an electrostatic capacity measuring method.
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JP2011002417A (en) * 2009-06-22 2011-01-06 Jx Nippon Oil & Energy Corp Instrument and method for measuring insulation resistance
JP2011530710A (en) * 2008-08-11 2011-12-22 エルジー・ケム・リミテッド Sensing leakage current device and method for a battery, and battery powered devices and battery packs comprising the device
JP2012037426A (en) * 2010-08-09 2012-02-23 Chugoku Electric Power Co Inc:The Resistance value determination apparatus
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CN102749523A (en) * 2012-07-16 2012-10-24 山东奥太电气有限公司 Direct-current ground resistance detection circuit applied to photovoltaic inverter system
JP2012233825A (en) * 2011-05-06 2012-11-29 Chugoku Electric Power Co Inc:The Insulation resistance measuring device of dc circuit, capacitance measuring device, insulation resistance measuring method, and capacitance measuring method
JP2013167521A (en) * 2012-02-15 2013-08-29 Chubu Electrical Safety Services Foundation Insulation measuring device for photovoltaic power generation apparatus and method for measuring insulation of photovoltaic power generation apparatus
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JP2014062883A (en) * 2012-08-28 2014-04-10 Chubu Electrical Safety Services Foundation Insulation measuring device for photovoltaic power generation system and insulation measuring method for photovoltaic power generation system
CN104360167A (en) * 2014-11-07 2015-02-18 深圳市永联科技有限公司 High-precision insulation resistance detection method
CN105842540A (en) * 2016-03-23 2016-08-10 中车株洲电力机车研究所有限公司 Method for detecting DC bus insulation resistance
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JP2011530710A (en) * 2008-08-11 2011-12-22 エルジー・ケム・リミテッド Sensing leakage current device and method for a battery, and battery powered devices and battery packs comprising the device
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US8164344B2 (en) * 2009-03-31 2012-04-24 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Electric vehicle with ground fault detecting system
JP2011002417A (en) * 2009-06-22 2011-01-06 Jx Nippon Oil & Energy Corp Instrument and method for measuring insulation resistance
US8860430B2 (en) 2009-06-22 2014-10-14 Jx Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation Insulation resistance measurement device and insulation resistance measurement method
JP2012037426A (en) * 2010-08-09 2012-02-23 Chugoku Electric Power Co Inc:The Resistance value determination apparatus
JP2012093186A (en) * 2010-10-26 2012-05-17 Nippon Telegr & Teleph Corp <Ntt> Capacity calculation apparatus
JP2012233825A (en) * 2011-05-06 2012-11-29 Chugoku Electric Power Co Inc:The Insulation resistance measuring device of dc circuit, capacitance measuring device, insulation resistance measuring method, and capacitance measuring method
JP2013167521A (en) * 2012-02-15 2013-08-29 Chubu Electrical Safety Services Foundation Insulation measuring device for photovoltaic power generation apparatus and method for measuring insulation of photovoltaic power generation apparatus
JP2013210246A (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-10-10 Chugoku Electric Power Co Inc:The Resistance value calculation device
CN102749523A (en) * 2012-07-16 2012-10-24 山东奥太电气有限公司 Direct-current ground resistance detection circuit applied to photovoltaic inverter system
JP2014062883A (en) * 2012-08-28 2014-04-10 Chubu Electrical Safety Services Foundation Insulation measuring device for photovoltaic power generation system and insulation measuring method for photovoltaic power generation system
CN104360167A (en) * 2014-11-07 2015-02-18 深圳市永联科技有限公司 High-precision insulation resistance detection method
CN107407713A (en) * 2015-11-16 2017-11-28 株式会社Lg 化学 Insulation resistance measuring system and device
JP2018508785A (en) * 2015-11-16 2018-03-29 エルジー・ケム・リミテッド Insulation resistance measuring system and apparatus
EP3258280A4 (en) * 2015-11-16 2018-07-11 LG Chem, Ltd. Insulation resistance measuring system and device
CN105842540A (en) * 2016-03-23 2016-08-10 中车株洲电力机车研究所有限公司 Method for detecting DC bus insulation resistance

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