JP2006181564A - Incinerator having high efficiency-generator using biogas - Google Patents

Incinerator having high efficiency-generator using biogas Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2006181564A
JP2006181564A JP2004382854A JP2004382854A JP2006181564A JP 2006181564 A JP2006181564 A JP 2006181564A JP 2004382854 A JP2004382854 A JP 2004382854A JP 2004382854 A JP2004382854 A JP 2004382854A JP 2006181564 A JP2006181564 A JP 2006181564A
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generator
waste
biogas
steam
incinerator
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JP2004382854A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Mitsuru Sano
充 佐野
Kazuhiko Kaneko
和彦 兼子
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Mitsuru Sano
充 佐野
Chiiki Kaihatsu Kenkyusho:Kk
株式会社地域開発研究所
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Priority to JP2004382854A priority Critical patent/JP2006181564A/en
Publication of JP2006181564A publication Critical patent/JP2006181564A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/12Heat utilisation in combustion or incineration of waste
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/20Sludge processing

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide the electric power of a waste incinerator that consumes a large amount of the electric power by increasing the power generation efficiency of a waste generator using garbage. <P>SOLUTION: The waste incinerator has a power generator efficiency increased by changing the garbage into biogas by fermentation facilities, extracting the biogas, introducing the gas into a heating pressurizer after subjecting the gas to desulfurization or the like, and heating and pressurizing steam from a steam generator installed in the waste incinerator facilities to raise the temperature of the steam and introduce the steam into the generator. Such constitution allows a large portion of the electric power consumed during the waste incineration to be generated. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI

Description

発明の詳細な説明Detailed Description of the Invention
この発明はごみ焼却炉の発電効率に関するものであり、ごみ焼却炉の余熱を利用して発生させる水蒸気を加温して発電効率を向上させるものである。  The present invention relates to the power generation efficiency of a waste incinerator, and is intended to improve the power generation efficiency by heating water vapor generated using the residual heat of the waste incinerator.
従来の技術とその課題Conventional technology and its problems
ごみ処理は持続的な社会生活を可能にするために重要な社会基盤であり、可燃ごみの多くは焼却されて残渣を残り少なくなった最終処分地に埋設処理される。容器包装リサイクル法の施行など燃えるごみの割合が相対的に減少する一方で80%もの水分を含む生ごみの割合が50%以上にもなりつつあり、生ごみを含む可燃ごみが燃えにくくなってきている。さらに、生ごみは塩分を含むために焼却時に塩化水素やダイオキシンが発生する。このような環境負荷物質の発生抑制のために、ごみ焼却炉は多量の電力を必要とし、その電力の一部をごみの焼却余熱を利用した発電機によりまかなっている。ところが、ごみ焼却時に発生する塩化水素による水蒸気発生装置の腐食を防ぐために、水蒸気温度を300度程度に抑制するために、発電機の発電効率は低い。発電効率を高めるために、石油などを燃焼させて水蒸気温度を高めるスーパーごみ発電がおこなわれているが、化石資源をごみ処理のために多量に消費することになり、さらに発電価格も高くなる。また、生ごみ処理のためのバイオガス化施設はコスト高とならざるを得ず、コスト低減がごみ処理の大きな課題である。  Garbage disposal is an important social infrastructure for enabling a sustainable social life, and most combustible waste is incinerated and buried in final disposal sites where residue remains. While the proportion of burnable garbage, such as the enforcement of the Containers and Packaging Recycling Law, has relatively decreased, the proportion of garbage containing as much as 80% of water is becoming more than 50%, making it difficult for combustible waste including garbage to burn. ing. Furthermore, because garbage contains salt, hydrogen chloride and dioxins are generated during incineration. In order to suppress the generation of such environmentally hazardous substances, waste incinerators require a large amount of electric power, and a part of the electric power is covered by a generator that uses waste incineration residual heat. However, the power generation efficiency of the generator is low in order to suppress the steam temperature to about 300 degrees in order to prevent corrosion of the steam generator caused by hydrogen chloride generated during waste incineration. In order to increase the power generation efficiency, super refuse power generation is carried out to increase the water vapor temperature by burning oil or the like. However, a large amount of fossil resources are consumed for waste treatment, and the power generation price also increases. In addition, biogasification facilities for garbage disposal are inevitably expensive, and cost reduction is a major issue in waste disposal.
発明が解決しようとする課題Problems to be solved by the invention
生ごみを利用して発電機の発電効率を高めることが課題であり、多量に消費するごみ焼却炉の電力の大半をごみ処理施設内で発電することを課題とする。  The issue is to increase the power generation efficiency of the generator using garbage, and the main issue is to generate most of the power from the waste incinerator, which consumes a large amount, in the waste treatment facility.
課題を解決するための手段Means for solving the problem
本発明は、上記の課題を解決するためになされたものであり、目的を達成するため、以下の手段を備える。即ち、生ごみを発酵施設によりバイオガス化してバイオガスとして取り出して脱硫などの処理をした後に加温加圧器に導入して、ごみ焼却炉施設内に設置された水蒸気発生装置からの水蒸気を加温加圧して水蒸気温度を高めて発電機に導入することにより発電効率を高めることが可能になる。このような発電機を有したごみ焼却炉は消費電力のかなりの部分を充当できる。  The present invention has been made to solve the above-described problems, and includes the following means in order to achieve the object. In other words, raw garbage is converted into biogas by a fermentation facility, taken out as biogas, treated with desulfurization, etc., and then introduced into a warming pressurizer to apply steam from a steam generator installed in the waste incinerator facility. It is possible to increase the power generation efficiency by increasing the water vapor temperature and introducing it into the generator by warm pressurization. A waste incinerator having such a generator can be used for a considerable part of the power consumption.
発明の実施形態Embodiments of the Invention
図1を用いて発明をより詳しく説明する。分別収集された生ごみおよび可燃ごみはそれぞれバイオガス化施設およびごみ焼却炉で処理される。ごみ焼却炉ではダイオキシンなどの環境負荷低減のために大量の電力が消費される。ごみ焼却の際の余熱で水蒸気を発生させるが先に述べたように蒸気発生器に使用されるステンレスの腐食予防のために水蒸気温度は300度程度に設定される。水蒸気は加温加圧器に送られバイオガス化施設からのバイオガスの燃焼熱により加温加圧されて発電機に送られる。発電された電気はごみ焼却炉やバイオガス化施設で消費される。
バイオガスを発生するものとして生ごみや事業性食品廃棄物、家畜し尿などが考えられるが、それに限定されるものではない。また、バイオガスは通常60%程度のメタンと40%程度の二酸化炭素、微量の硫黄からなる物質などを成分としてもちこれを脱硫などの処理をした後に燃焼利用するが、火力をより強めるためにメタン濃縮処理しても構わないし、プロパンや軽油などを加えても構わない。
水蒸気温度は360度くらいから400度くらいに加温することが発電効率を高めるために望ましいが、このほかの温度であっても300度以上に加温加圧すれば効果を発揮する。発電効率は加温温度によって異なるが、水蒸気温度300度で10%以下であった発電効率は400度で20%近くになる。
また、焼却ごみの量や質によっては熱量が足らず水蒸気温度を300度30気圧にできない場合にも、バイオガスの炉内燃焼などにより加温加圧して300度にして発電効率を保つことも可能である。
The invention will be described in more detail with reference to FIG. Separately collected garbage and combustible waste are treated in biogasification facilities and waste incinerators, respectively. Waste incinerators consume a large amount of power to reduce environmental impact such as dioxins. Although the steam is generated by the residual heat at the time of incineration, as described above, the steam temperature is set to about 300 degrees in order to prevent corrosion of the stainless steel used in the steam generator. The steam is sent to a warming pressurizer, heated and pressurized by the combustion heat of the biogas from the biogasification facility, and sent to the generator. The generated electricity is consumed in waste incinerators and biogasification facilities.
Examples of the biogas generation include, but are not limited to, garbage, business food waste, and livestock excreta. Biogas is usually composed of about 60% methane, 40% carbon dioxide, and a small amount of sulfur, etc., and it is burned and used after treatment such as desulfurization. Methane concentration treatment may be performed, or propane or light oil may be added.
It is desirable to increase the water vapor temperature from about 360 degrees to about 400 degrees in order to increase the power generation efficiency, but even if the temperature is other than this, the effect is exhibited if the temperature is increased to 300 degrees or more. Although the power generation efficiency differs depending on the heating temperature, the power generation efficiency that was 10% or less at the water vapor temperature of 300 degrees becomes nearly 20% at 400 degrees.
In addition, even if the amount of heat and the amount of heat are not enough, and the steam temperature cannot be increased to 300 degrees and 30 atmospheres, it is possible to maintain the power generation efficiency by heating and pressurizing to 300 degrees by in-furnace combustion of biogas. It is.
発明の効果The invention's effect
この発明の効果は、生ごみから発生したバイオガスを有効利用してごみ発電の発電効率を向上させてごみ処理のために多量に消費される電力を施設内で供給しようとするものである。ごみからエネルギーを作り出してごみを低コストで処理するものである。1日あたり100t規模のごみ焼却施設内で消費する電力料金は年間1億5千万円以上にもなり、ごみ処理施設の運営コストの大半を占めるが、本技術によりその大半を施設内発電でまかなうことが可能となりコストを大きく低減できる。  The effect of the present invention is to improve the power generation efficiency of waste power generation by effectively using biogas generated from garbage and to supply power consumed in large quantities for waste treatment in the facility. It creates energy from waste and processes it at low cost. The electricity charge consumed in a 100t scale incineration facility per day is more than 150 million yen per year, which accounts for most of the operating cost of the waste treatment facility. Costs can be greatly reduced.
バイオガスを用いたごみ焼却炉からの水蒸気の加温加圧による発電効率の向上をめざしたシステム図。The system figure which aimed at the improvement in the power generation efficiency by heating and pressurizing the water vapor from the waste incinerator using biogas.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1はごみ。
2は生ごみ。
3は可燃ごみ。
4はバイオガス化施設。
5はごみ焼却炉。
6はバイオガス。
7は焼却炉熱で加熱された水蒸気。
8はバイオガスを熱源とする水蒸気の加温加圧器。
9はバイオガスの燃焼熱により加温加圧された水蒸気。
10は発電機。
11は発電機により発電された電気のごみ焼却炉施設やバイオガス化施設への供給。
1 is garbage.
2 is garbage.
3 is combustible waste.
4 is a biogas facility.
5 is a waste incinerator.
6 is biogas.
7 is steam heated by incinerator heat.
8 is a steam heating and pressurizer using biogas as a heat source.
9 is steam heated and pressurized by the combustion heat of biogas.
10 is a generator.
11 is the supply of electricity generated by the generator to the waste incinerator facility and biogasification facility.

Claims (3)

  1. 食品性廃棄物発酵施設により発生したバイオガスの燃焼熱により焼却炉熱で発生させた水蒸気を加温加圧して発電効率を高めた発電機。  A generator that increases the power generation efficiency by heating and pressurizing steam generated by incinerator heat by the combustion heat of biogas generated by a food waste fermentation facility.
  2. 請求項1の記載の発電機を有する焼却炉。  An incinerator having the generator according to claim 1.
  3. 請求項2の記載の焼却炉と食品性廃棄物発酵施設を有するごみ処理施設。  A waste treatment facility comprising the incinerator according to claim 2 and a food waste fermentation facility.
JP2004382854A 2004-12-24 2004-12-24 Incinerator having high efficiency-generator using biogas Pending JP2006181564A (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2008253963A (en) * 2007-04-09 2008-10-23 Kawasaki Plant Systems Ltd Treating method and treatment facility of waste and sewage
CN103990639A (en) * 2014-05-13 2014-08-20 桂林润泰生物科技有限公司 Household garbage recycling harmless treatment system
CN110553238A (en) * 2019-08-19 2019-12-10 江苏京泓生态环保有限公司 Waste heat recovery device and method in organic waste treatment
CN111853907A (en) * 2020-06-12 2020-10-30 国网浙江省电力有限公司电力科学研究院 Combined cooling, heating and power system of kitchen waste treatment plant and operation control method thereof

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2008253963A (en) * 2007-04-09 2008-10-23 Kawasaki Plant Systems Ltd Treating method and treatment facility of waste and sewage
CN103990639A (en) * 2014-05-13 2014-08-20 桂林润泰生物科技有限公司 Household garbage recycling harmless treatment system
CN103990639B (en) * 2014-05-13 2016-05-25 桂林润泰生物科技有限公司 One way of life garbage as resource innocuity disposal system
CN110553238A (en) * 2019-08-19 2019-12-10 江苏京泓生态环保有限公司 Waste heat recovery device and method in organic waste treatment
CN111853907A (en) * 2020-06-12 2020-10-30 国网浙江省电力有限公司电力科学研究院 Combined cooling, heating and power system of kitchen waste treatment plant and operation control method thereof
CN111853907B (en) * 2020-06-12 2021-09-21 国网浙江省电力有限公司电力科学研究院 Combined cooling, heating and power system of kitchen waste treatment plant and operation control method thereof

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