JP2006077938A - Abnormality diagnosing device - Google Patents

Abnormality diagnosing device Download PDF

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JP2006077938A
JP2006077938A JP2004265009A JP2004265009A JP2006077938A JP 2006077938 A JP2006077938 A JP 2006077938A JP 2004265009 A JP2004265009 A JP 2004265009A JP 2004265009 A JP2004265009 A JP 2004265009A JP 2006077938 A JP2006077938 A JP 2006077938A
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abnormality
sensor
vibration
unit
bearing
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Yasuyuki Muto
泰之 武藤
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Nsk Ltd
日本精工株式会社
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Priority claimed from PCT/JP2005/016845 external-priority patent/WO2006030786A1/en
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<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an abnormality diagnosing device, diagnosing the presence/absence of abnormality of a rotary part and the degree of damage at the same time in the actual operating state without knocking down a mechanical device where the rotary part is incorporated, and preventing erroneous diagnosis due to influence of sudden disturbance noise or the like to make abnormal diagnosis with high reliability. <P>SOLUTION: This abnormality diagnosing device diagnoses abnormality of a double-row tapered roller bearing 11 incorporated in a rolling bearing device 10 for a rolling stock and rotated relatively to a bearing housing 12. The device includes: a vibration sensor 32 and a temperature sensor 33, which are fixed to the double-row tapered roller bearing 11 or the bearing housing 12, wherein the device further includes an abnormality determination part 42 for determining the presence/absence of abnormality of the double-row tapered roller bearing 11 or the presence/absence of the abnormality and the degree of damage according to the combination of the measurement result of the vibration sensor 32 and the measurement result of the temperature sensor 33. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI

Description

本発明は、例えば鉄道車両の車軸やギアボックス或いは発電用風車の減速機等に用いられる回転部品の異常を診断する異常診断装置に関する。   The present invention relates to an abnormality diagnosis device for diagnosing abnormalities in rotating parts used in, for example, an axle of a railway vehicle, a gear box, a reduction gear of a wind turbine for power generation, or the like.
従来、鉄道車両や発電用風車等の機械装置は、一定期間使用した後に、軸受やその他の回転部品について、損傷や摩耗等の異常の有無が定期的に検査される。この定期的な検査は、回転部品が組み込まれた機械装置を分解することにより行われ、回転部品に発生した損傷や摩耗は、担当者が目視による検査により発見するようにしている。そして、検査で発見される主な欠陥としては、軸受の場合、異物の噛み込み等によって生ずる圧痕、転がり疲れによる剥離、その他の摩耗等、歯車の場合には、歯部の欠損や摩耗等、車輪の場合には、フラット等の摩耗があり、いずれの場合も新品にはない凹凸や摩耗等が発見されれば、新品に交換される。   2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, a mechanical device such as a railway vehicle or a wind turbine for power generation is regularly inspected for abnormalities such as damage and wear on bearings and other rotating parts after a certain period of use. This periodic inspection is carried out by disassembling the mechanical device in which the rotating parts are incorporated, and the person in charge finds damage and wear generated in the rotating parts by visual inspection. And the main defects found in the inspection are in the case of bearings, indentations caused by the biting of foreign matter, peeling due to rolling fatigue, other wear, etc., in the case of gears, missing teeth and wear, etc. In the case of a wheel, there is wear such as a flat, and in any case, if irregularities or wear that is not found in a new article is found, it is replaced with a new one.
また、回転部品が組み込まれた機械装置を分解することなく、実稼動状態で回転部品の異常診断を行う例として、機械装置の状態を振動センサ又は温度センサ等で常時計測して、各計測値が予め設定しておいた規定値以上に上昇したか否かで異常の有無を判定し、異常判定の場合に、異常警報を出力したり、機械装置の稼動を停止させたりする方法が提案されている(例えば特許文献1参照。)。
特開平11−125244号公報
In addition, as an example of diagnosing abnormalities of rotating parts in the actual operating state without disassembling the mechanical apparatus in which the rotating part is incorporated, the state of the mechanical apparatus is constantly measured with a vibration sensor or a temperature sensor, etc. A method has been proposed for determining whether there is an abnormality based on whether or not the value has risen above a preset value, and outputting an abnormality alarm or stopping the operation of the mechanical device in the case of an abnormality determination. (For example, see Patent Document 1).
Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 11-125244
しかしながら、上記特許文献1においては、温度センサ及び振動センサのうちの何れか一方のセンサしか設置されていないため、異常が検知された場合には既に回転部品の損傷の程度が酷くなっていて継続して使用することが不可能なことが多く、機械装置を緊急に停止させなければならないという問題がある。   However, in Patent Document 1, since only one of the temperature sensor and the vibration sensor is installed, if an abnormality is detected, the degree of damage to the rotating parts has already become severe and continues. In many cases, it is impossible to use the apparatus, and there is a problem that the machine must be stopped urgently.
具体的には、温度センサ及び振動センサのうちの何れか一方のセンサによる信号に基づき回転部品の異常の有無を判定していたため、例えば、軸受の焼付き異常の場合、温度上昇を起こして過熱する前に異常を捉えることが困難であり、また、突発的な外乱ノイズ等の影響で誤動作が生じて異常警報を発したりする等、安定稼働が妨げられるという問題がある。   Specifically, since the presence or absence of abnormality in the rotating parts is determined based on the signal from either the temperature sensor or the vibration sensor, for example, in the case of a seizure abnormality in the bearing, the temperature rises and overheating occurs. There is a problem that it is difficult to catch an abnormality before starting the operation, and a stable operation is hindered, for example, an abnormal alarm is generated due to an unexpected disturbance noise or the like.
本発明は、上述した事情に鑑みてなされたものであり、その目的は、回転部品が組み込まれている機械装置を分解することなく実稼動状態で回転部品の異常の有無と損傷の程度を同時に診断することができると共に、突発的な外乱ノイズ等の影響による誤診断を防止して信頼性の高い異常診断を行うことができる異常診断装置を提供することにある。   The present invention has been made in view of the above-described circumstances, and its purpose is to simultaneously check whether there is an abnormality in the rotating component and the degree of damage in the actual operating state without disassembling the mechanical device in which the rotating component is incorporated. It is an object of the present invention to provide an abnormality diagnosis device that can diagnose and prevent an erroneous diagnosis due to the influence of sudden disturbance noise or the like and perform a highly reliable abnormality diagnosis.
本発明の目的は、下記の構成により達成される。
(1) 静止部材に対して相対的に回転する回転部品の異常を診断する異常診断装置であって、
前記回転部品又は前記静止部材に固定される振動センサ、音響センサ、超音波センサ及びAEセンサの少なくとも一つの振動系センサと温度センサとを備え、
前記振動系センサによる計測結果と前記温度センサによる計測結果との組み合わせに基づいて、前記回転部品の異常の有無、或いは該異常の有無及び損傷の程度を判定する異常判定部を備えていることを特徴とする異常診断装置。
(2) 前記振動系センサ及び前記温度センサによる計測値又は該計測値の時間に対する変化率を少なくとも一回求め、前記異常判定部が、前記計測値又は前記変化率と予め設定しておいた各規定値とを比較することにより、前記回転部品の異常の有無、或いは該異常の有無及び損傷の程度を判定することを特徴とする(1)に記載の異常診断装置。
(3) 前記振動系センサにより検出された信号波形から不要な周波数帯域を除去するフィルタ処理部と、
前記フィルタ処理部から転送されたフィルタ処理後の波形の絶対値を検波するエンベロープ処理部と、
前記エンベロープ処理部から転送された波形の周波数を分析する周波数分析部と、
回転速度信号に基づき算出した前記回転部品の損傷に起因した周波数成分と前記周波数分析部により得られた実測データに基づく周波数成分とを比較する比較照合部とを備え、
前記異常判定部は、前記比較照合部での比較結果に基づき、異常の有無の判定や損傷部位の特定を行うことを特徴とする(1)又は(2)に記載の異常診断装置。
(4) 前記異常判定部の判定結果を伝送するデータ伝送手段を有していることを特徴とする(1)〜(3)のいずれかに記載の異常診断装置。
(5) 前記回転部品が鉄道車両用であることを特徴とする(1)〜(4)のいずれかに記載の異常診断装置。
(6) 前記回転部品が減速機用であることを特徴とする(1)〜(4)のいずれかに記載の異常診断装置。
The object of the present invention is achieved by the following constitution.
(1) An abnormality diagnosis device for diagnosing an abnormality of a rotating component that rotates relative to a stationary member,
A vibration sensor, an acoustic sensor, an ultrasonic sensor, and an AE sensor that are fixed to the rotating component or the stationary member, and a temperature sensor;
An abnormality determining unit that determines whether or not there is an abnormality in the rotating component based on a combination of a measurement result obtained by the vibration system sensor and a measurement result obtained by the temperature sensor; A characteristic abnormality diagnosis device.
(2) The measurement value by the vibration system sensor and the temperature sensor or the rate of change of the measurement value with respect to time is obtained at least once, and the abnormality determination unit sets each of the measurement value or the rate of change in advance. The abnormality diagnosis device according to (1), wherein the presence or absence of abnormality of the rotating component, the presence or absence of the abnormality, and the degree of damage are determined by comparing with a specified value.
(3) a filter processing unit for removing unnecessary frequency bands from the signal waveform detected by the vibration system sensor;
An envelope processing unit for detecting the absolute value of the filtered waveform transferred from the filter processing unit;
A frequency analysis unit for analyzing the frequency of the waveform transferred from the envelope processing unit;
A comparison / collation unit that compares a frequency component resulting from damage to the rotating part calculated based on a rotation speed signal and a frequency component based on actual measurement data obtained by the frequency analysis unit;
The abnormality diagnosis device according to (1) or (2), wherein the abnormality determination unit determines whether or not there is an abnormality and specifies a damaged part based on a comparison result in the comparison and collation unit.
(4) The abnormality diagnosis device according to any one of (1) to (3), further including data transmission means for transmitting a determination result of the abnormality determination unit.
(5) The abnormality diagnosis apparatus according to any one of (1) to (4), wherein the rotating component is for a railway vehicle.
(6) The abnormality diagnosis device according to any one of (1) to (4), wherein the rotating component is for a speed reducer.
本発明によれば、回転部品の回転状態に伴う振動及び温度の情報を同時に検出し、振動系センサによる計測結果と温度センサによる計測結果との組み合わせに基づいて、異常の有無と損傷の程度を同時に判定するので、振動と温度に関する回転部品の異常形態の特徴を利用した損傷の程度の判定が可能となる。また、突発的な外乱ノイズ等の影響による誤診断を防止して信頼性の高い異常診断を行うことができる。更に、回転部品が組み込まれている機械装置を分解することなく実稼動状態で回転部品の異常の有無と損傷の程度を同時に検査することができ、回転部品の最適な交換時期が分かり、効率的なメンテナンスを可能にすることができる。   According to the present invention, the vibration and temperature information associated with the rotation state of the rotating component is detected at the same time, and based on the combination of the measurement result by the vibration system sensor and the measurement result by the temperature sensor, the presence or absence of abnormality and the degree of damage are determined. Since the determination is performed at the same time, it is possible to determine the degree of damage using the characteristics of the abnormal form of the rotating component relating to vibration and temperature. In addition, it is possible to perform a highly reliable abnormality diagnosis by preventing erroneous diagnosis due to the influence of sudden disturbance noise or the like. Furthermore, it is possible to inspect the presence or absence of abnormalities and the degree of damage of rotating parts at the same time in actual operation without disassembling the machine that incorporates rotating parts. Maintenance can be made possible.
以下、本発明の一実施形態について、図面を参照して詳細に説明する。ここで、図1は本発明の一実施形態である異常診断装置の診断対象である複列円すいころ軸受を備えた鉄道車両用転がり軸受装置の断面図、図2は異常診断装置の信号処理系統のブロック図、図3は軸受の焼付き異常発生時の振動値の経時変化を示すグラフ、図4は軸受の焼付き異常発生時の外輪外周面の温度の経時変化を示すグラフ、及び図5は転がり軸受の傷の部位と、傷に起因して発生する特徴周波数との関係を示す図である。   Hereinafter, an embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. Here, FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a rolling bearing device for a railway vehicle provided with a double row tapered roller bearing that is a diagnosis target of the abnormality diagnosis device according to an embodiment of the present invention, and FIG. 2 is a signal processing system of the abnormality diagnosis device. FIG. 3 is a graph showing changes over time in vibration values when bearing seizure abnormality occurs, FIG. 4 is a graph showing changes over time in the outer ring outer peripheral surface temperature when bearing seizure abnormality occurs, and FIG. FIG. 4 is a diagram showing a relationship between a damaged portion of a rolling bearing and a characteristic frequency generated due to the scratch.
図1に示されるように、異常診断装置が適用される鉄道車両用の転がり軸受装置10は、回転部品である複列円すいころ軸受11と、鉄道車両用台車の一部を構成する静止部材である軸受箱12とを備える。   As shown in FIG. 1, a rolling bearing device 10 for a railway vehicle to which an abnormality diagnosis device is applied is a double-row tapered roller bearing 11 that is a rotating part, and a stationary member that constitutes a part of the railway vehicle carriage. A certain bearing box 12 is provided.
複列円すいころ軸受11は、回転軸である鉄道車両の車軸13を回転可能に支持しており、外周面に円すい外面状に傾斜した内輪軌道面15,15を有する一対の内輪14,14と、内周面に円すい内面状に傾斜した一対の外輪軌道面17,17を有する単一の外輪16と、内輪14,14の内輪軌道面15,15と外輪16の外輪軌道面17,17との間に複列で複数配置された転動体である円すいころ18と、円すいころ18を転動自在に保持する環状の打ち抜き保持器19,19と、外輪16の軸方向の両端部にそれぞれ装着された一対のシール部材20,20とを備える。   The double-row tapered roller bearing 11 rotatably supports an axle 13 of a railway vehicle, which is a rotating shaft, and has a pair of inner rings 14, 14 having inner ring raceway surfaces 15, 15 inclined like a tapered outer surface on the outer peripheral surface. A single outer ring 16 having a pair of outer ring raceway surfaces 17, 17 inclined like a conical inner surface on the inner peripheral surface, inner ring raceway surfaces 15, 15 of the inner rings 14, 14, and outer ring raceway surfaces 17, 17 of the outer ring 16, A plurality of tapered rollers 18 that are arranged in multiple rows between each other, annular punching retainers 19 and 19 that hold the tapered rollers 18 in a freely rollable manner, and both axial ends of the outer ring 16 are mounted. A pair of sealing members 20, 20.
軸受箱12は、鉄道車両用台車の側枠を構成するハウジング21を備えており、このハウジング21は外輪16の外周面を覆うように円筒状に形成されている。また、ハウジング21の軸方向の前端部側には前蓋22が配置され、ハウジング21の軸方向の後端部側には後蓋23が配置されている。   The bearing box 12 includes a housing 21 that constitutes a side frame of a railcar bogie. The housing 21 is formed in a cylindrical shape so as to cover the outer peripheral surface of the outer ring 16. A front lid 22 is disposed on the front end side in the axial direction of the housing 21, and a rear lid 23 is disposed on the rear end side in the axial direction of the housing 21.
一対の内輪14,14の間には、内輪間座24が配置されている。一対の内輪14,14及び内輪間座24には車軸13が圧入されており、外輪16はハウジング21に嵌合されている。複列円すいころ軸受11には、種々部材の重量等によるラジアル荷重と任意のアキシアル荷重とが負荷されており、外輪16の周方向の上側部が負荷圏になっている。ここで、負荷圏とは、転動体に対して荷重が負荷される領域をいう。   An inner ring spacer 24 is disposed between the pair of inner rings 14, 14. The axle 13 is press-fitted into the pair of inner rings 14, 14 and the inner ring spacer 24, and the outer ring 16 is fitted in the housing 21. The double row tapered roller bearing 11 is loaded with a radial load due to the weight of various members and an arbitrary axial load, and the upper portion in the circumferential direction of the outer ring 16 is a load zone. Here, the load zone refers to a region where a load is applied to the rolling elements.
車軸13の前端部側に配置された一方のシール部材20は、外輪16の外側端部と前蓋22との間に組み付けられ、後端部側に配置された他方のシール部材20は、外輪16の外側端部と後蓋23との間に組み付けられている。   One seal member 20 disposed on the front end portion side of the axle 13 is assembled between the outer end portion of the outer ring 16 and the front lid 22, and the other seal member 20 disposed on the rear end portion side is disposed on the outer ring. 16 is assembled between the outer end of 16 and the rear lid 23.
ハウジング21の外周部の複列円すいころ軸受11の軸方向の略中央部位置には径方向に貫通する貫通穴26が形成され、この貫通穴26には異常診断装置の一部を構成する異常検出用センサ31が筐体27に収容された状態で固定されている。   A through hole 26 penetrating in the radial direction is formed at a substantially central position in the axial direction of the double-row tapered roller bearing 11 on the outer peripheral portion of the housing 21, and the through hole 26 is an abnormality that constitutes a part of the abnormality diagnosis device. The detection sensor 31 is fixed in a state accommodated in the casing 27.
異常検出用センサ31は、振動センサ、AE(acoustic emission)センサ、音響センサ、超音波センサの少なくとも1つの振動を検出可能な振動系センサと温度センサとを一体に筐体27内に収納固定した複合型センサである。なお、図1の異常検出用センサ31は、振動センサ32と温度センサ33を備える。   The abnormality detection sensor 31 includes a vibration system sensor capable of detecting at least one of a vibration sensor, an AE (acoustic emission) sensor, an acoustic sensor, and an ultrasonic sensor, and a temperature sensor, which are housed and fixed integrally in the housing 27. It is a composite sensor. 1 includes a vibration sensor 32 and a temperature sensor 33. The abnormality detection sensor 31 shown in FIG.
振動センサ32は、圧電素子等の振動測定素子であり、複列円すいころ軸受11の内外輪軌道面15,15,17,17の剥離や、歯車の欠損、車輪のフラット摩耗等を検出するのに用いられる。なお、振動センサ32は、加速度、速度或いは変位型等、振動を電気信号化できるものであればよく、ノイズが多いような機械装置に取付ける際には、絶縁型を使用する方がノイズの影響を受けることがないので好ましい。   The vibration sensor 32 is a vibration measuring element such as a piezoelectric element, and detects peeling of the inner and outer ring raceway surfaces 15, 15, 17, 17 of the double row tapered roller bearing 11, a missing gear, flat wear of the wheel, and the like. Used for. The vibration sensor 32 may be an acceleration, speed, displacement type, or the like that can convert vibration into an electrical signal. When the vibration sensor 32 is attached to a mechanical device having a lot of noise, the use of an insulation type is more affected by noise. It is preferable because it does not receive.
温度センサ33は、サーミスタ温度測定素子や白金測温抵抗体や熱電対等の非接触タイプの温度測定素子であり、筐体27内で外輪16の外周面近傍に配置されている。また、温度センサ33としては、雰囲気温度が規定値を越えると、バイメタルの接点が離れたり、接点が溶断したりすることで導通しなくなる温度ヒューズを用いることができる。その場合、機械装置の温度が規定値を超えたとき、温度ヒューズの導通が遮断されることによって温度異常が検出される。   The temperature sensor 33 is a non-contact type temperature measuring element such as a thermistor temperature measuring element, a platinum resistance temperature detector, or a thermocouple, and is disposed in the vicinity of the outer peripheral surface of the outer ring 16 in the housing 27. Further, as the temperature sensor 33, when the ambient temperature exceeds a specified value, a temperature fuse that does not conduct when the bimetal contact is separated or the contact is blown can be used. In this case, when the temperature of the mechanical device exceeds a specified value, the temperature abnormality is detected by blocking the conduction of the thermal fuse.
また、異常検出用センサ31は、複列円すいころ軸受11の非回転側軌道輪に嵌合している軸受箱12のラジアル荷重の負荷圏領域に取り付けている。このため、例えば、軸受軌道面に損傷が発生した場合、その損傷部を転動体が通過する際に生じる衝突力は無負荷圏よりも負荷圏の方が大きく、軸受負荷圏側の方が感度良く異常振動を検出することができる。   In addition, the abnormality detection sensor 31 is attached to the radial load area of the bearing housing 12 fitted to the non-rotating side race of the double row tapered roller bearing 11. For this reason, for example, when the bearing raceway surface is damaged, the collision force generated when the rolling element passes through the damaged portion is larger in the load zone than in the no-load zone, and the bearing load zone side is more sensitive. Abnormal vibration can be detected well.
ここで、本実施形態では、図2に示すように、振動センサ32による振動信号を増幅後に振動計測値分析部50を介して異常判定部42に出力すると同時に、温度センサ33による温度信号を増幅後に温度計測値分析部51を介して異常判定部42に出力し、異常判定部42が振動と温度の各計測値又は時間に対する各変化率の組合せに基づいて、複列円すいころ軸受11の異常の有無及び損傷の程度を判定する。ここで、各計測値は、任意の時間における実効値でもピーク値でもよい。   Here, in the present embodiment, as shown in FIG. 2, the vibration signal from the vibration sensor 32 is amplified and then output to the abnormality determination unit 42 via the vibration measurement value analysis unit 50, and at the same time, the temperature signal from the temperature sensor 33 is amplified. Later, it outputs to the abnormality determination part 42 via the temperature measurement value analysis part 51, and the abnormality determination part 42 detects abnormality of the double row tapered roller bearing 11 based on the combination of each measurement value of vibration and temperature or each change rate with respect to time. Determine the presence of damage and the degree of damage. Here, each measured value may be an effective value or a peak value at an arbitrary time.
即ち、軸受軌道面に剥離損傷が発生した場合には、その損傷部を転動体が通過するごとに衝撃が生じるため振動値の変化が大きくなるが、その前兆または直後では温度はほとんど変化しない。一方、軸受に焼付き異常が生じると、その前兆として計測時間に対する振動と温度の変化が大きくなるという特徴がある。このように、本実施形態では、異常の種類によって振動と温度の変化の仕方が異なるという回転部品の異常形態の特徴を利用したものであり、振動と温度の各計測値又は時間に対する各変化率を組み合わせることにより、複列円すいころ軸受11の異常の有無及び損傷の程度を判定することができる。   That is, when peeling damage occurs on the bearing raceway surface, an impact is generated every time the rolling element passes through the damaged portion, so that the change in vibration value increases. However, the temperature hardly changes immediately before or after that. On the other hand, when seizure abnormality occurs in the bearing, there is a feature that vibration and temperature change with respect to the measurement time increase as a precursor. As described above, in the present embodiment, the feature of the abnormal form of the rotating component that the vibration and temperature change method varies depending on the type of abnormality, and each change rate with respect to each measured value or time of vibration and temperature is used. By combining these, it is possible to determine whether there is an abnormality in the double row tapered roller bearing 11 and the degree of damage.
図3は、軸受に焼付き異常が生じるまでの振動の経時変化を示し、図4は、軸受に焼付き異常が生じるまでの温度の経時変化を示す。   FIG. 3 shows a change with time of vibration until a seizure abnormality occurs in the bearing, and FIG. 4 shows a change with time in temperature until a seizure abnormality occurs in the bearing.
図3及び図4より、軸受に焼付きが発生する前兆として、A点から振動が急激に増加しているが、温度変化はほとんどない。その後、B点から振動がさらに増加し、この時点から温度が上昇している。振動はさらに増加後、C点で焼付きが生じ、焼付き後の温度はさらに上昇して過熱していることがわかる。   From FIG. 3 and FIG. 4, as a precursor to the occurrence of seizure in the bearing, the vibration increases rapidly from the point A, but there is almost no temperature change. Thereafter, vibration further increases from point B, and the temperature rises from this point. It can be seen that after the vibration further increases, seizure occurs at the point C, and the temperature after seizure further increases and overheats.
従って、図3及び図4に示した計測結果に基づき、A,B,C点における振動と温度の計測値又は時間に対する変化率を求め、これらの値を予め設定しておいた規定値と比較することにより複列円すいころ軸受11の異常の有無及び損傷の程度を判定する。   Therefore, based on the measurement results shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the vibration and temperature measured values at points A, B, and C or the rate of change with time are obtained, and these values are compared with preset values. By doing so, the presence or absence of abnormality of the double row tapered roller bearing 11 and the degree of damage are determined.
更に、本実施形態では、振動センサ32による振動の情報について、振動波形にフィルタ処理後、エンベロープ処理を施して周波数分析を行い、軸受の傷等の損傷の有無の判定及び損傷部位の特定を行えるようにして異常診断の信頼性を確実なものとしている。   Furthermore, in the present embodiment, the vibration information from the vibration sensor 32 is subjected to a frequency analysis by performing an envelope process after filtering the vibration waveform, and determining whether there is damage such as a scratch on the bearing and specifying a damaged part. In this way, the reliability of abnormality diagnosis is ensured.
即ち、図2に示すように、振動センサ32が発生した振動信号は、信号伝送手段34を介して増幅及びA/D変換後にフィルタ部35に転送される。フィルタ部35は、固有振動数記憶部36に記憶された、複列円すいころ軸受11の固有振動数に基づいて、振動信号からその固有振動数に対応する所定の周波数帯域のみを抽出する。なお、振動信号の増幅及びA/D変換は、伝送前に行なわれてもよく、増幅、A/D変換の順序は逆であってもよい。   That is, as shown in FIG. 2, the vibration signal generated by the vibration sensor 32 is transferred to the filter unit 35 after amplification and A / D conversion via the signal transmission unit 34. Based on the natural frequency of the double row tapered roller bearing 11 stored in the natural frequency storage unit 36, the filter unit 35 extracts only a predetermined frequency band corresponding to the natural frequency from the vibration signal. The amplification and A / D conversion of the vibration signal may be performed before transmission, and the order of amplification and A / D conversion may be reversed.
この固有振動数は、複列円すいころ軸受11を被測定物として、打撃法により加振し、被測定物に取付けた振動検出器又は打撃により発生した音響を周波数分析することにより容易に求めることができる。なお、被測定物が複列円すいころ軸受の場合には、内輪、外輪、転動体、保持器等のいずれかに起因する固有振動数が与えられる。一般的に、機械部品の固有振動数は複数存在し、また固有振動数での振幅レベルは高くなるため測定の感度がよい。   This natural frequency can be easily obtained by subjecting the double-row tapered roller bearing 11 to the object to be measured and exciting it by the striking method and analyzing the frequency of the vibration detector attached to the object to be measured or the sound generated by the striking. Can do. When the object to be measured is a double-row tapered roller bearing, a natural frequency due to any of the inner ring, outer ring, rolling element, cage, etc. is given. In general, there are a plurality of natural frequencies of mechanical parts, and the amplitude level at the natural frequencies is high, so the sensitivity of measurement is good.
その後、エンベロープ処理部37では、フィルタ部35にて抽出された所定の周波数帯域に対して、波形の絶対値を検波する絶対値検波処理が行われる。さらに、周波数分析部38で波形の周波数の分析処理が行われ、実測値データが比較照合部39へ転送される。   Thereafter, the envelope processing unit 37 performs absolute value detection processing for detecting the absolute value of the waveform for the predetermined frequency band extracted by the filter unit 35. Further, the frequency analysis unit 38 performs waveform frequency analysis processing, and the actual measurement data is transferred to the comparison and verification unit 39.
一方、理論周波数計算部41において、回転速度情報40に基づき算出された、軸受の剥離、歯車の欠損、車輪のフラット等、回転部品の損傷に起因した周波数成分の計算値データが比較照合部39に転送される。なお、回転部品が転がり軸受の場合には、計算値データは、図5に示されるような、内輪、外輪、転動体、保持器の損傷に起因した周波数成分データとなる。   On the other hand, in the theoretical frequency calculation unit 41, the calculated value data of the frequency component resulting from damage to the rotating parts such as bearing separation, gear loss, wheel flatness, etc., calculated based on the rotational speed information 40, is compared and compared 39. Forwarded to When the rotating component is a rolling bearing, the calculated value data is frequency component data resulting from damage to the inner ring, the outer ring, the rolling element, and the cage, as shown in FIG.
そして、比較照合部39で実測値データと計算値データとが比較照合され、異常判定部42にて異常の有無、異常部位の特定、損傷の程度の判定が行われる。結果出力部43は、複列円すいころ軸受11の異常の有無、損傷の程度、異常部位の特定等の判定結果を出力し、異常が検出された場合にはアラーム等の警報を発したり、判定結果を記憶部に取り込む。ここで、異常判定部42から結果出力部43への情報転送は、有線や無線等のデータ伝送手段44によって行われる。   Then, the comparison value verification unit 39 compares the actual measurement value data with the calculated value data, and the abnormality determination unit 42 determines the presence / absence of abnormality, the specification of the abnormal part, and the degree of damage. The result output unit 43 outputs determination results such as the presence / absence of an abnormality of the double-row tapered roller bearing 11, the degree of damage, and the identification of an abnormal part. When an abnormality is detected, an alarm or the like is issued or a determination is made. The result is taken into the storage unit. Here, information transfer from the abnormality determination unit 42 to the result output unit 43 is performed by a data transmission unit 44 such as wired or wireless.
なお、増幅後の振動信号処理は、各種データ処理と演算を行うもので、例えば、コンピュータ或いは専用マイクロチップ等を用いることが可能である。また、検出した信号をメモリ等の記憶手段に格納後に、演算処理を行うようにしても良い。   Note that the vibration signal processing after amplification performs various data processing and calculations, and for example, a computer or a dedicated microchip can be used. Further, the arithmetic processing may be performed after the detected signal is stored in a storage means such as a memory.
このように本実施形態では、回転部品である複列円すいころ軸受11の回転状態に伴う振動及び温度の情報を同時に検出し、振動系センサによる計測結果と温度センサによる計測結果との組み合わせに基づいて、異常の有無と損傷の程度を同時に判定するので、振動と温度に関する複列円すいころ軸受11の異常形態の特徴を利用した損傷の程度の判定が可能となる。また、突発的な外乱ノイズ等の影響による誤診断を防止して信頼性の高い異常診断を行うことができる。更に、複列円すいころ軸受11が組み込まれている鉄道車両用転がり軸受装置10を分解することなく実稼動状態で複列円すいころ軸受11の異常の有無と損傷の程度を同時に検査することができ、この結果、複列円すいころ軸受11の最適な交換時期が分かり、効率的なメンテナンスを可能にすることができる。特に、本発明では、振動と温度の計測値または変化率を組み合わせることで異常の有無を複数回診断して判定している。   As described above, in this embodiment, vibration and temperature information associated with the rotation state of the double-row tapered roller bearing 11 that is a rotating component is simultaneously detected, and based on a combination of a measurement result obtained by the vibration system sensor and a measurement result obtained by the temperature sensor. Thus, since the presence / absence of the abnormality and the degree of damage are determined at the same time, it is possible to determine the degree of damage using the characteristics of the abnormal form of the double-row tapered roller bearing 11 relating to vibration and temperature. In addition, it is possible to perform a highly reliable abnormality diagnosis by preventing erroneous diagnosis due to the influence of sudden disturbance noise or the like. Furthermore, the presence or absence of an abnormality and the degree of damage of the double-row tapered roller bearing 11 can be inspected at the same time in an actual operation state without disassembling the rolling bearing device 10 for railway vehicles in which the double-row tapered roller bearing 11 is incorporated. As a result, the optimum replacement time of the double-row tapered roller bearing 11 can be known, and efficient maintenance can be achieved. In particular, in the present invention, the presence or absence of abnormality is diagnosed and determined a plurality of times by combining vibration and temperature measurement values or change rates.
更に、振動の情報については、振動波形にフィルタ処理後、エンベロープ処理を施して周波数分析を行うことで、傷等の損傷の有無の判定及び損傷部位の特定を行うことができ、異常診断の信頼性をより確実なものとすることができる。   Furthermore, with regard to vibration information, after filtering the vibration waveform, applying envelope processing and performing frequency analysis, it is possible to determine the presence or absence of damage such as scratches and to identify the damaged site, and to provide reliable diagnostics. Sex can be made more reliable.
なお、本発明は上記実施形態に限定されるものでなく、本発明の要旨を逸脱しない範囲において適宜変更可能である。
例えば、本実施形態では、回転部品として鉄道車両用転がり軸受装置に組み込まれる複列円すいころ軸受を例示したが、これに代えて、発電用風車の減速機に組み込まれる転がり軸受や歯車等を診断対象にして本発明を適用してもよい。
In addition, this invention is not limited to the said embodiment, In the range which does not deviate from the summary of this invention, it can change suitably.
For example, in the present embodiment, a double-row tapered roller bearing incorporated in a rolling bearing device for a railway vehicle is illustrated as a rotating part, but instead, a rolling bearing or gear incorporated in a reduction gear of a wind turbine for power generation is diagnosed. The present invention may be applied to a target.
以下、本発明の異常診断装置を用いて、転がり軸受の異常診断を二度行った。実施例1及び2の転がり軸受としては、外径62mm,内径30mm,幅16mm,玉数7の玉軸受が使用され、振動センサが軸受箱に固定され、温度センサが軸受の外輪外周面に取付けられた。内輪は3000min-1で回転され、軸受にはラジアル荷重が負荷されている。 Hereinafter, the abnormality diagnosis of the rolling bearing was performed twice using the abnormality diagnosis device of the present invention. As the rolling bearings of Examples 1 and 2, a ball bearing having an outer diameter of 62 mm, an inner diameter of 30 mm, a width of 16 mm, and a number of balls of 7 is used. It was. The inner ring is rotated at 3000 min −1 and a radial load is applied to the bearing.
表1及び表2は、実施例1における図3及び図4に対応する各計測点A,B,Cでの振動と温度の計測値及び時間に対する変化率(前回の計測値に対する倍率)を示し、表3及び表4は、実施例2における各計測点A,B,Cでの振動と温度の計測値及び時間に対する変化率を示す。また、表1〜表4は、振動と温度の計測値及び変化率に対する規定値(設定値)と併せて、振動波形をエンベロープ分析した結果から軸受の損傷(剥離)に起因する周波数成分の有無を示す。   Tables 1 and 2 show measured values of vibration and temperature at each measurement point A, B, and C corresponding to FIGS. 3 and 4 in Example 1 and the rate of change with time (magnification with respect to the previous measured value). Table 3 and Table 4 show vibration and temperature measurement values at each measurement point A, B, and C in Example 2 and the rate of change with time. Tables 1 to 4 show the presence or absence of frequency components due to bearing damage (separation) from the results of envelope analysis of vibration waveforms, together with the specified values (setting values) for vibration and temperature measurement values and rate of change. Indicates.
実施例1では、表1に示すように、B点,C点ともに振動の計測値が規定値を超え、且つC点では温度の計測値も規定値を超えている。さらに、振動には軸受の損傷成分が無いことから、この軸受は焼付き異常が生じていることがわかり、緊急に交換する必要があることがわかる。なお、実施例1は、表2の変化率からも同様の判定を行うことができる。   In Example 1, as shown in Table 1, the vibration measurement values at points B and C exceed the specified values, and the temperature measurement values at point C also exceed the specified values. Further, since there is no damage component of the bearing in the vibration, it can be seen that the bearing has a seizure abnormality and needs to be replaced urgently. In Example 1, the same determination can be made from the rate of change in Table 2.
また、実施例2では、表3に示すように、B点,C点ともに振動の計測値が基準値を超えているが、温度に変化は認められなかった。また、振動には軸受の損傷成分が存在していることから、この軸受は剥離異常が発生していることがわかる。なお、実施例2は、表4の変化率からも同様の判定を行うことができる。   In Example 2, as shown in Table 3, the measured values of vibration exceeded the reference value at both points B and C, but no change in temperature was observed. Further, since the bearing contains a damage component of the bearing, it can be seen that this bearing has a peeling abnormality. In Example 2, the same determination can be made from the rate of change in Table 4.
従って、本実施例では、振動と温度の計測値または変化率を組み合わせることで異常の有無を複数回診断して判定するため、従来のような突発的なノイズにより急激に計測値が上昇しても異常と判定せず、従来よりも信頼度の高い異常診断が可能となる。   Therefore, in this embodiment, since the presence / absence of abnormality is diagnosed and determined multiple times by combining vibration and temperature measurement values or rate of change, the measurement value suddenly increases due to sudden noise as in the past. Therefore, it is possible to perform abnormality diagnosis with higher reliability than before.
本発明の一実施形態である異常診断装置の診断対象である複列円すいころ軸受を備えた鉄道車両用転がり軸受装置の断面図である。It is sectional drawing of the rolling bearing apparatus for rail vehicles provided with the double row tapered roller bearing which is a diagnostic object of the abnormality diagnosis apparatus which is one Embodiment of this invention. 本発明の一実施形態である異常診断装置の信号処理系統のブロック図である。It is a block diagram of the signal processing system of the abnormality diagnosis apparatus which is one Embodiment of this invention. 軸受の焼付き異常発生時の振動値の経時変化を示すグラフである。It is a graph which shows a time-dependent change of the vibration value at the time of bearing seizure abnormality occurrence. 軸受の焼付き異常発生時の外輪外周面の温度の経時変化を示すグラフである。It is a graph which shows the time-dependent change of the temperature of the outer ring outer peripheral surface at the time of occurrence of seizure abnormality of the bearing. 転がり軸受の傷の部位と傷に起因して発生する特徴周波数の関係を示す図である。It is a figure which shows the relationship between the site | part of the damage | wound of a rolling bearing, and the characteristic frequency which originates in a damage | wound.
符号の説明Explanation of symbols
11 鉄道車両用複列円すいころ軸受(回転部品)
12 軸受箱(静止部材)
32 振動センサ(振動系センサ)
33 温度センサ
35 フィルタ処理部
37 エンベロープ処理部
38 周波数分析部
39 比較照合部
42 異常判定部
43 結果出力部
11 Double-row tapered roller bearings for rolling stock (rotary parts)
12 Bearing box (stationary member)
32 Vibration sensor (vibration system sensor)
33 Temperature Sensor 35 Filter Processing Unit 37 Envelope Processing Unit 38 Frequency Analysis Unit 39 Comparison / Verification Unit 42 Abnormality Determination Unit 43 Result Output Unit

Claims (6)

  1. 静止部材に対して相対的に回転する回転部品の異常を診断する異常診断装置であって、
    前記回転部品又は前記静止部材に固定される振動センサ、音響センサ、超音波センサ及びAEセンサの少なくとも一つの振動系センサと温度センサとを備え、
    前記振動系センサによる計測結果と前記温度センサによる計測結果との組み合わせに基づいて、前記回転部品の異常の有無、或いは該異常の有無及び損傷の程度を判定する異常判定部を備えていることを特徴とする異常診断装置。
    An abnormality diagnosis device for diagnosing an abnormality of a rotating component that rotates relative to a stationary member,
    A vibration sensor, an acoustic sensor, an ultrasonic sensor, and an AE sensor that are fixed to the rotating component or the stationary member, and a temperature sensor;
    An abnormality determining unit that determines whether or not there is an abnormality in the rotating component based on a combination of a measurement result obtained by the vibration system sensor and a measurement result obtained by the temperature sensor; A characteristic abnormality diagnosis device.
  2. 前記振動系センサ及び前記温度センサによる計測値又は該計測値の時間に対する変化率を少なくとも一回求め、前記異常判定部が、前記計測値又は前記変化率と予め設定しておいた各規定値とを比較することにより、前記回転部品の異常の有無、或いは該異常の有無及び損傷の程度を判定することを特徴とする請求項1に記載の異常診断装置。   The measurement value by the vibration system sensor and the temperature sensor or the rate of change of the measurement value with respect to time is obtained at least once, and the abnormality determination unit sets the measurement value or the rate of change and each preset value set in advance. The abnormality diagnosis apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the presence or absence of abnormality of the rotating component, the presence or absence of the abnormality, and the degree of damage are determined by comparing.
  3. 前記振動系センサにより検出された信号波形から不要な周波数帯域を除去するフィルタ処理部と、
    前記フィルタ処理部から転送されたフィルタ処理後の波形の絶対値を検波するエンベロープ処理部と、
    前記エンベロープ処理部から転送された波形の周波数を分析する周波数分析部と、
    回転速度信号に基づき算出した前記回転部品の損傷に起因した周波数成分と前記周波数分析部により得られた実測データに基づく周波数成分とを比較する比較照合部とを備え、
    前記異常判定部は、前記比較照合部での比較結果に基づき、異常の有無の判定や損傷部位の特定を行うことを特徴とする請求項1又は2に記載の異常診断装置。
    A filter processing unit for removing unnecessary frequency bands from the signal waveform detected by the vibration system sensor;
    An envelope processing unit for detecting the absolute value of the filtered waveform transferred from the filter processing unit;
    A frequency analysis unit for analyzing the frequency of the waveform transferred from the envelope processing unit;
    A comparison / collation unit that compares a frequency component resulting from damage to the rotating part calculated based on a rotation speed signal and a frequency component based on actual measurement data obtained by the frequency analysis unit;
    The abnormality diagnosis device according to claim 1, wherein the abnormality determination unit determines whether there is an abnormality or identifies a damaged part based on a comparison result in the comparison / collation unit.
  4. 前記異常判定部の判定結果を伝送するデータ伝送手段を有していることを特徴とする請求項1〜3のいずれかに記載の異常診断装置。   The abnormality diagnosis apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising a data transmission unit that transmits a determination result of the abnormality determination unit.
  5. 前記回転部品が鉄道車両用であることを特徴とする請求項1〜4のいずれかに記載の異常診断装置。   The abnormality diagnosis apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the rotating component is for a railway vehicle.
  6. 前記回転部品が減速機用であることを特徴とする請求項1〜4のいずれかに記載の異常診断装置。   The abnormality diagnosis apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the rotating component is for a speed reducer.
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