JP2006168450A - Structure of outer hood for railroad vehicle - Google Patents

Structure of outer hood for railroad vehicle Download PDF

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JP2006168450A
JP2006168450A JP2004361197A JP2004361197A JP2006168450A JP 2006168450 A JP2006168450 A JP 2006168450A JP 2004361197 A JP2004361197 A JP 2004361197A JP 2004361197 A JP2004361197 A JP 2004361197A JP 2006168450 A JP2006168450 A JP 2006168450A
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hood
vehicle
hoods
layer
wear resistance
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Kazuo Kato
一雄 加藤
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Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd:The
横浜ゴム株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T30/00Transportation of goods or passengers via railways, e.g. energy recovery or reducing air resistance

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a structure of a railroad vehicle outer hood capable of lengthening products life by improving the durability of a portion of outer hoods which are brought into contact with each other. <P>SOLUTION: Outer layer material 3 having a preferable wear resistance with a specified thickness (0.1-0.2 mm, for example) is integrally bonded to at least on one surface (either of both surfaces) among outer surfaces of the outer hoods 2a, 2b at least which are brought into contact with each other at the time of connecting the vehicle and traveling in this embodiment. The outer layer material 3 is formed by forming resin material having the preferable wear resistance with a low friction coefficient, such as super high molecular weight polyethylene film of which the molecular weight is 5-10 million, fluororesin or the like to film-like with 0.1-0.2 mm thickness condition to be vulcanized and bonded to outer surfaces of the outer hoods 2a, 2b which are formed by a rubber-like elastic body. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI

Description

この発明は、鉄道車両用外幌の構造に係わり、更に詳しくはゴム状弾性体から成る外幌同士の接触する部位の耐久性を向上させた鉄道車両用外幌の構造に関するものである。   The present invention relates to the structure of an outer hood for a railway vehicle, and more particularly to the structure of an outer hood for a railway vehicle in which the durability of a portion where the outer hoods made of rubber-like elastic bodies contact each other is improved.
従来、高速鉄道車両間の空間部を覆うゴム状弾性体で構成される車両用幌は、車両間の内側全周を覆う内幌と、その外側の車両の左右側面のみを覆う外幌から構成されている。   Conventionally, a vehicle hood composed of a rubber-like elastic body that covers the space between high-speed rail cars is composed of an inner hood that covers the entire inner circumference between the vehicles, and an outer hood that covers only the left and right side surfaces of the outer vehicle. Has been.
前記車両連結部に設けられた内幌は、蛇腹構造に形成され、車内を風雪、ほこり等から保護する役割を果たし、外幌は前後車両の各々の側面に取り付けられた断面U字状のゴム板からなり、車両連結部の美観を呈すると共に、乗客が駅のプラットホームから車両間の空間部の線路に転落するのを防止する役割を果たしてきた(例えば、特許文献1参照)。   An inner hood provided in the vehicle connecting portion is formed in a bellows structure and serves to protect the inside of the vehicle from wind and snow, dust, etc., and the outer hood is a rubber having a U-shaped cross section attached to the side surfaces of the front and rear vehicles. It consists of a board, and has played the role which prevents that a passenger falls on the track | line of the space part between vehicles from the platform of a station while exhibiting the beauty of a vehicle connection part (for example, refer patent document 1).
ところで、上記のような鉄道車両用幌は、風雪、ほこり等の侵入を防止するために密封性は考慮されているが、騒音に対しては十分な対策が施されておらず、特に外幌は車両の連結部の全周に配設されていないため、風切り音(車両連結部への空気巻き込み音も含む)、車輪のフランジ部とレ−ルとの摩擦音、車両装置の操作音(レ−ル継ぎ目でのたたき音)、車輪の転動音、パンタグラフ擦り音、等が車両連結部の隙間を通って拡散し、これが床、ガラス窓、内幌等の車体構成物を通って車内に進入し車内騒音の原因となっていた。   By the way, the railcar hood as described above is considered to have a sealing property in order to prevent intrusion of wind and snow, dust, etc., but sufficient measures are not taken against noise, and the outer hood in particular. Are not arranged all around the connecting part of the vehicle, so that wind noise (including air entrainment sound into the vehicle connecting part), frictional noise between the wheel flange part and the rail, operation sound of the vehicle device (reel) -Tapping noise at the seam), wheel rolling noise, pantograph rubbing noise, etc., diffuse through the gaps in the vehicle connecting part, and this passes through the vehicle body components such as the floor, glass window, inner hood, etc. It entered and caused noise in the car.
上記する風切り音、車輪とレ−ルの摩擦音等の騒音が拡散するのを一次的に防止させるには、車両連結部を幌で覆い車両同志を柔軟性に富む材料でシ−ルすると共に、車両連結部における車両底部を除く全周を外幌で覆うことが好ましい。 然しながら、鉄道車両は、操作場,駐車場から営業路線内の路線上全てを走行するものであるが、特に操作場から車両を引き出す時に曲率の小さいレール上を走行するので車両の横擦れによる圧縮,伸長の負荷がゴム構造物である外幌に加わり、特に肩部の外幌は、車両中心からの外面と内面との曲率差による立体的形状による剛性で自由変形が、側部、天井部幌に比較して拘束され、摩耗による表面削れが生じたり、極端な場合には局部的に穴開きが発生し易く、耐久性上及び製品寿命を短くするという問題があった。
特開2001−171517号公報(第2〜第3頁、図2)
In order to prevent the wind noise and the frictional noise of the wheels and rails from diffusing primarily, cover the vehicle connecting part with a hood and seal the vehicles with flexible materials. It is preferable to cover the entire periphery of the vehicle connecting portion except the vehicle bottom with an outer hood. However, railcars run all on the operating line from the operation and parking lots, but they run on a rail with a low curvature, especially when the vehicle is pulled out from the operation field. , Extension load is applied to the outer hood, which is a rubber structure. Especially, the outer hood of the shoulder part is free to be deformed by the three-dimensional rigidity due to the difference in curvature between the outer surface and the inner surface from the vehicle center. There is a problem that it is constrained compared to a hood, and the surface is scraped due to wear, or in the extreme case, a hole is easily generated locally, and the durability and product life are shortened.
JP 2001-171517 A (2nd to 3rd pages, FIG. 2)
この発明はかかる従来の問題点に着目し、外幌同士の接触する部位の耐久性を向上させて製品寿命を長くすることが出来る鉄道車両用外幌の構造を提供することを目的とするものである。   This invention pays attention to such a conventional problem, and an object of the present invention is to provide a structure of an outer hood for a railway vehicle capable of improving the durability of a portion where the outer hoods are in contact with each other and extending the product life. It is.
この発明は上記目的を達成するため、車両連結部における前後車両間の空間部を覆うゴム状弾性体から成る外幌の構造であって、前記前後車両の連結部に取付けられた外幌の外側表面のうち、車両の連結時で、かつ走行時に少なくとも外幌同士の接触する少なくとも一方の表面に、耐摩耗性に優れた外層材を設けたことを要旨とするものである。   In order to achieve the above object, the present invention is a structure of an outer hood composed of a rubber-like elastic body that covers a space portion between front and rear vehicles in a vehicle connecting portion, and is provided on the outside of the outer hood attached to the connecting portion of the front and rear vehicles. The gist of the invention is that an outer layer material having excellent wear resistance is provided on at least one surface of the surfaces that are in contact with the outer hoods when the vehicle is connected and when traveling.
ここで、前記外幌が、前後車両間の車両底部を除く空間部の全周を覆う形態に構成し、また前記外層材としては、摩擦係数が小さく、耐摩耗性に優れた樹脂材料、または着色した耐摩耗性に優れた樹脂材料を使用するものである。   Here, the outer hood is configured to cover the entire circumference of the space portion excluding the vehicle bottom between the front and rear vehicles, and the outer layer material is a resin material having a small friction coefficient and excellent wear resistance, or A colored resin material having excellent wear resistance is used.
このように、前後車両の連結部に取付けられた外幌の外側表面のうち、車両の連結時で、かつ走行時に少なくとも外幌同士の接触する少なくとも一方の表面に、耐摩耗性に優れた外層材を設けたことにより、外幌同士が接触する部位の摩耗量が低減し、早期に穴開等が発生せず、耐久性を向上させることが出来、更に外幌の継ぎ目を少なくして防音性を改善し、さらには外幌の製品寿命を延ばすことが出来るものである。   Thus, among the outer surfaces of the outer hoods attached to the connecting parts of the front and rear vehicles, at least one surface that is in contact with the outer hoods at the time of vehicle connection and at the time of traveling is an outer layer having excellent wear resistance. By providing the material, the amount of wear at the parts where the outer hoods come into contact with each other is reduced, so that there is no early drilling and the like, and durability can be improved. It can improve the performance and further extend the product life of the outer hood.
この発明の外幌は、上記のように車両連結部における前後車両間の空間部を覆うゴム状弾性体から成る外幌の構造であって、前記前後車両の連結部に取付けられた外幌の外側表面のうち、車両の連結時で、かつ走行時に少なくとも外幌同士の接触する少なくとも一方の表面に、耐摩耗性に優れた外層材を設けたので、外幌同士の接触する部位の耐久性を向上させて製品寿命を長くすることが出来る効果がある。   The outer hood of the present invention is a structure of an outer hood composed of a rubber-like elastic body that covers the space between the front and rear vehicles in the vehicle connecting portion as described above, and the outer hood attached to the connecting portion of the front and rear vehicles. Outer surface is provided with an outer layer material with excellent wear resistance on at least one of the outer surfaces when the vehicle is connected and when the outer hoods are in contact with each other. This has the effect of improving the product life and extending the product life.
以下、添付図面に基づき、この発明の実施形態を説明する。   Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
図1は、この発明を実施した鉄道車両の前後車両の連結部の斜視図、図2は図1のA−A矢視断面図、図3は図1のB部の拡大斜視図を示し、鉄道車両1の前方車両1aの後端部と後方車両1bの前端部との相対向する位置には、前後車両間の車両底部を除く空間部の全周を覆う外幌2a,2bが取付けられている。   1 is a perspective view of a connecting portion of a front and rear vehicle of a railway vehicle embodying the present invention, FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along arrow AA in FIG. 1, and FIG. 3 is an enlarged perspective view of a portion B in FIG. Outer hoods 2a and 2b that cover the entire circumference of the space except for the bottom of the vehicle between the front and rear vehicles are attached to the opposing positions of the rear end of the front vehicle 1a of the railway vehicle 1 and the front end of the rear vehicle 1b. ing.
前記外幌2a,2bは、板状のゴム状弾性体(例えば、NR(天然ゴム),SBR(スチレンブタジエンゴム),BR(ブタジエンゴム),EPDM(エンチレンプロピレンジエンゴム),IIR(ブチルゴム),CL−IIR、Br−CR(ハロゲン化ブチルゴム)、NBR(アクリロニトリルブタジエンゴム)等のジエン系ゴムの単独,若しくはブレンド配合ゴム組成物を使用する)を断面略U字に折り曲げて前方車両1aの後端部と後方車両1bの前端部との相対向する側面にボルト等の締結部材を介して固定するものである。   The outer hoods 2a and 2b are plate-like rubber-like elastic bodies (for example, NR (natural rubber), SBR (styrene butadiene rubber), BR (butadiene rubber), EPDM (ethylene propylene diene rubber), IIR (butyl rubber). , CL-IIR, Br-CR (halogenated butyl rubber), diene rubber such as NBR (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber) or a blended rubber composition) is bent into a substantially U-shaped cross section and the vehicle 1a It fixes to the side surface which a rear-end part and the front-end part of the back vehicle 1b mutually oppose via fastening members, such as a volt | bolt.
この発明の実施形態では、前記外幌2a,2bの外側表面のうち、車両の連結時で、かつ走行時に少なくとも外幌同士の接触する少なくとも一方の表面(両方の表面でも良い)に、所定の厚さ(例えば、0.1〜0.2mm)の耐摩耗性に優れた外層材3が一体的に貼付けて構成してある。   In the embodiment of the present invention, at least one surface (or both surfaces) of the outer hoods 2a and 2b, which are in contact with each other when the vehicle is connected and at the time of traveling, may be predetermined. The outer layer material 3 having a thickness (for example, 0.1 to 0.2 mm) and excellent wear resistance is integrally bonded.
この外層材3としては、摩擦係数が小さく、耐摩耗性に優れた樹脂材料、例えば、分子量500万〜1000万の超高分子量ポリエチレンフィルムや、フッ素樹脂等を、厚さ約0.1mm〜0.2mmのフィルム状に形成してゴム状弾性体から成る外幌2a,2bの外側表面に加硫接着して形成するものである。   As the outer layer material 3, a resin material having a small friction coefficient and excellent wear resistance, for example, an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene film having a molecular weight of 5 to 10 million, a fluororesin, or the like is about 0.1 mm to 0 mm in thickness. It is formed by vulcanizing and bonding to the outer surface of the outer hoods 2a and 2b made of rubber-like elastic bodies.
また、耐摩耗性に優れた樹脂材料で構成される外層材3は、車両の色等に合わせて着色しておき、この外層材3を外幌2a,2bの外側表面に接着させることにより外幌2a,2bの材料を車体色として使用することも可能である。   Further, the outer layer material 3 made of a resin material having excellent wear resistance is colored according to the color of the vehicle, and the outer layer material 3 is adhered to the outer surfaces of the outer hoods 2a and 2b. It is also possible to use the material of the hoods 2a and 2b as the body color.
なお、外層材3は上述のように薄いフィルム状のものであって、可撓性を有するものであるため、外幌2a,2bを変形させても追従性は良く、剥離することもない。   Since the outer layer material 3 is a thin film as described above and has flexibility, even if the outer hoods 2a and 2b are deformed, the followability is good and the outer layer material 3 does not peel off.
一般に鉄道車両1は、操車場、駐車場から営業路線内の軌道上全てを走行するので、特に操車場から鉄道車両1を引き出す時等には、曲率半径の小さい軌道上を走行するために、互いに対向して取り付けられた外幌2a,2b同士が圧縮/伸長の繰り返しによる応力を受け、外幌2a,2bの接触部では摩耗、破損が避けられない。特に、外幌2a,2bの両肩部4a,4bでは、車両中心から見た外幌2a,2bの外側面と内側面の曲率差が大きく、天井部や両側部に比べて自由変形が拘束されるために、外幌2a,2bの摩耗、損傷が早期に発生し、穴開きが早期に発生する場合がある。   In general, the railway vehicle 1 travels all on the track in the business route from the yard and parking lot. Especially when the railway vehicle 1 is pulled out from the yard, in order to travel on the track with a small radius of curvature, The outer hoods 2a and 2b attached to face each other receive stress due to repeated compression / extension, and wear and breakage cannot be avoided at the contact portions of the outer hoods 2a and 2b. In particular, the shoulders 4a and 4b of the outer hoods 2a and 2b have a large difference in curvature between the outer surface and the inner surface of the outer hoods 2a and 2b when viewed from the center of the vehicle. Therefore, the outer hoods 2a and 2b may be worn and damaged at an early stage, and a hole may be formed at an early stage.
この発明の実施形態では、このような欠陥を回避するために、特に摩耗、損傷が早期に発生し易い外幌2a,2bの両肩部4a,4bの表面に、摩擦係数が小さく、耐摩耗性に優れた超高分子量ポリエチレンフィルムや、フッ素樹脂等で構成されるフィルム状の外層材3を貼付けることで、上記のような問題を解決することが出来るのである。   In the embodiment of the present invention, in order to avoid such a defect, the surface of both shoulder portions 4a and 4b of the outer hood 2a and 2b, which are particularly prone to wear and damage, has a small friction coefficient and wear resistance. The above-mentioned problems can be solved by sticking a film-like outer layer material 3 composed of an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene film having excellent properties or a fluororesin.
なお、上記の外層材3(厚さ0.2mm の超高分子量ポリエチレンフィルム) を設けた外幌2a,2bの耐久試験を行った結果、全く摩耗が起きなかった。一方、外層材3を設けなかった外幌2a,2bは、穴開きが発生しないものの摩擦が起きた。
〔耐久試験方法〕
1/2スケール寸法の小型肩部幌を製作し、専用の取付け金具に装着し加重変位特性試験機にて、横擦り試験を実施した。
(横擦り試験)
専用金具にて面間150mmに小型肩部幌を向かい合わせ、上下に取付ける。この位置から図4(a),(b)に示す右(下側)の小型肩部幌を中央(上側)の左右に185mmずつ変位させ、幌の壁同士で繰返し擦る。横擦り回数は、片道9000回行った。なお、片道9000回の横擦り回数は、実際に車輛に取付けた場合の6年分に相当するものである。
As a result of the durability test of the outer hoods 2a and 2b provided with the outer layer material 3 (ultra high molecular weight polyethylene film having a thickness of 0.2 mm), no abrasion occurred. On the other hand, the outer hoods 2a and 2b, which were not provided with the outer layer material 3, did not puncture but had friction.
[Durability test method]
A small shoulder hood with a 1/2 scale size was manufactured, mounted on a dedicated mounting bracket, and subjected to a lateral rubbing test using a weighted displacement characteristic tester.
(Side friction test)
A small shoulder hood is faced to 150mm between the faces with a dedicated bracket, and attached up and down. From this position, the right (lower) small shoulder hood shown in FIGS. 4 (a) and 4 (b) is displaced 185mm to the left and right of the center (upper) and repeatedly rubbed between the walls of the hood. The number of side rubbing was 9000 times one way. In addition, the number of side rubbing of 9000 times one way is equivalent to 6 years when actually attached to the vehicle.
幌断面外面形状:二等辺三角形
幌の高さ:約125〜130mm
Top section outer shape: isosceles triangle Top height: about 125-130mm
この発明を実施した鉄道車両の前後車両の連結部の斜視図である。It is a perspective view of the connection part of the front and rear vehicles of the railway vehicle which implemented this invention. 図1のA−A矢視断面図である。It is AA arrow sectional drawing of FIG. 図1のB部の拡大斜視図である。It is an expansion perspective view of the B section of FIG. 耐久試験方法の説明図で、(a)は、横擦り試験方法の説明図、(b)は(a)のX−X矢視側面図である。It is explanatory drawing of a durability test method, (a) is explanatory drawing of a side-rub test method, (b) is a XX arrow side view of (a).
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
1 鉄道車両 1a 前方車両
1b 後方車両
2a,2b 外幌 3 外層材
4a,4b 両肩部
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Rail vehicle 1a Front vehicle 1b Rear vehicle 2a, 2b Outer hood 3 Outer layer material 4a, 4b Both shoulders

Claims (4)

  1. 車両連結部における前後車両間の空間部を覆うゴム状弾性体から成る外幌の構造であって、
    前記前後車両の連結部に取付けられた外幌の外側表面のうち、車両の連結時で、かつ走行時に少なくとも外幌同士の接触する少なくとも一方の表面に、耐摩耗性に優れた外層材を設けたことを特徴とする鉄道車両用外幌の構造。
    A structure of an outer hood composed of a rubber-like elastic body that covers a space portion between the front and rear vehicles in the vehicle connecting portion,
    Outer surface of the outer hood attached to the connecting part of the front and rear vehicles is provided with an outer layer material having excellent wear resistance on at least one surface of the outer hood that is in contact with the outer hood when the vehicle is connected and when traveling. The structure of an outer hood for a rail vehicle characterized by that.
  2. 前記外幌が、前後車両間の車両底部を除く空間部の全周を覆う形態に構成した請求項1に記載の鉄道車両用外幌の構造。 The structure of the outer hood for a railway vehicle according to claim 1, wherein the outer hood is configured to cover the entire circumference of the space portion excluding the vehicle bottom between the front and rear vehicles.
  3. 前記外層材が、摩擦係数が小さく、耐摩耗性に優れた樹脂材料である請求項1または2に記載の鉄道車両用外幌の構造。 The structure of the outer hood for a railway vehicle according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the outer layer material is a resin material having a small friction coefficient and excellent wear resistance.
  4. 前記外層材が、着色した耐摩耗性に優れた樹脂材料である請求項1または2に記載の鉄道車両用外幌の構造。
    The structure of the outer hood for a railway vehicle according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the outer layer material is a colored resin material having excellent wear resistance.
JP2004361197A 2004-12-14 2004-12-14 Structure of outer hood for railroad vehicle Pending JP2006168450A (en)

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Cited By (1)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2010018136A (en) * 2008-07-10 2010-01-28 Nippon Sharyo Seizo Kaisha Ltd Railroad vehicle

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JPH0647760A (en) * 1992-07-28 1994-02-22 Three Bond Co Ltd Rubber molding method imparting lubricity to surface
JPH0699811A (en) * 1992-09-17 1994-04-12 Hitachi Ltd Hood device between vehicles
JPH0679682U (en) * 1993-04-30 1994-11-08 横浜ゴム株式会社 Outer hood of vehicle connection
JPH08127338A (en) * 1994-10-31 1996-05-21 Polyurethan Kasei Kk Opening preventing safety fixture for railway rolling stock coupling surface
JPH08133077A (en) * 1994-11-04 1996-05-28 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Rapid vehicle
JP2002005007A (en) * 2000-06-27 2002-01-09 Sugawa Actuator Kk Hydraulic rodless cylinder type pumping motor
JP2002050239A (en) * 2000-08-07 2002-02-15 Hirakawa Hewtech Corp Foamed insulated wire
JP2003127857A (en) * 2001-10-29 2003-05-08 Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd:The Structure of connection part of full arc bellows railway vehicle
JP2004090820A (en) * 2002-09-02 2004-03-25 Central Japan Railway Co Outer bellows for high-speed railroad rolling stock
JP2004268604A (en) * 2003-03-04 2004-09-30 Central Japan Railway Co Outer bellows for railway rolling stock
JP2004268603A (en) * 2003-03-04 2004-09-30 Central Japan Railway Co Cover body for connecting part of railway rolling stock
JP2004314876A (en) * 2003-04-18 2004-11-11 Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd:The Structure of outer hood for railroad car

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH0647760A (en) * 1992-07-28 1994-02-22 Three Bond Co Ltd Rubber molding method imparting lubricity to surface
JPH0699811A (en) * 1992-09-17 1994-04-12 Hitachi Ltd Hood device between vehicles
JPH0679682U (en) * 1993-04-30 1994-11-08 横浜ゴム株式会社 Outer hood of vehicle connection
JPH08127338A (en) * 1994-10-31 1996-05-21 Polyurethan Kasei Kk Opening preventing safety fixture for railway rolling stock coupling surface
JPH08133077A (en) * 1994-11-04 1996-05-28 Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd Rapid vehicle
JP2002005007A (en) * 2000-06-27 2002-01-09 Sugawa Actuator Kk Hydraulic rodless cylinder type pumping motor
JP2002050239A (en) * 2000-08-07 2002-02-15 Hirakawa Hewtech Corp Foamed insulated wire
JP2003127857A (en) * 2001-10-29 2003-05-08 Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd:The Structure of connection part of full arc bellows railway vehicle
JP2004090820A (en) * 2002-09-02 2004-03-25 Central Japan Railway Co Outer bellows for high-speed railroad rolling stock
JP2004268604A (en) * 2003-03-04 2004-09-30 Central Japan Railway Co Outer bellows for railway rolling stock
JP2004268603A (en) * 2003-03-04 2004-09-30 Central Japan Railway Co Cover body for connecting part of railway rolling stock
JP2004314876A (en) * 2003-04-18 2004-11-11 Yokohama Rubber Co Ltd:The Structure of outer hood for railroad car

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2010018136A (en) * 2008-07-10 2010-01-28 Nippon Sharyo Seizo Kaisha Ltd Railroad vehicle

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