JP2006266821A - Radar apparatus - Google Patents

Radar apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2006266821A
JP2006266821A JP2005084343A JP2005084343A JP2006266821A JP 2006266821 A JP2006266821 A JP 2006266821A JP 2005084343 A JP2005084343 A JP 2005084343A JP 2005084343 A JP2005084343 A JP 2005084343A JP 2006266821 A JP2006266821 A JP 2006266821A
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direction
based
video signal
moving
moving target
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Pending
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JP2005084343A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Rei Ito
礼 伊藤
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Mitsubishi Electric Corp
三菱電機株式会社
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Priority to JP2005084343A priority Critical patent/JP2006266821A/en
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a radar device with improved angle measurement accuracy for a moving target without complicating the configuration of a receiving system.
A radar device mounted on a moving body for transmitting a radar wave, receiving a reflected wave from a moving target via a directional antenna 4 and controlling a directional direction of the antenna 4 based on a received signal. 1, a receiver 5 that demodulates a received signal and generates a video signal, and a self-motion compensation circuit 6 that compensates for a phase variation of the video signal due to movement of the moving body based on a moving speed of the moving body, Then, a velocity component in the range direction of the moving target is obtained based on the received signal, and the target motion compensation circuit 8 for compensating for the phase variation of the video signal due to the movement of the moving target, and the video signal after the phase variation compensation by each motion compensation circuit Based on the Doppler frequency estimation circuit 9 for estimating the Doppler frequency and the angle measuring circuit 10 for determining the direction of the moving target based on the Doppler frequency. .
[Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to a radar apparatus, and more particularly, to an improvement of a radar apparatus that is mounted on a moving body such as an aircraft and that controls the direction of an antenna by measuring the direction of a moving target.

  There is an ISAR (Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar) as a radar that is mounted on a moving body such as an aircraft and displays a target image. This ISAR improves the resolution in the cross-range direction by synthesizing received signals using the movement of a moving body. In this type of radar apparatus, when generating a target image, it is necessary to stably irradiate the target with a radar wave during a period required for the synthetic aperture (usually about 1 to several seconds). Therefore, a tracking operation is performed to measure the direction of the target and control the direction of the antenna.

  Conventionally, a monopulse method or a received signal amplitude comparison method is used to measure the target azimuth in the tracking operation. The monopulse method is an angle measurement method in which a reflected wave from a target is received by a plurality of receiving surfaces using an array antenna or the like, and a target azimuth is estimated based on the signal intensity for each receiving surface. In such a monopulse angle measurement method, since signal processing must be performed for each reception surface, there is a problem in that the configuration of the reception system becomes complicated and hardware such as an antenna and a reception system increases.

  The received signal amplitude comparison method scans the antenna in the azimuth direction, detects the amplitude of the received signal that changes in accordance with the scanning of the antenna for each azimuth, and compares the amplitude for each azimuth to determine the target azimuth. It is an angle measurement method to estimate.

  FIG. 4 is a block diagram showing a conventional radar apparatus, and shows a functional configuration of an ISAR that measures a target azimuth by comparing amplitudes of received signals. The radar apparatus 100 includes a transmitter 101, a transmission / reception switch 102, an antenna 103, a receiver 104, an amplitude detection circuit 105, an angle measurement circuit 106, a motion sensor 107, and a pointing direction control circuit 108. The transmitter 101 performs an operation of generating a transmission signal, amplifying the power, and outputting the amplified signal. The antenna 103 is a directional antenna that transmits and receives radar waves, and scanning control in the directional direction is performed by the directional control circuit 108. The transmission / reception switch 102 switches between a transmission signal and a reception signal. The receiver 104 performs an operation of generating a video signal by power amplification, filtering and detection of the received signal. The amplitude detection circuit 105 performs an operation for obtaining the amplitude for each direction of the video signal from the receiver 104. The angle measuring circuit 106 performs an operation of estimating the target azimuth based on the amplitude for each azimuth and the speed information from the motion sensor 107. That is, the amplitude value for each azimuth in the video signal is compared, and the target azimuth is estimated from the azimuth with the maximum amplitude value.

In such an angle measurement method based on amplitude comparison, it is necessary to obtain a reception signal for each direction for amplitude comparison, and therefore a range in which the transmission / reception beam formed by the antenna is not excluded from the target (about the beam width of the transmission / reception beam) Must be scanned in the azimuth direction. For this reason, there is a problem that the time required for angle measurement of the target azimuth becomes long and the followability to the target is lowered. In particular, when tracking a moving target such as a ship, the amplitude of the received signal fluctuates due to the movement of the moving target during the scanning period of the transmission and reception beams, and a deviation occurs in the direction where the amplitude becomes maximum. There was a problem that it was difficult to measure the angle. In addition, when the antenna radiation pattern is not uniform, the amplitude of the received signal is modulated due to variations in the transmission output, which causes a problem that the angle measurement accuracy of the target azimuth is low.
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 11-183581 JP 11-166967 A

  As described above, the conventional radar apparatus has a problem that hardware such as an aerial line and a reception system is increased, or it is difficult to accurately measure the target direction.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above circumstances, and an object of the present invention is to provide a radar device that improves the angle measurement accuracy with respect to a moving target without complicating the configuration of the receiving system. In particular, an object of the present invention is to provide a radar device that can accurately measure a target azimuth even when the antenna radiation pattern is not uniform.

  A radar apparatus according to the present invention is mounted on a moving body, transmits a radar wave, receives a reflected wave from a moving target via a directional antenna, and controls the direction of the antenna based on a received signal. A radar device that demodulates the received signal and generates a video signal; and first compensation that compensates for a phase variation of the video signal due to movement of the moving body based on a moving speed of the moving body. Phase correction means, a second phase correction means for determining a velocity component in the range direction of the moving target based on the received signal, and compensating for phase fluctuations of the video signal due to movement of the moving target, and each phase correction A Doppler frequency estimating means for estimating the Doppler frequency based on the video signal after phase fluctuation compensation by the means, and based on the Doppler frequency. It constituted by angle measuring means for determining the orientation of the moving target.

  In this radar apparatus, the Doppler frequency is estimated based on the video signal after compensating for the phase fluctuation due to the movement of the moving body and the movement of the moving target, and the direction of the moving target is determined based on the Doppler frequency. That is, without scanning the transmission / reception beam formed by the antenna, any fluctuation component of the Doppler frequency due to the movement of the moving body and the movement of the moving target is removed, and the azimuth determination of the moving target is appropriately performed. According to such a configuration, since it is not necessary to scan the transmission / reception beam and the time required for angle measurement can be shortened, the followability in tracking of the moving target can be improved. In particular, even when the radiation pattern of the antenna is not uniform, the target azimuth can be accurately measured.

  According to the radar apparatus according to the present invention, it is not necessary to scan a transmission / reception beam, and the time required for angle measurement can be shortened, so that the followability in tracking of a moving target can be improved. Therefore, the angle measurement accuracy with respect to the moving target can be improved without complicating the configuration of the receiving system.

Embodiment 1 FIG.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a configuration example of a radar apparatus according to Embodiment 1 of the present invention. The radar device 1 according to the present embodiment is a small and lightweight tracking radar mounted on a moving body such as an aircraft, and controls the direction of the antenna 4 by measuring the direction of the moving target.

  The radar device 1 includes a transmitter 2, a transmission / reception switch 3, an antenna 4, a receiver 5, an own motion compensation circuit 6, a motion sensor 7, a target motion compensation circuit 8, a Doppler frequency estimation circuit 9, an angle measurement circuit 10, and It consists of a directivity direction control circuit 11.

  The transmitter 2 performs an operation of generating a transmission signal, amplifying the power, and outputting the amplified signal. The transmission signal after power amplification is transmitted to the antenna 4 via the transmission / reception switch 3. The antenna 4 is a directional antenna that transmits and receives radar waves, and scanning control in the directional direction is performed by the directional control circuit 11. A part of the radar wave radiated into the air via the antenna 4 is reflected by the moving target, and the reflected wave is received via the antenna 4. The transmission / reception switch 3 switches between a transmission signal and a reception signal.

  The receiver 5 performs an operation of generating a video signal by power amplification, filtering and demodulation (detection) of the received signal. Here, it is assumed that a digital video signal is generated by being digitized by an A / D converter.

  The motion sensor 7 is a speed sensor for detecting the moving speed of a moving body (herein referred to as own machine) on which the radar device 1 is mounted, and is a speed composed of the speed and direction of the own machine. Data is being generated. Here, as such a motion sensor 7, a navigation device provided in the own aircraft is used.

  The own motion compensation circuit 6 performs an operation for compensating for the phase variation of the video signal due to the movement of the own device based on the velocity data from the motion sensor 7. That is, phase correction (first phase correction) is performed to remove the Doppler frequency fluctuation component due to movement of the own apparatus from the phase of the video signal by shifting the signal phase by digital processing. This Doppler frequency is a frequency shift generated between the transmission signal and the reception signal due to the Doppler effect.

Specifically, assuming that the video signal generated by the receiver 5 is S 1 (t) and the Doppler frequency in the video signal S 1 (t) is fd, S 1 (t) is expressed by the following equation (1). expressed.

With respect to the video signal S 1 (t) in the above equation (1), the video signal S 2 (t) after compensating for the phase fluctuation due to the movement of the own apparatus is expressed by the magnitude (speed) of the moving speed of the own apparatus as V 1 is represented by the following equation (2), where θ is an angle (azimuth angle) between the traveling direction of the own aircraft and the beam center direction of the transmission / reception beam formed by the antenna 4, the transmission frequency is fc, and the speed of light is c. The

In the above equation (2), exp {−i2π (2V 1 cos θ / c) fc} is a compensation term due to own-vehicle movement.

  The target motion compensation circuit 8 obtains a velocity component in the range direction of the moving target based on the received signal, and performs an operation for compensating for the phase variation of the video signal due to the movement of the moving target. That is, phase correction (second phase correction) is performed in which a fluctuation component of the Doppler frequency due to movement of the moving target is removed from the phase of the video signal.

Specifically, the video signal S 2 (t) after compensating for the phase fluctuation due to the movement of the moving target is expressed by the following equation (3), where V 2 is the velocity component in the range direction of the moving target.

In the above equation (3), exp {−i2π (2V 2 / c) fc} is a compensation term due to movement of the moving target.

The velocity component V 2 regarding the range direction of the movement target is calculated based on, for example, the distance to the movement target and the time change of this distance.

  The Doppler frequency estimation circuit 9 performs an operation of estimating the Doppler frequency based on the video signal after phase fluctuation compensation. Specifically, the video signal compensated by the target motion compensation circuit 8 is subjected to frequency analysis by FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation), and the deviation of the reception frequency (Doppler shift) with respect to the transmission frequency is obtained as the Doppler frequency. It is done.

  The angle measurement circuit 10 performs an operation of determining the direction of the moving target based on the Doppler frequency obtained by the Doppler frequency estimation circuit 9. Here, it is assumed that a deviation Δθ from the beam center direction (azimuth angle θ) of the transmission / reception beam is obtained. Based on the determination result of the target azimuth, the directivity direction of the antenna 4 is controlled.

FIG. 2 is a diagram showing an example of the tracking operation in the radar apparatus of FIG. 1, and shows the own device and the geometry of the moving target that approaches the own device. FIG. 3 is a diagram showing the main part of the geometry of FIG. 2, and shows the state of the beam center direction component and the target direction component regarding the moving speed V 1 of the own aircraft.

  The deviation Δθ of the target azimuth from the beam center direction is determined by the Doppler frequency estimated based on the video signal after compensating for the phase fluctuation due to the movement of the own apparatus and the movement of the moving target.

Specifically, the Doppler frequency fd included in the video signal output from the receiver 5 is expressed by the following equation (4).

In the above equation (4), the moving speed V 1 of the own machine is measured by the motion sensor 7, and the azimuth angle θ in the beam center direction is determined by the control data from the pointing direction control circuit 11. Therefore, the own-motion compensation circuit 6 can remove the Doppler frequency fluctuation component corresponding to the velocity component V 1 cos θ in the beam center direction with respect to the moving velocity V 1 from the Doppler frequency fd.

Further, since the speed component V 2 in the range direction of the moving target is determined based on the time change of the distance to the moving target, the target motion compensation circuit 8 generates a fluctuation component of the Doppler frequency corresponding to the speed component V 2. It can be removed from the Doppler frequency fd. The Doppler frequency fd 1 after removing these fluctuation components of the Doppler frequency can be expressed by the following equation (5).

That is, the Doppler frequency fd 1 after phase fluctuation compensation can be expressed by the difference between the target direction component V 1 cos (θ−Δθ) of the moving speed V 1 and the beam center direction component V 1 cos θ. Therefore, if this fd 1 is obtained by the Doppler frequency estimation circuit 9, Δθ can be obtained from the following equation (6) as the target orientation.

According to the present embodiment, since the target azimuth Δθ is measured based on the Doppler frequency fd 1 , the time required for measuring the target azimuth can be reduced as compared with the conventional one in which the angle is measured by scanning the transmission / reception beam. This can be shortened, and the followability in tracking the moving target can be improved. In particular, even if the radiation pattern of the antenna 4 is not uniform, the target azimuth can be accurately measured.

  In the present embodiment, the example in which the pointing direction of the antenna 4 is controlled based on the determination result of the target direction and the moving target is tracked has been described, but the present invention is not limited to this. For example, the target image may be displayed on a display such as a PPI (Plan Position Indicator) based on the angle measurement result of the target orientation. Alternatively, the target image may be displayed on the scanning display using a scanning conversion circuit that converts the video signal into a signal for each scanning line instead of the PPI.

It is the block diagram which showed one structural example of the radar apparatus by Embodiment 1 of this invention. It is the figure which showed an example of the tracking operation | movement in the radar apparatus of FIG. 1, and the geometry of the moving target which approaches the own machine and the own machine is shown. A view showing the main part of the geometry of Figure 2, how the beam center direction component and the target direction component regarding the moving speed V 1 of the own apparatus is shown. It is the block diagram which showed the conventional radar apparatus, and the functional structure of ISAR which measures a target azimuth | direction by the amplitude comparison of a received signal is shown.

Explanation of symbols

1 Radar device, 2 transmitter, 3 transmission / reception switch, 4 antenna, 5 receiver,
6 own motion compensation circuit, 7 motion sensor, 8 target motion compensation circuit,
9 Doppler frequency estimation circuit, 10 angle measurement circuit, 11 pointing direction control circuit

Claims (3)

  1. In a radar device that is mounted on a moving body, transmits a radar wave, receives a reflected wave from a moving target via a directional antenna, and controls the direction of the antenna based on the received signal.
    Video signal generating means for demodulating the received signal to generate a video signal;
    First phase correction means for compensating for the phase fluctuation of the video signal due to movement of the moving body based on the moving speed of the moving body;
    Second phase correction means for obtaining a velocity component in the range direction of the moving target based on the received signal and compensating for phase fluctuation of the video signal due to movement of the moving target;
    Doppler frequency estimation means for estimating the Doppler frequency based on the video signal after phase fluctuation compensation by each of the phase correction means,
    A radar apparatus comprising angle measuring means for determining the direction of the moving target based on the Doppler frequency.
  2. 2. The radar apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising an antenna directivity direction control unit that adjusts the directivity direction of the antenna based on a determination result of a direction by the angle measuring unit.
  3. 2. The radar apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the second phase correction unit obtains a distance to the moving target and calculates a velocity component related to the range direction of the moving target based on a time change of the distance.


JP2005084343A 2005-03-23 2005-03-23 Radar apparatus Pending JP2006266821A (en)

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Cited By (21)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2008304220A (en) * 2007-06-05 2008-12-18 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Radar device
JP2012533748A (en) * 2009-07-22 2012-12-27 ファロ テクノロジーズ インコーポレーテッド Method for optically scanning and measuring an object
US8830485B2 (en) 2012-08-17 2014-09-09 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US8896819B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2014-11-25 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9009000B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2015-04-14 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method for evaluating mounting stability of articulated arm coordinate measurement machine using inclinometers
US9074883B2 (en) 2009-03-25 2015-07-07 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9113023B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2015-08-18 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional scanner with spectroscopic energy detector
US9210288B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2015-12-08 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional scanner with dichroic beam splitters to capture a variety of signals
USRE45854E1 (en) 2006-07-03 2016-01-19 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method and an apparatus for capturing three-dimensional data of an area of space
US9329271B2 (en) 2010-05-10 2016-05-03 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9372265B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2016-06-21 Faro Technologies, Inc. Intermediate two-dimensional scanning with a three-dimensional scanner to speed registration
US9417316B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2016-08-16 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9417056B2 (en) 2012-01-25 2016-08-16 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9513107B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2016-12-06 Faro Technologies, Inc. Registration calculation between three-dimensional (3D) scans based on two-dimensional (2D) scan data from a 3D scanner
US9529083B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2016-12-27 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional scanner with enhanced spectroscopic energy detector
US9551575B2 (en) 2009-03-25 2017-01-24 Faro Technologies, Inc. Laser scanner having a multi-color light source and real-time color receiver
US9628775B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2017-04-18 Faro Technologies, Inc. Articulated arm coordinate measurement machine having a 2D camera and method of obtaining 3D representations
US10060722B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2018-08-28 Faro Technologies, Inc. Articulated arm coordinate measurement machine having a 2D camera and method of obtaining 3D representations
US10067231B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2018-09-04 Faro Technologies, Inc. Registration calculation of three-dimensional scanner data performed between scans based on measurements by two-dimensional scanner
US10175037B2 (en) 2015-12-27 2019-01-08 Faro Technologies, Inc. 3-D measuring device with battery pack
US10281259B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2019-05-07 Faro Technologies, Inc. Articulated arm coordinate measurement machine that uses a 2D camera to determine 3D coordinates of smoothly continuous edge features

Cited By (26)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
USRE45854E1 (en) 2006-07-03 2016-01-19 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method and an apparatus for capturing three-dimensional data of an area of space
JP2008304220A (en) * 2007-06-05 2008-12-18 Mitsubishi Electric Corp Radar device
US9074883B2 (en) 2009-03-25 2015-07-07 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9551575B2 (en) 2009-03-25 2017-01-24 Faro Technologies, Inc. Laser scanner having a multi-color light source and real-time color receiver
JP2012533748A (en) * 2009-07-22 2012-12-27 ファロ テクノロジーズ インコーポレーテッド Method for optically scanning and measuring an object
US9113023B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2015-08-18 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional scanner with spectroscopic energy detector
US8896819B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2014-11-25 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9210288B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2015-12-08 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional scanner with dichroic beam splitters to capture a variety of signals
US9417316B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2016-08-16 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9529083B2 (en) 2009-11-20 2016-12-27 Faro Technologies, Inc. Three-dimensional scanner with enhanced spectroscopic energy detector
US9628775B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2017-04-18 Faro Technologies, Inc. Articulated arm coordinate measurement machine having a 2D camera and method of obtaining 3D representations
US9009000B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2015-04-14 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method for evaluating mounting stability of articulated arm coordinate measurement machine using inclinometers
US10060722B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2018-08-28 Faro Technologies, Inc. Articulated arm coordinate measurement machine having a 2D camera and method of obtaining 3D representations
US10281259B2 (en) 2010-01-20 2019-05-07 Faro Technologies, Inc. Articulated arm coordinate measurement machine that uses a 2D camera to determine 3D coordinates of smoothly continuous edge features
US9329271B2 (en) 2010-05-10 2016-05-03 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9684078B2 (en) 2010-05-10 2017-06-20 Faro Technologies, Inc. Method for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9417056B2 (en) 2012-01-25 2016-08-16 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US8830485B2 (en) 2012-08-17 2014-09-09 Faro Technologies, Inc. Device for optically scanning and measuring an environment
US9618620B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2017-04-11 Faro Technologies, Inc. Using depth-camera images to speed registration of three-dimensional scans
US9739886B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2017-08-22 Faro Technologies, Inc. Using a two-dimensional scanner to speed registration of three-dimensional scan data
US9746559B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2017-08-29 Faro Technologies, Inc. Using two-dimensional camera images to speed registration of three-dimensional scans
US9372265B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2016-06-21 Faro Technologies, Inc. Intermediate two-dimensional scanning with a three-dimensional scanner to speed registration
US10067231B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2018-09-04 Faro Technologies, Inc. Registration calculation of three-dimensional scanner data performed between scans based on measurements by two-dimensional scanner
US10203413B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2019-02-12 Faro Technologies, Inc. Using a two-dimensional scanner to speed registration of three-dimensional scan data
US9513107B2 (en) 2012-10-05 2016-12-06 Faro Technologies, Inc. Registration calculation between three-dimensional (3D) scans based on two-dimensional (2D) scan data from a 3D scanner
US10175037B2 (en) 2015-12-27 2019-01-08 Faro Technologies, Inc. 3-D measuring device with battery pack

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