JP2005251716A - Cathode active substance for nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery, cathode mixture for nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery, and nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery - Google Patents

Cathode active substance for nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery, cathode mixture for nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery, and nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery Download PDF

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JP2005251716A
JP2005251716A JP2004128414A JP2004128414A JP2005251716A JP 2005251716 A JP2005251716 A JP 2005251716A JP 2004128414 A JP2004128414 A JP 2004128414A JP 2004128414 A JP2004128414 A JP 2004128414A JP 2005251716 A JP2005251716 A JP 2005251716A
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positive electrode
lithium
active material
electrode active
secondary battery
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Junichi Tokuno
Takuya Tsuda
順一 得野
拓也 津田
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Nichia Chem Ind Ltd
日亜化学工業株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7005Batteries
    • Y02T10/7011Lithium ion battery

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a cathode active substance for nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery, cathode mixture for nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery and a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery having excellent battery characteristics even under a severer use environment. <P>SOLUTION: Of the cathode active substance for the nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery at least having lithium transition metal complex oxide of a laminar structure, the lithium transition metal complex oxide exists in a form of particles consisting of either or both of primary particles and secondary particles as their coagulated bodies, with an aspect ratio of the primary particles of 1 to 1.8, and has a compound containing at least one kind selected from a group consisting molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron, and fluorine at least on the surface of the particles. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2005,JPO&NCIPI

Description

  The present invention relates to a positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery such as a lithium ion secondary battery (hereinafter also simply referred to as “positive electrode active material”), a positive electrode mixture for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery (hereinafter simply referred to as “ And a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery. Specifically, the present invention relates to a positive electrode active material having a layered lithium transition metal composite oxide, a positive electrode mixture, and a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery using the positive electrode active material of the present invention as a positive electrode active material, with extremely improved battery characteristics. .

Nonaqueous electrolyte secondary batteries are characterized by a higher operating voltage and higher energy density than conventional nickel cadmium secondary batteries, and are widely used as power sources for electronic devices. As the positive electrode active material of this non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery, lithium transition metal composite oxides typified by LiCoO 2 , LiNiO 2 , LiMn 2 O 4 and the like are used.

However, at present, mobile electronic devices represented by mobile phones, notebook computers, digital cameras, etc. are required characteristics due to high functionality such as various functions added and use at high and low temperatures. Has become even more severe. In addition, application to power sources such as batteries for electric vehicles is expected, and conventional non-aqueous electrolyte secondary batteries using LiCoO 2 cannot obtain sufficient battery characteristics, and further improvements are required. Yes.

Patent Document 1 includes a general formula Li x M 1-y N y O 2-z (wherein M represents Co, Ni, or Mn, and N represents a transition metal element different from M or an atomic number of 11 or more. Represents one or more elements selected from the group consisting of elements, x represents a number in the range of 0.2 ≦ x ≦ 1.2, and y is in the range of 0 ≦ y ≦ 0.5. Z represents a number in the range of 0 ≦ z ≦ 1.0), and the average particle diameter of the lithium composite oxide particles is 0.1 to 50 μm. And a positive electrode active material characterized in that there are two or more peaks in the particle size distribution of the lithium composite oxide particles. And it is described that the positive electrode active material which can provide the initial stage capacity | capacitance and capacity retention which were excellent in the nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery by this is described.

  However, this positive electrode active material cannot satisfy the electrode plate density required for recent non-aqueous electrolyte secondary batteries, and sufficient thermal stability and load characteristics cannot be obtained.

JP 2000-82466 A

  An object of the present invention is to provide a positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery, a positive electrode mixture for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery, and a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery having excellent battery characteristics even in a more severe use environment. There is to do.

  The present invention provides the following (1) to (8).

(1) A positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery having at least a lithium transition metal composite oxide having a layered structure,
The lithium transition metal composite oxide exists in the form of particles composed of one or both of primary particles and secondary particles that are aggregates thereof,
The primary particles have an aspect ratio of 1 to 1.8;
Having a compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine on at least the surface of the particles;
Positive electrode active material for non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery.

(2) A positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery having at least a lithium transition metal composite oxide having a layered structure,
The lithium transition metal composite oxide exists in the form of particles composed of one or both of primary particles and secondary particles that are aggregates thereof,
The primary particles have an aspect ratio of 1 to 1.8;
Having at least one compound selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine on at least the surface of the particles;
The lithium transition metal composite oxide is a volume-based particle size distribution curve,
A positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery, having a first peak and a second peak different from the first peak.

  (3) The positive electrode active material for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to (1) or (2), wherein the lithium transition metal composite oxide has a σlog of 0.2 or more in a volume-based particle size distribution curve.

  (4) The positive electrode active material for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to any one of (1) to (3), wherein the compound having molybdenum is lithium molybdate.

  (5) The positive electrode active material for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to (4), wherein the amount of the lithium molybdate is 0.1 to 2 mol% with respect to the lithium transition metal composite oxide.

  (6) Any of (1) to (5), wherein the lithium transition metal composite oxide is at least one selected from lithium cobaltate, lithium nickel cobaltate, nickel cobalt lithium aluminate and nickel cobalt lithium manganate A positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to claim 1.

(7) A positive electrode mixture for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery having a positive electrode active material having a lithium transition metal composite oxide having a layered structure and a conductive agent,
Having at least one compound selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine on at least the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide;
A positive electrode mixture for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising a compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine between the positive electrode active material and the conductive agent.

(8) A positive electrode active material layer using the positive electrode active material for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to any one of (1) to (6) as a positive electrode active material is formed on at least one surface of a strip-shaped positive electrode current collector. A belt-like positive electrode constituted by
A negative electrode active material layer using one kind selected from metallic lithium, a lithium alloy, a carbon material capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions, or a compound capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions as a negative electrode active material, A strip-shaped negative electrode formed by forming on at least one side;
A strip separator,
A spiral-type winding in which the strip-shaped positive electrode and the strip-shaped negative electrode are wound a plurality of times in a state of being laminated via the strip-shaped separator, and the strip-shaped separator is interposed between the strip-shaped positive electrode and the strip-shaped negative electrode A non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising a body.

If the electrode plate filling property is improved, the charge / discharge capacity per unit volume is improved, and the capacity of the battery can be increased. The electrode plate filling property can be improved by increasing the pressing pressure. However, when the press pressure is increased, the primary particles of the lithium transition metal composite oxide are pulverized.
Therefore, fine particles of lithium transition metal composite oxide having a broken crystal structure are generated, and the thermal stability is lowered. In addition, since the particle size is reduced and the desorption of oxygen due to heat is accelerated, the thermal stability is considered to be significantly reduced.
In addition, the contact between the conductive agent and the active material is deteriorated due to generation of fine particles of the lithium transition metal composite oxide. As a result, load characteristics and output characteristics are considered to deteriorate.

In the positive electrode active material according to (1), the lithium transition metal composite oxide has an aspect ratio of primary particles of 1 to 1.8, so that even when the press pressure is increased, fine particles are less likely to be generated. It is thought to suppress the elimination of This improves the thermal stability. Further, it is considered that fine particles are less likely to be generated, and the contact between the conductive agent and the active material is improved. This is considered to improve the load characteristics. In addition, the contact between the conductive agent and the active material is improved, and it is considered that electrons and ions are transferred smoothly. For this reason, the impedance is lowered and the output characteristics are improved.
Moreover, it is thought that electroconductivity improves by having the compound which has at least 1 sort (s) chosen from the group which consists of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron, and a fluorine on the surface of particle | grains. Thereby, initial characteristics are improved without impairing improvement in thermal stability, load characteristics and output characteristics.

In the positive electrode active material according to (2), the lithium transition metal composite oxide further has a first peak and a second peak different from the first peak in the volume-based particle size distribution curve. Small particles enter the voids of the particles and the electrode plate filling property is improved.
By satisfying these requirements, the electrode plate density can be improved without impairing the improvement of thermal stability, load characteristics, output characteristics and initial characteristics.

  In the positive electrode active material according to (3), the lithium transition metal composite oxide has a σlog of 0.25 or more in the volume-based particle size distribution curve, and primary particles are dispersed. The initial characteristics are further improved without impairing the improvement of the output characteristics and the electrode plate density.

  In the positive electrode active material described in (4), it is considered that the compound having molybdenum is lithium molybdate, whereby the conductivity of the lithium transition metal composite oxide is further improved by the conductivity of lithium molybdate. Thereby, initial characteristics are further improved without impairing improvements in thermal stability, load characteristics, output characteristics, and electrode plate density.

  In the positive electrode active material according to (5), the amount of lithium molybdate is 0.1 to 2 mol% with respect to the lithium transition metal composite oxide, so that the thermal stability can be achieved without reducing the discharge capacity. Initial characteristics, load characteristics, output characteristics and electrode plate density are improved.

In the positive electrode active material according to (6), when the lithium transition metal composite oxide is lithium cobaltate, the non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery using the positive electrode active material of the present invention can be used for a mobile phone, a laptop computer, etc. It can be particularly suitably used for applications.
When the lithium transition metal composite oxide is lithium nickel cobalt oxide, the nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery using the positive electrode active material of the present invention can be suitably used for applications such as mobile phones and laptop computers.
When the lithium transition metal composite oxide is nickel cobalt lithium aluminate, the nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery using the positive electrode active material of the present invention is preferably used for applications such as electric vehicles, mobile phones, and notebook computers. Can do.
When the lithium transition metal composite oxide is nickel cobalt lithium manganate, the nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery using the positive electrode active material of the present invention is preferably used for applications such as mobile phones, electric tools, and electric vehicles. Can do.

In the positive electrode mixture described in (7), having at least one compound selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine on at least the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide. Battery characteristics are improved.
In addition, by having a compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine between the lithium transition metal composite oxide and the conductive agent, the lithium transition metal composite oxide and the conductive agent It is thought that it becomes difficult to separate. Thereby, the application | coating characteristic to the electrical power collector of a positive mix is improved, without impairing the improvement of a battery characteristic.

  The nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to (8) includes a positive electrode active material layer using the positive electrode active material for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to any one of (1) to (6) as a positive electrode active material. 1 selected from a band-shaped positive electrode formed by forming on at least one surface of a band-shaped positive electrode current collector, metallic lithium, lithium alloy, a carbon material capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions, or a compound capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions. A negative electrode active material layer using a seed as a negative electrode active material is formed on at least one side of a band-shaped negative electrode current collector, and includes a band-shaped negative electrode and a band-shaped separator. A spiral wound body in which a belt-like separator is interposed between the belt-like positive electrode and the belt-like negative electrode is formed by winding a plurality of times in a state of being laminated. By comprising in this way, the nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery which is excellent in a battery characteristic and has very high charging / discharging capacity per unit volume can be obtained.

  Hereinafter, a positive electrode active material for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery, a positive electrode mixture for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery, and a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to the present invention will be described with reference to the embodiments, examples, and FIGS. I will explain. However, the present invention is not limited to this embodiment, examples, and FIGS.

The positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery of the present invention comprises at least a layered lithium transition metal composite oxide. The layered structure means that the crystal structure of the lithium transition metal composite oxide is layered.
FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing a crystal structure of a lithium transition metal composite oxide having a layered structure.
The layered structure is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include a layered rock salt structure and a zigzag layered rock salt structure. Among these, a layered rock salt structure is preferable.

  The lithium transition metal composite oxide having a layered structure is not particularly limited. For example, lithium cobaltate, lithium nickelate, lithium chromate, lithium vanadate, lithium manganate, lithium nickel cobaltate, nickel cobalt lithium manganate, nickel cobalt lithium aluminate. Preferable examples include lithium cobaltate, lithium nickel cobaltate, nickel cobalt lithium aluminate and nickel cobalt lithium manganate.

When the composition ratio of Li, Co, and O of lithium cobaltate is represented by the general formula Li x CoO y , x represents a number satisfying 0.95 ≦ x ≦ 1.10, and y is 1.8 ≦ y ≦ It is preferable to represent a number satisfying 2.2.
Li of lithium nickel cobaltate, Ni, when represents a composition ratio of Co and O in the general formula Li k Ni m Co p O r , k represents a number satisfying 0.95 ≦ k ≦ 1.10, m Represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ m ≦ 0.9, p represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ p ≦ 0.9, and r represents a number satisfying 1.8 ≦ r ≦ 2.2. Is preferred.
Nickel cobalt aluminate lithium Li, Ni, Co, when represents a composition ratio of Al and O in the general formula Li k Ni m Co p Al ( 1-m-p) O r, k is 0.95 ≦ k ≦ 1.10, m represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ m ≦ 0.9, p represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ p ≦ 0.9, and m + p represents m + p ≦ 1. It is preferable to represent a number that satisfies, and r represents a number that satisfies 1.8 ≦ r ≦ 2.2.
When the composition ratio of Li, Ni, Co, Mn, and O of lithium nickel cobalt manganate is expressed by the general formula Li k Ni m Co p Mn (1-mp) O r , k is 0.95 ≦ k ≦ 1.10, m represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ m ≦ 0.9, p represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ p ≦ 0.9, and m + p represents m + p ≦ 1. It is preferable to represent a number that satisfies, and r represents a number that satisfies 1.8 ≦ r ≦ 2.2.

  In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the lithium transition metal composite oxide is present in the form of particles. Specifically, the lithium transition metal composite oxide exists in the form of particles composed of one or both of primary particles and secondary particles that are aggregates thereof. That is, the lithium transition metal composite oxide exists in the form of particles, and the particles may be composed only of primary particles, or may be composed only of secondary particles that are aggregates of primary particles. It may consist of both particles and secondary particles. Here, the primary particle refers to a particle configured to reflect the crystal form of the lithium transition metal composite oxide. The secondary particles are particles formed by aggregation or sintering of the primary particles.

In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the aspect ratio of the primary particles is 1 to 1.8.
In the present invention, the aspect ratio is determined as follows.
One lithium transition metal composite oxide having an average particle diameter is selected from among the numerous particles of the lithium transition metal composite oxide according to the present invention. The cross-section is performed until the cross-sectional image of the selected lithium transition metal composite oxide has the maximum particle size. The method of extracting the cross section can be performed by a method of processing with FIB. The particle cross-sectional image is taken using a SIM.
As shown in FIG. 6, a plurality of (for example, 10, 20, 50, 100, etc.) primary particle images are extracted at random from the SIM image. For each primary particle image, a (the longest diameter of the particle image) and b (the maximum diameter perpendicular to a) are obtained, the value of a is divided by the value of b, and the average value of the values is the aspect ratio. And
The aspect ratio of the primary particles is preferably 1.5 or less, and more preferably 1.3 or less. If the aspect ratio is too large, fine powder is likely to be generated during pressing, and thermal stability and load characteristics are deteriorated.

The positive electrode active material of the present invention has a compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine on at least the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide particles.
The compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine may be present at least on the surface of the particles. Therefore, a part of the compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine may be present inside the particles.
Whether or not the compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine is present on the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide particles can be analyzed by various methods. For example, it can be analyzed by an electron beam microanalyzer, Auger electron spectroscopy, or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Various methods can be used for quantifying the compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine. For example, it can be quantified by ICP emission spectrometry or titration.

  In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron, and fluorine is present in any form on the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide particles. Also exhibits the effects of the present invention. For example, even when the compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron, and fluorine covers the entire particle surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide, molybdenum, vanadium, Even when the compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of tungsten, boron and fluorine covers a part of the particle surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide, the effect of the present invention is exhibited.

In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the lithium transition metal composite oxide has a first peak and a second peak different from the first peak in the volume-based particle size distribution curve. In the present invention, the “peak” means a peak of a volume-based particle size distribution curve, and includes a peak whose tangent slope tan θ of the volume-based particle size distribution curve is 0 ± 0.1. That is, when a volume-based particle size distribution curve having approximately the same numerical value follows the shoulder portion of one distinct peak, this portion is also regarded as one peak.
In the volume-based particle size distribution curve, the first peak preferably has a particle diameter of 0.5 to 10 μm. The second peak is preferably between 5 and 20 μm in particle size. Since the first peak and the second peak are respectively between these particle diameters, the electrode plate density is further improved.

In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the lithium transition metal composite oxide preferably has a σ log of 0.2 or more in the volume-based particle size distribution curve.
σlog is more preferably 0.25 or more. If σlog is too small, the number of voids increases and the electrode plate density is not improved.

  In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the compound having at least the surface of the particle is preferably a compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten and boron. More preferably, it is a compound containing molybdenum.

  In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the compound having molybdenum is preferably lithium molybdate. The lithium molybdate is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include lithium orthomolybdate, lithium paramolybdate, lithium peroxomolybdate, and lithium isopolymolybdate.

  In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the boron-containing compound is preferably lithium borate. The lithium borate is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include lithium metaborate, lithium tetraborate, lithium pentaborate, and lithium peroxoborate.

In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the amount of lithium molybdate is preferably 0.1 to 2 mol% with respect to the lithium transition metal composite oxide. The amount is more preferably 0.3 mol% or more, and more preferably 1.5 mol% or less.
When there is too much quantity of lithium molybdate, charging / discharging capacity will fall. If the amount of lithium molybdate is too small, battery characteristics are not improved.

  In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the following (i) to (iii) are mentioned as preferred embodiments of the lithium transition metal composite oxide.

  (I) An embodiment in which the lithium transition metal composite oxide is lithium cobalt oxide containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of titanium, aluminum, vanadium, zirconium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and sulfur.

The presence of these elements is considered to cause a pillar effect and to improve the cycle characteristics by stabilizing the crystal structure. Moreover, it is thought that cycling characteristics improve by surface modification.
More preferably, it contains titanium and / or zirconium. By including titanium and / or zirconium, the cycle characteristics are further improved.
In addition to these effects, the thermal stability is further improved by including magnesium.

In the aspect (i), since the passage of electrons is improved by the presence of sulfur, it is considered that the cycle characteristics and the load characteristics are further improved.
The sulfur content is preferably 0.03 to 0.7% by weight based on the total of the lithium transition metal composite oxide and sulfur. If it is less than 0.03% by weight, it may be difficult to reduce the resistance to movement of electrons. If it is more than 0.7% by weight, gas generation may occur due to moisture adsorption.

In embodiment (i), sulfur may be present in any form. For example, it may exist in the form of sulfate radicals.
The sulfate radical includes sulfate ions, a group of atoms obtained by removing the electrons from sulfate ions, and a sulfo group. It is preferably based on at least one selected from the group consisting of alkali metal sulfates, alkaline earth metal sulfates, organic sulfates and organic sulfonic acids and salts thereof.
Among them, it is preferable to use at least one selected from the group consisting of alkali metal sulfates and alkaline earth metal sulfates, and more preferable to use alkali metal sulfates. This is because these are chemically stable because they are composed of strong acid strong base bonds.

In the embodiment (i), the sulfate radical is preferably present on the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide particles. By having sulfate radicals on the surface of the particles, it is considered that the sulfate radicals can easily pass electrons. Therefore, load characteristics are further improved.
Even when the sulfate radical covers the entire particle surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide, or even when the sulfate radical covers a part of the particle surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide. Further, load characteristics are improved.

In the embodiment (i), when the composition ratio of Li, Co, and O of lithium cobaltate is represented by the general formula Li x CoO y , x represents a number satisfying 0.95 ≦ x ≦ 1.10. Preferably represents a number satisfying 1.8 ≦ y ≦ 2.2.

(Ii) The lithium transition metal composite oxide is at least selected from the group consisting of Li a Co 1- b MbO c Xd S e (M is Ti, Al, V, Zr, Mg, Ca and Sr) X represents at least one element selected from halogen elements, a represents a number satisfying 0.95 ≦ a ≦ 1.10, and b represents a number satisfying 0 ≦ b ≦ 0.10. C represents a number satisfying 1.8 ≦ c ≦ 2.2, d represents a number satisfying 0 ≦ d ≦ 0.10, and e represents a number satisfying 0 ≦ e ≦ 0.015.) An embodiment represented by
Preferred for the same reason as in embodiment (i).

  (Iii) Lithium transition metal composite oxide, at least one element selected from the group consisting of titanium, aluminum, vanadium, zirconium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and sulfur, lithium nickel cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt lithium aluminate And an embodiment that is lithium nickel cobalt manganate.

The presence of these elements is considered to cause a pillar effect and to improve the cycle characteristics by stabilizing the crystal structure. Moreover, it is thought that cycling characteristics improve by surface modification.
More preferably, it contains titanium and / or zirconium. By including titanium and / or zirconium, the cycle characteristics are further improved.
In addition to these effects, the thermal stability is further improved by including magnesium.

In the embodiment (iii), it is considered that the cycle characteristics and the load characteristics are further improved because the passage of electrons is improved by the presence of sulfur.
The sulfur content is preferably 0.03 to 0.7% by weight based on the total of the lithium transition metal composite oxide and sulfur. If it is less than 0.03% by weight, it may be difficult to reduce the resistance to movement of electrons. If it is more than 0.7% by weight, gas generation may occur due to moisture adsorption.

In embodiment (iii), sulfur may be present in any form. For example, it may exist in the form of sulfate radicals.
The sulfate radical includes sulfate ions, a group of atoms obtained by removing the electrons from sulfate ions, and a sulfo group. It is preferably based on at least one selected from the group consisting of alkali metal sulfates, alkaline earth metal sulfates, organic sulfates and organic sulfonic acids and salts thereof.
Among them, it is preferable to use at least one selected from the group consisting of alkali metal sulfates and alkaline earth metal sulfates, and more preferable to use alkali metal sulfates. This is because these are chemically stable because they are composed of strong acid strong base bonds.

In the embodiment (iii), the sulfate group is preferably present on the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide particles. By having sulfate radicals on the surface of the particles, it is considered that the sulfate radicals can easily pass electrons. Therefore, load characteristics are further improved.
Even when the sulfate radical covers the entire particle surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide, or even when the sulfate radical covers a part of the particle surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide. Further, load characteristics are improved.

Embodiments in (iii), when expressed Li of lithium nickel cobaltate, Ni, a composition ratio of Co and O in the general formula Li k Ni m Co p O r , k is 0.95 ≦ k ≦ 1.10 M represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ m ≦ 0.9, p represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ p ≦ 0.9, and r represents 1.8 ≦ r ≦ 2. It is preferable to represent a number satisfying 2.

In the embodiment (iii), when the composition ratio of Li, Ni, Co, Al, and O of nickel cobalt lithium aluminate is represented by the general formula Li k Ni m Co p Al (1-mp) O r , k represents a number satisfying 0.95 ≦ k ≦ 1.10, m represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ m ≦ 0.9, and p represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ p ≦ 0.9. , M + p represents a number satisfying m + p ≦ 1, and r preferably represents a number satisfying 1.8 ≦ r ≦ 2.2.

In the embodiment (iii), when the composition ratio of Li, Ni, Co, Mn, and O of lithium nickel cobalt manganate is represented by the general formula Li k Ni m Co p Mn (1-mp) O r , k represents a number satisfying 0.95 ≦ k ≦ 1.10, m represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ m ≦ 0.9, and p represents a number satisfying 0.1 ≦ p ≦ 0.9. , M + p represents a number satisfying m + p ≦ 1, and r preferably represents a number satisfying 1.8 ≦ r ≦ 2.2.

  In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the lithium transition metal composite oxide may be a mixture of lithium nickel cobaltate and nickel cobalt lithium aluminate, or a mixture of lithium nickel cobaltate and nickel cobalt lithium manganate, It may be a mixture of nickel cobalt lithium aluminate and nickel cobalt lithium manganate. Moreover, the mixture of these and lithium cobaltate may be sufficient.

Nickel cobalt lithium, nickel cobalt lithium lithium and nickel cobalt lithium manganate have a layered crystal structure similar to lithium cobalt oxide. However, there is a drawback that a large amount of gas is generated as compared with lithium cobalt oxide.
In the present invention, gas is generated by having zirconium and magnesium on the surface of at least one lithium transition metal complex oxide selected from the group consisting of lithium nickel cobaltate, nickel cobalt lithium aluminate, and nickel cobalt lithium manganate. Can be prevented, and high-temperature cycle characteristics and high-temperature storage characteristics can be improved. By having zirconium and magnesium on the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide, it is considered that residual lithium is reduced and gas generation can be prevented. Also, the output characteristics are improved.
As described above, the lithium transition metal composite oxide is preferably present in the form of particles.

  In the positive electrode active material of the present invention, the proportion of particles having a volume-based particle diameter of 50 μm or more of the lithium transition metal composite oxide is preferably 10% by volume or less of the total particles. By being a positive electrode active material within this range, it is possible to improve coating characteristics and slurry properties without impairing improvement in cycle characteristics and thermal stability of a high charge potential.

  Although the manufacturing method of the positive electrode active material of this invention is not specifically limited, For example, it can manufacture as follows (1) and (2) and also (3).

(1) Preparation of raw material mixture The compounds described later are mixed so that each constituent element has a predetermined composition ratio to obtain a raw material mixture. The compound used for the raw material mixture is selected according to the elements constituting the target composition.
The mixing method is not particularly limited, for example, a method of mixing in a slurry form using water and / or an organic solvent, and then drying to obtain a raw material mixture; A method of drying the resulting precipitate to obtain a raw material mixture; a method of using these together.

Below, the compound used for a raw material mixture is illustrated.
Lithium compound is not particularly limited, for example, Li 2 CO 3, LiOH, LiOH · H 2 O, Li 2 O, LiCl, LiNO 3, Li 2 SO 4, LiHCO 3, Li (CH 3 COO), fluoride Examples include lithium, lithium bromide, lithium iodide, and lithium peroxide. Among these, Li 2 CO 3 , LiOH, LiOH · H 2 O, Li 2 O, LiCl, LiNO 3 , Li 2 SO 4 , LiHCO 3 , and Li (CH 3 COO) are preferable.

The cobalt compound is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include cobalt oxide, cobalt hydroxide, cobalt carbonate, cobalt chloride, cobalt iodide, cobalt sulfate, cobalt bromate, and cobalt nitrate. Among these, CoSO 4 · 7H 2 O and Co (NO 3 ) 2 · 6H 2 O are preferable.

The nickel compound is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include nickel oxide, nickel hydroxide, nickel carbonate, nickel chloride, nickel bromide, nickel iodide, nickel sulfate, nickel nitrate, and nickel formate. Among these, NiSO 4 · 6H 2 O and Ni (NO 3 ) 2 · 6H 2 O are preferable.

The aluminum compound is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include aluminum oxide, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum carbonate, aluminum chloride, aluminum iodide, aluminum sulfate, and aluminum nitrate. Among these, Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , Al (NO 3 ) 3 , Al 2 O 3 , and Al (OH) 3 are preferable.

The manganese compound is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include manganese oxide, manganese hydroxide, manganese carbonate, manganese chloride, manganese iodide, manganese sulfate, and manganese nitrate. Among these, MnSO 4 and MnCl 2 are preferable.

Although a sulfur containing compound is not specifically limited, For example, sulfide, sulfur iodide, hydrogen sulfide, a sulfuric acid, its salt, and nitrogen sulfide are mentioned. Among these, Li 2 SO 4 , MnSO 4 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , and MgSO 4 are preferable.

The compound containing a halogen element is not particularly limited. For example, hydrogen fluoride, oxygen fluoride, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen chloride, hydrochloric acid, chlorine oxide, fluorinated chlorine oxide, bromine oxide, bromine fluorosulfate, hydrogen iodide , Iodine oxide, and periodic acid. Among these, NH 4 F, NH 4 Cl, NH 4 Br, NH 4 I, LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, MnF 2 , MnCl 2 , MnBr 2 , and MnI 2 are preferable.

Magnesium compound is not particularly limited, for example, MgO, MgCO 3, Mg ( OH) 2, MgCl 2, MgSO 4, Mg (NO 3) 2, Mg (CH 3 COO) 2, magnesium iodide, perchlorate Examples include magnesium. Among these, MgSO 4 and Mg (NO 3 ) 2 are preferable.

The titanium compound is not particularly limited. Examples thereof include titanium fluoride, titanium chloride, titanium bromide, titanium iodide, titanium oxide, titanium sulfide, and titanium sulfate. Of these, TiO, TiO 2 , Ti 2 O 3 , TiCl 2 , and Ti (SO 4 ) 2 are preferable.

The zirconium compound is not particularly limited. Examples thereof include zirconium fluoride, zirconium chloride, zirconium bromide, zirconium iodide, zirconium oxide, zirconium sulfide, zirconium carbonate and the like. Of these, ZrF 2 , ZrCl, ZrCl 2 , ZrBr 2 , ZrI 2 , ZrO, ZrO 2 , ZrS 2 , Zr (OH) 3 and the like are preferable.

The molybdenum compound is not particularly limited. For example, molybdenum oxide, lithium molybdate, molybdenum chloride, molybdenum fluoride, sodium molybdate, ammonium molybdate, and the like can be given. Of these, molybdenum oxide is preferable. More preferably, it is MnO 3 .
Moreover, you may use the compound containing 2 or more types of each element mentioned above.

Below, the suitable method of obtaining a raw material mixture is demonstrated concretely.
(I) Prepared from the cobalt compound, zirconium compound and magnesium compound described above. An aqueous solution containing cobalt ions, zirconium ions and magnesium ions having a predetermined composition ratio is dropped into pure water being stirred.
Next, an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution is added dropwise so that the pH is 7 to 11, and the mixture is stirred at 40 to 80 ° C. and at a rotational speed of 500 to 1500 rpm to obtain precipitates of cobalt, zirconium and magnesium. Instead of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution, an alkaline solution such as an ammonium hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution, a sodium hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution, a potassium hydroxide aqueous solution, or a lithium hydroxide aqueous solution can also be used.

  Next, the aqueous solution is filtered to collect a precipitate. The collected precipitate is washed with water and heat-treated, and then mixed with the above-described molybdenum compound and lithium compound to obtain a raw material mixture.

(Ii) Prepared from the cobalt compound, nickel compound, manganese compound, zirconium compound and magnesium compound described above. An aqueous solution containing cobalt ions, nickel ions, manganese ions, zirconium ions and magnesium ions having a predetermined composition ratio is dropped into pure water being stirred.
A sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is dripped here so that it may become pH 8-11, and it stirs at 40-80 degreeC and rotation speed 500-1500 rpm, and obtains the deposit of cobalt, nickel, manganese, a zirconium, and magnesium. Instead of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution, an alkaline solution such as an ammonium hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution, a sodium hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution, a potassium hydroxide aqueous solution, or a lithium hydroxide aqueous solution can also be used.

  Next, the aqueous solution is filtered to collect a precipitate. The collected precipitate is washed with water and heat-treated, and then mixed with the above-described molybdenum compound and lithium compound to obtain a raw material mixture.

(2) Firing and grinding of raw material mixture Next, the raw material mixture is fired. The firing temperature, time, atmosphere, and the like are not particularly limited, and can be appropriately determined according to the purpose.
The firing temperature is preferably 700 ° C. or higher, more preferably 800 ° C. or higher, and further preferably 850 ° C. or higher. If the firing temperature is too low, unreacted raw materials may remain in the positive electrode active material, and the original characteristics of the positive electrode active material may not be utilized. The firing temperature is preferably 1200 ° C or lower, more preferably 1150 ° C or lower, and further preferably 1100 ° C or lower. If the firing temperature is too high, by-products are likely to be generated, resulting in a decrease in discharge capacity per unit weight, a decrease in cycle characteristics, and a decrease in operating voltage.
The firing time is preferably 1 hour or longer, and more preferably 6 hours or longer. Within the above range, the diffusion reaction between the particles of the mixture proceeds sufficiently.
The firing time is preferably 36 hours or less, and more preferably 30 hours or less. When it is within the above range, the synthesis proceeds sufficiently.

  Examples of the firing atmosphere include air, oxygen gas, a mixed gas of these with an inert gas such as nitrogen gas and argon gas, an atmosphere in which the oxygen concentration (oxygen partial pressure) is controlled, and a weak oxidizing atmosphere.

  After firing, if desired, the powder may be pulverized using a rough mortar, ball mill, vibration mill, pin mill, jet mill or the like to obtain a powder having a desired particle size.

(3) Treatment after firing and grinding

In order to produce the positive electrode active material described in (2) above, the following steps are further performed.
The obtained fired product and pulverized product are pressed at 1 to 10 ton / cm 2 . The pressing method is not particularly limited. For example, a uniaxial press, a biaxial press, a ship press, a rolling molding, etc. can be raised. The number of presses is not particularly limited.

  The positive electrode active material of the present invention can be obtained by the manufacturing method described above. The positive electrode active material of the present invention is suitably used for the positive electrode mixture of the present invention and the nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery described later.

Hereinafter, a specific method for producing the positive electrode active material of the present invention will be described.
An aqueous solution containing cobalt ions and nickel ions having a predetermined composition ratio is dropped into pure water being stirred. Here, a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is dropped so that pH = 9, and cobalt and nickel are precipitated at 80 ° C. and a rotational speed of 650 rpm to obtain a precipitate of cobalt and nickel. The resulting precipitate is filtered, washed with water, heat-treated, mixed with molybdenum oxide, aluminum oxide and lithium hydroxide monohydrate, and calcined at about 750 ° C. for about 10 hours in an air atmosphere. This is pulverized to obtain a positive electrode active material.
The composition ratio of the obtained positive electrode active material is 1.04 for Li, 0.7 for Ni, 0.2 for Co, 0.1 for Al, and 0.01 for Mo.

An aqueous solution containing cobalt ions, nickel ions and manganese ions having a predetermined composition ratio is dropped into pure water being stirred. Here, a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution is dropped so that pH = 9, and cobalt, nickel and manganese are precipitated to obtain a precipitate of cobalt, nickel and manganese. The resulting precipitate is filtered, washed with water, heat treated, mixed with molybdenum oxide and lithium carbonate, and baked at about 950 ° C. for about 10 hours in an air atmosphere. This is pulverized to obtain a positive electrode active material.
The composition ratio of the positive electrode active material obtained is 1.04 for Li, 0.33 for Ni, 0.33 for Co, 0.33 for Mn, and 0.01 for Mo.

Next, the positive electrode mixture of the present invention will be described.
The positive electrode mixture of the present invention has at least a positive electrode active material having a lithium transition metal composite oxide having a layered structure and a conductive agent.
The positive electrode active material used for the positive electrode mixture of the present invention is the above-described positive electrode active material of the present invention.

In the positive electrode mixture of the present invention, the conductive agent is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include carbon materials such as graphite such as Tennobu graphite and artificial graphite, carbon black such as acetylene black, and amorphous carbon such as needle coast. .
Acetylene black and / or artificial graphite are preferable. Since these are excellent in conductivity, cycle characteristics and load characteristics are further improved.

In the positive electrode mixture of the present invention, “between” means between the conductive agent in contact with the lithium transition metal composite oxide.
In the present invention, the positive electrode mixture is not only a paste-like material composed of a positive electrode active material, a conductive agent, a binder, and a solvent for the binder, but also after being applied to the positive electrode current collector and then dried. This includes a state after the solvent is skipped.
In the positive electrode mixture, it is present on at least the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide and between the positive electrode active material and the conductive agent is at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium and tungsten. preferable.
In the positive electrode mixture, the compound having molybdenum is not particularly limited. The molybdenum compound is preferably lithium molybdate. The lithium molybdate is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include lithium orthomolybdate, lithium paramolybdate, lithium peroxomolybdate, and lithium isopolymolybdate.

  By using the positive electrode active material of the present invention described above, the positive electrode mixture of the present invention improves the coating properties to the current collector without impairing the effect of each positive electrode active material. Thereby, battery characteristics are improved, and a positive electrode mixture with improved coating characteristics is obtained.

  Although the manufacturing method of the positive electrode mixture of the present invention is not particularly limited, for example, it can be manufactured as follows.

(1) Production of positive electrode active material A positive electrode active material can be obtained by the method for producing a positive electrode active material of the present invention described above.

(2) Preparation of positive electrode mixture The positive electrode active material powder is mixed with a carbon-based conductive agent such as acetylene black and graphite, a binder, and a binder solvent or dispersion medium. To prepare.

The positive electrode active material and the positive electrode mixture of the present invention are suitably used for nonaqueous electrolyte secondary batteries such as lithium ion secondary batteries and lithium ion polymer secondary batteries.
That is, the nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery of the present invention is a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery using the positive electrode active material of the present invention. The non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery of the present invention only needs to use the positive electrode active material of the present invention as at least a part of the positive electrode active material.
Hereinafter, a lithium ion secondary battery will be described as an example.

  As the negative electrode active material, metallic lithium, a lithium alloy, a carbon material capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions, or a compound capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions can be used. Examples of the lithium alloy include a LiAl alloy, a LiSn alloy, and a LiPb alloy. Examples of the carbon material capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions include carbon materials such as graphite and graphite. Examples of the compound capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions include oxides such as tin oxide and titanium oxide.

The electrolyte is not particularly limited as long as it is a compound that is not altered or decomposed by the operating voltage. The electrolyte includes an electrolytic solution.
Examples of the solvent for the electrolyte include dimethoxyethane, diethoxyethane, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, methyl formate, γ-butyrolactone, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethyl sulfoxide, sulfolane, and the like. These organic solvents are mentioned. These can be used alone or in admixture of two or more.

Examples of the lithium salt of the electrolytic solution include lithium salts such as lithium perchlorate, lithium tetrafluoroborate, lithium hexafluorophosphate, and lithium trifluoromethanoate.
The above-described solvent and lithium salt are mixed to obtain an electrolytic solution. Here, a gelling agent or the like may be added and used as a gel. Moreover, you may make it absorb and use for the polymer which has liquid absorptivity.
Further, a solid electrolyte having conductivity of inorganic or organic lithium ions may be used.

  Examples of the separator include a porous film made of polyethylene or polypropylene.

  Examples of the binder include polyvinylidene fluoride, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyamide acrylic resin, and the like.

Using the positive electrode active material of the present invention and the above-described negative electrode active material, electrolyte, separator, and binder, a lithium ion secondary battery can be obtained according to a conventional method.
Thereby, the outstanding battery characteristic which was not able to be achieved conventionally is realizable.

  By using lithium manganate as the positive electrode active material together with the positive electrode active material of the present invention, not only the cycle characteristics, load characteristics and thermal stability are improved, but also the non-aqueous electrolyte having excellent overcharge characteristics and safety. A secondary battery can be obtained.

Represented by the general formula Li a Mn 3−a O 4 + f (a represents a number satisfying 0.8 ≦ a ≦ 1.2, and f represents a number satisfying −0.5 ≦ f ≦ 0.5). Lithium manganate is preferred. The lithium manganate is selected from the group consisting of magnesium, aluminum, calcium, vanadium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, strontium, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, boron and tin. It may be substituted with at least one selected from the above.

  The lithium manganate used together with the positive electrode active material of the present invention is a positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery having at least a lithium transition metal composite oxide having a spinel structure. The following (i) to (vii) are mentioned as preferred embodiments of the lithium transition metal composite oxide.

(I) the general formula Li 1 + a Mg b Ti c Mn 2-a-b-c B d O 4 + e (a represents a number satisfying -0.2 ≦ a ≦ 0.2, b is 0.005 ≦ b ≦ 0.10 represents a number satisfying 0.10, c represents a number satisfying 0.005 ≦ c ≦ 0.05, d represents a number satisfying 0.002 ≦ d ≦ 0.02, and e represents −0.5 ≦ e represents a number satisfying e ≦ 0.5.)

Aspect (i) is excellent in cycle characteristics, high temperature cycle characteristics and load characteristics.
In embodiment (i), a is preferably greater than 0. It is considered that the cycle characteristics are improved by substituting a part of manganese with lithium.
In the embodiment (i), b is preferably 0.01 or more, more preferably 0.02 or more, and preferably 0.08 or less, and 0.07 or less. More preferred. If b is too large, + 3-valent manganese ions decrease, and the charge / discharge capacity decreases. If b is too small, elution of transition metal ions increases and gas generation occurs, so that the high temperature characteristics deteriorate.
In the embodiment (i), c is preferably 0.01 or more, more preferably 0.02 or more, and preferably 0.08 or less, and 0.07 or less. More preferred. When c is too large, the charge / discharge efficiency decreases. If c is too small, sufficient load characteristics and cycle characteristics cannot be obtained.
In the embodiment (i), d is preferably 0.003 or more, and is preferably 0.008 or less. If d is too large, the initial capacity decreases. In addition, the elution of transition metal ions increases, causing gas generation, resulting in deterioration of high temperature characteristics. If d is too small, the primary particle size does not grow, and the particle packing property is not improved.

  (Ii) An embodiment in which the lithium transition metal composite oxide is a lithium manganese composite oxide having at least one selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium and hafnium.

  By having at least one selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium, the lattice constant of the unit cell of the lithium manganese composite oxide particle increases, the mobility of lithium ions in the particle increases, and the impedance decreases. I think it can be done. For this reason, it is thought that output characteristics improve, without impairing improvement of cycling characteristics and high temperature cycling characteristics.

(Iii) The aspect in which the lithium transition metal composite oxide is a lithium manganese composite oxide having at least one selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium and hafnium and sulfur.

In the embodiment (iii), it is considered that the cycle characteristics and the load characteristics are further improved since the passage of electrons is improved by the presence of sulfur.
The sulfur content is preferably 0.03 to 0.3% by weight based on the total of the lithium transition metal composite oxide and sulfur. If it is less than 0.03% by weight, it may be difficult to reduce the resistance to movement of electrons. If it exceeds 0.3% by weight, the battery may swell due to moisture adsorption.

Sulfur may be present in any form. For example, it may exist in the form of sulfate radicals.
The sulfate radical includes sulfate ions, a group of atoms obtained by removing the charge from sulfate ions, and sulfo groups. It is preferably based on at least one selected from the group consisting of alkali metal sulfates, alkaline earth metal sulfates, organic sulfates and organic sulfonic acids and salts thereof.
Among them, it is preferable to use at least one selected from the group consisting of alkali metal sulfates and alkaline earth metal sulfates, and more preferable to use alkali metal sulfates. This is because these are chemically stable because they are composed of strong acid strong base bonds.

In aspect (iii), the reason for containing elements other than sulfur is the same as in aspect (ii).
In the embodiment (iii), by containing each of the above elements, a positive electrode plate having a high charge / discharge capacity and excellent binding properties and surface smoothness can be obtained due to the synergistic effect of each element. .

The lithium transition metal composite oxide may have a sulfate group at least on the surface of the particle.
The presence of the sulfate radical on the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide particle makes the electron transfer resistance around the particle extremely small, and as a result, the ease of passing electrons is improved, and the cycle characteristics and load characteristics are improved. It is thought to improve.
In addition, when the positive electrode active material of the present invention is used to form a high voltage battery (for example, a battery using LiMn 1.5 Ni 0.5 O 4 as a lithium transition metal composite oxide), there is a problem in the conventional high voltage battery. Thus, the decomposition of the electrolyte during charging is suppressed, and as a result, the cycle characteristics are improved. The electrolyte decomposition reaction is thought to occur as a catalyst at the interface between the lithium transition metal composite oxide particles and the electrolyte, but the lithium transition is caused by sulfate radicals that do not function to decompose the electrolyte. By covering all or part of the surface of the metal composite oxide particles, it is considered that the contact area between the electrolyte and the catalyst is reduced, and the above reaction is suppressed.

  In the present invention, the sulfate group exhibits the effect of the present invention regardless of the form of the sulfate group present on the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide particles. For example, even when the sulfate radical covers the entire particle surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide, the sulfate radical covers a part of the particle surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide. However, cycle characteristics and load characteristics are improved.

Moreover, the sulfate radical should just exist in the surface of particle | grains at least. Therefore, a part of the sulfate radical may exist inside the particle.
Whether or not the sulfate radical is present on the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide particles can be analyzed by various methods. For example, it can be analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Moreover, various methods can be used for the determination of sulfate radicals. For example, it can be quantified by ICP emission spectrometry or titration.

  (Iv) An embodiment in which the lithium transition metal composite oxide is a lithium manganese composite oxide having at least one selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium and hafnium, sulfur, sodium and / or calcium.

In the embodiment (iv), by containing sodium and / or calcium, elution of manganese ions can be further suppressed by a synergistic effect with boron (preferably boron and sulfur), and the practical level is excellent. Cycle characteristics can be realized.
In embodiment (iv), the reason for containing an element other than sodium and / or calcium is the same as in embodiment (ii) and (iii).

  (V) An embodiment in which the lithium transition metal composite oxide is a lithium manganese composite oxide having aluminum and / or magnesium.

  When aluminum and / or magnesium are contained, the crystal structure is stabilized, so that the storage characteristics, load characteristics, and output characteristics are not impaired, and the cycle characteristics are excellent, and the swelling of the battery is further suppressed. it can.

  (Vi) An embodiment in which the lithium transition metal composite oxide is a lithium manganese composite oxide having aluminum and / or magnesium and boron.

  Boron acts as a flux, promotes crystal growth, and further improves cycle characteristics and storage characteristics.

(Vii) The lithium transition metal composite oxide has a general formula of Li 1 + a M b Mn 2- abB c O 4 + d (M represents aluminum and / or magnesium, and a represents −0.2 ≦ a ≦ 0.2. B represents a number satisfying 0 ≦ b ≦ 0.2, c represents a number satisfying 0 ≦ c ≦ 0.02, and d satisfied −0.5 ≦ d ≦ 0.5. A mode represented by a number).

Aspect (vii) is excellent in cycle characteristics, load characteristics, storage characteristics, and charge / discharge capacity, and has less battery swelling.
In embodiment (vii), a is preferably greater than 0. It is considered that the cycle characteristics are improved by substituting a part of manganese with lithium.
In the embodiment (vii), b is preferably larger than 0, more preferably 0.05 or more. When aluminum and / or magnesium is contained, the crystal structure is stabilized, so that the storage characteristics, load characteristics, and output characteristics are not impaired, and the cycle characteristics are excellent, and the swelling of the battery is further suppressed. it can. b is preferably 0.15 or less. When b is too large, the discharge capacity decreases.
In the embodiment (vii), c is preferably larger than 0, and more preferably 0.001 or more. Boron acts as a flux, promotes crystal growth, and further improves cycle characteristics and storage characteristics. c is preferably 0.01 or less. If c is too large, the cycle characteristics deteriorate.

  The production method of the lithium manganate used together with the positive electrode active material of the present invention is not particularly limited, and can be produced, for example, as follows.

A compound is mixed so that each constituent element has a predetermined composition ratio to obtain a raw material mixture. The compound used for the raw material mixture is selected according to the elements constituting the target composition.
The mixing method is not particularly limited, for example, a method of mixing powdery compounds as they are to obtain a raw material mixture; mixing in a slurry form using water and / or an organic solvent, and then drying to obtain a raw material mixture Method: A method in which an aqueous solution of the above-mentioned compound is mixed and precipitated, and the resulting precipitate is dried to obtain a raw material mixture; a method in which these are used in combination.
Next, the raw material mixture is fired to obtain lithium manganate. The firing temperature, time, atmosphere, and the like are not particularly limited, and can be appropriately determined according to the purpose.
After firing, if desired, the powder may be pulverized using a rough mortar, ball mill, vibration mill, pin mill, jet mill or the like to obtain a powder having a desired particle size.

A preferred method for producing a positive electrode using the positive electrode active material of the present invention will be described below.
A positive electrode mixture is prepared by mixing the positive electrode active material powder of the present invention with a carbon-based conductive agent such as acetylene black and graphite, a binder, and a binder solvent or dispersion medium. The obtained positive electrode mixture is made into a slurry or a kneaded product, applied to or supported on a band-shaped current collector such as an aluminum foil, and press-rolled to form a positive electrode active material layer on the band-shaped current collector.
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the positive electrode. As shown in FIG. 2, the positive electrode 13 is obtained by holding the positive electrode active material 5 on the strip-shaped current collector 12 with the binder 4.

It is considered that the positive electrode active material of the present invention is excellent in mixing with the conductive agent powder and has a low internal resistance of the battery. Accordingly, the charge / discharge characteristics, particularly the discharge capacity, are excellent.
In addition, the positive electrode mixture of the present invention has excellent fluidity when kneaded with the binder, and is easily entangled with the binder polymer and has excellent binding properties.
Furthermore, since the positive electrode active material of the present invention does not contain coarse particles and is spherical, the surface of the coating film surface of the produced positive electrode has excellent smoothness. For this reason, the coating film surface of a positive electrode plate is excellent in binding property, and becomes difficult to peel off. In addition, since the surface is smooth and lithium ions are uniformly introduced and exited on the surface of the coating film accompanying charging / discharging, the cycle characteristics are remarkably improved.

  By forming the positive electrode active material layer using the positive electrode active material of the present invention as the positive electrode active material on each side of the strip-shaped positive electrode current collector, and forming the negative electrode active material on each side of the strip-shaped negative electrode current collector A nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery having a higher charge / discharge capacity can be obtained without impairing the battery characteristics of the present invention.

The shape of the lithium ion secondary battery is not particularly limited, and may be a cylindrical shape, a coin shape, a square shape, a laminate shape, or the like.
FIG. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a cylindrical battery. As shown in FIG. 3, in the cylindrical battery 20, the positive electrode 13 in which the positive electrode active material layer is formed on the current collector 12, and the negative electrode 11 in which the negative electrode active material layer is formed on the current collector 12. Are repeatedly laminated via the separator 14.
FIG. 4 is a schematic partial cross-sectional view of a coin-type battery. As shown in FIG. 4, in the coin-type battery 30, the positive electrode 13 in which the positive electrode active material layer is formed on the current collector 12 and the negative electrode 11 are stacked via the separator 14.
FIG. 5 is a schematic perspective view of a prismatic battery. As shown in FIG. 5, in the square battery 40, the positive electrode 13 in which the positive electrode active material layer is formed on the current collector 12, and the negative electrode 11 in which the negative electrode active material layer is formed on the current collector 12. However, they are repeatedly laminated via the separator 14.

A nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery having a positive electrode, a negative electrode, a separator, and a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the following I is used as a positive electrode active material of the positive electrode and the following II is used as a negative electrode active material of the negative electrode Can do.
I: Lithium transition metal composite oxide used for the positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to the present invention, and a general formula Li a Mn 3-a O 4 + f (a is 0.8 ≦ a ≦ 1.2 Wherein f represents a number satisfying −0.5 ≦ f ≦ 0.5.), The weight of the lithium transition metal composite oxide is A, and the cobalt acid A positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery, mixed so that lithium and / or the lithium nickelate weight is B, so that 0.2 ≦ B / (A + B) ≦ 0.8.
II: A negative electrode active material for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising at least one selected from the group consisting of metallic lithium, a lithium alloy and a compound capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions.

This nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery not only has improved cycle characteristics, load characteristics and thermal stability, but also has excellent overcharge characteristics and safety. The positive electrode active material is preferably mixed so that 0.4 ≦ B / (A + B) ≦ 0.6. This is because if the range is 0.4 ≦ B / (A + B) ≦ 0.6, the overcharge characteristics and safety are significantly improved. As a compound capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions used for the negative electrode active material, a general formula having a spinel structure containing an alkali metal and / or an alkaline earth metal is Li a Ti b O 4 + c (a is 0.8 ≦ a ≦ 1.5 represents a number satisfying 1.5, b represents a number satisfying 1.5 ≦ b ≦ 2.2, and c represents a number satisfying −0.5 ≦ c ≦ 0.5. A negative electrode active material for a water electrolyte secondary battery is preferred. At this time, a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery with improved cycle characteristics and output characteristics can be obtained.

The use of the nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery using the positive electrode active material of the present invention is not particularly limited. For example, notebook computers, pen input computers, pocket computers, notebook word processors, pocket word processors, electronic book players, mobile phones, cordless phones, electronic notebooks, calculators, LCD TVs, electric shavers, electric tools, electronic translators, car phones , Portable printer, transceiver, pager, handy terminal, portable copy, voice input device, memory card, backup power supply, tape recorder, radio, headphone stereo, handy cleaner, portable compact disc (CD) player, video movie, navigation system, etc. It can be used as a power source for equipment.
Also, lighting equipment, air conditioner, TV, stereo, water heater, refrigerator, oven microwave, dishwasher, washing machine, dryer, game machine, toy, road conditioner, medical equipment, automobile, electric car, golf cart, It can be used as a power source for electric carts, power storage systems and the like.
Furthermore, the application is not limited to consumer use, and may be used for military use or space.

  EXAMPLES The present invention will be specifically described below with reference to examples, but the present invention is not limited to these examples.

1. Preparation of positive electrode active material [Example 1]
Pure water in the reaction vessel was brought to 80 ° C., stirring rotation speed was 650 rpm, and a certain amount of aqueous solution of cobalt sulfate, nickel sulfate and manganese sulfate was dropped while a certain amount of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution was dropped. Thereby, cobalt, nickel, and manganese were precipitated, and the deposit was obtained. The obtained precipitate was filtered, washed with water, heat-treated, mixed with lithium carbonate and molybdenum oxide, and calcined at 900 ° C. for 15 hours in the air. The amount of molybdenum oxide was adjusted to 1.0 mol% with respect to the lithium transition metal composite oxide.
After firing, it was pulverized. The aspect ratio of the primary particles of the obtained lithium transition metal composite oxide was 1.20. Thereafter, pressing was performed twice at 2.1 ton / cm 2 for 30 seconds. In this way, a positive electrode active material was obtained.
The composition ratio of the obtained positive electrode active material was 1.04 for Li, 0.33 for Ni, 0.33 for Co, 0.33 for Mn, and 0.01 for Mo.

[Example 2]
A positive electrode active material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the amount of molybdenum oxide was 0.5 mol% with respect to the lithium transition metal composite oxide.
The composition ratio of the obtained positive electrode active material was 1.03 for Li, 0.33 for Ni, 0.33 for Co, 0.33 for Mn, and 0.005 for Mo.

Example 3
A positive electrode active material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the amount of molybdenum oxide was 0.3 mol% with respect to the lithium transition metal composite oxide.
The composition ratio of the obtained positive electrode active material was 1.026 for Li, 0.33 for Ni, 0.33 for Co, 0.33 for Mn, and 0.003 for Mo.

Example 4
A positive electrode active material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the amount of molybdenum oxide was 0.1 mol% with respect to the lithium transition metal composite oxide.
The composition ratio of the obtained positive electrode active material was 1.022 for Li, 0.33 for Ni, 0.33 for Co, 0.33 for Mn, and 0.001 for Mo.

Example 5
A positive electrode active material was obtained in the same manner as in Example 1 except that the composition ratio was changed.
The composition ratio of the obtained positive electrode active material was 1.02 for Li, 0.33 for Ni, 0.33 for Co, 0.33 for Mn, and 0.01 for Mo.

[Comparative Example 1]
Pure water in the reaction vessel is set to 80 ° C., a stirring rotation speed is 650 rpm, and an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide is added dropwise so that the pH is 9, while an aqueous solution of cobalt sulfate, nickel sulfate and manganese sulfate is added dropwise over 3 hours. did. Thereby, cobalt, nickel, and manganese were precipitated, and the deposit was obtained. The obtained precipitate was filtered, washed with water, heat-treated, mixed with lithium carbonate, and calcined at 965 ° C. for 15 hours in the air.
After firing, it was pulverized. The aspect ratio of the primary particles of the obtained lithium transition metal composite oxide was 1.99. Thereafter, pressing was performed twice at 2.1 ton / cm 2 for 30 seconds. In this way, a positive electrode active material was obtained.
The composition ratio of the obtained positive electrode active material was 1.02 for Li, 0.33 for Ni, 0.33 for Co, and 0.33 for Mn.

2. Properties of positive electrode active material (1) Structure of positive electrode active material The positive electrode active materials obtained in Examples 1 to 5 and Comparative Example 1 were subjected to ICP spectroscopy.

(2) Aspect ratio of primary particles of positive electrode active material One lithium transition metal composite oxide having an average particle size was selected from among a number of particles of the lithium transition metal composite oxide according to the present invention. The cross-section was produced by the method of processing with FIB until the portion where the cross-sectional image of the selected lithium transition metal composite oxide has the maximum particle size. The particle cross-sectional image was taken using a SIM.
Ten primary particle images were extracted at random from the SIM image. Then, a (longest diameter of particle image) and b (maximum diameter perpendicular to a) are obtained for each primary particle image, the value of a is divided by the value of b, and the average value of the values is defined as the aspect ratio. did. The results are shown in Example 1 and Comparative Example 1.

(3) Electrode Plate Fillability of Positive Electrode Active Material 3 g of the positive electrode active material was put into a cylindrical mold having a diameter of 20 mm, and pressed twice at 2.1 ton / cm 2 for 30 seconds. The thickness of the molded pellet was measured. The press density was calculated from the thickness of the pellet after pressing and the weight of the positive electrode active material. It can be said that the higher the press density, the better the electrode plate filling property.

The results are shown in Table 1.
As is apparent from Table 1, the positive electrode active material of the present invention has greatly improved electrode plate filling properties.

3. Evaluation of positive electrode active material (1)
Using each of the positive electrode active materials obtained above, a secondary battery for test in which the negative electrode was lithium metal was produced and evaluated as follows.
A secondary battery for testing in which the negative electrode was lithium metal was produced as follows.
A paste was prepared by kneading 90 parts by weight of a positive electrode active material powder, 5 parts by weight of carbon powder to be a conductive agent, and a normal methylpyrrolidone solution of polyvinylidene fluoride (5 parts by weight of polyvinylidene fluoride). Was applied to a positive electrode current collector and dried to obtain a positive electrode plate. Using the obtained positive electrode plate, a test secondary battery in which the negative electrode was lithium metal was produced.

(1) Initial discharge capacity Under the conditions of a charge potential of 4.25 V, a discharge potential of 2.75 V, and a discharge load of 0.2 C (where 1 C is a current load that completes discharge in one hour, the same applies hereinafter) The test secondary battery was discharged. The discharge capacity at this time was defined as the initial discharge capacity.

(2) Initial efficiency The test secondary battery was charged under the condition of a charging potential of 4.25V. The charge capacity at this time was defined as the initial charge capacity. The initial efficiency was obtained by dividing the initial discharge capacity value by the initial charge capacity value, and the initial characteristics were evaluated. The higher the initial efficiency, the better the initial characteristics.

(3) Load discharge capacity The load discharge capacity was measured under the conditions of a charge potential of 4.25 V, a discharge load of 2.75 V, and a discharge load of 1.0 C. The higher the load discharge capacity, the better the load characteristics.

(4) Thermal stability Charging / discharging with a constant current was performed using a secondary battery for testing. Thereafter, the battery was charged at a rate of 0.2 C at CC-CV charge, a final voltage of 4.25 V, and a final charge current of 0.02 mA. After the charging was completed, the positive electrode was taken out from the test secondary battery, washed with one component solution contained in the electrolytic solution used in the test secondary battery, and dried, and the positive electrode active material was scraped off from the positive electrode. An aluminum cell was charged with ethylene carbonate used for the electrolyte and the positive electrode active material scraped from the positive electrode in a weight ratio of 0.40: 1.0, and the differential scanning calorific value was measured at a heating rate of 4.5 ° C./min. .
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a method of measuring a difference in energy input as a function of temperature while changing the temperature of a material and a reference material according to a program. Although the differential scanning calorific value did not change even when the temperature rose in the low temperature part, the differential scanning calorific value greatly increased above a certain temperature. The temperature at which the differential scanning calorific value was maximum was taken as the maximum calorific temperature. The higher the maximum calorific temperature, the better the thermal stability.

The results are shown in Table 2.
As is apparent from Table 2, it can be seen that the positive electrode active material of the present invention is excellent in initial characteristics, load characteristics and thermal stability.

4). Evaluation of positive electrode active material (2)
Using each positive electrode active material obtained in Example 5 and Comparative Example 1, a cylindrical battery was produced and evaluated as follows.
The cylindrical battery was produced as follows.
A paste was prepared by kneading 90 parts by weight of a positive electrode active material powder, 5 parts by weight of carbon powder to be a conductive agent, and a normal methylpyrrolidone solution of polyvinylidene fluoride (5 parts by weight of polyvinylidene fluoride). Was applied to a positive electrode current collector and dried to obtain a positive electrode plate. Carbon (graphite) was used for the negative electrode plate, and a porous polyethylene film was used for the separator. As the electrolytic solution, a solution in which LiPF 6 was dissolved in a mixed solvent of 30% by volume of ethylene carbonate and 70% by volume of ethyl methyl carbonate so as to have a concentration of 1 mol / L was used. The obtained positive electrode plate, negative electrode plate, and separator were formed into a thin sheet shape, which was wound and housed in a metal cylindrical battery case to produce a cylindrical battery.

(1) Measurement of impedance SI1287 and SI1260 (manufactured by SOLARTRON) were used for measurement. A clip of a measuring machine was attached to the lead wires provided on the positive and negative electrodes of the cylindrical battery, and the internal impedance was measured by the AC impedance method. A Cole-Cole plot having the same shape as Tetsuaki Osaka, 2D16, Proceedings of Battery Discussion (1999) was obtained. Analysis was performed according to the equivalent circuit shown in FIG. 7, and the positive electrode resistance was calculated.
The output characteristic was evaluated by dividing the impedance value of the positive electrode active material obtained in the example by the impedance value of the positive electrode active material obtained in the comparative example.

The results are shown in Table 3.
As is apparent from Table 3, the positive electrode active material of the present invention is excellent in output characteristics.

The positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery of the present invention can be used for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery.
The non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery of the present invention can be used as a power source for mobile devices such as mobile phones, notebook computers, digital cameras, and batteries for electric vehicles.

It is a schematic diagram which shows the lithium transition metal complex oxide of a layered structure. It is typical sectional drawing of a positive electrode. It is typical sectional drawing of a cylindrical battery. It is a typical fragmentary sectional view of a coin type battery. It is a typical section perspective view of a square battery. It is a schematic diagram which shows the evaluation method of the aspect ratio by a SIM image. It is a figure which shows the equivalent circuit of the battery used for the measurement of an impedance.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 3a site 2 6c site 3 3b site 4 Binder 5 Active material 11 Negative electrode 12 Current collector 13 Positive electrode 14 Separator 20 Cylindrical battery 30 Coin type battery 40 Square type battery

Claims (8)

  1. A positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery having at least a layered lithium transition metal composite oxide,
    The lithium transition metal composite oxide exists in the form of particles composed of one or both of primary particles and secondary particles that are aggregates thereof,
    The primary particles have an aspect ratio of 1 to 1.8;
    Having a compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine on at least the surface of the particles;
    Positive electrode active material for non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery.
  2. A positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery having at least a layered lithium transition metal composite oxide,
    The lithium transition metal composite oxide exists in the form of particles composed of one or both of primary particles and secondary particles that are aggregates thereof,
    The primary particles have an aspect ratio of 1 to 1.8;
    Having at least one compound selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine on at least the surface of the particles;
    The lithium transition metal composite oxide is a volume-based particle size distribution curve,
    A positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery, having a first peak and a second peak different from the first peak.
  3. 3. The positive electrode active material for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to claim 1, wherein the lithium transition metal composite oxide has a σ log of 0.2 or more in a volume-based particle size distribution curve.
  4. The positive electrode active material for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to claim 1, wherein the compound having molybdenum is lithium molybdate.
  5. The positive electrode active material for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to claim 4, wherein the amount of the lithium molybdate is 0.1 to 2 mol% with respect to the lithium transition metal composite oxide.
  6. The non-lithium compound oxide according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the lithium transition metal composite oxide is at least one selected from lithium cobaltate, lithium nickel cobaltate, nickel cobalt lithium aluminate and nickel cobalt lithium manganate. Positive electrode active material for water electrolyte secondary battery.
  7. A positive electrode mixture for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery having a positive electrode active material having at least a layered lithium transition metal composite oxide and a conductive agent,
    Having at least one compound selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine on at least the surface of the lithium transition metal composite oxide;
    A positive electrode mixture for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising a compound having at least one selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, boron and fluorine between the positive electrode active material and the conductive agent.
  8. A strip formed by forming a positive electrode active material layer using the positive electrode active material for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to claim 1 as a positive electrode active material on at least one surface of a strip-shaped positive electrode current collector. A positive electrode;
    A negative electrode active material layer using one kind selected from metallic lithium, a lithium alloy, a carbon material capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions, or a compound capable of occluding and releasing lithium ions as a negative electrode active material, A strip-shaped negative electrode formed by forming on at least one side;
    A strip separator,
    A spiral-type winding in which the strip-shaped positive electrode and the strip-shaped negative electrode are wound a plurality of times in a state of being laminated via the strip-shaped separator, and the strip-shaped separator is interposed between the strip-shaped positive electrode and the strip-shaped negative electrode A non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising a body.
JP2004128414A 2004-02-05 2004-04-23 Cathode active substance for nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery, cathode mixture for nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery, and nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery Pending JP2005251716A (en)

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