JP2006131479A - Fuel reforming device, fuel cell system, fuel reforming method and power generation method - Google Patents

Fuel reforming device, fuel cell system, fuel reforming method and power generation method Download PDF

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JP2006131479A
JP2006131479A JP2004325053A JP2004325053A JP2006131479A JP 2006131479 A JP2006131479 A JP 2006131479A JP 2004325053 A JP2004325053 A JP 2004325053A JP 2004325053 A JP2004325053 A JP 2004325053A JP 2006131479 A JP2006131479 A JP 2006131479A
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fuel
reformer
combustor
small
premixed gas
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JP4645161B2 (en
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Toshiro Fujimori
Soichiro Kato
Kaoru Maruta
薫 丸田
壮一郎 加藤
俊郎 藤森
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Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Ind Co Ltd
石川島播磨重工業株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/50Fuel cells

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a fuel reforming device which is easy to downsize. <P>SOLUTION: The fuel reforming device 1 is provided with a small combustor 3 capable of stably burning a premixed gas consisting of a first fuel-oxygen premixed gas or a first fuel-air premixed gas by preheating the premixed gas even if the combustor is small, and a reformer 5 for reforming a second fuel using heat generated by the burning of the small combustor 3. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI

Description

  The present invention relates to a fuel reforming apparatus, a fuel reforming method, and the like, and more particularly to a fuel reforming or the like using heat generated by a small combustor.

  In a direct fuel cell (for example, a direct methanol fuel cell), for example, an aqueous solution such as methanol is directly sent to the fuel electrode of the fuel cell to generate electric power.

  By the way, in the direct fuel cell, when the concentration of methanol is high, a phenomenon (crossover) in which methanol passes between the electrodes of the fuel cell occurs. This crossover results in the presence of methanol that does not contribute to power generation, reducing the power generation efficiency of the fuel cell, and the presence of methanol in the air electrode hinders the reaction on the air electrode side and reduces the electromotive force of the fuel cell. There are adverse effects such as lowering.

In order to avoid the adverse effects such as the crossover, the raw fuel (methanol or the like) is reformed using water, and the fuel is configured to generate electricity using the fuel (for example, hydrogen gas) obtained by the reforming. A battery system is known (see, for example, Patent Document 1).
JP-A-9-315801

  In the conventional fuel cell system described in Patent Document 1, a mixture of water and methanol, which is a raw fuel, is heated and evaporated using a burner, and hydrogen and CO 2 are mixed from the evaporated mixture using a reformer. Carbon is produced, and the produced hydrogen is used as fuel for the fuel cell.

  In the conventional fuel cell system, since a burner is used as an apparatus for heating water and raw fuel, there is a problem that it is difficult to downsize the entire system. This is because in a heating device using a burner, it is necessary to make the combustion area of the burner to some extent in order to perform stable combustion with the burner, so it is difficult to make the heating device small.

  Even when a burner is not used, it is generally difficult to reduce the size of a heating device for heating water and raw fuel.

  In addition, if heating for heating water and raw fuel is performed using, for example, electric power, the heating device can be reduced in size, but when the electric power generated by the fuel cell is used for the heating device, The power generated by the fuel cell cannot be effectively used for the original purpose, and the efficiency of the fuel cell system is deteriorated.

  The conventional fuel cell system has a problem that it is difficult to reduce the size of a heating device for heating water and raw fuel, and thus it is difficult to reduce the size of a fuel reforming device.

  The present invention has been made in view of the above problems, and an object of the present invention is to provide a fuel reforming apparatus that can be easily downsized.

  In the fuel reforming apparatus, the premixed gas of the first fuel and oxygen or the premixed gas of the first fuel and air is pre-warmed in the fuel reformer. A small combustor that can stably burn the premixed gas even if it is small, and a reformer that reforms the second fuel using heat generated by the combustion of the small combustor And a fuel reforming apparatus.

  In the fuel reforming apparatus, the premixed gas of the first fuel and oxygen or the premixed gas of the first fuel and air is pre-warmed in the fuel reformer. A small combustor that can stably burn the premixed gas even if it is small, and an evaporator that vaporizes the second liquid fuel and water using heat generated by the small combustor. And a reformer for reforming the vaporized second fuel supplied from the evaporator using heat generated by the small combustor and water vapor supplied from the evaporator. Quality equipment.

  According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the fuel reformer of the second aspect, the small combustor is formed in a plate shape, and the evaporation is performed on one surface in the thickness direction of the small combustor. The fuel reformer is provided with a reformer, and the reformer is provided on the other surface in the thickness direction of the small combustor.

  According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the fuel reforming apparatus according to any one of the first to third aspects, the small combustor includes a combustion chamber, the first fuel, and oxygen. And a premixed gas flow path for supplying a premixed gas of the first fuel and air to the combustion chamber, and a gas generated by the combustion is discharged from the combustion chamber. The premixed gas flow path is formed narrower than the extinguishing distance, and the premixed gas flowing through the premixed gas flow path reaches the combustion chamber. And a fuel reforming apparatus configured to be heated by the exhaust gas flowing through the exhaust gas flow path.

  According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, in the fuel reforming apparatus according to any one of the first to fourth aspects, a gas other than hydrogen gas among the fuel gas generated by the reforming apparatus. A fuel having separation means capable of separating a gas that can be used as fuel and configured to use a gas that can be used as fuel separated by the separation means as fuel for the small combustor. This is a reformer.

  In the fuel reforming apparatus, the first fuel and oxygen may be separately heated, or the first fuel and air may be separately heated in advance. The second fuel is reformed by using a small combustor capable of stably burning the first fuel using the oxygen or the air and heat generated by the combustion of the small combustor. And a reformer for performing fuel.

  The invention according to claim 7 is a fuel reforming apparatus, wherein the first fuel and oxygen are separately heated, or the first fuel and air are separately heated in advance, so that the size is small. A small combustor capable of stably burning the first fuel using the oxygen or the air, and a second liquid fuel and water using heat generated by the small combustor. A vaporizer, a reformer that reforms the vaporized second fuel supplied from the evaporator using heat generated by the small combustor and water vapor supplied from the evaporator; Is a fuel reforming apparatus.

  The invention according to claim 8 includes a fuel cell and the fuel reforming device according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the fuel cell is generated by the reforming device. The fuel cell system is configured to generate electricity using the remaining fuel.

  In the fuel reforming method, the premixed gas of the first fuel and oxygen or the premixed gas of the first fuel and air is preheated in the fuel reforming method. This is a fuel reforming method in which the second fuel is reformed by using heat generated by a small combustor capable of stably burning the premixed gas even if it is small.

  According to a tenth aspect of the present invention, in the power generation method using a fuel cell, the premixed gas of the first fuel and oxygen or the premixed gas of the first fuel and air is preheated. A vaporizing step of vaporizing the second liquid fuel and water using the heat generated by the combustion by a small combustor capable of stably burning the premixed gas even if it is small; Using the heat generated by the small combustor and the water vapor generated by the vaporization to reform the vaporized second fuel, and using the fuel produced by the reformer And a power generation step of generating power with the fuel cell.

  In the fuel reforming method, the first fuel and oxygen may be separately heated, or the first fuel and air may be separately heated in advance. Is a fuel reforming method for reforming the second fuel by using heat generated by a small combustor capable of stably burning the first fuel using the oxygen or the air. .

  According to a twelfth aspect of the present invention, in the power generation method using the fuel cell, the first fuel and oxygen are separately separately heated, or the first fuel and air are separately separately warmed in advance. The small liquid combustor capable of stably burning the first fuel using the oxygen or the air vaporizes the second liquid fuel and water using the heat generated by the combustion. A vaporizing step, a reforming step of reforming the vaporized second fuel using the heat generated by the small combustor and the water vapor generated by the vaporization, and the reformer Power generation step of generating power with the fuel cell using the obtained fuel.

  According to the present invention, it is possible to provide a fuel reforming apparatus that can be easily downsized.

[First Embodiment]
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a schematic configuration of a fuel reforming apparatus 1 according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

  A fuel reformer (hereinafter sometimes simply referred to as a “reformer”) 1 includes a small combustor 3 and a reformer 5, and the fuel produced by the reformer 5. Is supplied to a fuel cell (not shown) of the fuel cell system, and the fuel cell system generates power.

  The small combustor 3 stabilizes the premixed gas even in a small size by preheating a premixed gas of fuel and oxygen (for example, a premixed gas of gaseous fuel and air) in advance. It can be burned. The small combustor 3 is configured to preheat the premixed gas using, for example, combustion gas generated by the combustion of the premixed gas.

  The reformer 5 is provided adjacent to the small combustor 3 and reforms methanol, which is an example of fuel (raw fuel), using heat generated by the combustion of the small combustor 3. Be able to.

  Further, the reformer 1 is provided with an evaporator 7 adjacent to the small combustor (hereinafter sometimes simply referred to as “combustor”) 3. Water and methanol can be vaporized using the heat generated by the vessel 3.

  More specifically, the evaporator 7 includes a housing 9, and the methanol and water supplied to the inside of the housing 9 are vaporized inside the housing 9.

  The reformer 5 is provided with a casing 11, and the casing 11 is connected to the casing 11 by steam supplied from the evaporator 7 to the inside of the casing 11 and heat from the small combustor 3. The methanol (vaporized methanol) supplied to the inside of the tank is reformed. In order to promote the reforming, the casing 11 is formed with a reforming catalyst (for example, a Cu—ZnS catalyst that is a catalyst metal that promotes a reforming reaction when methyl alcohol is reformed with water). May be provided).

By reforming methanol with the reformer 5, a fuel gas containing hydrogen gas is generated. The reforming chemical reaction is represented by “CH 3 OH + H 2 O → CO 2 + 3H 2 −49.5 (kJ / mol)” and is an endothermic reaction.

  The evaporator 7 is connected to supply paths 13A and 13B for supplying water and methanol to the evaporator 7. The other end of the supply path 13A is connected to a water tank (not shown), and the other end of the supply path 13B is connected to a methanol tank (not shown). In addition, you may make it supply to the said evaporator 7 what mixed water and methanol previously.

  The evaporator 7 and the reformer 5 are connected to each other through an introduction path 15 for introducing water vapor generated in the evaporator 7 and vaporized methanol into the reformer 5.

  Supply to the reformer 5 for supplying fuel gas containing hydrogen gas generated by reforming in the reformer 5 from the reformer 5 to a fuel cell which is an example of the next device. A path 17 is connected.

  When reforming raw fuel (eg, methane) that is a gas at room temperature instead of methanol, the evaporator 7 is used to evaporate only water, and methane gas is allowed to pass through the evaporator 7. Alternatively, the reformer 5 may be directly supplied.

  Furthermore, even when reforming raw fuel that is liquid at normal temperature, such as methanol, the evaporator 7 is used to evaporate only the raw fuel, and water vapor generated in another device is used. You may supply directly to the said reformer 5 from the said another apparatus.

  Here, the combustor 3 will be described in detail with an example.

  2 is a diagram showing a section taken along the line IIA-IIB in FIG. 1, and FIG. 3 is a diagram showing a section taken along the line IIIA-IIIB in FIG.

  The combustor 3 is formed in a disc shape, the disc-shaped evaporator 7 is provided on one surface in the thickness direction of the combustor 3, and the combustor 3 has a thickness direction. The disk-shaped reformer 5 is provided on the other surface (see FIG. 1).

  In other words, the outer shapes of the combustor 3, the reformer 5, and the evaporator 7 are formed in a short cylindrical shape (disc shape), and the combustor 3, the reformer 5, The outer diameters of the evaporators 7 are almost equal.

  The entire surface of the circular surface existing on one side in the thickness direction of the evaporator 7 and the entire surface of the circular surface existing on one side of the evaporator 7 in the thickness direction. The evaporator 7 is provided so as to abut on the other side of the circular shape of the combustor 3 in the thickness direction of the reformer 5. The reformer 5 is provided so that the entire surface of the circular surface existing on one side of the abuts.

  Therefore, the outer diameter of the apparatus in which the evaporator 7 and the reformer 5 are installed in the combustor 3 is formed in a cylindrical shape.

  As shown in FIG. 2, the combustor 3 includes a small combustion chamber 19, a premixed gas flow path 21 for supplying a premixed gas of fuel and air to the combustion chamber 19, a combustion And an exhaust gas flow path 23 for exhausting the gas generated by the above process from the combustion chamber 19. The premixed gas that has been compressed outside the combustor 3 is supplied to the premixed gas channel 21 so that the premixed gas is pumped through the premixed gas channel 21. It is like that.

  The premixed gas flow path 21 is formed to be narrower than a flame extinguishing distance, which will be described in detail later. Further, the premixed gas flowing through the premixed gas flow path 21 reaches the combustion chamber 19. The exhaust gas (combustion gas) flowing through the exhaust gas flow path (combustion gas flow path) 23 is heated to a temperature at which combustion in the combustion chamber 19 can be continued.

  According to the combustor 3, the premixed gas of fuel and air is burned in the combustion chamber 19, and the premixed gas is warmed by the high-temperature combustion gas generated by this combustion. Due to the warming of the premixed gas, the premixed gas can be continuously burned in a stable state even in the small combustion chamber 19.

  For example, stable combustion is possible even if the premixed gas is a lean gas (a gas in which the fuel is lean) having about 1/3 of the theoretical mixing ratio.

  Further, since the premixed gas flow path 21 is formed to be narrower than the extinguishing distance, it is possible to prevent the flame from flowing back from the combustion chamber 19 to the premixed gas flow path. The nature is getting higher.

  Further, since the premixed gas is warmed by the combustion gas, the temperature of the combustion gas at the outlet 23A of the exhaust gas flow path 23 is low, and therefore the thermal energy possessed by the combustion gas is efficient. The efficiency of the combustor 3 as a whole is improved. That is, the ratio of the thermal energy released from the casing of the combustor 3 (part other than the combustion gas) to the chemical energy of the premixed gas is large.

  The combustor 3 will be described in more detail.

  The combustor 3 as shown in FIGS. 2 and 3 may be called a so-called Swiss roll type combustor (microcombustor).

  As described above, the outer diameter of the micro combustor 3 is formed in a short cylindrical shape, and the combustion chamber 19 is provided in the center. The combustion chamber 19 is provided with a spark plug (not shown) for starting.

  As shown in FIG. 2, when the microcombustor 3 is viewed from the axial direction of the columnar microcombustor 3 (the extending direction of the side surface; the direction connecting the bottom surface and the top surface), The premixed gas flow path 21 and the combustion gas flow path 23 are spirally extended toward the outer periphery.

  The combustion chamber 19, the premixed gas channel 21, and the combustion gas channel 23 include a heat insulating wall 25 and a heat transfer wall 27 that are formed in a spiral shape, and the cylindrical microcombustor 3. A disk-like upper plate 29 (see FIG. 3) constituting the upper wall of the disk and a disk-like lower plate 31 (see FIG. 3) constituting the bottom wall of the cylindrical microcombustor 3. ) And are formed by.

  The heat insulating wall 25 and the heat transfer wall 27 are formed in a spiral shape by curving a long rectangular material in a thin plate shape in the length direction.

  Moreover, the upper end part (part corresponding to one end part in the width direction of the material) of the heat retaining wall 25 and the upper end part (part corresponding to one end part in the width direction of the material) of the heat transfer wall 27 are In addition, the lower end portion of the heat retaining wall 25 (the portion corresponding to the other end portion in the width direction of the material) and the lower end portion of the heat transfer wall 27 (the width direction of the material) so as to exist on substantially the same plane. The heat retaining wall 25 and the heat transfer wall 27 are arranged so that a portion corresponding to the other end portion of the heat retaining wall 25 exists on substantially the same plane.

  Further, the upper plate 29 is integrally provided at the upper end portion of the heat retaining wall 25 and the upper end portion of the heat transfer wall 27, and the lower end portion of the heat retaining wall 25 and the lower end portion of the heat transfer wall 27 are A lower plate 31 is integrally provided.

  The heat retaining wall 25, the upper plate 29, and the lower plate 31 form a flow path that is the basis of the premixed gas flow path 21 and the combustion gas flow path 23. The hot wall 27 is arranged at a position so as to partition the base flow path to form the premixed gas flow path 21 and the combustion gas flow path 23.

  That is, the heat transfer wall 27 divides the base flow path into two flow paths (the premixed gas flow path 21 and the combustion gas flow path 23) in the width direction. The premixed gas channel 21 and the combustion gas channel 23 are spirally extended from the combustion chamber 19 toward the outer periphery of the micro combustor 3 with the heat transfer wall 27 in between. It is formed by translation.

  In this way, the premixed gas flow path 21 and the combustion gas flow path 23 are formed in a spirally long translation with the heat transfer wall 27 as a boundary. The combustion gas becomes a counter flow, and sufficient heat exchange is performed between the premixed gas and the combustion gas, and the premixed gas flow path 21 and the combustion gas flow path 23 are swirled. By forming it in a shape, it is easy to reduce the size of the micro combustor 3.

  Further, since the premixed gas and the combustion gas are in a counterflow, the temperature of the combustion gas gradually decreases as the distance from the combustion chamber 19 is increased, while the temperature of the premixed gas is As the temperature approaches the combustion chamber 19, the temperature gradually increases. In the vicinity of the combustion chamber 19, the temperature of the premixed gas is close to the temperature of the combustion gas immediately after exiting the combustion chamber 19, and the temperature is increased. The premixed gas is supplied to the combustion chamber 19 and the combustion in the combustion chamber 19 is stabilized.

  Next, the flame extinguishing distance will be briefly described.

  In general, combustion is an exothermic reaction in which oxygen in the air and fuel react to generate combustion gas, but if the fuel is a gas body, oxygen reacts to form a flame.

  A flame is a phenomenon that occurs when oxygen converted into radicals at high temperature and the fuel gas react rapidly, causing a chain reaction to propagate rapidly. However, since the radicals are deactivated when they hit the solid wall, the flame cannot pass through the gaps in the narrow solid wall.

  Thus, the distance of the limit gap through which the flame cannot pass is called the extinction distance, and FIG. 4 is a table showing the relationship between the combustion speed of the premixed gas and the extinction distance.

  Note that the extinguishing distance D1 shown in FIG. 4 indicates the diameter of the premixed gas flow path when the cross section of the plane perpendicular to the extending direction of the premixed gas flow path is circular.

  When the cross-sectional shape of the premixed gas flow path (the cross-sectional shape of the premixed gas flow path by a plane perpendicular to the extending direction of the premixed gas flow path) is not circular, the following equation is used: The equivalent diameter D3 is obtained from f1, and if the obtained equivalent diameter D3 is equal to or less than the flame extinguishing distance D1, the flow path of the premixed gas is formed narrower than the flame extinguishing distance.

  Equivalent diameter D3 = cross-sectional area of gas flow path S1 × 4 / peripheral length L1 of gas flow path Equation f1.

  As already understood, since the cross section of the premixed gas channel 21 is formed in a rectangular shape, the sectional area S1 of the gas channel is the width of the gas channel shown in FIG. The peripheral length L1 of the gas flow path can be obtained by B1 × gas flow path height H1 and the gas flow path width B1 × 2 + gas flow path height H1 × 2. Yes (see FIG. 3).

  For the heat retaining wall 25, the heat transfer wall 27, the upper plate 29, and the lower plate 31, for example, a heat resistant stainless steel such as SUS316 or SUS310 or a heat resistant alloy such as Inconel is used.

  Furthermore, the outer diameter of the micro combustor 3 is, for example, 10 mm to 50 mm, the thickness is about 3 mm to 10 mm, the thickness of the heat retaining wall 25 is about 1 mm, and the thickness of the heat transfer wall 27 is , About 0.3 mm. When the heat insulating wall 25 and the heat transfer wall 27 are made of a material having substantially the same thermal conductivity, the heat insulating wall 25 is formed thicker than the heat transfer wall 27. .

  As the fuel for the micro combustor 3, liquid fuels such as hydrocarbons such as alcohols and paraffinic hydrocarbons, and gaseous fuels such as methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and acetylene are used. When liquid fuel is used, it is desirable that the liquid fuel is vaporized at the inlet 21A of the premixed gas passage 21.

  Further, since the micro combustor 3 is small, the lower plate 31, the heat retaining wall 25, and the heat transfer wall 27 are integrally formed by cutting from a cylindrical material. It is desirable to form the micro combustor 3 so that the upper part of the object is covered with the upper plate 29. The upper plate 29 is joined by welding or brazing.

  Further, the lower plate 31, the heat retaining wall 25 and the heat transfer wall 27 are integrally formed by casting, and the upper portion 29 of the formed one is closed by the upper plate 29 to form the micro combustor 3. The lower plate 31, the heat retaining wall 25, the heat transfer wall 27, and the upper plate 29 may be integrally formed by casting.

  Next, the operation of the reformer 1 will be described.

  When the premixed gas is supplied to the combustor 3 and the premixed gas is ignited by the spark plug, the premixed gas burns in the combustion chamber 19.

  When the combustion gas generated by this combustion is discharged to the outside of the micro combustor 3, the premixed gas is warmed through the heat transfer wall 27.

  The evaporator 7 provided on the lower surface side of the micro combustor 3 is heated by the combustion heat in the micro combustor 3, and methanol and water supplied to the evaporator 7 are evaporated.

  The evaporated methanol and water are supplied to the reformer 5, reformed by the reformer 5 provided on the upper surface side of the microcombustor 3 and heated by the microcombustor 3, and generated by this reforming. The hydrogen-containing gas is supplied to the fuel cell, and the fuel cell generates power using the hydrogen gas.

  According to the fuel reformer 1, since the small combustor 3 is used as a heating device for reforming the raw fuel, the fuel reformer 1 can be easily downsized.

  In addition, since the said small combustor 3 is comprised so that the said premixed gas may be warmed beforehand using the combustion gas produced | generated by combustion of the said premixed gas, the heat | fever for heating the said premixed gas is used. No need to supply from outside.

  Further, according to the fuel reforming apparatus 1, the raw fuel and water before reforming are evaporated for reforming using the evaporator 7, so that the raw material supplied to the reforming apparatus 1 is evaporated. The raw fuel can be reformed even if the fuel is a liquid rather than a gas and water is not water vapor.

  Furthermore, according to the fuel reforming apparatus 1, the evaporator 7 is provided on one surface in the thickness direction of the small combustor 3 formed in a plate shape, and the other of the small combustor 3 in the thickness direction is provided. Since the reformer 5 is provided on the surface, the heat generated in the small combustor 3 is efficiently transmitted to the evaporator 7 and the reformer 5.

  Further, according to the fuel cell system, since the fuel cell of the fuel cell system uses a reformed fuel (for example, hydrogen), the direct fuel cell (for example, a direct methanol fuel cell) described above is used. Such a crossover does not occur. Therefore, it is possible to prevent the power generation efficiency of the fuel cell system from being lowered, and to avoid the possibility that the electromotive force of the fuel cell system is lowered.

  In addition, according to the fuel cell system, the fuel cell generates electricity using the fuel reformed by the small reformer 1. Therefore, if the fuel cell is miniaturized, the fuel cell system itself can be easily miniaturized. It has become.

  In addition, if the fuel cell system can be downsized, the downsized fuel cell system can be used as a power source for portable devices (notebook computers, etc.), and the portable device itself can be easily downsized. Become.

  By the way, in FIG. 2, when viewed from the thickness direction of the microcombustor 3, a step is formed at a portion where the premixed gas inlet 21A and the combustion gas outlet 23B are formed. Although the combustor 3 is not formed in a precise circular shape, it can be said that it is formed in a circular shape.

  In addition, as shown in FIG. 5 (a diagram showing a modification of the micro combustor and corresponding to the IIA-IIB cross section of FIG. 1), the outer shape of the micro combustor may be formed in a short cylindrical shape. In this case, the premixed gas inlet 21 </ b> A and the combustion combustion gas outlet 23 </ b> A are provided on the side surface of the microcombustor 3.

  Further, the micro combustor 3 does not necessarily have a circular shape, and may be formed in a polygonal shape such as a square shape. When the microcombustor is formed in a polygonal shape, it is desirable to form the evaporator and the reformer in a polygonal shape in accordance with the shape of the microcombustor.

  Furthermore, the micro combustor 3, the evaporator 7, and the reformer 5 may be formed in a shape other than a plate shape.

  By the way, a separation means capable of separating a gas (for example, carbon monoxide gas) other than hydrogen gas that can be used as fuel among the fuel gas generated by the reformer 1 is provided as the reformer. A gas that can be used as fuel separated by the separation means and used as fuel for the small combustor 3 may be used.

  By configuring in this way, the gas that can be used as the fuel separated by the separation means is used as the fuel for the small combustor 3, and the effective gas generated by the reforming in the reforming device 1 is effective. Can be used.

  Further, when the gas usable as the fuel is a gas that poisons the electrode of the fuel cell, the gas usable as the fuel can be separated by the separation means. When the reformed fuel is supplied to the fuel cell, it is possible to avoid the possibility that the electrode of the fuel cell is poisoned.

[Second Embodiment]
FIG. 6 is a perspective view showing a schematic configuration of a reformer 1a according to the second embodiment of the present invention.

  The reforming apparatus 1a according to the second embodiment of the present invention is different from the reforming apparatus 1 according to the first embodiment in the installation form of the reformer and the evaporator. The reforming apparatus 1 according to the first embodiment is configured in substantially the same manner and exhibits substantially the same effect.

  That is, in the reformer 1a, the reformers 5a are provided on both surfaces of the small combustor 3 in the thickness direction, and the reformers 1a are arranged outside the reformers 5a in the thickness direction of the small combustor 3. Each evaporator 7a is provided.

  More specifically, as described above, the outer shapes of the small combustor 3, the reformer 5, and the evaporator 7 are formed in a short cylindrical shape (disk shape), and the small size The outer diameters of the combustor 3, the reformer 5, and the evaporator 7 are substantially equal.

  And it exists in the one side of the thickness direction of the said 1st said reformer 5a in the whole surface of the circular shaped surface which exists in one side of the thickness direction of the said small combustor 3. FIG. The first reformer 5a is provided so that the entire surface of the circular surface is in contact with the circular surface existing on the other side in the thickness direction of the small combustor 3. The second reformer 5a is provided so that the entire surface of the circular surface existing on one side in the thickness direction of the second reformer 5a contacts the entire surface. Yes.

  Similarly, the second evaporator 7a is provided on the entire surface of the circular surface existing on the other side in the thickness direction of the first reformer 5a.

  Therefore, the outer diameter of the apparatus in which the respective evaporators 7a and the respective reformers 5a are installed in the small combustor 3 is formed in a cylindrical shape, and the two evaporators 7a on the outermost side, Two reformers 5a are provided inside the two evaporators 7a, and one small combustor 3 is provided inside the two reformers 5a.

  By the way, in a fuel reformer, a reformer generally requires a higher temperature than an evaporator. In the fuel reformer 1a, the combustor 3 is provided on the innermost side, the combustor 3 is sandwiched between the reformers 5a, and the reformers 5a are sandwiched between the evaporators 7a. It is easy to keep the mass device 5a at a higher temperature than each of the evaporators 7a, and the raw fuel can be reformed efficiently.

[Third Embodiment]
FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing a schematic configuration of a reformer 1b according to the third embodiment of the present invention.

  The reforming apparatus 1b according to the third embodiment of the present invention is different from the reforming apparatus 1 according to the first embodiment in the installation form of the reformer and the evaporator. The reforming apparatus 1 according to the first embodiment is configured in substantially the same manner and exhibits substantially the same effect.

  That is, in the reformer 1b, the evaporator 7b and the reformer 5b are provided adjacent to each other.

  More specifically, the small combustor 3 is formed in a short cylindrical shape (disk shape), and the evaporator 7b and the reformer 5b are formed in a plate shape.

  However, each of the evaporator 7b and the reformer 5b is formed, for example, in a semi-disc shape, and by connecting the strings of the evaporator 7b and the reformer 5b adjacent to each other, The apparatus constituted by the evaporator 7b and the reformer 5b is formed in a disc shape (a disc shape having substantially the same diameter as the outer diameter of the small combustor 3).

  And the thickness of the disk-shaped apparatus formed of the evaporator 7b and the reformer 5b on the entire surface of the circular surface existing on one side in the thickness direction of the small combustor 3. The evaporator 7b and the reformer 5b are provided so that one whole surface in the vertical direction comes into contact therewith.

  The evaporator 7b and the reformer 5b are similarly provided on the other side of the small combustor 3 in the thickness direction.

  According to the reformer 1b, since the evaporator 7b and the reformer 5b are provided adjacent to each other, the raw fuel and water vapor evaporated by the evaporator 7b are transferred to the reformer 5b. Therefore, the raw fuel can be reformed efficiently.

[Fourth Embodiment]
FIG. 8 is a perspective view showing a schematic configuration of a reformer 1c according to the fourth embodiment of the present invention.

  The reforming apparatus 1c according to the fourth embodiment of the present invention differs from the reforming apparatus 1 according to the first embodiment in the installation form of the reformer 5 and the evaporator 7, and the other points are as follows. The reformer 1 is configured in substantially the same manner as the first embodiment, and has substantially the same effect.

  That is, in the reformer 1 c, the reformer 5 c is provided in a portion where the temperature is high among the portions of the small combustor 3, and the evaporator 7 c is included in the portion of the small combustor 3. It is provided in the part where temperature is low.

  More specifically, it is assumed that the small combustor 3 is formed in a disk shape, for example, and includes a combustion chamber 19 in the center. The reformer 5c is formed in a disk shape whose outer diameter is smaller than the outer diameter of the small combustor 3, and at the substantially central portion of one surface of the small combustor 3 in the thickness direction, The reformer 5c is provided so that one surface in the thickness direction of the reformer 5c abuts on one surface in the thickness direction of the small combustor 3.

  Further, the evaporator 7 c is formed in a hollow disk shape whose inner diameter is substantially equal to the outer diameter of the reformer 5 c and whose outer diameter is substantially equal to the outer diameter of the small combustor 3. One surface in the thickness direction is provided so as to surround the reformer 5c.

  Further, the evaporator 7c and the reformer 5c are similarly provided on the other side of the small combustor 3 in the thickness direction.

  According to the reformer 1c, the reformer 5c is provided at a portion where the temperature is high among the portions of the small combustor 3, and the evaporator 7c is disposed at a portion where the temperature is low among the portions of the small combustor 3. Since it is provided, the temperature of the reformer 5c can be made higher than the temperature of the evaporator 7c, and the raw fuel can be reformed efficiently.

[Fifth Embodiment]
In the reformer according to the fifth embodiment, the fuel and oxygen are separately heated, or the fuel and air are separately heated in advance, so that the fuel is supplied with the oxygen or the air even if it is small. Unlike the reforming apparatuses according to the first to fourth embodiments, the fuel reforming is performed by using a small combustor that can be stably burned and used. The point is configured in substantially the same manner as the reformer according to each of the first to fourth embodiments, and has substantially the same effect.

  The small combustor of the reformer according to the fifth embodiment will be described in detail. The small combustor includes a combustion chamber, a fuel flow path for supplying fuel to the combustion chamber, and oxygen or air as the fuel. A flow path for supplying oxygen to the combustion chamber separately, and a flow path for exhaust gas for discharging gas generated by combustion from the combustion chamber, the fuel flow path and the oxygen flow path being It is formed narrower than the extinguishing distance, and is configured such that the fuel flowing through the fuel flow path is heated by the exhaust gas flowing through the exhaust gas flow path before reaching the combustion chamber, and the oxygen flow path is The flowing oxygen or air is configured to be warmed by the exhaust gas flowing through the exhaust gas flow path before reaching the combustion chamber.

  More specifically, in the small combustor 3 (small combustor used in the reformer according to the first to fourth embodiments) 3 shown in FIG. In the small combustor of the reformer according to the fifth embodiment, in the small combustor 3 shown in FIG. 2, one additional spiral channel is formed. Three channels are formed by increasing the number, the first channel is the fuel channel, the second channel is the air or oxygen channel, and the third channel is the exhaust gas channel. Thus, fuel and oxygen or fuel and air are individually preheated, and the preheated materials are mixed and burned in the combustion chamber. The small combustor configured as described above may be referred to as a diffusion combustor.

  In the diffusion combustor, air or oxygen and fuel are mixed in the combustion chamber. However, fuel and air or oxygen may be mixed in the course (flow path) leading to the combustion chamber. .

  Further, either one of the oxygen flow path and the fuel flow path is abolished, and a small through hole is provided in the wall of the combustion chamber. From this through hole, air, oxygen, fuel Either of these may be supplied.

  For example, the fuel flow path may be eliminated, a small through hole may be provided in the wall of the combustion chamber, and fuel may be supplied from the through hole to the combustion chamber.

1 is a perspective view showing a schematic configuration of a fuel reforming apparatus according to a first embodiment of the present invention. It is a figure which shows the IIA-IIB cross section in FIG. It is a figure which shows the IIIA-IIIB cross section in FIG. It is a table | surface which shows the relationship between the combustion speed of premixed gas, and a flame extinction distance. It is a figure which shows the modification of a micro combustor, and is a figure corresponding to the IIA-IIB cross section of FIG. It is a perspective view which shows schematic structure of the reformer which concerns on the 2nd Embodiment of this invention. It is a perspective view which shows schematic structure of the reformer which concerns on the 3rd Embodiment of this invention. It is a perspective view which shows schematic structure of the reformer which concerns on the 4th Embodiment of this invention.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Fuel reformer 3 Small combustor 5 Reformer 7 Evaporator 19 Combustion chamber 21 Premixed gas flow path 23 Exhaust gas flow path

Claims (12)

  1. In a fuel reformer,
    By preheating the premixed gas of the first fuel and oxygen or the premixed gas of the first fuel and air in advance, the premixed gas can be stably burned even in a small size. A small combustor capable of
    A reformer that reforms the second fuel using heat generated by the combustion of the small combustor;
    A fuel reformer characterized by comprising:
  2. In a fuel reformer,
    By preheating the premixed gas of the first fuel and oxygen or the premixed gas of the first fuel and air in advance, the premixed gas can be stably burned even in a small size. A small combustor capable of
    An evaporator that vaporizes the second liquid fuel and water using heat generated by the small combustor;
    A reformer for reforming the vaporized second fuel supplied from the evaporator using heat generated by the small combustor and water vapor supplied from the evaporator;
    A fuel reformer characterized by comprising:
  3. The fuel reformer according to claim 2, wherein
    The small combustor is formed in a plate shape,
    The fuel is characterized in that the evaporator is provided on one surface in the thickness direction of the small combustor and the reformer is provided on the other surface in the thickness direction of the small combustor. Reformer.
  4. The fuel reformer according to any one of claims 1 to 3,
    The small combustor is
    A combustion chamber;
    A premixed gas flow path for supplying a premixed gas of the first fuel and oxygen or a premixed gas of the first fuel and air to the combustion chamber;
    An exhaust gas flow path for exhausting gas produced by combustion from the combustion chamber;
    And the flow path of the premixed gas is formed narrower than the extinction distance, and the flow of the exhaust gas before the premixed gas flowing through the flow path of the premixed gas reaches the combustion chamber. A fuel reformer configured to be heated by exhaust gas flowing through a passage.
  5. The fuel reformer according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein
    Of the fuel gas produced by the reformer, it has a separating means capable of separating a gas other than hydrogen gas that can be used as fuel,
    A fuel reformer configured to use a gas that can be used as fuel separated by the separation means as fuel for the small combustor.
  6. In a fuel reformer,
    By first warming the first fuel and oxygen separately or the first fuel and air separately, the first fuel can be stabilized using the oxygen or air even in a small size. A small combustor that can be burned
    A reformer that reforms the second fuel using heat generated by the combustion of the small combustor;
    A fuel reformer characterized by comprising:
  7. In a fuel reformer,
    By first warming the first fuel and oxygen separately or the first fuel and air separately, the first fuel can be stabilized using the oxygen or air even in a small size. A small combustor that can be burned
    An evaporator that vaporizes the second liquid fuel and water using heat generated by the small combustor;
    A reformer for reforming the vaporized second fuel supplied from the evaporator using heat generated by the small combustor and water vapor supplied from the evaporator;
    A fuel reformer characterized by comprising:
  8. A fuel cell and a fuel reforming device according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the fuel cell is configured to generate power using the fuel generated by the reforming device. A fuel cell system characterized by being configured.
  9. In the fuel reforming method,
    By preheating the premixed gas of the first fuel and oxygen or the premixed gas of the first fuel and air in advance, the premixed gas can be stably burned even in a small size. A method for reforming a fuel, wherein the second fuel is reformed using heat generated by a small combustor capable of performing the above.
  10. In a power generation method using a fuel cell,
    By preheating the premixed gas of the first fuel and oxygen or the premixed gas of the first fuel and air in advance, the premixed gas can be stably burned even in a small size. A vaporizing step in which a small combustor capable of vaporizing the second liquid fuel and water using heat generated by the combustion;
    A reforming step of reforming the vaporized second fuel using heat generated by the small combustor and water vapor generated by the vaporization;
    A power generation step of generating power in the fuel cell using the fuel generated in the reformer;
    A power generation method comprising:
  11. In the fuel reforming method,
    By first warming the first fuel and oxygen separately or the first fuel and air separately, the first fuel can be stabilized using the oxygen or air even in a small size. And reforming the second fuel by using heat generated by a small combustor that can be combusted.
  12. In a power generation method using a fuel cell,
    By first warming the first fuel and oxygen separately or the first fuel and air separately, the first fuel can be stabilized using the oxygen or air even in a small size. A vaporizing step of vaporizing the second liquid fuel and water using the heat generated by the combustion by a small combustor that can be combusted by the combustion;
    A reforming step of reforming the vaporized second fuel using heat generated by the small combustor and water vapor generated by the vaporization;
    A power generation step of generating power in the fuel cell using the fuel generated in the reformer;
    A power generation method comprising:
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2009298622A (en) * 2008-06-11 2009-12-24 Ihi Corp Reforming apparatus
WO2019193346A1 (en) * 2018-04-04 2019-10-10 Cranfield University Modular fluid flow reactor

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JPS61197402A (en) * 1985-02-27 1986-09-01 Hitachi Ltd Apparatus for reforming fuel for fuel cell
JPS61219702A (en) * 1984-10-30 1986-09-30 Chim Azote Prod Chim Soc Method and device for reforming methanol
JPS63144101A (en) * 1986-12-03 1988-06-16 Hitachi Ltd Fuel modifying system
JPH01130475A (en) * 1987-11-13 1989-05-23 Fuji Electric Corp Res & Dev Ltd Fuel modifier for fuel cell
JPH01282101A (en) * 1988-05-10 1989-11-14 Hitachi Ltd Heater for fuel reformer
JPH10236802A (en) * 1997-02-28 1998-09-08 Eng Shinko Kyokai Fuel reformer
JP2000063103A (en) * 1998-08-12 2000-02-29 Honda Motor Co Ltd Fuel reforming apparatus
JP2000302404A (en) * 1999-04-13 2000-10-31 Matsushita Electric Works Ltd Apparatus for reforming reaction
JP2004020083A (en) * 2002-06-18 2004-01-22 Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Ind Co Ltd Micro combustion heater

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPS61219702A (en) * 1984-10-30 1986-09-30 Chim Azote Prod Chim Soc Method and device for reforming methanol
JPS61197402A (en) * 1985-02-27 1986-09-01 Hitachi Ltd Apparatus for reforming fuel for fuel cell
JPS63144101A (en) * 1986-12-03 1988-06-16 Hitachi Ltd Fuel modifying system
JPH01130475A (en) * 1987-11-13 1989-05-23 Fuji Electric Corp Res & Dev Ltd Fuel modifier for fuel cell
JPH01282101A (en) * 1988-05-10 1989-11-14 Hitachi Ltd Heater for fuel reformer
JPH10236802A (en) * 1997-02-28 1998-09-08 Eng Shinko Kyokai Fuel reformer
JP2000063103A (en) * 1998-08-12 2000-02-29 Honda Motor Co Ltd Fuel reforming apparatus
JP2000302404A (en) * 1999-04-13 2000-10-31 Matsushita Electric Works Ltd Apparatus for reforming reaction
JP2004020083A (en) * 2002-06-18 2004-01-22 Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Ind Co Ltd Micro combustion heater

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2009298622A (en) * 2008-06-11 2009-12-24 Ihi Corp Reforming apparatus
WO2019193346A1 (en) * 2018-04-04 2019-10-10 Cranfield University Modular fluid flow reactor

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