JP2006200030A - Method and device for producing cubic molding - Google Patents

Method and device for producing cubic molding Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2006200030A
JP2006200030A JP2005015483A JP2005015483A JP2006200030A JP 2006200030 A JP2006200030 A JP 2006200030A JP 2005015483 A JP2005015483 A JP 2005015483A JP 2005015483 A JP2005015483 A JP 2005015483A JP 2006200030 A JP2006200030 A JP 2006200030A
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powder
dimensional
layer
supplied
sintered
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JP2005015483A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Hiroyuki Hara
Shigeki Yamada
浩之 原
茂樹 山田
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Aisan Ind Co Ltd
愛三工業株式会社
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Priority to JP2005015483A priority Critical patent/JP2006200030A/en
Publication of JP2006200030A publication Critical patent/JP2006200030A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y10/00Processes of additive manufacturing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y30/00Apparatus for additive manufacturing; Details thereof or accessories therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/105Sintering only by using electric current other than for infra-red radiant energy, laser radiation or plasma ; by ultrasonic bonding
    • B22F3/1055Selective sintering, i.e. stereolithography
    • B22F2003/1056Apparatus components, details or accessories
    • Y02P10/295

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To smoothly form a surface without performing a step of removing a surface layer portion every time a sintered layer is formed in manufacturing a three-dimensional structure formed by laminating and integrating a plurality of sintered layers. The manufacturing method and manufacturing apparatus of the three-dimensional molded item which can be performed are provided.
A method of manufacturing a three-dimensional structure in which a plurality of sintered layers are laminated and integrated, wherein the supplied powder material 10 is moved by a high-density energy heat source 20 while moving a position where the powder material 10 is supplied. A step of heating to form the lower layer-side sintered layer 16, and a position where the powder material 10 is supplied onto the lower layer-side sintered layer 16 while moving the supplied powder material 10 to the high-density energy heat source And a step of forming a new sintered layer 18 integrated with the lower-layer side sintered layer 16 by repeating the step 20, and thereafter repeating the step of forming the new sintered layer 18 as many times as necessary. The manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item characterized by the above-mentioned.
[Selection] Figure 1

Description

  The present invention relates to a manufacturing method and a manufacturing apparatus for a three-dimensional structure in which a plurality of sintered layers are laminated and integrated.

  In order to manufacture a three-dimensional structure in which a plurality of sintered layers are laminated and integrated, an inorganic or organic powder layer is formed on a sintering table, and a predetermined portion of the powder layer is irradiated with a light beam. In addition to forming a new powder layer on the powder layer and irradiating the predetermined portion with a light beam, a new sintered portion integrated with the lower sintered layer is formed. The manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item which repeats this is known (refer patent document 1, 2).

JP 2002-115004 A JP 2003-159755 A

  According to the above-described conventional method for manufacturing a three-dimensional structure, for example, as pointed out in Patent Document 1, after the powder layer is formed and the predetermined portion is irradiated with the light beam, the light beam is irradiated. Unnecessary powder adheres to the periphery of the sintered and hardened part due to the transferred heat. In this case, since the adhered powder forms a surface layer having a low density, it is impossible to obtain a three-dimensionally shaped object having a smooth and precisely formed surface. Therefore, for example, as proposed in Patent Document 2, each time a predetermined sintered portion of the powder layer is irradiated with a light beam to form a new sintered layer, this low-density surface layer is removed with a cutting tool or the like. A method is considered. However, when this method is used, a process for removing the surface layer is required every time the sintered layer is formed. Therefore, compared to the case where the removal process is not required, time and cost are extra. There is a problem of spending.

  Therefore, in the present invention, when manufacturing a three-dimensional structure formed by laminating and integrating a plurality of sintered layers, the surface is smoothly formed without performing the step of removing the surface layer every time the sintered layer is formed. It is an object of the present invention to provide a manufacturing method and a manufacturing apparatus of a three-dimensional structure that can be performed.

Means for solving the above problems are inventions as described in the following (1) to (10).
(1) A method of manufacturing a three-dimensional structure in which a plurality of sintered layers are laminated and integrated,
A step of heating the supplied powder material with a high-density energy heat source while moving a place for supplying the powder material to form a sintered layer on the lower layer side;
On the lower sintered layer, the powder material supplied is moved while being moved by a high-density energy heat source while moving the place to which the powder material is supplied. And a step of forming a bonding layer, and thereafter repeating the step of forming a new sintered layer as many times as necessary.
(2) It is a manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item according to (1) above,
In the step of forming the sintered layer, the density is increased at the portion on the surface layer side of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, and the density is reduced at the inner layer side part of the three-dimensional object to be obtained. The manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item characterized by supplying.
(3) A method for producing a three-dimensional structure according to (1) or (2) above,
In the step of forming the sintered layer, a powder material having a small particle size is supplied to the surface layer side portion of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, and a powder having a large particle size is provided to the inner layer side portion of the three-dimensional object to be obtained. A method for producing a three-dimensional structure, characterized by supplying a material.
(4) The method for producing a three-dimensional structure according to any one of (1) to (3),
In the step of forming the sintered layer, in the part on the inner layer side of the three-dimensional structure to be obtained, the granulated powder material obtained by granulating the powder material supplied in the part on the surface layer side is supplied. The manufacturing method of the solid modeling thing to do.
(5) The method for producing a three-dimensional structure according to any one of (1) to (4) above,
In the step of forming the sintered layer, a metal powder material is supplied at the surface layer side portion of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, and the organic binder is mixed at the inner layer side part of the three-dimensional object to be obtained. The manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item characterized by supplying manufactured powder material.
(6) The method for producing a three-dimensional structure according to any one of (1) to (5),
In the step of forming the sintered layer, the supply rate of the powder material is reduced at the surface layer side portion of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, and the supply rate of the powder material is set at the inner layer side portion of the three-dimensional object to be obtained. The manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item characterized by enlarging.
(7) The method for producing a three-dimensional structure according to any one of (1) to (6) above,
A method for producing a three-dimensional structure, wherein a laser is used as a high-density energy heat source.
(8) The method for manufacturing a three-dimensional structure according to any one of (1) to (7),
A method for producing a three-dimensional structure, characterized in that a powder supply device capable of changing the supply speed of the powder material is used as means for supplying the powder material.
(9) The method for producing a three-dimensional structure according to any one of (1) to (8) above,
A method for producing a three-dimensional structure characterized by using a powder supply device capable of changing the type of powder material to be supplied as means for supplying the powder material.
(10) An apparatus for producing a three-dimensional structure in which a plurality of sintered layers are laminated and integrated,
A powder supply device capable of changing the supply speed of the powder material;
A high-density energy heat source capable of heating the powder material supplied by the powder supply device;
A three-dimensional object manufacturing apparatus, comprising: a powder supply part moving unit capable of moving a part where the powder material is supplied by the powder supply apparatus.

  According to the present invention, when manufacturing a three-dimensional structure formed by laminating and integrating a plurality of sintered layers, the surface is smoothed without performing the step of removing the surface layer portion every time the sintered layer is formed. The manufacturing method and manufacturing apparatus of the three-dimensional molded item which can be formed can be provided.

  The present invention is a method for manufacturing a three-dimensional structure in which a plurality of sintered layers are laminated and integrated, and the supplied powder material is heated by a high-density energy heat source while moving the position where the powder material is supplied. A step of forming a sintered layer on the lower layer side, and the lower side of the lower layer side by heating the supplied powder material with a high-density energy heat source while moving the position of supplying the powder material on the lower layer side sintered layer Forming a new sintered layer integrated with the sintered layer, and thereafter repeating the step of forming a new sintered layer as many times as necessary. And manufacturing equipment. ADVANTAGE OF THE INVENTION According to this invention, the three-dimensional molded item which has a complicated and precise three-dimensional shape can be manufactured in a short time and at low cost. The three-dimensional structure manufactured by the present invention can be applied to, for example, an injection mold having a complicated inner surface shape. In addition, the three-dimensional structure manufactured by the present invention can be applied to parts having a complicated three-dimensional shape, prototypes thereof, and the like.

  The “powder material” used in the present invention is a powder material that is sintered by heating. The term “sintering” as used herein refers to at least part of the powder particles being softened or melted by heating and integrated with the surrounding powder particles at the softened or melted portion. “Sintering” may be liquid phase sintering in which part of the powder particles is melted and integrated with the surrounding powder particles by heating, or solid phase sintering in which the powder particles are integrated only by the contact portion between the powder particles without melting. Yui may be used. In the present invention, the powder particles are preferably integrated using solid phase sintering. The one formed by solid-phase sintering can produce a three-dimensional structure having a smooth surface and a near net shape. Moreover, since the amount of heat to be applied is smaller when sintered by solid sintering, a three-dimensional model can be manufactured in a short time.

The “powder material” used in the present invention is not particularly limited. For example, a powder material made of metal such as iron or stainless steel, or a powder material made of ceramics can be used. It is also possible to use a powder material in which these are mixed. As the powder material made of stainless steel, for example, a powder material made of stainless steel such as SUS420 or SUS410L can be used.
The method for producing the powder material is not particularly limited, and for example, a powder material produced by a pulverization method or an atomization method can be used. The powder material used in the present invention is preferably a powder material having a powder particle size as uniform as possible and formed into a spherical shape. For example, a powder material finely pulverized into a spherical shape by an atomizing method is preferable.

Moreover, the granulated powder material can be used for the powder material used for this invention. The granulated powder material is prepared, for example, by mixing a synthetic resin binder with a powder material made of metal particles, then melting the binder by heating to form a slurry, and then spraying the slurry liquid by a spray dryer or an atomizing method. The powder material obtained by solidifying the drops can be used.
The particle size of the powder material is not particularly limited. For example, a powder material having an average particle size of 1 μm to 100 μm, more preferably an average particle size of 10 μm to 50 μm can be used. When using the granulated powder material, it is preferable to use a granulated powder material having an average particle diameter after granulation of 50 μm or more and 1000 μm or less, more preferably an average particle diameter after granulation of 100 μm or more and 500 μm or less. it can. Here, the “average particle diameter” means a particle diameter corresponding to R (on the sieve) = 50% when a sieve curve is drawn.

  The “high-density energy heat source” used in the present invention refers to a means capable of locally heating the portion where the powder is supplied. For example, a transfer plasma arc, a non-transfer plasma arc, a laser, or a heating means combining these high-density energy heat sources can be used. As the laser, for example, a carbon dioxide laser or a YAG laser can be used. These heat sources can be properly used depending on various factors such as the type, amount, particle size, and required surface molding accuracy of the three-dimensional structure. In this way, by using a heat source that can be locally heated, it is possible to intensively heat and sinter only the powder material supplied to a predetermined location, and heat the portions other than the location to be sintered. It is possible to prevent various problems (deterioration of molding accuracy, adhesion of the powder material to the surface portion, etc.) caused by the transmission of.

  In the present invention, the supplied powder material is heated by a high-density energy heat source at the same time as or immediately after supplying the powder material to a predetermined location. Thereby, since only the supplied powder material can be heated intensively, the transmission of heat to the surroundings other than the portion to be sintered and hardened is prevented. In addition, since there is no extra powder material around the part to be sintered and hardened, unnecessary powder is prevented from adhering to the surface of the three-dimensional object to be obtained due to the transmitted heat. Is done. Thus, each time a sintered layer is formed, it is possible to produce a three-dimensional structure with a smooth and precisely formed surface without performing a step of removing the outer periphery of the sintered layer with a cutting tool or the like. It becomes possible.

FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating an example of a process for forming a sintered layer.
As shown in FIG. 1, in the process of forming the sintered layer by sintering the powder material 10, the powder material 10 is supplied onto the work table 14 by the powder supply nozzle 12. The supplied powder material 10 is heated by irradiating a high-density energy heat source such as a laser 20 while moving the position where the powder material 10 is supplied by the nozzle 12. Thereby, the powder material 10 can be sintered by heating, and the sintered layer 16 can be formed. The thickness of the sintered layer 16 is not particularly limited, but can be arbitrarily set within a range of 0.01 mm to 0.5 mm, for example.
In order to form a new sintered layer 18, the powder material 10 is supplied onto the lower sintered layer 16 by the powder supply nozzle 12. The supplied powder material 10 is heated by irradiating a high-density energy heat source such as a laser 20 while moving the position where the powder material 10 is supplied by the nozzle 12. Thereby, a new sintered layer 18 integrated with the lower sintered layer 16 can be formed. The thickness of the new sintered layer 18 is not particularly limited, but can be arbitrarily set within a range of 0.01 mm to 0.5 mm, for example.
Then, by repeating the process of forming a new sintered layer 18 on the sintered layer 16 as many times as necessary, it is possible to manufacture a three-dimensional structure formed by laminating and integrating a plurality of sintered layers. At this time, by controlling the planar shape of each sintered layer, it is possible to manufacture a three-dimensionally shaped object having a target three-dimensional shape.

In order to manufacture a three-dimensional object having a target three-dimensional shape, the trajectory of the location where the powder material 10 is supplied by the nozzle 12 is controlled by moving the relative positional relationship between the nozzle 12 and the table 14. There is a need to. In this case, the nozzle 12 may be moved, or the table 14 may be moved. Of course, both may be moved. As a means for moving the nozzle 12 or the table 14, a known feed mechanism (XY drive mechanism) driven by a linear motor or the like can be used.
The trajectory of the location where the powder material 10 is supplied can be determined by the three-dimensional CAD data of the three-dimensional structure to be obtained. For example, it can be determined by contour shape data corresponding to each cross section of the three-dimensional model to be obtained. Alternatively, for example, when producing a prototype of a component, the surface shape of the original component is measured by a three-dimensional shape sensor, and the trajectory of the location where the powder material 10 is supplied is determined based on the measured three-dimensional shape data. can do.
It is preferable that the trajectory at the location where the powder material 10 is supplied is corrected as appropriate by interposing a correction calculation or the like while allowing the sensor to recognize the shape of each actually formed sintered layer. For example, when using a powder material that shrinks the sintered layer when heated and sintered, draw a trajectory that is slightly larger than the actual cross section of the three-dimensional object to be obtained. It is preferable to move the nozzle 12. Conversely, when using a powder material that expands the sintered layer when heated and sintered, draw a trajectory that is slightly smaller than the actual cross section of the 3D object to be obtained. The nozzle 12 is preferably moved. The trajectory of the location where the powder material 10 is supplied by the nozzle 12 can be controlled by an existing device such as an NC device.

  When producing a prototype of a part having a three-dimensional shape, it is required to produce a three-dimensional model that faithfully reproduces the shape of the part. In this case, it is most important that the shape of the original part is faithfully reproduced. In other words, the appearance of the prototype is important, and the portion on the inner layer side of the prototype may be dense. Also, the appearance of the prototype is important, and it is not particularly required that the density inside the prototype is uniform.

  Therefore, in the method for producing a three-dimensional structure according to the present invention, in the step of forming the sintered layer, the density is increased at the surface layer side portion of the three-dimensional structure to be obtained, and the inner layer of the three-dimensional structure to be obtained. It is preferable to supply the powder material so as to reduce the density at the site on the side. The “three-dimensional model to be obtained” is a three-dimensional model to be manufactured by the manufacturing method according to the present invention. The “surface layer side portion” of the three-dimensional structure to be obtained is a portion that appears on the outer surface of the three-dimensional structure, and more specifically, a predetermined depth (for example, 0.1 mm to 0.1 mm to the outer surface). (Depth of about 10 mm). The “inner layer side portion” of the three-dimensional object to be obtained is a portion further inside (center side) than the “surface layer side portion”. "The density on the surface layer side of the three-dimensional model to be obtained is higher than the density" means that the density is higher than that on the inner layer side, and indicates the relative relationship with the density on the inner layer side part. It is. The boundary between the part on the surface layer side and the part on the inner layer side does not need to be particularly clear, and may be an aspect in which the density of the three-dimensional structure gradually decreases from the surface layer side to the inner layer side.

In order to increase the density after laser irradiation in the surface layer side portion of the three-dimensional structure to be obtained, in the step of forming the sintered layer, at least one of the following (a) to (e): One process may be performed.
(A) When supplying the powder material to the portion on the surface layer side, the supply amount of the powder material is made smaller than the supply amount in the portion on the inner layer side.
(B) When supplying the powder material to the portion on the surface layer side, the supply speed of the powder material is made lower than the supply rate at the portion on the inner layer side. “Supply rate” refers to the amount of powder material supplied per unit time.
(C) A powder material having a small particle size is supplied at a portion on the surface layer side of the three-dimensional structure to be obtained. On the other hand, a powder material having a large particle size is supplied at a portion on the inner layer side of the three-dimensional structure to be obtained. Note that the terms “small” and “large” in the particle size indicate the relative relationship between the particle sizes of the powder materials supplied to the surface layer side portion and the inner layer side portion, respectively.
(D) At the site on the inner layer side of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, a granulated powder material obtained by granulating the powder material supplied at the site on the surface layer side is supplied. In other words, in the part on the inner layer side of the three-dimensional modeled object, the same kind of powder material as in the part on the surface layer side is supplied, but the powder material having a larger particle diameter is supplied by granulation. is there.
(E) A metal powder material is supplied at the surface layer side of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, and a metal powder material mixed with an organic binder is supplied at the inner layer side part of the three-dimensional object to be obtained. To do. As an organic binder, well-known binder materials, such as a polyester resin, can be used, for example.

  By performing at least one of the above steps (a) to (e), the density increases at the surface layer side of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, and the inner layer part of the three-dimensional object to be obtained. Then, it is possible to supply the powder material so as to reduce the density. As a result, it is possible to manufacture a three-dimensional modeled object in which the outer surface is dense and high in strength, and the inner layer side portion that is not touched by human eyes is formed densely.

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a three-dimensional structure obtained by the manufacturing method according to the present invention. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along line AA of the three-dimensional structure shown in FIG.
As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, according to the manufacturing method of the present invention, the portion 32 on the surface layer side is densely formed with high density, and the portion 34 on the inner layer side is formed densely with low density. A three-dimensional model 30 can be obtained. Since the surface layer side portion 32 of the three-dimensional structure 30 is formed by a dense sintered layer, even a complicated three-dimensional shape can be accurately reproduced. Therefore, it is possible to produce a prototype that reproduces almost the same three-dimensional shape as the original part. Further, since the surface layer side portion 32 is formed of a dense sintered layer, distortion of the shape as a whole due to heat shrinkage or the like can be minimized. For this reason, even if it is a larger product than before, the shape can be accurately reproduced.

  Further, according to the manufacturing method according to the present invention, the portion 32 on the surface layer side has a high density and is densely formed, so that it is possible to manufacture a three-dimensional structure 30 having sufficient strength at the surface portion. .

  Moreover, according to the manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item which concerns on this invention, the site | part 34 by the side of the inner layer is formed with the dense sintered layer. For this reason, compared with the case where the three-dimensional molded object 30 is shape | molded with a uniform density and high density, the effect that less powder material is consumed is acquired. For this reason, low-cost and high-speed modeling becomes possible.

  Moreover, according to the manufacturing method of the three-dimensional structure according to the above (c), since the powder material having a small particle diameter is supplied in the portion 32 on the surface layer side of the three-dimensional structure to be obtained, the surface is densely formed. The three-dimensional structure 30 can be produced. At the same time, the portion 34 on the inner layer side of the three-dimensional object to be obtained is supplied with a powder material having a large particle size, so that an effect that less heat energy is required to sinter the powder material can be obtained. . That is, in order to sinter the powder material, the larger the average particle diameter of the powder particles, the smaller the heat energy required to form the sintered layer by heating the powder material. This is because powder particles having a larger particle size have fewer contact portions between the particles, so that less heat energy is required to soften or melt the contact portions. Therefore, according to the manufacturing method of the three-dimensional structure according to the present invention, less heat energy is required for sintering, and therefore it is possible to manufacture the three-dimensional structure at low cost and at high speed.

  Moreover, according to the manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item which concerns on said (d), it obtains by granulating the powder material supplied in the site | part 32 by the surface layer in the site | part 34 of the inner layer side of the three-dimensional molded item to be obtained. Supply granulated powder material. For this reason, the three-dimensional molded item 30 can be manufactured so that the part 32 on the surface layer side is dense and the part 34 on the inner layer side is dense. At the same time, the portion 32 on the surface layer side and the portion 34 on the inner layer side are formed by a sintered layer obtained by sintering the same kind of powder material. For this reason, the affinity of the powder materials at the boundary portion between the surface layer portion 32 and the inner layer portion 34 is increased, and the bonding strength between the surface layer portion 32 and the inner layer portion 34 is increased. Therefore, it is possible to eliminate the problem of peeling between the surface layer side portion 32 and the inner layer side portion 34.

  Moreover, according to the manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item which concerns on said (e), the metal powder material is supplied in the site | part 32 of the surface layer side of the three-dimensional molded item to be obtained, and the inner layer of the three-dimensional molded item to be obtained In the side portion 34, a metal powder material mixed with an organic binder is supplied. In this case, in the portion 34 on the inner layer side, an organic binder is mixed with a metal powder material, and the organic binder is made into a slurry by heating, and then the droplets of the slurry are solidified by a spray dryer or the like and granulated. It is also possible to supply the powdered material. Although it does not restrict | limit especially as an organic binder, A polyester resin etc. can be used. According to such a manufacturing method, the organic binder contained in the powder material can be removed by combustion by heating during sintering. For this reason, it becomes possible to manufacture the three-dimensional structure 30 in which the inner layer side portions 34 are formed densely and very easily.

  In the method for manufacturing a three-dimensional structure according to the present invention, it is preferable to use a powder supply device capable of changing the supply speed of the powder material as means for supplying the powder material to a predetermined location. Or it is preferable to use the powder supply apparatus which can change the kind of powder material to supply.

  As a powder supply apparatus capable of changing the supply speed of the powder material, for example, a powder supply apparatus provided with an ultrasonic vibration transmitter disclosed in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2003-302281 can be used. By using such an apparatus, fine adjustment of the powder supply rate becomes possible. For example, when forming a sintered layer by supplying a powder material, it is possible to perform a switching operation such as increasing the powder supply rate at the surface layer side portion 32 and decreasing the powder supply rate at the inner layer side portion 34. It becomes. In this case, since a plurality of powder supply devices are not required according to the difference in the powder supply speed, the three-dimensional structure 30 can be manufactured at high speed and at low cost.

As a powder supply device capable of changing the type of powder material to be supplied, for example, a powder supply device including a plurality of replenishment hoppers disclosed in JP-A-2002-273201 can be used. By using such an apparatus, the kind of the powder material to be supplied can be changed as necessary. For example, a plurality of types of powder materials having different average particle sizes are prepared, and a powder material having a small average particle size is supplied to the portion 32 on the surface layer side, and a powder having a large average particle size is supplied to the portion 34 on the inner layer side. A switching operation such as supplying a material becomes possible. In this case, since a plurality of powder supply devices are not required depending on the type of powder material to be supplied, the three-dimensional structure 30 can be manufactured at high speed and at low cost.
As an application, the surface layer side portion 32 is formed by a high-density energy heat source such as a laser, and the inner layer side portion 34 is commonly used in a society that uses non-migrating plasma or supplies powder material by high-pressure gas injection. You may form using the process called "cold spray."

Therefore, this invention can also be comprised as a manufacturing apparatus of the three-dimensional molded item shown to the following (f) and (g).
(F) An apparatus for manufacturing a three-dimensional structure in which a plurality of sintered layers are laminated and integrated, and a powder supply apparatus capable of changing a supply speed of a powder material, and a powder supplied by the powder supply apparatus A three-dimensional structure manufacturing apparatus comprising: a high-density energy heat source capable of heating a material; and a powder supply location moving means capable of moving a location where the powder material is supplied by the powder supply device. .
(G) An apparatus for manufacturing a three-dimensional structure in which a plurality of sintered layers are laminated and integrated, and supplied by the powder supply apparatus capable of changing the type of powder material to be supplied and the powder supply apparatus A high-density energy heat source capable of heating a powder material, and a powder supply location moving means capable of moving a location where the powder material is supplied by the powder supply device. apparatus.

As the “powder supply location moving means” in the manufacturing apparatuses (f) and (g), for example, a powder supply nozzle (for example, the nozzle 12 in FIG. 1) provided in the powder material supply apparatus is moved. Or a means capable of moving a table (for example, the table 14 in FIG. 1) on which the sintered layers are placed when a plurality of sintered layers are formed can be used. As such means, for example, a known feed mechanism (XY drive mechanism) driven by a linear motor can be used.
In addition, as a manufacturing facility, a high-density energy heat source such as a surface layer laser and a high-pressure gas injection device commonly called “cold spray” for the inner layer are arranged side by side, and a powder material supply device and a workpiece moving table are provided. Some have it.

  As described above, according to the method and apparatus for manufacturing a three-dimensional structure according to the present invention, each time a sintered layer is formed when a three-dimensional structure formed by laminating and integrating a plurality of sintered layers is manufactured. Even if it does not implement the process of removing a surface layer part, the manufacturing method and manufacturing apparatus of the three-dimensional molded item which can form the surface smoothly can be provided. According to such a manufacturing method or manufacturing apparatus, since the necessary heat energy is small, it is possible to manufacture a three-dimensional structure at low cost and at high speed. Moreover, the effect that the quantity of the powder material consumed in order to form a sintered layer may be small is acquired.

Examples that further embody the present invention will be described.
In this example, a disk type powder feeder (model: PF-01) manufactured by Nippon Welding Rod Co., Ltd. was used as the powder supply device. A CO 2 laser (model: 2012H, transmitter: 50 C, rated output: 5 kW, shield gas: Ar) manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation was used as a high-density energy heat source. Two types of powder materials shown in Table 1 below were used as the powder materials.

  Using these apparatuses, a three-dimensional structure 30 having an outer dimension of 100 mm × 100 mm × 100 mm as shown in FIG. 2 was produced. As for the production conditions, the NO. No. 1 powder material was used, the laser output was 2.8 kW, the laser spot diameter was φ1.0 mm, and the powder feed point feed speed was 1000 mm / min. For the portion 34 on the inner layer side, the NO. No. 2 powder material was used, and the laser output was set to 2.0 kW, the laser spot diameter φ3.0 mm, and the powder feed point feed speed 4000 mm / min.

  The three-dimensional model 30 thus obtained has a dense appearance and has no fading in appearance as compared with the case where the whole is formed of a spherical powder. Further, the time required for the production was 2.0 hours for the portion 32 on the surface layer side and 4.8 hours for the portion 34 on the inner layer side, which was 6.8 hours in total. This is about one-third of the time compared with the conventional additive manufacturing method, and it has been found that extremely high-speed modeling can be achieved.

It is a figure which shows one Example of the process of forming a sintered layer. It is a perspective view of the three-dimensional molded item obtained by the manufacturing method which concerns on this invention. It is the sectional view on the AA line of the three-dimensional molded item shown in FIG.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 10 Powder material 12 Nozzle 14 Table 16, 18 Sintered layer 20 Laser 30 Three-dimensional molded item 32 Surface layer side part 34 Inner layer side part

Claims (10)

  1. A method of manufacturing a three-dimensional structure in which a plurality of sintered layers are laminated and integrated,
    A step of heating the supplied powder material with a high-density energy heat source while moving a place for supplying the powder material to form a sintered layer on the lower layer side;
    On the lower sintered layer, the powder material supplied is moved while being moved by a high-density energy heat source while moving the place to which the powder material is supplied. And a step of forming a bonding layer, and thereafter repeating the step of forming a new sintered layer as many times as necessary.
  2. It is a manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item according to claim 1,
    In the step of forming the sintered layer, the density is increased at the portion on the surface layer side of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, and the density is reduced at the inner layer side part of the three-dimensional object to be obtained. The manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item characterized by supplying.
  3. It is a manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item according to claim 1 or 2,
    In the step of forming the sintered layer, a powder material having a small particle size is supplied to the surface layer side portion of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, and a powder having a large particle size is provided to the inner layer side portion of the three-dimensional object to be obtained. A method for producing a three-dimensional structure, characterized by supplying a material.
  4. It is a manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded article according to any one of claims 1 to 3,
    In the step of forming the sintered layer, in the part on the inner layer side of the three-dimensional structure to be obtained, the granulated powder material obtained by granulating the powder material supplied in the part on the surface layer side is supplied. The manufacturing method of the solid modeling thing to do.
  5. It is a manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded article according to any one of claims 1 to 4,
    In the step of forming the sintered layer, a metal powder material is supplied at the surface layer side portion of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, and an organic binder is mixed at the inner layer side portion of the three-dimensional object object to be obtained The manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item characterized by supplying manufactured powder material.
  6. It is a manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded article according to any one of claims 1 to 5,
    In the step of forming the sintered layer, the supply rate of the powder material is reduced at the surface layer side portion of the three-dimensional object to be obtained, and the supply rate of the powder material is set at the inner layer side portion of the three-dimensional object to be obtained. The manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item characterized by enlarging.
  7. It is a manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded item according to any one of claims 1 to 6,
    A method for producing a three-dimensional structure, wherein a laser is used as a high-density energy heat source.
  8. It is a manufacturing method of the three-dimensional molded article according to any one of claims 1 to 7,
    A method for producing a three-dimensional structure, characterized in that a powder supply device capable of changing the supply speed of the powder material is used as means for supplying the powder material.
  9. It is a manufacturing method of the solid fabrication thing of any 1 paragraph among Claims 1-8,
    A method for producing a three-dimensional structure characterized by using a powder supply device capable of changing the type of powder material to be supplied as means for supplying the powder material.
  10. An apparatus for manufacturing a three-dimensional structure in which a plurality of sintered layers are laminated and integrated,
    A powder supply device capable of changing the supply speed of the powder material;
    A high-density energy heat source capable of heating the powder material supplied by the powder supply device;
    A three-dimensional object manufacturing apparatus, comprising: a powder supply part moving unit capable of moving a part where the powder material is supplied by the powder supply apparatus.
JP2005015483A 2005-01-24 2005-01-24 Method and device for producing cubic molding Pending JP2006200030A (en)

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DE102006003152A DE102006003152A1 (en) 2005-01-24 2006-01-23 Method and device for producing three-dimensional objects
US11/337,079 US20060165546A1 (en) 2005-01-24 2006-01-23 Method and apparatus for manufacturing three-dimensional objects

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