JP2006173027A - Scanning transmission electron microscope, aberration measuring method, and aberration correction method - Google Patents

Scanning transmission electron microscope, aberration measuring method, and aberration correction method Download PDF

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JP2006173027A
JP2006173027A JP2004367002A JP2004367002A JP2006173027A JP 2006173027 A JP2006173027 A JP 2006173027A JP 2004367002 A JP2004367002 A JP 2004367002A JP 2004367002 A JP2004367002 A JP 2004367002A JP 2006173027 A JP2006173027 A JP 2006173027A
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aberration
electron microscope
scanning transmission
image
resolution
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JP2006173027A5 (en
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Kuniyasu Nakamura
Taisuke Nakamura
泰介 中村
邦康 中村
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Hitachi High-Technologies Corp
株式会社日立ハイテクノロジーズ
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a scanning transmission electron microscope capable of obtaining a scanning transmission image having a specified resolution by deciding an aberration coefficient from Ronchigram and applying feedback of signals correcting each aberration to a device. <P>SOLUTION: On the scanning transmission electron microscope composed of an electron beam source 1, a conversion lens 3, a scan coil 7, a dark-field image detection device 13, an A/D converter, and a CPU 21 or the like, an aberration correction device 5 is mounted at a front stage of an objective front magnetic field lens 8, and driving current of each lens and the aberration correcting device are calculated and fed back by the aberration coefficient decided by a fitting of the Ronchigram obtained by a camera 15 and a calculated image against optional structure. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI

Description

  The present invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with an aberration corrector, which uses a scanning transmission electron microscope to determine various aberration coefficients from a scanning transmission image or electron beam diffraction image, and feeds back a signal for correcting each aberration to the apparatus. The present invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope apparatus, an aberration measurement method, and an aberration correction algorithm that make it possible to obtain a high-resolution scanning transmission image.

  Methods for measuring the aberration of a scanning transmission microscope have been considered for a long time, and many techniques mainly using electron diffraction are seen. Broadly speaking, one is a method mainly using a diffractogram obtained from a scanning transmission image of an amorphous sample, and the other is a method using a Ronchigram.

In the conventional aberration coefficient measurement method and aberration correction method, as a method using a diffractogram, for example, a method by K. Wong et al. Is disclosed in Ultramicroscopy Vol. 40 (1992), paragraphs 139 to 150. It is obtained by plotting the relationship between the multiple rings observed in the diffractogram using an amorphous sample, the distance from the center of the ring, and the index obtained from the diffraction conditions of each ring, and connecting the plots. In this method, the spherical aberration coefficient (C 3 ) and defocus (C 1 ) are obtained from the slope and intercept of the straight line. In the method using Ronchigram, for example, the method of JMCowely et al. Is disclosed in Ultramicroscopy Vol. 19 (1986), Paragraphs 31 to 42. In this method, a Ronchigram formed by irradiating a sample with a convergence probe is recorded, and C 3 is obtained from the radius of a zero-contrast ellipse appearing on the Ronchigram. In the method described by United States Patent 6,552,340 Autoadjusting charged-particle probe-forming apparatus by OLKrivanek et al. It is obtained by substituting into the determinant that shows the relationship with the function.

U.S. Patent No. 6552340

K. Wong, Ultramicroscopy Volume 40 (1992), 139-150 J.M. Cowely et al, Ultramicroscopy Volume 19 (1986), Paragraphs 31-42

In the method using a diffractogram by K. Wong et al., The sample used for aberration coefficient measurement is limited to amorphous, and only C 1 and C 3 can be measured. In addition, there is a problem that the error of the plot is large and the accuracy of the measured aberration coefficient is low because of the influence of the drift that occurs when acquiring the diffractogram and the contamination attached to the sample. The method of JMCowley et al. Requires a one-dimensional crystal sample with a relatively large lattice spacing (about 8 mm) in the sample, and it is difficult to identify the zero-contrast position that appears in the Ronchigram, and the accuracy of the calculated aberration coefficient is low . There is also a problem that only a limited aberration coefficient can be measured. In the method of OLKrivanek et al., In order to measure higher order aberration coefficients, it is necessary to increase the number of divisions of the acquired Ronchigram, which increases the processing time.

  In the present invention, from the Ronchigram obtained from an actual sample, regardless of the type of crystal, crystalline or amorphous, not only spherical aberration but also astigmatism, coma and other higher-order aberration coefficients A scanning transmission electron microscope main body lens, a deflector excitation condition and a corrector multipole lens, and a rotationally symmetric lens for correcting each aberration from each detected aberration coefficient A scanning transmission electron microscope having a function capable of acquiring a high-resolution image by calculating excitation or electrostatic application conditions of a deflection coil and feeding back to the hardware of the scanning transmission electron microscope is provided.

  According to the present invention, each aberration coefficient can be obtained by simple calculation, and the apparatus can be set to an optimum state with few aberrations by feeding back to the apparatus based on the value. Since a simple calculation method is used, the burden on the CPU is small and processing can be performed in a short time. Furthermore, the apparatus with aberration correction enables high-resolution observation of the sample. In addition, when the operator sets the resolution and the probe current, the aberration correction is automatically executed, so that the operability is improved.

  Embodiments of the present invention will be described below with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 shows a block diagram of a scanning transmission electron microscope. Electrons emitted from the electron beam source 1 are accelerated to a predetermined accelerating voltage by the electrostatic lenses 2a, 2b, and 2c. By controlling the voltage applied to the electrostatic lens per stage, the final acceleration voltage can be controlled. The electron beam accelerated to a predetermined acceleration voltage is reduced by the converging lenses 3a and 3b. Arbitrary reduction ratios can be realized by combining current excitation of 3a and 3b. By changing the opening angle of the probe by the converging diaphragm 4 at the bottom of 3b, the balance of spherical aberration and diffraction aberration exerted on the probe can be adjusted. The electron beam that has passed through the converging diaphragm passes through the aberration corrector 5, whereby aberrations such as spherical aberration and astigmatism are corrected. This aberration corrector 5 is composed of a multi-stage multipole lens, a rotationally symmetric lens, and a deflection coil. By controlling the applied voltage or excitation current of each pole of the multipole lens and the rotationally symmetric lens, the amount of aberration correction Can be adjusted. The incident angle of the electron beam incident on the sample can be controlled by the deflection coils 6a and 6b below the aberration corrector 5.

  The electron beam incident on the sample 9 is scattered inside the sample, and an electron beam diffraction image is formed below the sample 9. The detection system alignment coil 12 installed below the projection lens 11 is used for axial alignment with the dark field image detector 13, the bright field image detector 14, and the camera 15. When an electron beam is obliquely incident on the sample by the deflection coils 6a and 6b, the electron beam diffraction image is greatly off-axis with respect to the dark field image detector 13, the bright field image detector 14, and the camera 15. Also in this case, the alignment is performed using the detection system alignment coil. The scanning transmission image is obtained by deflecting an electron beam by the scan coils 7a and 7b and scanning the sample 9 two-dimensionally, and synchronizing the signal from the dark field image detector 13 or the bright field image detector 14 with the image intensity. To obtain brightness modulated. At this time, the image intensity is amplified by the preamplifier 17 and stored as a digital image file based on the output of the A / D converter 18. Since the bright field image detector 14 is installed on the optical axis, when the camera 15 is used, it has a movable mechanism so that it can be removed from the optical axis. The camera 15 uses a detector having characteristics of high sensitivity, high S / N, and high linearity, such as a CCD or a harpicon camera, and quantitatively records the intensity of the electron beam diffraction image.

  The camera length on the surface of the camera 15 can be arbitrarily changed by the projection lens 11, and an electron beam diffraction image on an arbitrary imaging plane can be observed. The CPU 21 controls all the lenses, coils, and detectors in a series of operations via the D / A converter 20, and the operator can set conditions through the interface 19. A secondary electron detector 16 is installed on the upper stage of the pre-objective magnetic lens 8, and the above-described scanning image acquisition and secondary electron image acquisition are possible. When photographing a ronchigram, scanning is stopped and the electron beam is kept along the optical axis.

  Next, an optical system for forming an electron beam diffraction image will be described. FIG. 2 shows geometrically the optical path until the electron beam 23 generated from the virtual light source 22 is imaged. The virtual light source 22 is not the physical position of the electron source 1 but the effective light source position determined by the radius of curvature of the chip serving as the electron source and the extraction voltage. The electron beam 23 generated from the virtual light source 22 is enlarged or reduced by the first stage converging lens 3a and the second stage converging lens 3b and is incident on the objective lens. Here, the objective lens is a single lens formed from a single magnetic path, but optically has two roles: reducing the electron beam 23 and imaging the electron beam diffracted by the sample. The pre-objective magnetic lens 8 performs reduction, and the post-objective magnetic lens 10 forms an image. The electron beam 23 reduced by the pre-objective magnetic lens 8 enters the sample 9 and enters the sample.

  At this time, a part of the electron beam 23 is transmitted through the sample 9, a part is reflected, and is emitted from the upper part of the sample 9. When the reflected electrons are emitted, secondary electrons are emitted from the sample surface. A secondary electron image is formed by detecting and imaging these secondary electrons. The electron beam transmitted through the sample 9 is imaged on the probe image plane 24 by the post-objective magnetic lens 10. On the other hand, an electron diffraction pattern reflecting the phase information of the electron beam diffracted by the sample 9 is imaged on the rear focal plane 25 of the post-objective magnetic lens 10. The projection lens 11 is set so as to focus on the electron diffraction pattern, and the image plane can be enlarged or reduced by changing the excitation current, and the detection angle range in the camera 15 can be arbitrarily set. The camera 15 is used to shoot a Ronchigram, and a Ronchigram image is stored as a digital image file in the CPU through a process similar to that at the time of scanning image acquisition.

  FIG. 3 is a ray diagram showing a process in which the electron beam diffracted by the sample 9 forms the probe image plane 24 and the back focal plane 25 by the post-objective magnetic lens 10. The traveling electron beam 26 traveling parallel to the incident direction of the probe and the diffracted electron beam 27 diffracted by the sample and traveling in a different direction are changed in the traveling direction by the post-objective magnetic lens 10. The electron beam that has passed through the rear focal plane 25 forms the probe image plane 24 corresponding to the sample 9 as an object plane on a one-to-one basis. On the other hand, on the back focal plane 25, electron beams traveling in the same direction after passing through the sample converge at one point. That is, after that, on the focal plane 25, the electron beam is dispersed depending on the angle diffracted by the sample, and a Ronchigram as a diffraction pattern is imaged. Although the image formed on the probe image plane 24 in parallel with the probe scanning is translated in synchronization with the probe scanning, the image formed on the rear focal plane does not move. Therefore, when observing a scanning transmission image, in order to extract information depending on the probe position, the projection lens 11 is focused on the rear focal plane, and the electron diffraction pattern formed on the rear focal plane 25 is darkened. The image may be formed on the surface of the field image detector 13, the bright field image detector 14, and the camera 15.

Here, Ronchigram observation conditions will be described. FIG. 4 shows a ray diagram when a Ronchigram is observed without using a projection lens. Diffraction electron beam 27 interfere with each other conditions, the convergent angle 28 theta C, a scattering angle 29 corresponding to twice the Bragg angle When 2 [Theta] B, a θ C>B. At this time, the Ronchigram is observed on the observation surface 30 in a region 31 where diffraction spots overlap on the optical axis. Since the irradiation angle 28 can be controlled by the converging diaphragm 4, when the diffraction spots do not overlap, the converging diaphragm 4 may have a large diameter or may be in a condition that the diaphragm is not inserted. Conversely, when the aperture is closed so that the diffraction spots do not overlap, an electron beam diffraction image is observed. FIG. 5 shows a ray diagram when a Ronchigram is observed under conditions using a projection lens. As can be seen from the figure, the Ronchigram can be observed on any observation surface as long as the overlapping area of the diffraction spots. Therefore, the observation surface 30 can be set at an arbitrary position by the camera length and the projection lens 11. Therefore, the magnification on the camera surface can be arbitrarily set under the conditions of the projection lens.

  FIG. 6 shows a ray diagram when a Ronchigram is observed under the condition that an electron beam is obliquely incident on the sample. When the incident electron beam 23 is obliquely incident, the transmission electron beam 26 and the diffracted electron beam 27 are displaced due to the off-axis from the optical axis. I can't. Therefore, by applying an appropriate excitation current to the detection system alignment coil 12, it is possible to set conditions for deflecting the transmission electron beam 26 and the diffraction electron beam 27 and forming an overlapping region of diffraction spots on the camera. By linking and operating the drive excitation of the deflection coils 6a and 6b for making the electron beam 23 obliquely incident on the sample and the drive excitation of the detection system alignment coil, the positional deviation can be automatically corrected. It should be noted that the incident angle of the electron beam in this oblique incidence is set to a lens excitation condition that automatically realizes the incident angle specified by the user.

  The relationship between the Ronchigram and the aberration coefficient will be described. The relationship between Ronchigram and aberration coefficient is disclosed by JMCowley et al. In Ultramicroscopy Volume 4 (1979), paragraphs 413 to 418, and Journal of electron microscopy technique Volume 3 (1986), paragraphs 25 to 44. ing. According to these, the magnification of the image in the Ronchigram increases radially from the center of the optical axis due to lens aberration, and the magnification becomes infinite at a certain radius. Since the observation surface of the Ronchigram is on the same plane as the electron diffraction image plane, the function expressing the optical path difference due to aberration is expressed as χ (θ), considering that the distance from the center of the Ronchigram can be expressed by the convergence angle component θ of the electron beam. Then, the angle at which the infinite magnification is satisfied satisfies the following condition.

C 1 is defocus and C 3 is a third-order spherical aberration coefficient. Using Equations 1 and 2, the angle θ inf at which the image in the Ronchigram becomes an infinite magnification is

Can be written. Therefore, if the defocus C 1 and the angle θ inf at which the magnification is infinite are known, the third-order spherical aberration coefficient C 3 can be obtained.
A method for obtaining the third-order spherical aberration coefficient from the Ronchigram using Equation 3 will be described. When the values of C 1 and θ inf under two defocus conditions are C 1a , θ a and C 1b , θ b , respectively,

It can be expressed as. Therefore, by taking the difference between Equation 4 and Equation 5,

It becomes. Since C 1a −C 1b represents the difference in defocus amount, for example, it can be calculated by calibrating from the change in the excitation current value of the objective lens. Since θ a and θ b can be obtained from the Ronchigram when the defocus is C 1a and C 1b , the spherical aberration coefficient C 3 can be obtained by substituting each value into Equation 6. Furthermore, C 1 is also obtained by substituting C 3 obtained in Equations 4 and 5.

In Equation 2, only rotationally symmetric aberration is considered, but the actual Ronchigram includes not only rotationally symmetric aberration but also rotationally asymmetric aberration. When only rotationally symmetric aberration is included, the Ronchigram shows a circular shape, but when a rotationally asymmetric component is included, the position of θ inf changes depending on the azimuth angle with respect to the center of the Ronchigram. There are many such rotationally asymmetric aberration components, and they appear overlapping with Ronchigram θ inf . However, in general, when low-order aberrations are not corrected, high-order aberrations are hidden by low-order aberrations, so it is difficult to accurately measure high-order aberration coefficients. Therefore, in this case, it is necessary to repeat the operations of measuring the low-order aberration coefficient, correcting the aberration, and measuring the aberration coefficient of the next order.

Next, a method for measuring the 2-fold astigmatism coefficient A 1 using a Ronchigram will be described. When the two-fold astigmatism is dominant, the shape of the Ronchigram is an ellipse, and the value of θ inf takes the maximum value θ max and the minimum value θ min on the major axis and minor axis of the ellipse, respectively. Adding the term of 2-fold astigmatism to Equation 2 and substituting it into Equation 1, the maximum value θ max and the minimum value θ min of the infinite magnification position are

Here, A 1 is a two-fold symmetric astigmatism coefficient. From the difference between Equation 7 and Equation 8,

Is obtained. Therefore, if C 3, θ max , and θ min obtained from Equation 6 are known, A 1 can be derived. It is possible to measure rotationally asymmetric aberration coefficients from this method. Here, only C 1 , C 3 , and A 1 are considered, but more aberration coefficients can be obtained by including higher-order aberrations in χ (θ) in Equation 2. Although two Ronchigrams having different defocuss are used here, the aberration coefficient can be calculated with higher accuracy by using a large number of Ronchigrams.

The method for obtaining the infinite magnification angles θ inf, θ max , and θ min from the Ronchigram is shown. Θ inf can be obtained by utilizing the fact that on the concentric circle centered on the optical axis, the smallest angle of dispersion of image intensity is where the magnification in the image becomes infinite. If the sample is spherical and the sample is at the center of the optical axis, the radius having the weakest intensity in the image coincides with θ inf . In this method, the Ronchigram is converted to polar coordinates when obtaining θ inf from the Ronchigram. FIG. 7 shows an example of a Ronchigram. It can be confirmed that the magnification increases radially from the center and a ring (dashed line) line appears at an infinite magnification. Fig. 8 shows the Ronchigram obtained by polar coordinate transformation. The vertical axis corresponds to the angle θ from the center of the Ronchigram, and the horizontal axis corresponds to the azimuth angle φ. It can be confirmed that the angle θ inf (broken line) of the infinite magnification of the Ronchigram is substantially constant with respect to the azimuth angle φ by performing polar coordinate conversion.

Note that the Ronchigram used for the polar coordinate transformation may be a standardized, masked, or filtered image processed so that the position of θ inf is easy to understand. When the Ronchigram includes only rotationally symmetric components, a line profile in the θ direction at each φ value of the polar coordinate conversion Ronchigram is acquired, and an average profile thereof is calculated. In the averaged line profile, θ value having the weakest intensity corresponds to θ inf . From this θ inf , rotationally symmetric aberration coefficients such as C 1 and C 3 can be obtained. Even if the Ronchigram includes rotationally asymmetric aberration, the rotationally asymmetric component can be canceled by using a line profile obtained by averaging the φ directions.

When obtaining the aberration coefficient of rotationally asymmetric aberration, θ inf is obtained from the line profile of each φ and plotted against φ. FIG. 9 shows a schematic diagram of the θ inf plot when the 2-fold astigmatism is included. When 2-fold astigmatism is included, the position of θ inf becomes an ellipse, and the plot has a waveform with a period π. The maximum value and the minimum value of the amplitude of this waveform correspond to θ max and θ min , respectively, and the initial phase of the waveform corresponds to the initial phase of A 1 . The aberration coefficient A 1 and the initial phase of the aberration can be obtained from θ max and θ min . FIG. 10 shows a θ inf plot when the 3-fold astigmatism is dominantly included. When 3-fold astigmatism is included, the plot has a waveform with a period of 2 / 3π. By taking the same means as in the case of the 2-fold astigmatism, the 3-fold astigmatism coefficient A 2 and the initial phase of the aberration can be obtained. Using similar means, rotationally asymmetric high-order aberration coefficients such as A 3 , A 4, etc. can be obtained. Next, FIG. 11 shows a θ inf plot when image shift is dominantly included. When the image shift is included, the center of the Ronchigram is shifted from the center of the camera 15. Therefore, the θ inf plot has a waveform with a period of 2π. From these waveforms, θ max , θ min , the image shift coefficient can be determined, and the image shift direction can be determined from the initial phase.

A method for measuring an aberration coefficient when low-order aberrations are corrected and rotationally asymmetric aberrations are superimposed will be shown. In order to obtain the aberration coefficient from the θ inf plot at this time, a method of fitting the equation obtained by including the types of aberrations to be considered in Equation 2 and substituting into Equation 1 into the θ inf plot can be considered. For example, if the defocus, 2-fold astigmatism, 3-fold astigmatism, third-order spherical aberration, and image shift are included in Equation 2,

It becomes. D is an image shift coefficient, A 1 is a 2-fold symmetric astigmatism coefficient, and A 3 is a 3-fold symmetric astigmatism coefficient. Therefore, each aberration coefficient can be obtained by fitting Equation 10 to the θ inf plot. When it is desired to obtain higher order aberration coefficients, the corresponding aberration coefficients may be included in Equation 10 for fitting.

  Since the shape of the Ronchigram changes corresponding to the tilt angle of the electron beam, the aberration coefficient can be obtained by using the tilted electron beam. When the incident electron beam is tilted, χ (θ) in Formula 2 can be written as follows using the complex angle ω and the complex tilt angle τ.

Here, Re represents a real part. C 1 (τ), A 1 (τ), B 2 (τ), A 2 (τ), C 3 (τ), and D (τ) are aberration coefficients (effective aberration coefficients) when the electron beam is tilted. Yes, it is expressed by the sum of the aberration coefficients when the electron beam is tilted and when it is not tilted (τ = 0). For example, C 1 (τ) is considered only when the aberration coefficient described in Equation 10 is considered.

It becomes. Other effective aberration coefficients can be similarly expressed using the tilt angle of the electron beam and the aberration coefficient at τ = 0. When it is desired to measure a higher-order aberration coefficient more accurately or higher-order, a higher-order effective aberration coefficient term may be substituted into Equation 11. When actually obtaining the aberration coefficient, first, a plurality of Ronchigrams with the tilt angle of the incident electron beam being changed are obtained, and an effective aberration coefficient is obtained using the same method as in the case of τ = 0. Next, by substituting each tilt angle and the effective aberration coefficient into the expression representing the effective aberration coefficient including Equation 12, a simultaneous equation is created, and the aberration coefficient can be obtained by solving this. If several aberration coefficients are obtained in advance from the method in the case of τ = 0, the number of Ronchigrams with varying tilt angles that must be acquired can be reduced.

  FIG. 12 shows an example of a flowchart used when performing the above series of operations. First, a sample thinned to such an extent that an electron beam can be transmitted is set on an electron microscope. Here, the operator designates the required aberration coefficient and accuracy. Next, a plurality of Ronchigrams having different defocus or incident electron beam tilt angles necessary to achieve the specified accuracy are acquired using the camera 15 and stored in the CPU 21. Subsequently, an aberration coefficient is obtained from the acquired Ronchigram. The aberration coefficient is measured by a program incorporated in the CPU using the above method. Next, the resolution or the probe diameter is calculated from the measured aberration coefficient. The operator determines whether or not to observe with this resolution, and when observing under this condition, the routine proceeds to a routine in which the excitation current of the lens and aberration corrector is not changed. When the routine proceeds to change the excitation current of the lens and aberration corrector, the operator is made to input the target resolution. After the CPU calculates the optimum excitation current value according to this resolution, the calculated excitation current value is fed back to each lens, aberration corrector, etc. through a D / A converter.

  Next, a plurality of Ronchigrams having different defocus or incident electron beam tilt angles are acquired, and the aberration coefficient is measured again. As described above, generally, when the low-order aberration is large, it is difficult to accurately measure the aberration coefficient because the high-order aberration is hidden by the low-order aberration. Therefore, first, low-order aberration correction is performed. If it is determined from the aberration coefficient obtained after aberration correction that the optimum excitation current has not been set, return to the stage of calculating the appropriate excitation current value again, feedback of excitation current value, acquisition of Ronchigram, aberration coefficient Is calculated. When an aberration coefficient necessary to achieve the specified resolution is obtained, higher-order aberration correction is performed. In this way, the aberration coefficient is measured and the aberration is corrected step by step, and the operator is informed that a scanning transmission image can be acquired when an appropriate condition is reached. By executing this routine, a scanning transmission image can be acquired with the resolution desired by the operator. Selection at each stage is performed interactively by the operator using a program built into the PC.

In the method for obtaining the aberration coefficient from the acquired Ronchigram, a method using a Ronchigram calculation image will be described. A wave function representing a Ronchigram can be calculated, for example, by a multi-slice method using Equation 2 for representing an incident electron beam and an object function for representing a sample, and a Ronchigram calculation image can be obtained. An example of a Ronchigram calculation image is shown in the figure. FIG. 13 is a Ronchigram calculation image when only defocus C 1 = −1171.2 nm and a third-order spherical aberration coefficient C 3 = 1.7 mm are assumed. A function having a random structure such as amorphous is used as the object function representing the structure of the sample. Since it includes only rotationally symmetric aberration, the Ronchigram shows a circular shape.

FIG. 14 shows a Ronchigram calculation image assuming defocus C 1 = −600 nm, third-order spherical aberration coefficient C 3 = 3 mm, and 2-fold astigmatism A 1 = 100 [nm]. Since the 2-fold astigmatism is included, it can be confirmed that the Ronchigram is an ellipse. In this way, the aberration coefficient necessary to achieve the resolution desired by the operator is included in χ (θ) of Equation 2, and an object function with an appropriate structure is used, so that the Ronchigram calculation image for any sample can be obtained. It is possible to obtain. The aberration coefficient is obtained by fitting such a calculated image and the acquired Ronchigram. As a method of fitting, a method of directly comparing and using a cross-correlation function between the acquired Ronchigram and a calculated image can be considered. In addition, by using Equation 11 instead of Equation 2, a Ronchigram calculation image when using a gradient electron beam can be obtained.

  FIG. 15 shows an example of a flowchart used when performing the above series of operations. First, a sample thinned to such an extent that an electron beam can be transmitted is set on an electron microscope to obtain a Ronchigram. After forming a calculation image in which an arbitrary aberration coefficient is set, the Ronchigram and the shape of the calculation image are compared. Calculation image formation and comparison are performed using a program built in the CPU. If no good match is found between the Ronchigram and the shape of the calculated image, the procedures of resetting the aberration coefficient, forming the calculated image, and comparing the Ronchigram and the calculated image are repeated until a good match is obtained. The aberration coefficient measured when a good match is obtained between the Ronchigram and the calculated image is displayed.

  Next, the resolution or the probe diameter is calculated from the measured aberration coefficient. The operator determines whether or not to observe with this resolution, and when observing under this condition, the routine proceeds to a routine in which the excitation current of the lens and aberration corrector is not changed. When the routine proceeds to change the excitation current of the lens and aberration corrector, the operator is made to input the target resolution. After the CPU calculates the optimum excitation current value according to this resolution, the excitation current value calculated for each lens, aberration corrector, etc. is fed back through the D / A converter to obtain a Ronchigram. Next, a Ronchigram based on the assumed aberration coefficient is calculated and compared with the actually measured Ronchigram. If the pattern does not match and it is determined that the optimum excitation current is not set, the process returns to the step of calculating an appropriate excitation current value again, and excitation current value feedback and Ronchigram comparison are performed. This process is repeated until it is determined that an appropriate excitation current condition has been reached. When an appropriate condition is reached, the operator is informed that a scanning transmission image can be acquired. By executing this routine, a scanning transmission image can be acquired with the resolution desired by the operator. Selection at each stage is performed interactively by the operator using a program built into the PC.

  FIG. 16 shows a flowchart of an embodiment in which the operator designates the resolution of the scanning transmission image desired to be acquired and the apparatus automatically performs aberration measurement and correction. After the operator sets the sample on the mirror, the resolution to be acquired is specified. The resolution is determined by the probe diameter, but since the probe current is inversely proportional to the square of the probe diameter, a menu in which the probe diameter or probe current can be selected according to the desired observation or analysis as a dialog in this flow beforehand. The one displayed and the one that can input the resolution directly are conceivable. Next, the apparatus determines whether the input resolution can be achieved in terms of performance. If not, an error message is displayed and a dialog prompting re-input is displayed. This step is skipped in the case of the type of flow that selects a preset resolution. If an achievable resolution is selected, the CPU calculates a residual aberration amount and correction excitation, and performs correction excitation settings through the D / A converter.

  Next, the aberration coefficient is calculated from the Ronchigram. Through the same process as in FIG. 12, when the selected resolution is obtained, a dialog is displayed informing the operator that a scanning transmission image can be acquired. If they do not match, the residual aberration amount is calculated from the currently obtained aberration coefficient, the routine returns to the routine for calculating and setting the correction excitation amount, and the process is repeated until the target resolution is achieved. When it finally converges to the resolution achievement condition, a dialog is displayed informing the operator that a scanning transmission image can be acquired.

  A second embodiment in which the operator designates the resolution will be described. When the operator designates and inputs the atomic species, structure, crystal orientation, and shape of the sample to be observed, a calculation image of a plurality of scanning transmission images corresponding to various probe sizes is calculated by a program incorporated in the CPU. In this scanned transmission image, a guide for the probe current is also displayed. When the operator selects the image, the target resolution is determined, and aberration correction is executed according to the flowchart shown in FIG. A corresponding scanning transmission image is not formed every time observation is performed, but a method is also conceivable in which an operator can select a calculation image or an actual measurement image by showing a calculation image or an actual measurement image recorded in a database. It is done.

  Note that the method described above is not limited to a scanning transmission electron microscope for pure observation, but also an electronic application device using a transmission electron microscope and a scanning electron microscope that do not scan, such as a length measurement SEM, a review SEM, and an electron beam method. Needless to say, the present invention can be applied to a semiconductor visual inspection apparatus or the like.

The figure showing the structure of the scanning transmission electron microscope apparatus of this invention. The figure showing the optical system for observing an electron beam diffraction image. The figure showing the optical system in the process in which a post-objective magnetic lens forms a probe image plane and a back focal plane. The figure showing the optical system in the case of observing a Ronchigram on the conditions which do not use a projection lens. The figure showing the optical system in the case of observing a Ronchigram on the conditions using a projection lens. The figure showing the optical system in the case of observing a Ronchigram on the conditions which injected the electron beam diagonally with respect to the sample. The figure showing an example of a Ronchigram. The figure showing the Ronchigram which carried out polar coordinate conversion. The figure showing the case where the Ronchigram containing 2 times asymmetry is polar-coordinate-transformed. The figure showing the case where the Ronchigram containing 3 times symmetrical astigmatism is polar-coordinate-transformed. The figure showing the case where the polar coordinate transformation is carried out about the Ronchigram containing an image shift. The flowchart which shows the flow from the measurement of the aberration coefficient by the acquired Ronchigram to high-resolution image observation. The figure showing the Ronchigram calculation image when defocusing and third-order spherical aberration are taken into consideration. The figure showing a Ronchigram calculation image when defocusing, third-order spherical aberration, and 2-fold astigmatism are considered. The flowchart which shows the flow from the measurement of an aberration coefficient at the time of using the calculation image of a Ronchigram to high-resolution image observation. The flowchart which shows the flow for observing the scanning transmission image corresponding to the resolution | decomposability designated by the operator.

Explanation of symbols

1 ... Electron beam source, 2a ... First stage electrostatic lens, 2b ... Second stage electrostatic lens, 2c ... Third stage electrostatic lens,
3a ... First stage converging lens, 3b ... Second stage converging lens, 4 ... Convergent aperture, 5 ... Aberration corrector, 6a ... Upper stage deflection coil, 6b ... Lower stage deflection coil, 7a ... Upper stage scan coil, 7b ... Lower stage scan coil , 8 ... Magnetic field lens before objective, 9 ... Sample, 10 ... Magnetic field lens after objective, 11 ... Projection lens, 12 ... Detection system alignment coil, 13 ... Dark field image detector, 14 ... Bright field image detector, 15 ... Camera
16 ... Secondary electron detector, 17 ... Preamplifier, 18 ... A / D converter, 19 ... Interface
20 ... D / A converter, 21 ... CPU, 22 ... virtual light source, 23 ... electron beam, 24 ... probe image plane, 25 ... back focal plane, 26 ... transmitted electron beam, 27 ... diffracted electron beam, 28 ... convergence angle, 29 ... scattering angle, 30 ... observation plane, 31 ... overlapping region of diffraction spots.

Claims (19)

  1.   The electron beam generated from the electron beam source is accelerated to a predetermined voltage by one or more stages of electrostatic lenses, converged by one or more stages of converging lens and objective lens, and irradiated onto the sample, and the electron beam is emitted by one or more stages of deflection coils. Is scanned two-dimensionally on the sample surface and equipped with one or more projection lenses. The intensity of the electron beam transmitted through the sample, the secondary electron beam generated from the sample surface, or the reflected electron beam reflected from the sample surface is It has the function to detect and synchronize with the intensity of the line, and display and acquire it as a two-dimensional scanning electron microscope image by the image display device. In order to correct the chromatic aberration caused by the dispersion of the aberration, an aberration corrector comprising an electrostatic or magnetic field type multipole lens, a rotationally symmetric lens, and a deflection coil is provided. In an electron microscope equipped with a detector that can be used to acquire Ronchigrams in the previous stage, aberration coefficients are measured using Ronchigrams obtained by polar coordinate conversion, and these aberrations are corrected from the obtained aberration coefficients. A scanning transmission electron microscope characterized by having a function of calculating settings of each lens and deflector of a corrector and feeding back to the apparatus.
  2.   2. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 1, wherein after the aberration coefficient is measured, a resolution or a probe diameter achievable in the scanning transmission electron microscope is calculated, and an operator can select an arbitrary resolution. Scanning transmission electron microscope.
  3.   2. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 1, wherein when the operator designates a resolution, the apparatus automatically measures an aberration amount, calculates a residual aberration necessary to achieve the resolution, and calculates each lens and aberration. A scanning transmission electron microscope characterized by having a function of calculating and feeding back an excitation current or applied voltage necessary for a corrector to achieve the resolution.
  4.   In the scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 1, when the operator inputs the atomic species, crystal structure, crystal orientation, etc. of the sample actually observed, a scanning transmission image corresponding to the resolution of the various species is automatically displayed. By selecting the scanning transmission image that the camera wants to acquire, the aberration measurement and the excitation current or applied voltage required for each lens and aberration corrector are automatically calculated and fed back, and the resolution equivalent to the resolution of the selected scanning transmission image Scanning transmission electron microscope having a function capable of observing with.
  5.   2. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 1, wherein the scanning transmission electron microscope has a function of correcting aberrations by a method of correcting aberrations of the scanning electron microscope stepwise from low order aberrations to high order aberrations.
  6.   The electron beam generated from the electron beam source is accelerated to a predetermined voltage by one or more stages of electrostatic lenses, converged by one or more stages of converging lenses, irradiated onto the sample, and then electron beams by one or more stages of deflection coils. The sample surface is scanned two-dimensionally and equipped with one or more projection lenses. The intensity of the electron beam transmitted through the sample, the secondary electron beam generated from the sample surface, or the reflected electron beam reflected from the sample surface is measured. Detects the electron beam synchronously with the two-dimensional scanning on the sample surface, and has the function of acquiring and displaying the image data as a two-dimensional scanning electron microscope image. In order to correct the chromatic aberration caused by the geometrical aberration and the energy variation of the electron source, an aberration corrector composed of an electrostatic or electric field type multi-stage multipole lens, a rotationally symmetric lens, a deflection coil, etc. is installed in front of the objective lens. A two-dimensional image detector for detecting a Ronchigram formed by an electron beam that is arranged in a stage and transmits or diffracts a sample has a function of aligning the Ronchigram with the Ronchigram detection two-dimensional image detector. In an electron microscope equipped with one or more stages of electrostatic or magnetic field type deflectors in the latter stage of the objective lens, it comprises two or more stages of electrostatic or magnetic field type deflectors between the aberration corrector and the objective lens. The electron beam that has passed through the objective lens by the detector has the function of tilting on the sample surface, and the positional deviation of the Ronchigram generated by the tilting of the electron beam on the sample surface with respect to the two-dimensional image detection device for detecting Ronchigram is automatically performed. The drive excitation of one or more electrostatic or magnetic field type deflectors arranged after the objective lens so as to be corrected is linked with the drive excitation of the deflection coil for electron beam tilt. Scanning transmission electron microscope, characterized in that the work.
  7.   7. The scanning transmission electron microscope apparatus according to claim 6, wherein the electrostatic and magnetic field type deflectors are controlled to be swung back so that the electron beam is completely inclined at the same position on the sample surface, or the upper and lower stages are controlled. Scanning electron microscope with a function to set the excitation ratio.
  8.   7. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 6, wherein when a tilt angle of an electron beam designated by a user is inputted, lens excitation is automatically set and the tilt angle is realized.
  9.   7. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 6, wherein after the aberration coefficient is measured, a resolution or a probe diameter achievable in the scanning transmission electron microscope is calculated, and an operator can select an arbitrary resolution. Scanning transmission electron microscope.
  10.   7. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 6, wherein when an operator designates a resolution, the apparatus automatically measures an aberration amount, calculates a residual aberration necessary to achieve the resolution, and calculates each lens and aberration. A scanning transmission electron microscope characterized by having a function of calculating and feeding back an excitation current or applied voltage necessary for a corrector to achieve the resolution.
  11.   7. In the scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 6, when the operator inputs the atomic species, crystal structure, crystal orientation, etc. of the sample actually observed, a scanning transmission image corresponding to the resolution of the various species is automatically displayed. By selecting the scanning transmission image that the camera wants to acquire, the aberration measurement and the excitation current or applied voltage required for each lens and aberration corrector are automatically calculated and fed back, and the resolution equivalent to the resolution of the selected scanning transmission image Scanning transmission electron microscope having a function capable of observing with.
  12.   7. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 6, wherein the scanning transmission electron microscope has a function of realizing aberration correction of the scanning electron microscope by a method of correcting aberrations stepwise from low order aberrations to high order aberrations.
  13.   The electron beam generated from the electron beam source is accelerated to a predetermined voltage by one or more stages of electrostatic lenses, converged by one or more stages of converging lens and objective lens, and irradiated onto the sample, and the electron beam is emitted by one or more stages of deflection coils. Is scanned two-dimensionally on the sample surface and equipped with one or more projection lenses. The intensity of the electron beam transmitted through the sample, the secondary electron beam generated from the sample surface, or the reflected electron beam reflected from the sample surface is It has the function to detect and synchronize with the intensity of the line, and display and acquire it as a two-dimensional scanning electron microscope image by the image display device. In order to correct the chromatic aberration caused by the dispersion of the aberration, an aberration corrector comprising an electrostatic or magnetic field type multipole lens, a rotationally symmetric lens, and a deflection coil is provided. In an electron microscope equipped with a detector that can be used to acquire Ronchigrams, the aberration coefficient is measured by comparing and fitting the Ronchigram calculation image with the actual measurement image, A scanning transmission electron microscope characterized by having a function of calculating the settings of each lens and deflector for correcting these aberrations and feeding them back to the apparatus.
  14.   14. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 13, wherein a Ronchigram calculation image used for comparison is calculated using a multi-slice method.
  15.   14. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 13, wherein after the aberration coefficient is measured, a resolution or a probe diameter achievable in the scanning transmission electron microscope is calculated, and an operator can select an arbitrary resolution. Scanning transmission electron microscope.
  16.   14. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 13, wherein when the operator designates a resolution, the apparatus automatically measures an aberration amount, calculates a residual aberration necessary to achieve the resolution, and calculates each lens and aberration. A scanning transmission electron microscope characterized by having a function of calculating and feeding back an excitation current or applied voltage necessary for a corrector to achieve the resolution.
  17.   14. In the scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 13, when the operator inputs the atomic species, crystal structure, crystal orientation, etc. of the sample actually observed, a calculation image of a transmission scanning image corresponding to the resolution of the various species is automatically formed. By selecting the calculation image that the operator wants to acquire, the aberration measurement and the excitation current or applied voltage required for each lens and aberration corrector are automatically calculated and fed back, and the resolution is equivalent to the resolution of the selected calculation image. A scanning transmission electron microscope having a function capable of performing observation at a resolution.
  18.   14. The transmission electron microscope according to claim 13, wherein calculation images selected by an operator are stored in a database.
  19.   14. The scanning transmission electron microscope according to claim 13, wherein the image selected by the operator uses an actual image observed at various resolutions.
JP2004367002A 2004-12-20 2004-12-20 Scanning transmission electron microscope, aberration measuring method, and aberration correction method Pending JP2006173027A (en)

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JP2006302523A (en) * 2005-04-15 2006-11-02 Jeol Ltd Transmission electron microscope having scan image observation function
JP2007180013A (en) * 2005-11-30 2007-07-12 Jeol Ltd Aberration measuring method using ronchigram and aberration correction method, and electron microscope
JP2008124001A (en) * 2006-10-20 2008-05-29 Jeol Ltd Charged particle beam device
JP2008130264A (en) * 2006-11-17 2008-06-05 Jeol Ltd Determination method for ronchigram center
JP2010500726A (en) * 2006-08-16 2010-01-07 フォルシュングスツェントルム・ユーリッヒ・ゲゼルシャフト・ミット・ベシュレンクテル・ハフツング Method and electron microscope for measuring the similarity of two-dimensional images
JP2010514106A (en) * 2006-12-21 2010-04-30 フォルシュングスツェントルム・ユーリッヒ・ゲゼルシャフト・ミット・ベシュレンクテル・ハフツング Electron microscope and method for measuring defocus deviation or resolution limit
JP2010170940A (en) * 2009-01-26 2010-08-05 Hitachi Ltd Scanning transmission electron microscope, and aberration correction method
WO2012014665A1 (en) * 2010-07-27 2012-02-02 株式会社日立ハイテクノロジーズ Scanning transmission electron microscope and axial adjustment method thereof
JP2013168332A (en) * 2012-02-17 2013-08-29 Hitachi High-Technologies Corp Electron microscope
US8642959B2 (en) 2007-10-29 2014-02-04 Micron Technology, Inc. Method and system of performing three-dimensional imaging using an electron microscope
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JP2006302523A (en) * 2005-04-15 2006-11-02 Jeol Ltd Transmission electron microscope having scan image observation function
JP2007180013A (en) * 2005-11-30 2007-07-12 Jeol Ltd Aberration measuring method using ronchigram and aberration correction method, and electron microscope
JP2010500726A (en) * 2006-08-16 2010-01-07 フォルシュングスツェントルム・ユーリッヒ・ゲゼルシャフト・ミット・ベシュレンクテル・ハフツング Method and electron microscope for measuring the similarity of two-dimensional images
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WO2012014665A1 (en) * 2010-07-27 2012-02-02 株式会社日立ハイテクノロジーズ Scanning transmission electron microscope and axial adjustment method thereof
JP2012028234A (en) * 2010-07-27 2012-02-09 Hitachi High-Technologies Corp Scanning transmission electron microscope and method for adjusting its axis
US8710438B2 (en) 2010-07-27 2014-04-29 Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation Scanning transmission electron microscope and axial adjustment method thereof
JP2013168332A (en) * 2012-02-17 2013-08-29 Hitachi High-Technologies Corp Electron microscope
US10283315B2 (en) 2017-05-16 2019-05-07 International Business Machines Corporation Measuring spherical and chromatic aberrations in cathode lens electrode microscopes

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