JP2006275433A - Absorption type small cooling and refrigerating device - Google Patents

Absorption type small cooling and refrigerating device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2006275433A
JP2006275433A JP2005096156A JP2005096156A JP2006275433A JP 2006275433 A JP2006275433 A JP 2006275433A JP 2005096156 A JP2005096156 A JP 2005096156A JP 2005096156 A JP2005096156 A JP 2005096156A JP 2006275433 A JP2006275433 A JP 2006275433A
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Prior art keywords
absorption
refrigerator
refrigeration
controlling
droplets
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Pending
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JP2005096156A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Tetsuo Munakata
Masahiro Shoji
Fumio Takemura
鉄雄 宗像
正弘 庄司
文男 竹村
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National Institute Of Advanced Industrial & Technology
独立行政法人産業技術総合研究所
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/20Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation in buildings, dwellings or related infrastructures
    • Y02A30/27Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies
    • Y02A30/276Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies of the sorption type
    • Y02A30/277Absorption based systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B30/00Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]
    • Y02B30/60Other technologies for heating or cooling
    • Y02B30/62Absorption based systems

Abstract

The present invention relates to an evaporator having a liquid amount control function using an ink jet nozzle system and a refined liquid using an ink jet nozzle system in a cooler and a refrigerator using an absorption refrigeration cycle. Absorption-type small refrigeration and refrigeration system capable of removing heat of several hundred watts per square centimeter by providing an absorber having a function of promoting vapor absorption by droplet ejection and a condenser having a microstructure on the condenser surface The purpose is to provide.
An absorption type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus according to the present invention intermittently drops droplets by driving and controlling an electrostrictive element such as a piezo element in a cooler and a refrigerator using an absorption refrigeration cycle. From an injection nozzle that intermittently ejects micronized droplets by driving and controlling an electrostrictive element such as an evaporator and a piezo element that injects refrigerant from a jet nozzle that jets toward a member to be cooled It is characterized by comprising an absorber for injecting the absorbing solution toward the space where the refrigerant vapor exists.
[Selection] Figure 6

Description

  The present invention relates to a compact cooling and refrigeration system using the basic cycle of an absorption refrigeration machine, and is particularly suitable for heat removal and temperature control of a device having a large local heat generation amount, such as a high-performance, high-performance semiconductor. The present invention relates to a small cooling and refrigeration apparatus.

  There is a method of using a Peltier element as a method for removing heat from a local heating element. However, this method does not have a heat removal amount that is sufficient for the heat generation amount of a high-performance semiconductor of several tens of watts per square centimeter. This level of heat removal physically requires the use of evaporation heat transfer that incorporates a refrigeration system. Refrigerators include a compression refrigeration system that has a function of freezing by expanding and compressing a refrigerant, and an absorption refrigeration system that has a refrigeration function by utilizing a concentration difference between lithium bromide solutions. Since the compression refrigerator requires a compressor, it cannot be an option as a small refrigerator.

FIG. 1 shows a basic cycle of an absorption refrigerator, and the absorption refrigerator includes an evaporator, an absorber, a regenerator, and a condenser, and uses an aqueous lithium bromide solution as a refrigerant. In the evaporator, water vapor generated by heat obtained from a cold heat source (for example, cold water) is absorbed in the concentrated lithium bromide aqueous solution in the absorber. The thinned lithium bromide aqueous solution is returned to the regenerator and is converted into the original lithium bromide aqueous solution even when heated. The expelled water vapor is cooled and condensed by the condenser and returned to the evaporator. As described above, the absorption refrigeration cycle does not require a compressor and is suitable for downsizing.
However, conventional absorption refrigerators are one or more orders of magnitude larger than semiconductor devices, such as application to home air conditioners, and there are no devices of about 100 W (see, for example, Patent Documents 1 and 2).
JP 2003-75014 A JP 2004-225984 A

  In the future high-performance semiconductors, it is considered that there is a local heat generation of about several tens of watts per square centimeter. In order to remove this level of local heat, conventional heat pipes and air cooling systems cannot catch up. On the other hand, even if a Peltier element or the like is used, the heat removal amount is small by almost one digit. Absorption refrigerators have evaporative heat transfer that can only remove this level of local heat, and also have a refrigerator system attached, so the amount of heat waste to the outside is overwhelmingly larger than heat pipes. be able to.

  The present invention relates to an ink jet nozzle system (in this specification, a liquid is pressurized using an electrostrictive element such as a piezo element to form droplets from a nozzle in a refrigerator and refrigerator using an absorption refrigerator cycle. An intermittent jetting method is called an “ink jet nozzle method”.) An evaporator with a liquid amount control function using an ink jet nozzle method, and an absorption with a vapor absorption promotion function by atomized droplet jetting using an ink jet nozzle method. It is an object of the present invention to provide an absorption-type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus that can obtain heat removal of several hundred watts per square centimeter by providing a condenser having a microstructure on the surface of the condenser and the condenser.

(1) In order to achieve the above object, the absorption-type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus of the present invention is a liquid by controlling the driving of an electrostrictive element such as a piezo element in a cooler and refrigerator using an absorption refrigeration cycle. An evaporator is provided that injects a refrigerant toward a member to be cooled from an injection nozzle that intermittently injects droplets.
(2) The absorption type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus of the present invention is the liquid film thickness generated on the surface of the member to be cooled by controlling the amount of liquid droplets ejected from the ejection nozzle in the above (1). This is characterized in that the thickness is maintained at a predetermined value.
(3) Moreover, the absorption type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus of the present invention is characterized in that, in the above (2), the thickness of the liquid film generated on the surface of the member to be cooled is 100 micrometers or less.
(4) Further, the absorption type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus of the present invention is a liquid refined by driving and controlling an electrostrictive element such as a piezo element in a cooler and a refrigerator using an absorption type refrigerator cycle. It is characterized by comprising an absorber for injecting the absorbing solution from the injection nozzle for intermittently injecting the droplets toward the space where the refrigerant vapor exists.
(5) Further, the absorption type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus of the present invention intermittently drops liquid droplets by driving and controlling an electrostrictive element such as a piezo element in a cooler and refrigerator using an absorption refrigeration cycle. Nozzle that intermittently ejects micronized droplets by driving and controlling an electrostrictive element such as an evaporator and a piezo element that injects the refrigerant from the injection nozzle that injects the liquid toward the member to be cooled And an absorber for injecting the absorbing solution toward the space where the refrigerant vapor exists.
(6) Moreover, the absorption type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus of the present invention is characterized in that in any one of the above (1) to (5), a condenser having a fine groove formed on the condensation surface is provided.

The present invention has the following excellent effects.
(1) By reducing the size and efficiency of the evaporator, absorber or condenser, the amount of local heat removal can be increased several times compared to heat pipes or conventional absorption refrigerators. In addition, the refrigeration apparatus can be reduced in size.
(2) By not forming a liquid film on the heating surface of the member to be cooled or making it as thin as possible, the evaporation rate can be increased several times compared to conventional absorption refrigeration. The area can be reduced and the apparatus can be miniaturized.
(3) Since the absorption area of the vapor can be increased and the absorption speed per unit area can be increased by increasing the jetting speed of the droplets, the absorption speed can be significantly increased as compared with the prior art. As a result, the apparatus can be reduced in size.
(4) By making the liquid film formed on the condensing surface of the condenser as thin as possible, the condensing speed is promoted, thereby making it possible to reduce the size of the apparatus.

  The best mode for carrying out the absorption type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus according to the present invention will be described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.

FIG. 2 is a conceptual diagram for explaining an evaporator having a liquid amount control function using an ink jet nozzle system.
There is a limit to the evaporation rate of the liquid, which is called the critical heat flux. This critical heat flux arises from the limited speed at which vapor evaporated on the heated surface approximately pushes the heavy liquid above it. Therefore, theoretically, if there is no liquid film on the heating surface, the critical heat flux is also high. In order not to form a liquid film on the heating surface or to make it as thin as possible (preferably 100 micrometers or less), it is necessary to sufficiently control the amount of liquid supplied to the heating surface. With a spray nozzle or the like, it is difficult to maintain the liquid film at 100 micrometers or less because it is difficult to control the spray amount. On the other hand, in the ink jet nozzle system, each drop is supplied from a large number of nozzles, so that the liquid film thickness can be easily controlled using information such as the temperature on the heating surface.
In FIG. 2, reference numeral 1 denotes an ejection nozzle provided with a piezo element. A plurality of ejection nozzles are provided in parallel, and when a voltage is applied to the piezo element by a power source (not shown), droplets 2 from the respective ejection nozzles 1 are illustrated. As shown in FIG. At this time, the injection amount from each injection nozzle 1 can be precisely controlled by controlling the voltage for driving the piezo element.

The droplets 2 ejected from the ejection nozzle 1 are directed to the heating surface 4 of the heated semiconductor chip 3 to be cooled, and are evaporated in the vicinity or attached to the heating surface 4. The liquid film 5 generated by jetting droplets is desirably maintained at 100 micrometers or less. For this reason, the temperature of the heating surface 4 is detected and the driving of the piezo element is controlled based on the temperature of the heating surface. Thus, the thickness of the liquid film 5 is controlled to be within a certain range.
Below, the specific example which controls the thickness of the liquid film 5 is demonstrated.
Now, let W be the thermal load of the object to be cooled, ΔT be the temperature difference above and below the liquid film 5 formed on the heating surface 4, Q be the amount of liquid supplied from the injection nozzle 1, and δ be the thickness of the liquid film 5. .
The following relationship exists between the liquid supply amount Q, the thermal load W, the liquid film thickness δ, and the temperature difference ΔT between the upper and lower sides of the liquid film 5 formed on the heating surface.
W = ρh fg Q = AλΔT / δ (1)
Where ρ is the density of the liquid, h fg is the latent heat of vaporization, A is the area where the liquid film is formed, and λ is the thermal conductivity of the liquid.
From the above equation (1), for example, if the liquid film thickness δ is set to a predetermined value within a range of 10 μm to 100 μm and the temperature difference ΔT between the upper and lower sides of the liquid film 5 is measured, the liquid supply amount Q can be obtained. Once the liquid supply amount Q is obtained, the piezo transmission frequency (number of droplets) and the piezo amplitude (droplet velocity), which are control parameters, are controlled according to the diameter and quantity of the injection nozzle 1, and the required liquid supply amount is obtained. The liquid film thickness δ can be controlled to a predetermined value by supplying Q to the heating surface 4 from the spray nozzle 1.

FIG. 3 is a conceptual diagram for explaining an absorber having a function of promoting vapor absorption by atomized droplet ejection using an ink jet nozzle method.
The vapor generated in the evaporator 20 needs to be quickly condensed (absorbed) into a concentrated lithium bromide aqueous solution. Since the liquid film type absorber used in the conventional absorption refrigerator cannot take a large condensation (absorption) area, it cannot be applied to downsizing. On the other hand, when the ink jet nozzle method is used, the concentrated lithium bromide aqueous solution is ejected as fine droplets, so that it is possible to increase the vapor condensation (absorption) area and increase the droplet ejection speed. Since the absorption rate per unit area can also be increased, the overall absorption rate is significantly increased as compared with the conventional case. Thereby, size reduction can be achieved.

  In FIG. 3, the vapor 6 generated in the evaporator is guided to an absorber 30 in which a plurality of lithium bromide concentrated aqueous solution injection nozzles 7 each having a piezoelectric element are provided in parallel, and the fine odor injected from the injection nozzle 7 there. It is absorbed by the lithium bromide droplet 8. The lithium bromide droplets 8 that have absorbed the vapor 6 come into contact with the bottom surface 10 of the absorber 30 cooled by the fins 9 to form a liquid pool, resulting in a lithium bromide dilute solution containing about 45% lithium bromide. , Sent to the regenerator. The absorption speed per unit area can be controlled by controlling the ejection speed of the droplets by controlling the driving of the piezo element of the ejection nozzle 7.

FIG. 4 is a conceptual diagram for explaining a condenser having a condensation promoting function having a microstructure on the condenser surface.
The lithium bromide aqueous solution whose concentration is reduced by absorbing the vapor is heated and regenerated again into a concentrated lithium bromide aqueous solution, and at the same time, vapor is generated. This vapor is condensed and supplied again to the evaporator. In order to reduce the size of the entire cooler, it is necessary to reduce the size of the condenser. Since condensation forms a liquid film in the same way as evaporation, in order to accelerate the condensation rate, it is necessary to remove the condensed liquid as quickly as possible from the inside of the condenser and make the liquid film thinner. Since the liquid has surface tension, it has the property of flowing on thin channels and surfaces with different wettability and generating large droplets. Utilizing this property, the thickness of the surrounding liquid film can be obtained by applying a structure such as a narrow channel on the condensation surface to quickly remove water, or generating large droplets and collecting the surrounding fluid in part. Reduce the thickness.

In FIG. 4, fine grooves 12 are formed in the condensation surface 11 that is located on the ceiling of the condenser 40 and is cooled by the fins 13. By forming the groove 12, the liquid condensed between the grooves 12 among the liquid condensed on the condensing surface 11 is subjected to tensile stress due to surface tension from the liquid in the groove 12, and the groove is a thin channel. 12 is quickly removed from the condensing surface through 12, and the thickness of the liquid film generated on the condensing surface 11 is reduced.
FIG. 5 is a conceptual diagram for explaining a condenser having a condensation promoting function by flow control using surface modification.
In FIG. 5, a condensing surface 11 is formed with a surface 14 with high wettability and a surface 15 with low wettability. The liquid existing on the surface 14 with high wettability is attracted to the liquid existing on the surface 15 with low wettability by the action of the tensile stress due to surface tension, and the function of removing liquid is increased.

FIG. 6 is a front view for explaining the entire configuration of the absorption-type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus including the evaporator 20, the absorber 30, and the condenser 40 according to the embodiment of the present invention.
In this example, water (H 2 O) is used as the refrigerant, and lithium bromide (LiBr) is used as the absorbing solution.
In the evaporator 20, the droplet 2 ejected from the nozzle 1 having a piezo element is directed to the heating surface 4 of the heated semiconductor chip 3 to be cooled and is evaporated there. The evaporated refrigerant vapor is absorbed by the fine lithium bromide droplets 8 ejected from the ejection nozzle 7 having a piezo element in the absorbers 30, 30 arranged on both sides of the evaporator 20. The lithium bromide droplets 8 that have absorbed the vapor 6 come into contact with the bottom surface 10 of the absorber 30 cooled by the fins 9 to form a liquid pool and become a lithium bromide dilute solution containing about 45% lithium bromide. Then, it is pressurized by the solution pump 16 and sent to the regenerators 50 and 50. At that time, the dilute aqueous solution exchanges heat with the concentrated aqueous solution from the regenerator 50 and enters the regenerator 50.

The dilute aqueous solution is heated by the combustion heat from the outside in the regenerator 50, boils, and the absorbed refrigerant is separated in the regenerator 50 to increase its concentration. On the other hand, the concentrated aqueous solution gives heat to the low-temperature solution from the absorber 50 and is again injected from the injection nozzle 7 of the absorber 50 to absorb the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator 20.
On the other hand, the refrigerant vapor separated from the solution by the regenerator 50 enters the condenser 40 and is condensed by touching the condensation surface 11 cooled by the fins 13. The condensate on the condensing surface 11 receives a tensile stress due to surface tension from the liquid in the groove 12, travels along the groove 12, which is a narrow flow path, and is quickly removed from the condensing surface, and the thickness of the liquid film generated on the condensing surface Becomes thinner.
The liquefied refrigerant is injected from the nozzle 1 of the evaporator 20 with the pressure lowered.

As described above, the evaporator of the absorption type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus in the present embodiment supplies the refrigerant one drop at a time from a large number of nozzles by the inkjet nozzle method, and therefore uses information such as the temperature on the heating surface. Since the injection amount from each nozzle 1 can be precisely controlled by controlling the voltage for driving the piezo element, the liquid film thickness can be easily controlled, and the efficiency and the size can be reduced.
In addition, since the absorber also injects the absorbing solution as fine droplets by the inkjet nozzle method, similar to the evaporator, a large absorption area of the refrigerant vapor can be taken, and the unit area can be increased by increasing the droplet ejection speed. Since the permeation absorption rate can also be increased, the overall absorption rate is significantly increased as compared with the conventional case. Thereby, size reduction can be achieved.
Furthermore, by adopting a condenser having a condensation promoting function having a microstructure on the condenser surface, the thickness of the liquid film generated on the condensation surface can be reduced, and the efficiency of the condensation action can be improved.

The basic cycle of an absorption refrigerator is shown. It is a conceptual diagram for demonstrating the evaporator with a liquid quantity control function using the ink jet nozzle system which concerns on embodiment of this invention. It is a conceptual diagram for demonstrating the absorber with the vapor | steam absorption acceleration | stimulation function by the atomized droplet ejection using the ink jet nozzle system which concerns on embodiment of this invention. It is a conceptual diagram for demonstrating the condenser which has the condensation promotion function in which the condenser surface which concerns on embodiment of this invention has a microstructure. It is a conceptual diagram for demonstrating the condenser which has the condensation acceleration | stimulation function by the flow control using the surface modification which concerns on embodiment of this invention. It is a front view for demonstrating the whole structure of the absorption type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus provided with the above-mentioned evaporator, absorber, and condenser concerning embodiment of this invention.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Injection nozzle 2 Refrigerant droplet 3 Semiconductor chip 4 Heating surface 5 Liquid film 6 Vapor 7 Nozzle 8 Lithium bromide droplet
9 Fin 10 Bottom surface of absorber 11 Condensation surface 12 Groove 13 Fin 14 Surface with high wettability 15 Surface with low wettability 16 Solution pump 20 Evaporator 30 Absorber 40 Condenser 50 Regenerator

Claims (6)

  1.   In a refrigerator and refrigerator using an absorption refrigeration cycle, evaporation in which refrigerant is injected toward a member to be cooled from an injection nozzle that intermittently injects droplets by driving and controlling an electrostrictive element such as a piezo element. Absorption-type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus characterized by comprising a vessel.
  2.   2. The absorption type according to claim 1, wherein the thickness of the liquid film generated on the surface of the member to be cooled is maintained at a predetermined value by controlling the amount of liquid droplets ejected from the ejection nozzle. Small cooling and refrigeration equipment.
  3.   The absorption type small cooling and refrigerating apparatus according to claim 2, wherein the thickness of the liquid film formed on the surface of the member to be cooled is 100 micrometers or less.
  4.   In a refrigerator and refrigerator using an absorption refrigeration cycle, the absorption solution is present in the refrigerant solution from an injection nozzle that intermittently injects fine droplets by driving and controlling an electrostrictive element such as a piezo element. An absorption-type compact cooling and refrigeration apparatus comprising an absorber that injects into a space.
  5.   In a refrigerator and refrigerator using an absorption refrigeration cycle, evaporation in which refrigerant is injected toward a member to be cooled from an injection nozzle that intermittently injects droplets by driving and controlling an electrostrictive element such as a piezo element. And an absorber that injects the absorbing solution toward the space where the refrigerant vapor exists from an injection nozzle that intermittently injects fine droplets by driving and controlling electrostrictive elements such as a vacuum vessel and a piezo element. Absorption type small cooling and refrigeration equipment characterized by the above.
  6.   The absorption type small cooling and refrigeration apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5, further comprising a condenser having fine grooves formed on a condensation surface.
JP2005096156A 2005-03-29 2005-03-29 Absorption type small cooling and refrigerating device Pending JP2006275433A (en)

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