JP2005254298A - Solder alloy for semiconductor packaging and method for manufacturing the same, and solder ball and electronic member - Google Patents

Solder alloy for semiconductor packaging and method for manufacturing the same, and solder ball and electronic member Download PDF

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JP2005254298A
JP2005254298A JP2004070878A JP2004070878A JP2005254298A JP 2005254298 A JP2005254298 A JP 2005254298A JP 2004070878 A JP2004070878 A JP 2004070878A JP 2004070878 A JP2004070878 A JP 2004070878A JP 2005254298 A JP2005254298 A JP 2005254298A
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solder
mass
solder alloy
alloy
electronic
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JP4391276B2 (en
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Masamoto Tanaka
Shinichi Terajima
晋一 寺嶋
将元 田中
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Nippon Steel Corp
新日本製鐵株式会社
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a solder alloy for semiconductor packaging, a solder alloy capable of preventing a soldered joined part from breaking by falling impact, and also to provide its manufacturing method, solder balls and electronic members. <P>SOLUTION: There are provided a solder alloy for semiconductor packaging is characterized in that it has Sn, Ag and Cu as the main components, containing 1-5 mass% Ag, 0.1-2 mass% Cu, and in addition 0.0005-0.5 mass% in total of one or more kinds of elements selected from an element group which consists of Mg, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu, with the balance composed of Sn and inevitable impurities; and a manufacturing method of this solder alloy, solder balls and electronic components using this solder alloy. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2005,JPO&NCIPI

Description

  The present invention relates to a solder alloy for semiconductor mounting, a solder ball, and an electronic member having them.

  A printed wiring board or the like is configured by mounting electronic components. The electronic component is mounted by temporarily bonding the printed wiring board etc. and the electronic component via a solder alloy or the like, then heating the entire printed wiring board to melt the solder alloy, and then bringing the board to room temperature. In general, it is performed by a so-called reflow method, in which a solid solder alloy is solidified by cooling the solder alloy to solidify the solder alloy.

  When discarding discarded electronic devices, lead-free solder alloys used in electronic devices are being demanded in order to minimize adverse effects on the environment. As a result, the composition of the solder alloy is generally disclosed as Sn—Ag eutectic composition (Ag: 3.5 mass%, Sn: balance), and for example, disclosed in Patent Document 1 and Patent Document 2. In addition, a solder composition in which a small amount of Cu is added as a third element to the peripheral composition of the Sn—Ag eutectic is widely used, and the solder balls for BGA (Ball Grid Array), which are increasing rapidly, Solder balls having a similar composition are mainly used.

JP 2003-1481 A JP 2004-1100 A

  With the recent popularization of portable electronic devices, printed circuit boards incorporated in the electronic devices and integrated circuit element substrates using BGAs are exposed to the risk of unexpected drop impact. Furthermore, with the recent miniaturization and high performance of electronic components, the joint area of solder joints used for electronic members has been reduced, and the influence of the drop impact has been regarded as a problem. For this reason, it has been more important to ensure the drop impact resistance at the solder joint.

  However, when a conventional solder alloy for electronic members mainly composed of Sn, Ag and Cu is used, an intermetallic compound is formed in a layer at the joint between the solder and the electrode material, and the layer is destroyed at the time of the drop impact. As a result, a problem of occurrence of poor conduction has arisen. For example, when the diameter of the joint portion is, for example, around 760 μm in the related art, the joint area is large, so the destruction was only partial damage of the joint portion, and was not particularly problematic. At a diameter of 300 μm or less in recent years, the bonding area is greatly reduced, and therefore, destruction sometimes penetrates the bonding portion, which has become a very serious problem.

  Therefore, in the present invention, in a solder alloy mainly composed of Sn, Ag, and Cu for semiconductor mounting, a solder ball, and an electronic member having them, solder that can avoid poor conduction by preventing breakage of the solder joint due to drop impact. An alloy, a method for manufacturing the same, a solder ball, and an electronic member having them are provided.

Means for solving the above problems are as follows.
(1) A solder alloy mainly composed of Sn, Ag, and Cu, including Ag: 1 to 5 mass% and Cu: 0.1 to 2 mass%, and further Mg, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd , Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu One or more elements selected from the element group consisting of 0.0005 to 0.5 mass% in total A solder alloy for semiconductor mounting, comprising: Sn and inevitable impurities in the balance.
(2) Further, Ni: 0.0005 to 0.5 mass%, Fe: 0.0005 to 0.5 mass%, Al: 0.0005 to 0.5 mass%, Sb: 0.1 to 3.0 It contains at least one of mass%, Bi: 0.1 to 3.0 mass%, and P: 0.0005 to 0.005 mass%. Solder for mounting semiconductor according to (1) alloy.
(3) The above (1), further comprising 0.01 to 0.5% by mass in total of one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Zn, In, Pt and Pd Or the solder alloy for semiconductor mounting as described in (2).
(4) The method for producing a solder alloy according to any one of (1) to (3) above, wherein the solder alloy component is melt-mixed with an atmosphere of 0.1 to 101.3 Pa or 0.1 to 10130 Pa. A method for producing a solder alloy for semiconductor mounting, characterized by being exposed to one or both of a non-oxidizing atmosphere.
(5) A solder ball comprising the solder alloy according to any one of (1) to (3).
(6) An electronic member having a solder joint, wherein the solder alloy according to any one of (1) to (3) is used for a part or all of the solder joint. Element.

  According to the present invention, poor conduction can be avoided by preventing destruction of the solder joint due to drop impact.

  As described above, the use of the semiconductor mounting solder alloy, the solder ball, and the electronic member of the present invention can prevent the solder joint from being broken by a drop impact. Moreover, if the manufacturing method of the present invention is used, the solder alloy can be manufactured relatively easily.

  Fracture at the time of drop impact at the joint is determined by the degree of crack growth, but as a result of intensive studies, the present inventors have determined that the degree of crack progress depends on the ductility of the solder alloy itself and the solder joint. It was clarified that it depends on the balance between the two parameters of the thickness of the intermetallic compound layer. As a result of further studies, the present inventors have found that in order to suppress the destruction, it is necessary to make the solder alloy itself highly ductile and to reduce the thickness of the intermetallic compound. .

  That is, during the drop impact, impact energy is applied to the solder and its joint, but if the solder alloy itself is not sufficiently ductile, the solder cannot sufficiently absorb the impact energy. If the solder alloy itself has sufficient ductility, the solder can absorb most of the impact energy during a drop impact, resulting in a burden on the joint. It was found that the damage can be reduced and destruction can be avoided.

  Furthermore, if the thickness of the intermetallic compound is 3 μm or less, even if the impact energy is applied to the solder joint, the cracks are less likely to progress, thereby increasing the effect of suppressing breakage. On the other hand, when the thickness of the intermetallic compound exceeds 3 μm, the above effect cannot be obtained, which is not preferable. Since the thickness of the intermetallic compound tends to increase as the semiconductor element is used over time, it is preferable to anticipate this increase in advance and make the intermetallic compound layer immediately after bonding as thin as possible. In general, semiconductor devices are often exposed to an environment of about 90 ° C. during use. For example, if the thickness immediately after bonding is 1 μm or less, the growth of the intermetallic compound can be suppressed to 3 μm or less even if it is used in an environment of 90 ° C. for 5 years.

  Below, the solder composition which can acquire the said effect is demonstrated.

In order to be applied to mounting electronic components on a printed wiring board or the like, a melting point of 220 ° C. or lower is desirable at the highest. When Ag is added to Sn in the range of 1 to 5% by mass, the melting point of the solder alloy can be made 220 ° C. or lower. Preferably, when Ag is added to Sn in the range of 1 to 2% by mass, an intermetallic compound called Ag 3 Sn that is formed in the solder alloy is difficult to be coarsened. It is good because it is difficult to form bubbles called. More preferably, when Ag is added to Sn in the range of 1 to 1.5% by mass, the above-described coarsening suppression effect can be easily obtained. However, if the Ag content is less than 1% by mass, the melting point of the solder alloy rises, for example, to exceed 220 ° C., which is not preferable. On the other hand, if Ag is contained in an amount exceeding 5% by mass, the solder alloy may become brittle, which is not preferable. If 0.1 to 2% by mass of Cu is further added to the Sn—Ag solder alloy, an effect of preventing destruction of the solder joint due to thermal stress may be obtained. However, if the Cu content is less than 0.1% by mass, the above effect cannot be obtained sufficiently, which is not preferable. On the other hand, if the Cu content exceeds 2% by mass, the melting point will rise rapidly, which is not preferable. Therefore, in order to obtain a composition suitable for mounting electronic components on a printed wiring board or the like, it is necessary to set Ag: 1 to 5% by mass and Cu: 0.1 to 2% by mass. Thus, when Ag: 1 to 5 mass% and Cu: 0.1 to 2 mass%, with the balance being Sn and unavoidable impurities, melting point and thermal stress suitable for mounting electronic components on a printed wiring board or the like At the same time, the effect of preventing breakage of the solder joint due to the above is obtained.

  As a result of intensive studies by the present inventors, Ag: 1 to 5% by mass and Cu: 0.1 to 2% by mass, and further Mg, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd , Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu contains 0.0005 to 0.5% by mass in total of one or more elements selected from the element group, the balance being Sn and inevitable It has also been found that a solder alloy made of impurities can make the solder alloy itself highly ductile and reduce the thickness of the intermetallic compound. The reason for this is considered that the solder alloy having the above composition can obtain a high solderability because a fine solder structure is obtained, and the additive element group suppresses diffusion at the bonding interface. However, when the above element group is added in an amount of less than 0.0005% by mass, the above-described effect is not observed. Conversely, when the element group is added in an amount exceeding 0.5% by mass, these added elements are precipitated on the surface of the solder alloy to form an oxide. Since the risk of promoting brittle fracture of the solder alloy is increased by forming, it is not preferable.

  More preferably, in the solder alloy, Ni: 0.0005 to 0.5% by mass, Fe: 0.0005 to 0.5% by mass, Al: 0.0005 to 0.5% by mass, Sb: 0.0. If at least one of 1 to 3.0% by mass, Bi: 0.1 to 3.0% by mass, and P: 0.0005 to 0.005% by mass is contained, diffusion at the bonding interface is further increased. By being suppressed, the thickness of the intermetallic compound may be further reduced. However, if the addition amount of Ni, Fe, Al, Sb, Bi, and P is less than the lower limit value, the above effect may not be obtained sufficiently, and conversely, addition exceeding the upper limit value of these elements. If done, the solder alloy becomes brittle and the drop impact resistance may be reduced.

  Most preferably, if the solder alloy further contains one or more elements selected from the group consisting of Zn, In, Pt, and Pd in a total amount of 0.01 to 0.5 mass%, the solder structure It is good because the ductility of the solder is further improved by further increasing the density. This is presumably because these elements form a fine intermetallic compound with Sn or the like, and the intermetallic compound is finely dispersed in the solder, thereby suppressing the coarsening of Sn as a parent phase. However, if the concentration of the element is less than 0.01% by mass, a sufficient effect cannot be obtained. Conversely, if the concentration exceeds 0.5% by mass, the solder alloy becomes brittle and the drop impact resistance is deteriorated. There is a fear.

  The method for identifying the composition in the solder alloy is not particularly limited. For example, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), electron probe analysis (EPMA), Auger electron analysis (AES), secondary ion mass spectrometry The method (SIMS), inductively coupled plasma analysis (ICP), glow discharge spectrum mass spectrometry (GD-MASS), fluorescent X-ray analysis (FX), etc. are preferable because of their abundant results and high accuracy.

  As a method for producing the solder alloy, a method can be used in which a solder mother alloy prepared by adding additive elements so as to meet a predetermined concentration is homogenized by heating and melting in a crucible or a mold, and then solidified. However, depending on the atmosphere in which the solder is melted, the added element may be oxidized, resulting in a defect that it cannot be contained in the solder. Here, in the step of melting the solder, for example, if a method of setting the atmosphere around the solder to an atmosphere of 0.1 to 101.3 Pa or a method of setting a non-oxidizing atmosphere of 0.1 to 10130 Pa or less is used, the solder Oxidation of the additive element in the alloy can be suppressed, and as a result, the additive element can be reliably contained in the solder. However, if the pressure in the atmosphere or non-oxidizing atmosphere is less than 0.1 Pa, the trace additive element in the solder is vaporized and escapes from the solder, and the concentration of the additive element in the solder varies. On the contrary, if the atmosphere is at a pressure exceeding 101.3 Pa, a considerable amount of oxygen remains in the atmosphere, and thus the above effect cannot be obtained. Further, since the pressure of 10130 Pa is an average atmospheric pressure, when the pressure of the non-oxidizing atmosphere exceeds 10130 Pa, the risk of the non-oxidizing atmosphere leaking out of the crucible increases, and in the worst case, There is a risk of workers suffocating.

  In the process of melting the solder, for example, using a mold that can be sealed from the outside by sealing it may be a good experience. The non-oxidizing atmosphere may be any atmosphere as long as the oxygen concentration in the solder alloy can be within the above-mentioned range. For example, it is reduced to inert gas such as nitrogen, argon or neon, or CO or hydrogen. A gas having an action can be used. The reason for this is expected to be that oxygen in the solder alloy is degassed if these atmospheres are used.

  The shape of the solder alloy of the present invention is not particularly limited, but a ball-shaped solder alloy is transferred to the joint to form a protrusion, or a film is formed by a sputtering method, a vapor deposition method, a precipitation method, or the like, or a printing method is used. It is industrially preferable to use a bulk shape because it has a proven track record. Among them, if the solder alloy of the present invention is made into a ball shape and then transferred to the joint portion to form a protrusion, the height of the solder alloy after transfer to the joint portion can be made substantially constant. This is because it is possible to more reliably perform semiconductor mounting such as bonding of a printed wiring board and an electronic component.

  The size of the solder alloy of the present invention is not particularly limited. For example, when a ball-shaped solder alloy is used, a ball having a diameter of 100 to 760 μm is sufficient because of its proven track record.

  In the electronic member having the solder joint portion composed of one or both of the solder alloy and the solder ball of the present invention, the solder joint portion may be prevented from being broken by a drop impact.

  Solder balls having a diameter of 300 μm having the compositions shown in Tables 1 to 4 were manufactured. The solder ball manufacturing method was based on the technique disclosed in Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2001-181709. That is, an apparatus for producing a fine metal sphere having a weighing unit at the top of a vertically arranged container and solidifying the molten metal discharged from the weighing unit in a cooling medium placed in the container to form a fine metal sphere. Then, using a manufacturing apparatus for fine metal spheres, wherein the cooling medium is made of an inert polymer liquid, the molten solder alloy was solidified to form solder balls. In the process of melting the solder, when using a method in which the atmosphere around the solder is a nitrogen atmosphere of 10130 Pa, a circle mark in Tables 1 to 4 and a circle mark in the case of a vacuum atmosphere of 10.13 Pa, It showed to Tables 1-4. On the other hand, in the process of melting the solder, when the atmosphere around the solder is normal air, cross marks are shown in Tables 1 to 4.

  In Tables 1 to 4, Examples 1 to 88 are examples of the present invention. On the other hand, Comparative Examples 1 and 2 are examples in which the solder alloy component and the atmosphere at the time of melt mixing thereof are out of the scope of the present invention.

  A 4 cm square glass epoxy resin substrate was prepared as a substrate, and a 1 cm square SI chip was prepared as a chip. 240 electrodes (substrate side: Cu / Ni / Au, chip side: Al / Cr / Ni / Au) were formed on the substrate and the chip. In order to perform the following evaluation, the following flip chip connection was performed. First, solder balls were arranged on the electrodes on the chip via flux. Thereafter, the entire chip was reflowed to obtain solder bumps on the electrodes on the chip. Subsequently, a paste made of Sn was applied to the electrodes on the substrate, the substrate and the chip were brought into contact with each other, and both were brought into contact with each other and reflowed. As a result, a so-called flip chip connection was obtained in which the electrode on the chip and the electrode on the substrate were joined via a bump-shaped solder alloy.

  A drop impact test was conducted to evaluate the drop impact resistance characteristics of these solder alloys. In this test, the flip chip test piece was attached to an 11 cm square and 2 cm thick Al plate and dropped from a height of 70 cm, and the resistance of each solder joint was changed each time it was dropped. It was evaluated by checking. The test pieces whose resistance changed by 50% or more from the initial connection resistance state with the number of drops of 9 times or more and 19 times or less were regarded as acceptable and indicated by ○ in Tables 1 and 2. Furthermore, the test pieces whose resistance changed by 50% or more from the initial connection resistance state with the number of drops of 20 times or more were marked with excellent marks in Tables 1 to 4 as having excellent results. On the other hand, a test piece whose resistance changed by 50% or more from the initial connection resistance state with the number of drops of 8 times or less was regarded as defective and indicated by x in Tables 1 to 4.

  In Examples 1 to 53, Ag, Cu, Mg, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu are in an appropriate concentration range. In addition, since the atmosphere at the time of melting the solder was within the range of the present invention, the drop impact test showed good results. However, in Comparative Examples 1 and 2, the composition was out of the range of the present invention, and the atmosphere at the time of melting the solder did not satisfy the range of the present invention.

  Furthermore, in Examples 54 to 73, since Ni, Fe, Al, Sb, Bi, and P were further added in an appropriate concentration range, extremely good results were shown in the drop impact test.

  In Examples 74 to 88, Zn, In, Pt, and Pd were further added in an appropriate concentration range, so extremely good results were shown in the drop impact test.

Claims (6)

  1.   A solder alloy mainly composed of Sn, Ag and Cu, including Ag: 1 to 5% by mass and Cu: 0.1 to 2% by mass, and further including Mg, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Containing 0.0005 to 0.5 mass% in total of one or more elements selected from the element group consisting of Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, A solder alloy for semiconductor mounting, characterized in that the balance consists of Sn and inevitable impurities.
  2.   Furthermore, Ni: 0.0005 to 0.5 mass%, Fe: 0.0005 to 0.5 mass%, Al: 0.0005 to 0.5 mass%, Sb: 0.1 to 3.0 mass%, The solder alloy for semiconductor mounting according to claim 1, comprising at least one of Bi: 0.1 to 3.0 mass% and P: 0.0005 to 0.005 mass%.
  3.   Furthermore, 0.01-0.5 mass% in total of 1 type, or 2 or more types of elements chosen from the group which consists of Zn, In, Pt, and Pd is contained, The 1 or 2 characterized by the above-mentioned. Solder alloy for semiconductor mounting.
  4.   It is a manufacturing method of the solder alloy in any one of Claims 1-3, Comprising: At the time of the melt mixing of a solder alloy component, either 0.1-101.3 Pa atmosphere or 0.1-10130 Pa non-oxidizing atmosphere or A method for producing a solder alloy for semiconductor mounting, characterized by being exposed to both.
  5.   A solder ball comprising the solder alloy according to claim 1.
  6.   An electronic member having a solder joint, wherein the solder alloy according to any one of claims 1 to 3 is used for a part or all of the solder joint.
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CN100439027C (en) * 2007-01-18 2008-12-03 广州有色金属研究院 Lead-free welding flux alloy suitable for dissimilar metals soldering flux of aluminum and copper
CN100464931C (en) * 2006-02-17 2009-03-04 河南科技大学 High-strength high-toughness nickel-contained SnAgCuRE lead-free brazing filler metal and its making method
WO2009051255A1 (en) * 2007-10-19 2009-04-23 Nihon Superior Sha Co., Ltd. Solder joint
WO2009051240A1 (en) * 2007-10-17 2009-04-23 Ishikawa Metal, Co., Ltd. Lead-free soft solder
KR100902163B1 (en) * 2007-03-28 2009-06-10 한국과학기술원 A method of joining lead-free solders and metallization with alloy elements for prevention of brittle fracture
WO2009084798A1 (en) * 2007-12-31 2009-07-09 Duksan Hi-Metal Co., Ltd. Lead free solder alloy and manufacturing method thereof
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KR100902163B1 (en) * 2007-03-28 2009-06-10 한국과학기술원 A method of joining lead-free solders and metallization with alloy elements for prevention of brittle fracture
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