JP2005012201A - Exposure method, aligner and device manufacturing method - Google Patents

Exposure method, aligner and device manufacturing method Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2005012201A
JP2005012201A JP2004156545A JP2004156545A JP2005012201A JP 2005012201 A JP2005012201 A JP 2005012201A JP 2004156545 A JP2004156545 A JP 2004156545A JP 2004156545 A JP2004156545 A JP 2004156545A JP 2005012201 A JP2005012201 A JP 2005012201A
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substrate
liquid
exposure
temperature
pattern
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JP5143331B2 (en
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Shigeru Hirukawa
茂 蛭川
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Nikon Corp
株式会社ニコン
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70216Systems for imaging mask onto workpiece
    • G03F7/70341Immersion

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an exposure method capable of transferring a pattern with high precision even when a substrate is subjected to immersion exposure processing via a liquid between a projection optical system and the substrate.
An immersion area is formed on at least a part of a substrate including a projection area of the projection optical system, and a liquid pattern between the projection optical system and the substrate and an image of a mask pattern are transmitted through the projection optical system. When projecting upward and exposing the substrate, adjustment is performed so that a desired pattern image is projected on the substrate according to the distribution of the exposure light EL incident on the liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate.
[Selection] Figure 4

Description

  The present invention relates to an exposure method, an exposure apparatus, and a device manufacturing method for exposing a pattern on a substrate in a state where an immersion region is formed between a projection optical system and the substrate.

Semiconductor devices and liquid crystal display devices are manufactured by a so-called photolithography technique in which a pattern formed on a mask is transferred onto a photosensitive substrate. An exposure apparatus used in this photolithography process has a mask stage for supporting a mask and a substrate stage for supporting a substrate, and a mask pattern is transferred via a projection optical system while sequentially moving the mask stage and the substrate stage. It is transferred to the substrate. In recent years, in order to cope with higher integration of device patterns, higher resolution of the projection optical system is desired. The resolution of the projection optical system becomes higher as the exposure wavelength used becomes shorter and the numerical aperture of the projection optical system becomes larger. Therefore, the exposure wavelength used in the exposure apparatus is shortened year by year, and the numerical aperture of the projection optical system is also increasing. The mainstream exposure wavelength is 248 nm of the KrF excimer laser, but the 193 nm of the shorter wavelength ArF excimer laser is also being put into practical use. Also, when performing exposure, the depth of focus (DOF) is important as well as the resolution. The resolution R and the depth of focus δ are each expressed by the following equations.
R = k 1 · λ / NA (1)
δ = ± k 2 · λ / NA 2 (2)
Here, λ is the exposure wavelength, NA is the numerical aperture of the projection optical system, and k 1 and k 2 are process coefficients. From the equations (1) and (2), it can be seen that the depth of focus δ becomes narrower when the exposure wavelength λ is shortened and the numerical aperture NA is increased in order to increase the resolution R.

If the depth of focus δ becomes too narrow, it becomes difficult to match the substrate surface with the image plane of the projection optical system, and the margin during the exposure operation may be insufficient. Therefore, as a method for substantially shortening the exposure wavelength and increasing the depth of focus, for example, a liquid immersion method disclosed in Patent Document 1 has been proposed. In this immersion method, the space between the lower surface of the projection optical system and the substrate surface is filled with a liquid such as water or an organic solvent, and the wavelength of exposure light in the liquid is 1 / n (n is the refractive index of the liquid The resolution is improved by utilizing the fact that the ratio is usually about 1.2 to 1.6), and the depth of focus is expanded about n times.
International Publication No. 99/49504 Pamphlet

  By the way, when the liquid immersion method is applied, a distribution is generated in the exposure light incident on the liquid existing between the projection optical system and the substrate in accordance with the pattern distribution on the mask. By irradiating such exposure light, the temperature distribution of the liquid is generated. As a result, the image plane changes (tilt, etc.) of the pattern image formed on the substrate via the liquid, and each aberration such as magnification and distortion It could cause fluctuations.

  The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and an exposure method and an exposure apparatus that can accurately transfer a pattern when a substrate is subjected to immersion exposure via a liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate, and An object is to provide a device manufacturing method.

  In order to solve the above-described problems, the present invention adopts the following configuration corresponding to FIGS. 1 to 16 shown in the embodiment. However, the reference numerals with parentheses attached to each element are merely examples of the element and do not limit each element.

  According to the first aspect of the present invention, an image of the pattern (MP) of the mask (M) is projected onto the substrate via the liquid (1) between the projection optical system (PL) and the substrate (P). An exposure method for exposing a substrate by adjusting a projection state of a pattern image according to a distribution of exposure light (EL) incident on the liquid; and exposing the substrate in the adjusted projection state An exposure method is provided.

  According to the present invention, even if a distribution occurs in the exposure light incident on the liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate and a temperature distribution occurs in the liquid, an exposure condition, for example, a pattern image is generated according to the distribution of the exposure light. By adjusting the projection state, the pattern can be transferred onto the substrate in a desired state. In this specification, “adjustment of the projection state of a pattern image” refers to adjusting not only the image plane position of the pattern image but also the state of the pattern image represented by the imaging characteristics such as the magnification and distortion of the pattern image. Say. This adjustment includes various adjustments for adjusting the projection state of the pattern image, not only adjustment of the positional relationship between the image surface of the pattern image and the exposure surface of the substrate and adjustment of the projection optical system, but also adjustment of the wavelength of exposure light, This includes adjusting (changing position, adjusting temperature, etc.) or replacing optical members in the optical path of exposure light, adjusting the position of the mask, or adjusting the atmosphere of the optical path up to the substrate, such as temperature, pressure, and gas concentration. Therefore, it also includes changing or adjusting the temperature, flow rate, component, etc. of the liquid supplied between the substrate and the projection optical system.

  According to the second aspect of the present invention, the substrate is exposed by projecting an image of the mask pattern onto the substrate via the liquid (1) between the projection optical system (PL) and the substrate (P). An exposure method comprising adjusting a projection state of a pattern image in accordance with a distribution of a pattern (MP) on the mask (M); and exposing a substrate (P) in the adjusted projection state An exposure method is provided.

  According to the present invention, the exposure light incident on the liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate has a distribution according to the distribution of the pattern on the mask. By adjusting the projection state of the pattern image according to the distribution of the pattern, the pattern can be transferred onto the substrate in a desired state.

  According to the third aspect of the present invention, the image of the mask pattern is projected onto the substrate (P) via the liquid (1) between the projection optical system (PL) and the substrate (P). An exposure method for measuring exposure light distribution information incident on the liquid (1) via the projection optical system (PL) prior to the exposure; and the measured distribution information. An exposure method including exposing the substrate (P) while adjusting the projection state of the pattern image based on the above is provided.

  According to the present invention, the distribution information of the exposure light incident on the liquid is preliminarily measured, and the distribution of the exposure light incident on the liquid is adjusted by adjusting the projection state of the pattern image during the exposure based on the measurement result. Even if the temperature of the liquid changes partially, the pattern can be transferred onto the substrate in a desired state while accurately adjusting the projection state of the pattern image.

  According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, the substrate is exposed by projecting a pattern image onto the substrate through the liquid by the projection optical system (PL) while moving the substrate (P) in a predetermined direction. Measuring a temperature distribution of the liquid (1) in a direction (Y) crossing the predetermined direction (X); and a pattern image (MP) based on the measured temperature distribution information There is provided an exposure method including adjusting a projection state of the substrate; and exposing the substrate in a projection state of the pattern image (MP).

  According to the present invention, when immersion exposure is performed while moving the substrate, the temperature distribution of the liquid in the direction intersecting the moving direction of the substrate is measured, and the projection state of the pattern image at the time of exposure is adjusted based on the measurement result By doing so, even when the temperature of the liquid partially changes, the pattern can be transferred onto the substrate in a desired state by accurately adjusting the projection state of the pattern image.

  According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, the substrate is exposed by projecting an image of the mask pattern onto the substrate via the liquid (1) between the projection optical system (PL) and the substrate (P). An exposure method, measuring temperature distribution of the liquid using temperature sensors (90, 91) disposed on a movable substrate stage (PST) holding the substrate (1); An exposure method is provided that includes exposing a substrate on a substrate stage.

  According to the present invention, the temperature distribution information of the liquid can be accurately obtained by directly measuring the temperature distribution of the liquid forming the liquid immersion region using the temperature sensor disposed on the substrate stage. Based on the measured temperature distribution information of the liquid, the projection state of the pattern image can be appropriately adjusted, and the pattern can be transferred onto the substrate in a desired state.

  Here, as described above, the adjustment is performed by adjusting the imaging characteristics of the projection optical system (optical characteristics adjustment), adjusting the positional relationship between the image plane formed through the projection optical system and the liquid and the substrate, and It includes liquid temperature adjustment (temperature distribution adjustment) for forming the immersion region.

  According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, there is provided an exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate (P) by projecting an image of a predetermined pattern (MP) onto a substrate via a liquid (1): An exposure apparatus comprising: a projection optical system (PL) that projects onto a substrate (P); and a temperature sensor (90, 91) that is movably disposed near the image plane of the projection optical system and that measures the temperature of the liquid. Provided.

  According to the present invention, it is possible to directly measure the temperature and temperature distribution of the liquid forming the liquid immersion region using a movable temperature sensor. Therefore, the projection state of the pattern image can be appropriately adjusted based on the measured liquid temperature information, and the pattern can be transferred onto the substrate in a desired state.

  According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, there is provided an exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate by projecting an image of a predetermined pattern onto a substrate (P) through a liquid: projection optics for projecting the image of the pattern onto a substrate A system (PL); a substrate stage for moving the substrate in a predetermined direction (X) during exposure; and a direction (Y) perpendicular to the predetermined direction (X) to measure the temperature of the liquid An exposure apparatus (EX) including a temperature sensor (81, 82, 90) having a plurality of sensor elements (81a to 81f, 82a to 82f, 91) arranged apart from each other is provided.

  According to the present invention, it is possible to directly measure the temperature distribution of the liquid in the direction intersecting with the moving direction of the substrate using the plurality of sensor elements. Therefore, the adjustment of the projection state of the pattern image at the time of exposure can be accurately performed based on the measured liquid temperature information.

  According to an eighth aspect of the present invention, there is provided an exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate by projecting an image of a predetermined pattern (MP) onto the substrate through a liquid: projection optics that projects the image of the pattern onto the substrate In order to form the immersion region between the system (PL) and the substrate and the projection optical system, liquids (1) having different temperatures can be supplied from a plurality of positions (53a to 53f, 54a to 54f). An exposure apparatus (EX) including a liquid supply mechanism (50, 51, 52) is provided.

  According to the present invention, the liquid supply mechanism supplies liquids having different temperatures from a plurality of positions, whereby the temperature distribution of the liquid in the liquid immersion region can be adjusted and made uniform. Therefore, it is possible to suppress the occurrence of pattern deterioration due to a partial change in the liquid temperature.

  According to a ninth aspect of the present invention, there is provided an exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate by projecting an image of a pattern (MP) onto a substrate (P) through a liquid (1): A projection optical system (PL) for projecting onto the sensor; sensors (20, 60) for measuring the distribution of the pattern; and a control device for adjusting the projection state of the pattern image based on the pattern distribution measured by the sensor (CONT) is provided.

  According to a tenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided an exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate by projecting an image of a pattern (MP) onto a substrate (P) through a liquid (1): A projection optical system (PL) for projecting onto the substrate; a liquid recovery mechanism (for example, 52, 52a to 52f) for recovering the liquid on the substrate; and a temperature sensor (for example, measuring the temperature of the liquid recovered by the liquid recovery mechanism) 82a-82f) are provided.

  According to an eleventh aspect of the present invention, there is provided an exposure method for exposing the substrate by projecting an image of a pattern onto the substrate through a liquid, wherein the liquid on the substrate on which the pattern image is projected There is provided an exposure method including setting an exposure condition according to a temperature distribution and exposing the substrate under the set exposure condition.

  According to a twelfth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a device manufacturing method using the exposure method described above. According to a thirteenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a device manufacturing method using the above-described exposure apparatus (EX). ADVANTAGE OF THE INVENTION According to this invention, it can provide the device which has a pattern formed with the favorable pattern transfer precision and can exhibit desired performance.

  According to the present invention, a pattern image can be projected on a substrate in a desired state, and a high-performance device can be manufactured.

  Hereinafter, embodiments of the exposure apparatus of the present invention will be described with reference to the drawings. However, the present invention is not limited to these embodiments.

First Embodiment FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram showing a first embodiment of the exposure apparatus of the present invention. In FIG. 1, an exposure apparatus EX mainly illuminates a mask stage MST for supporting a mask M, a substrate stage PST for supporting a substrate P, and a mask M supported by the mask stage MST with exposure light EL. Control that controls the overall operation of the optical system IL, the projection optical system PL that projects and exposes the image of the pattern of the mask M illuminated by the exposure light EL onto the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST, and the entire exposure apparatus EX. A device CONT and a storage device MRY connected to the control device CONT and storing various information relating to the exposure operation including the distribution information of the pattern MP of the mask M are provided.

  The exposure apparatus EX of the present embodiment is an immersion exposure apparatus to which an immersion method is applied in order to improve the resolution by substantially shortening the exposure wavelength and substantially increase the depth of focus. A liquid supply mechanism 10 for supplying the liquid 1 to the substrate P, and a liquid recovery mechanism 30 for recovering the liquid 1 on the substrate P. In the present embodiment, pure water is used as the liquid 1. The exposure apparatus EX transfers at least a part of the substrate P including the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL by the liquid 1 supplied from the liquid supply mechanism 10 while at least transferring the pattern image of the mask M onto the substrate P. A liquid immersion area AR2 is formed. Specifically, the exposure apparatus EX fills the liquid 1 between the optical element 2 disposed at the tip of the projection optical system PL and the surface (exposure surface) of the substrate P, and the projection optical system PL and the substrate. The pattern image of the mask M is projected onto the substrate P through the liquid 1 and the projection optical system PL, and exposed.

  Here, in the present embodiment, as the exposure apparatus EX, the mask M and the substrate P are synchronously moved in different directions (reverse directions) in the scanning direction (predetermined direction), and the pattern MP formed on the mask M is transferred to the substrate P. A case where a scanning exposure apparatus (so-called scanning stepper) that performs exposure is used will be described as an example. In the following description, the synchronous movement direction (scanning direction, predetermined direction) of the mask M and the substrate P in the horizontal plane is the X axis direction, and the direction orthogonal to the X axis direction is the Y axis direction (non-scanning direction) in the horizontal plane. A direction perpendicular to the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction and coinciding with the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL is defined as a Z-axis direction. Further, the directions around the X axis, the Y axis, and the Z axis are defined as θX, θY, and θZ directions, respectively. Here, the “substrate” includes a semiconductor wafer coated with a photosensitive material such as a resist, and the “mask” refers to a reticle on which a device pattern to be reduced and projected on the substrate is formed. Including.

The illumination optical system IL illuminates the mask M supported by the mask stage MST with the exposure light EL, and the exposure light source, and an optical integrator and an optical integrator for uniformizing the illuminance of the light beam emitted from the exposure light source The condenser lens that collects the exposure light EL from the relay lens system, and the variable field stop that sets the illumination area (irradiation area) IA on the mask M by the exposure light EL in a slit shape. The predetermined illumination area IA on the mask M is illuminated with the exposure light EL having a uniform illuminance distribution by the illumination optical system IL. As the exposure light EL emitted from the illumination optical system IL, for example, far ultraviolet light (g-line, h-line, i-line) and KrF excimer laser light (wavelength 248 nm) emitted from a mercury lamp, DUV light), vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV light) such as ArF excimer laser light (wavelength 193 nm) and F 2 laser light (wavelength 157 nm), or the like is used. In this embodiment, ArF excimer laser light is used. As described above, since the liquid 1 in the present embodiment uses pure water, the exposure light EL can be transmitted even if it is ArF excimer laser light. Pure water can also transmit ultraviolet rays (g rays, h rays, i rays) and far ultraviolet light (DUV light) such as KrF excimer laser light (wavelength 248 nm).

  The mask stage MST supports the mask M, and can be two-dimensionally moved in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL, that is, in the XY plane, and can be slightly rotated in the θZ direction. Mask stage MST is driven by a mask stage driving device MSTD such as a linear motor. The mask stage driving device MSTD is controlled by the control device CONT. A movable mirror 50 is provided on the mask stage MST. A laser interferometer 51 is provided at a position facing the moving mirror 50. The two-dimensional position and rotation angle of the mask M on the mask stage MST are measured in real time by the laser interferometer 51, and the measurement result is output to the control device CONT. The control device CONT drives the mask stage driving device MSTD based on the measurement result of the laser interferometer 51, thereby positioning the mask M supported by the mask stage MST.

  The projection optical system PL projects and exposes the pattern of the mask M onto the substrate P at a predetermined projection magnification β, and includes a plurality of optical elements including an optical element (lens) 2 provided at the front end portion on the substrate P side. It consists of These optical elements constituting the projection optical system PL are supported by a lens barrel PK. Further, the projection optical system PL is provided with an imaging characteristic control device 3 that can adjust the imaging characteristics (optical characteristics) of the projection optical system PL. The imaging characteristic control device 3 includes an optical element driving mechanism that can move a part of a plurality of optical elements constituting the projection optical system PL. The optical element driving mechanism can move a specific optical element among the plurality of optical elements constituting the projection optical system PL in the optical axis AX direction (Z direction) or tilt the optical element AX with respect to the optical axis AX. Further, the imaging characteristic control device 3 can vary the pressure in the space between the optical elements. By controlling the imaging characteristic control device 3 using the control device CONT, the projection magnification of the projection optical system PL, various aberrations such as distortion, and the projection state of the image plane position can be adjusted.

  In the present embodiment, the projection optical system PL is a reduction system having a projection magnification β of, for example, 1/4 or 1/5. Note that the projection optical system PL may be either an equal magnification system or an enlargement system. Further, the optical element 2 at the tip of the projection optical system PL of the present embodiment is detachably (replaceable) with respect to the lens barrel PK. Further, the optical element 2 at the tip is exposed from the lens barrel PK, and the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 contacts only the optical element 2. Thereby, corrosion of the lens barrel PK made of metal can be prevented.

  The optical element 2 is formed of fluorite. Since fluorite has a high affinity with pure water, the liquid 1 can be brought into close contact with substantially the entire liquid contact surface 2 a of the optical element 2. That is, in the present embodiment, the liquid (pure water) 1 having high affinity with the liquid contact surface 2a of the optical element 2 is supplied. Note that quartz having high affinity with water may be used as the optical element 2. Further, the liquid contact surface 2 a of the optical element 2 may be subjected to a hydrophilic treatment (lyophilic treatment) to further increase the affinity with the liquid 1.

  Further, the exposure apparatus EX has a focus detection system 4. The focus detection system 4 includes a light emitting unit 4a and a light receiving unit 4b, and projects detection light from the light emitting unit 4a through the liquid 1 onto the surface (exposed surface) of the substrate P from obliquely above, and reflects the reflected light. Light is received by the light receiving unit 4b. The control device CONT controls the operation of the focus detection system 4 and detects the position (focus position) in the Z-axis direction of the surface of the substrate P with respect to the predetermined reference plane based on the result of light reception (detection) by the light receiving unit 4b. . Further, the focus detection system 4 can also determine the posture of the substrate P in the tilt direction by determining the focus positions at a plurality of points on the surface of the substrate P.

  The substrate stage PST supports the substrate P and includes a Z stage 52 that holds the substrate P via a substrate holder, an XY stage 53 that supports the Z stage 52, and a base 54 that supports the XY stage 53. It has. The substrate stage PST is driven by a substrate stage driving device PSTD such as a linear motor. The substrate stage driving device PSTD is controlled by the control device CONT. Needless to say, the Z stage and the XY stage may be provided integrally. By driving the XY stage 53 of the substrate stage PST, the position of the substrate P in the XY direction (position in a direction substantially parallel to the image plane of the projection optical system PL) is controlled.

  On the substrate stage PST (Z stage 52), a movable mirror 55 that moves relative to the projection optical system PL together with the substrate stage PST is provided. A laser interferometer 56 is provided at a position facing the movable mirror 55. The two-dimensional position and rotation angle of the substrate P on the substrate stage PST are measured in real time by the laser interferometer 56, and the measurement result is output to the control device CONT. The control device CONT drives the XY stage 53 via the substrate stage drive device PSTD based on the measurement result of the laser interferometer 56, so that the X axis direction and the Y axis of the substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST are controlled. Position in the direction.

  Further, the control device CONT drives the Z stage 52 of the substrate stage PST via the substrate stage driving device PSTD, so that the position (focus position) of the substrate P held by the Z stage 52 in the Z-axis direction, and The position in the θX and θY directions is controlled. That is, the Z stage 52 operates based on a command from the control device CONT based on the detection result of the focus detection system 4, and controls the focus position (Z position) and the tilt angle of the substrate P, thereby controlling the surface of the substrate P. The (exposure surface) and the image surface formed through the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 are matched.

  An auxiliary plate 57 having a flat surface is provided on the substrate stage PST (Z stage 52) so as to surround the substrate P. The auxiliary plate 57 is installed so that the surface thereof is substantially the same height as the surface of the substrate P held by the substrate holder. Here, there is a gap of about 1 to 2 mm between the edge of the substrate P and the auxiliary plate 57, but the liquid 1 hardly flows into the gap due to the surface tension of the liquid 1, and the vicinity of the periphery of the substrate P is observed. Even in the exposure, the liquid 1 can be held under the projection optical system PL by the auxiliary plate 57.

  The liquid supply mechanism 10 supplies a predetermined liquid 1 onto the substrate P. The liquid supply mechanism 10 mainly includes a first liquid supply unit 11 and a second liquid supply unit 12 that can send (outflow) the liquid 1, A first supply member 13 connected to the first liquid supply unit 11 via the supply pipe 11A and having a supply port for supplying the liquid 1 delivered (outflowed) from the first liquid supply unit 11 onto the substrate P; And a second supply member 14 having a supply port connected to the liquid supply unit 12 via the supply pipe 12A and for supplying the liquid 1 sent (outflowed) from the second liquid supply unit 12 onto the substrate P. ing. The first and second supply members 13 and 14 are disposed close to the surface of the substrate P, and are provided at different positions in the surface direction of the substrate P. Specifically, the first supply member 13 of the liquid supply mechanism 10 is provided on one side (−X side) in the scanning direction with respect to the projection area AR1, and the second supply member 14 is the first supply member 13. Is provided on the other side in the scanning direction (+ X side).

  The first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12 are each provided with a tank for storing the liquid 1 and a pressure pump, and the liquid is supplied onto the substrate P via the supply pipes 11A and 12A and the supply members 13 and 14, respectively. 1 is supplied. In addition, the liquid supply operations of the first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12 are controlled by the control device CONT. The control device CONT can independently control the liquid supply amount per unit time supplied from the first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12 onto the substrate P. Each of the first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12 includes a liquid temperature adjustment mechanism, and the liquid 1 adjusted to 23 ° C., which is substantially the same as the temperature in the chamber in which the apparatus is accommodated, is placed on the substrate P. Can be stably supplied.

  The liquid recovery mechanism 30 recovers the liquid 1 on the substrate P, and includes first and second recovery members 31 and 32 having recovery ports arranged close to the surface of the substrate P. First and second liquid recovery sections 33 and 34 connected to the second recovery members 31 and 32 via recovery pipes 33A and 34A, respectively. The first and second liquid recovery units 33 and 34 include, for example, a suction device such as a vacuum pump and a tank for storing the recovered liquid 1, and the liquid 1 on the substrate P is supplied to the first and second recovery members. It collects via 31 and 32 and collection pipes 33A and 34A. The liquid recovery operation of the first and second liquid recovery units 33 and 34 is controlled by the control device CONT. The control device CONT can independently control the amount of liquid recovered per unit time by the first and second liquid recovery units 33 and 34.

  FIG. 2 is a plan view showing a schematic configuration of the liquid supply mechanism 10 and the liquid recovery mechanism 30. As shown in FIG. 2, the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system (PL) is set in a slit shape (rectangular shape) whose longitudinal direction is the Y-axis direction (non-scanning direction). Further, the immersion area AR2 filled with the liquid 1 is formed on a part of the substrate (P) so as to include the projection area AR1. As described above, the first supply member 13 of the liquid supply mechanism 10 used for forming the liquid immersion area AR2 is provided on one side (−X side) in the scanning direction with respect to the projection area AR1, and the second supply member 14 is provided on the other side (+ X side) in the opposite scanning direction. The first and second supply members 13 and 14 are each formed in a straight line shape in plan view with the Y-axis direction as the longitudinal direction. The supply ports of the first and second supply members 13 and 14 are each formed in a slit shape with the Y-axis direction as the longitudinal direction, and are provided so as to face the surface of the substrate P. The liquid supply mechanism 10 simultaneously supplies the liquid 1 from both sides of the projection area AR1 in the X direction from the supply ports of the first and second supply members 13 and 14. Thus, in the liquid supply mechanism 10 in the present embodiment, the liquid 1 can be supplied onto the substrate (P) from a plurality of different directions and positions with respect to the projection area AR1.

  The first and second recovery members 31 and 32 of the liquid recovery mechanism 30 each have a recovery port formed in an arc shape and continuously so as to face the surface of the substrate P. The first and second recovery members 31 and 32 arranged so as to face each other constitute a substantially annular recovery port. The respective recovery ports of the first and second recovery members 31 and 32 are arranged so as to surround the first and second supply members 13 and 14 of the liquid supply mechanism 10 and the projection area AR1. In addition, a plurality of partition members 35 are provided inside the respective collection ports of the first and second collection members 31 and 32.

  The liquid 1 supplied onto the substrate (P) from the supply ports of the first and second supply members 13 and 14 includes the lower end surface of the tip portion (optical element 2) of the projection optical system (PL), the substrate (P), and It is supplied so as to spread out during the period. Further, the liquid 1 that has flowed out of the projection area AR1 and the first and second supply members 13, 14 is a first and second recovery member 31 disposed outside the first and second supply members 13, 14. , 32 from the collection port.

  FIG. 3 is a plan view of the substrate stage PST. An optical sensor 20 that is a photoelectric sensor is disposed at a predetermined position on the upper surface of the substrate stage PST (Z stage 52). In the example shown in FIG. 3, the optical sensor 20 is provided on the Z stage 52 at a position other than the substrate holder that holds the substrate P. The optical sensor 20 detects optical information to be irradiated, and specifically detects the light amount (illuminance) of the irradiated light. The detection signal of the optical sensor 20 is output to the control device CONT. The control device CONT obtains the illuminance and illuminance distribution of the irradiated light based on the detection result of the optical sensor 20. Further, the illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL that has passed through the projection optical system PL can be detected by moving the substrate stage PST and placing the optical sensor 20 below the projection optical system PL.

  The size of the light receiving surface (detection region) of the optical sensor 20 is set to be equal to or larger than the projection region AR1. Thus, the optical sensor 20 can receive all the exposure light EL that passes through the mask M and passes through the projection optical system PL. The optical sensor 20 is provided such that the position of the light receiving surface in the Z-axis direction coincides with the position of the image plane (imaging plane) of the projection optical system PL in the Z-axis direction. The optical sensor 20 has a plurality of light receiving surfaces arranged in the non-scanning direction (Y-axis direction). Since the plurality of light receiving surfaces can independently measure the illuminance, the output values of the illuminance measured by the plurality of light receiving surfaces directly represent the illuminance distribution in the non-scanning direction of the exposure light EL.

  The substrate stage PST is moved to align the optical sensor 20 and the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL, and as shown in FIG. 1, the mask M is placed on the mask stage MST, and the mask M is exposed. By illuminating a predetermined illumination area IA with the light EL, the light sensor 20 is irradiated with the exposure light EL that has passed through the mask M and the projection optical system PL. Since the mask M has a chrome pattern MP that is a light shielding portion, the photosensor 20 is irradiated with the exposure light EL with an illuminance distribution corresponding to the pattern MP of the mask M.

  As described above, the optical sensor 20 detects the illuminance distribution in the Y-axis direction of the exposed exposure light EL. The control device CONT obtains pattern distribution information of the mask M in the Y-axis direction within the illumination area IA based on the detection result of the optical sensor 20.

  Next, a method for exposing the pattern image of the mask M onto the substrate P using the exposure apparatus EX described above will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG. Here, the exposure apparatus EX in the present embodiment projects and exposes the pattern image of the mask M onto the substrate P while moving the mask M and the substrate P in the X-axis direction (scanning direction). At the time of scanning exposure, a part of the pattern image of the mask M corresponding to the illumination area IA is projected onto the slit-shaped (rectangular) projection area AR1 immediately below the tip of the projection optical system PL. At this time, the substrate P moves through the XY stage 53 in the + X direction (or −X direction) in synchronization with the movement of the mask M in the −X direction (or + X direction) with respect to the projection optical system PL at the speed V. ) At a velocity β · V (β is the projection magnification). A plurality of shot areas (SA) are set on the substrate P. After the exposure to one shot area (SA) is completed, the substrate P is stepped and the next shot area (SA) on the substrate starts scanning. Move to position. Thereafter, scanning exposure processing is sequentially performed on each shot area SA while moving the substrate P by the step-and-scan method.

  Prior to the immersion exposure process for device manufacture, the illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL is measured as follows without placing the mask M on the mask stage MST. The control device CONT emits the exposure light EL from the illumination optical system IL, and controls the illumination optical system IL and the substrate stage PST so that the exposure sensor EL on the substrate stage PST receives the exposure light EL that has passed through the projection optical system PL. Control. In this way, the illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL on the substrate stage PST (image plane side of the projection optical system PL) is measured. Thereby, the illuminance (reference illuminance) of the exposure light EL on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL without the mask M is obtained. The measured reference illuminance is stored in the storage device MRY.

  Next, the mask M is loaded onto the mask stage MST. The control device CONT has the illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL on the image plane side of the projection optical system PL that has passed through the mask M and the projection optical system PL in a state where the mask M is placed on the mask stage MST. Use to find. FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram showing a state in which the optical sensor 20 measures the illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL through the mask M and the projection optical system PL. As shown in FIG. 5, the control device CONT moves the substrate stage PST to align the optical sensor 20 with the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL. In this state, the exposure light EL is emitted from the illumination optical system IL, whereby the photosensor 20 is irradiated with the exposure light EL that has passed through the mask M and the projection optical system PL. In FIG. 5, in the pattern area PA on the mask M, the density of the chrome pattern (light-shielding portion) MP is high in an approximately half area on the + Y side, and any position in the X direction in the pattern area PA. The density distribution is also in FIG. At this time, the illumination area (irradiation area) IA of the exposure light EL on the mask M is set in a slit shape extending in the Y-axis direction within the pattern area PA on the mask M, and both ends in the Y-axis direction. The part is located on the shading band SB. The partial pattern included in the illumination area IA on the mask M is projected onto the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL. The optical sensor 20 receives the exposure light EL corresponding to the pattern distribution in the illumination area IA. Based on the detection result of the optical sensor 20, the control device CONT determines the illuminance distribution in the Y-axis direction, that is, the incidence of the exposure light EL that enters the liquid 1 that forms the immersion area AR2 during the immersion exposure in the Y-axis direction. Find the energy distribution.

  Further, the control apparatus CONT controls the illumination optical system IL and the substrate stage PST to irradiate the illumination area IA on the mask M with the exposure light EL, and the mask stage MST that supports the mask M with respect to the exposure light EL. Move in the X-axis direction. Thereby, the exposure light EL is sequentially irradiated on the entire surface of the pattern area PA of the mask M. At this time, the optical sensor 20 (substrate stage PST) does not move. The position of the mask M (mask stage MST) is measured by the laser interferometer 51. The control device CONT uses the measurement result of the position of the mask M in the X-axis direction measured by the laser interferometer 51 and the detection result of the exposure light EL that has passed through the illumination area IA of the mask M at that time by the optical sensor 20. Based on this, the illuminance distribution information of the exposure light EL that has passed through the projection optical system PL is obtained by obtaining the illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL at each position in the scanning direction (X-axis direction) of the mask M (step S1).

  Next, the control device CONT determines the pattern distribution of the mask M (based on the illuminance information (reference illuminance) of the exposure light EL detected without passing through the mask M and the illuminance information of the exposure light EL detected through the mask M). The pattern density distribution is obtained (step S2). The illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL that has passed through the mask M and the projection optical system PL corresponds to the pattern distribution of the mask M. Therefore, the control device CONT can obtain the pattern distribution of the mask M by subtracting the amount corresponding to the illuminance distribution of the reference illuminance from the illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL detected through the mask M. The obtained pattern distribution information of the mask M is stored in the storage device MRY.

  Next, the control apparatus CONT is based on the exposure amount (illuminance on the substrate P) to be set at the time of immersion exposure for device manufacture, the pattern distribution information of the obtained mask M, and the immersion exposure conditions. The temperature change information of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 at the time of liquid immersion exposure is estimated (calculated). Specifically, the control device CONT obtains a change in the liquid temperature distribution in the liquid immersion area AR2 (step S3). Here, the immersion exposure conditions (parameters) include the moving speed of the substrate P, the material properties of the liquid 1 such as specific heat, and the liquid supply amount (flow velocity) per unit time from the liquid supply mechanism 10. Further, the relationship between the pattern distribution of the mask M and the liquid temperature change amount (distribution) according to the above parameters is stored in the storage device MRY in advance, and the control device CONT determines the liquid temperature based on the stored relationship. Estimate (calculate) the distribution. In addition, the said relationship can be calculated | required by experiment or simulation previously, for example. In the following description, the liquid temperature change amount and the liquid temperature distribution are appropriately referred to as “liquid temperature distribution information”.

  Note that the liquid recovery amount per unit time of the liquid recovery mechanism 30 may be added as the parameter.

  Next, the control device CONT obtains an image characteristic change amount and a change distribution including an image plane position change via the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 based on the obtained liquid temperature distribution information (step S4). In the following description, the image characteristic change amount and the change distribution are appropriately referred to as “image characteristic change information”.

  Here, the temperature change of the liquid 1 between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P according to the distribution of the pattern MP on the mask M will be described with reference to FIGS. 6 is a schematic diagram showing a state in which the pattern MP of the mask M is subjected to immersion exposure through the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 in the immersion area AR2, and FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram showing the temperature distribution of the liquid. In FIG. 6, the liquid 1 is not shown for convenience of explanation. As shown in FIG. 6, when approximately half of the pattern area PA on the mask M is a region where the density of the chromium pattern MP is high, the high-density region has lower light transmittance. More exposure light EL is incident on the other half of the projection area AR1 than on the other half. As a result, a light amount distribution (illuminance distribution) of the exposure light EL incident on the liquid 1 between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P is generated according to the pattern distribution of the mask M, and as shown in FIG. A temperature gradient (change in temperature distribution) in the Y-axis direction as indicated by a dotted line in FIG. Since the temperature change of the liquid 1 causes a change in the refractive index of the liquid 1, in the case shown in FIG. 7, an image plane change mainly tilted around the X axis occurs according to the temperature change of the liquid 1. That is, since the refractive index of the liquid changes depending on the temperature of the liquid, the refraction angle when light enters and passes through the liquid is also temperature-dependent, and as a result, the image is distorted (image Is partially reduced or enlarged in the Y direction).

  Therefore, the control device CONT obtains the temperature distribution information of the liquid 1 based on the distribution of the pattern on the mask M and the distribution of the exposure light EL incident on the liquid 1 between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P. Based on the obtained temperature distribution information, an image characteristic change (image surface position change or the like) is predicted.

  The control device CONT obtains a correction amount (correction information) for correcting the image characteristic based on the obtained image characteristic change information (step S5). Here, an example of a procedure for obtaining the correction amount will be described with reference to FIG. For the sake of simplicity, a case will be described below in which the position of the image plane formed via the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 changes due to a change in the temperature distribution of the liquid 1. The illuminance distribution in the Y-axis direction of the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL is constant until the exposure amount (illuminance) is in the + Y direction, for example, as shown in FIG. After the increase, when it is constant at the predetermined value, the image plane formed via the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 is also in the state shown in FIG. Become. Therefore, the control device CONT converts the obtained image characteristic change component (image plane position change component) into a zero-order component as an offset component, a primary component as a tilt component, as shown in FIG. While dividing into a plurality of higher order components, correction amounts for the respective components are obtained. The correction amount can be corrected by controlling the exposure apparatus as follows. For example, for the 0th order component and the 1st order component of the image plane change, the surface of the substrate P and the image plane formed via the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 by correcting the drive (posture) of the substrate stage PST. The high-order component is corrected by driving the imaging characteristic control device 3 of the projection optical system PL. In the present embodiment, since the projection area AR1 has a slit shape extending in the Y-axis direction, the position adjustment of the substrate stage PST during scanning exposure mainly includes position adjustment (focus adjustment) in the Z-axis direction and θX direction. Tilt adjustment (rolling adjustment) may be performed. Of course, when the width of the projection area AR1 in the X-axis direction is large, tilt adjustment (pitching adjustment) in the θY direction is performed during scanning exposure in order to match the positions of the image plane and the surface of the substrate. The control device CONT stores the correction amount (correction information) corresponding to the position of the mask M in the scanning direction (X-axis direction) in the storage device MRY.

  After obtaining the correction amount for matching the positions of the image plane formed via the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 and the surface of the substrate P, the control device CONT performs the substrate P based on the obtained correction amount. The liquid immersion exposure process is performed while adjusting the posture (the inclination of the substrate P and the position in the Z-axis direction) (step S6). That is, as shown in FIG. 1, after loading the substrate P onto the substrate stage PST using the substrate transport system, the control device CONT drives the liquid supply mechanism 10 to start the liquid supply operation on the substrate P. The liquid 1 delivered from each of the first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12 of the liquid supply mechanism 10 to form the liquid immersion area AR2 is supplied to the supply pipes 11A and 12A, the first and second supply members 13, The liquid immersion area AR2 is formed between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P. At this time, the supply ports of the first and second supply members 13 and 14 are arranged on both sides of the projection area AR1 in the X-axis direction (scanning direction). The control device CONT executes control for simultaneously supplying the liquid 1 onto the substrate P from both sides of the projection area AR1 from the supply port of the liquid supply mechanism 10. As a result, the liquid 1 supplied onto the substrate P forms on the substrate P a liquid immersion area AR2 in a range wider than at least the projection area AR1.

  In this embodiment, when supplying the liquid 1 to the substrate P from both sides in the scanning direction of the projection area AR1, the control device CONT performs the liquid supply operation of the first and second liquid supply units 11 and 12 of the liquid supply mechanism 10. In the scanning direction, the liquid supply amount per unit time supplied from the front of the projection area AR1 is set to be larger than the liquid supply amount supplied on the opposite side. For example, when the exposure processing is performed while moving the substrate P in the + X direction, the control device CONT sets the amount of liquid from the −X side (that is, the supply port 13A) to the + X side (that is, the supply port 14A) with respect to the projection area AR1. ) More than the amount of liquid from. Conversely, when the exposure process is performed while moving the substrate P in the −X direction, the amount of liquid from the + X side is made larger than the amount of liquid from the −X side with respect to the projection area AR1.

  Further, the control device CONT controls the first and second liquid recovery units 33 and 34 of the liquid recovery mechanism 30 and performs the liquid recovery operation on the substrate P in parallel with the supply operation of the liquid 1 by the liquid supply mechanism 10. Do. Thereby, the liquid 1 on the substrate P that is supplied from the supply ports of the first and second supply members 13 and 14 and flows to the outside of the projection area AR1 is recovered from the recovery ports of the first and second recovery members 33 and 34. The Thus, in the liquid recovery mechanism 30, since the recovery port is provided so as to surround the projection area AR1, the liquid 1 on the substrate P can be efficiently recovered from the recovery port.

  Then, the control device CONT, based on the correction information stored in the storage device MRY and the position information detection result of the surface of the substrate P detected by the focus detection system 4, the imaging characteristic control device 3 and the substrate stage driving device PSTD. Then, immersion exposure is performed while controlling the relationship between the position and inclination of the substrate P and the image plane in the Z-axis direction.

  Thus, even when the image plane position changes due to the change in the temperature distribution of the liquid 1 according to the pattern distribution of the mask M, that is, the distribution of the exposure light EL incident on the projection area AR1, the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 The shot area SA on the substrate P can be scanned and exposed while the image plane formed via the substrate P and the surface of the substrate P (exposure surface) are substantially matched. As a result, a desired pattern can be accurately formed on the substrate P.

  As described above, the position and orientation of the substrate P during the immersion scanning exposure and the image formation so that a desired pattern image is projected on the substrate P based on the distribution information of the pattern MP of the mask M. By adjusting the projection state such as the adjustment of the image plane position of the projection optical system PL using the characteristic control device, it is possible to perform pattern transfer with high accuracy.

  In the example shown in FIG. 6 and FIG. 7, the case where the pattern distribution in the illumination area IA on the mask M does not change much with the movement of the mask M has been described. The pattern distribution in the illumination area IA of the exposure light EL changes as the mask M moves. In this case, with the movement of the mask M, the distribution of the exposure light EL incident on the projection area AR1 (liquid 1) changes. Since the temperature distribution of the liquid 1 changes due to the change in the distribution of the exposure light EL, the position of the image plane also changes according to the temperature distribution of the liquid 1. As a result, the pattern image projected on the substrate P may be deteriorated.

  However, in the present embodiment, the control device CONT stores correction information corresponding to the position of the mask M in the scanning direction (X-axis direction), and the position of the mask M (laser) during the exposure of the shot area SA of the substrate P. Since the correction information is read in accordance with the measurement result of the interferometer 51, the surface (exposure surface) of the substrate P can be accurately aligned with the image plane.

  In the present embodiment, when there is little change in the pattern distribution in the non-scanning direction (Y-axis direction) of the mask M, the change in the pattern distribution in the illumination area IA accompanying the movement of the mask M, that is, the exposure light incident on the liquid 1 Only the change in EL intensity may be considered. In this case, the control device CONT obtains an integrated value (integrated light amount distribution) obtained by integrating the illuminance distribution in the Y-axis direction (longitudinal direction) of the projection area AR1 measured by the optical sensor 20 in the X-axis direction, and the obtained integrated value is obtained. By obtaining the mask M in correspondence with the position of the mask M in the X-axis direction, the change in the pattern distribution in the illumination area IA accompanying the movement of the mask M can be obtained.

  In the present embodiment, the surface position of the substrate P is adjusted according to the change in the image plane due to the temperature change of the liquid 1, or a part of the projection optical system PL is optically controlled using the imaging characteristic control device. The image plane position is adjusted by moving the element or changing the pressure in the space between the optical elements. However, only one of the adjustment of the surface position of the substrate P and the adjustment of the image plane position is performed. You may make it perform. Further, the image plane position may be adjusted by moving the position of the mask M on the mask stage MST or finely adjusting the wavelength of the exposure light. The image plane position can also be adjusted by moving or replacing some optical members of the illumination optical system IL. Further, the temperature of the optical member (including the projection optical system PL) in the optical path of the exposure light EL may be adjusted.

  In the present embodiment, correction of the change in the image plane caused by the temperature (distribution) change of the liquid 1 has been described. However, not only the image plane but also imaging characteristics such as magnification and distortion become the temperature distribution of the liquid 1. Even in the case of changing based on the pattern MP, the image formation characteristics of the pattern image may be adjusted according to the distribution information of the pattern MP of the mask M (that is, the distribution of the exposure light EL incident on the liquid 1). The adjustment of the imaging characteristics can be achieved by moving a part of the optical elements of the projection optical system PL or adjusting the pressure in the space between the optical elements, similarly to the adjustment of the image plane position. It can also be achieved by moving the mask M or finely adjusting the wavelength of the exposure light EL.

  Further, the adjustment of the imaging characteristics can be achieved by moving or replacing some optical members of the illumination optical system IL. Further, the temperature of the optical member (including the projection optical system PL) in the optical path of the exposure light EL may be adjusted.

  Further, as the adjustment of the imaging characteristics, the polarization state and wavefront state of the exposure light EL may be adjusted.

  In the present embodiment, when adjusting the position of the surface of the substrate P and the image plane via the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 during the immersion scanning exposure, the focus detection system 4 detects the position information of the surface of the substrate P. Based on the detection result of the focus detection system 4, the substrate stage PST is driven to adjust the position and posture of the substrate P. Here, the detection light projected obliquely from above to the surface of the substrate P from the light projecting portion 4a of the focus detection system 4 passes through the liquid 1, but the refractive index changes according to the temperature change of the liquid 1. May change, and an error may occur in the focus detection value on the surface of the substrate P. In this case, a relationship between the temperature (temperature change amount) and the refractive index (refractive index change amount) of the liquid 1 is stored in advance in the storage device MRY, and the temperature change information of the liquid 1 obtained in step S3 and the relationship are stored. Based on the above, the refractive index of the liquid 1 is obtained. The focus detection value is corrected based on the obtained refractive index in consideration of the thickness of the liquid 1. Thereby, even when the temperature of the liquid 1 changes, the substrate P surface position information can be obtained, so that the surface of the substrate P and the image plane can be more accurately aligned. The adjustment amount of the positional relationship between the image plane and the substrate surface based on the detection value of the focus detection system 4 is corrected based on the relationship between the temperature and the refractive index of the liquid 1 stored in the storage device MRY. Also good.

  The above-described measurement of the pattern distribution of the mask M and the liquid temperature distribution information and the image characteristic change information based on the measurement result may be performed at least every time the mask M is changed, but the mask M is not changed. However, it may be performed periodically. Further, by storing the pattern distribution information of the mask M in the storage device MRY, the pattern distribution measurement of the mask M is performed when the predetermined mask M is used and then unloaded and used again. The pattern distribution information stored in the storage device MRY can be used as it is.

  In the present embodiment, the pattern distribution information of the mask M is obtained, but the change in the temperature distribution of the liquid may be obtained using the illuminance distribution information measured by the optical sensor 20 as it is. In this case, the temperature of the liquid 1 includes the pattern density of the mask M, the output of the exposure light source, the liquid supply amount (or flow velocity) per unit time for forming the immersion area AR2, the specific heat of the liquid and the substrate P, etc. It varies according to various parameters. In the storage device MRY, the relationship between the illuminance distribution taking these parameters into account and the liquid temperature change amount may be stored in advance as a data table. The relationship between the illuminance distribution and the liquid temperature change amount may be verified by conducting an experiment in advance. In the case of an immersion exposure apparatus that can change the type of the liquid 1 that forms the immersion area AR2, a data table corresponding to each of these liquids may be stored in the storage device MRY in advance.

  It is conceivable that the temperature of the liquid 1 disposed between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P changes according to the reflected light of the exposure light EL on the surface of the substrate P. In such a case, the reflectance of the surface of the substrate P may be one of the parameters of the data table.

  In the present embodiment, after the mask M is placed on the mask stage MST, the distribution information of the exposure light EL via the projection optical system PL is measured using the optical sensor 20 mounted on the substrate stage PST. In addition, the distribution of the pattern MP of the mask M is measured based on the measurement result. For example, the pattern distribution information of the mask M (for example, the density and transmittance at each position of the mask) is obtained from the design value. The value is stored in the storage device MRY, and the temperature distribution of the liquid 1 and the temperature distribution change are predicted in consideration of the stored distribution information when performing immersion scanning exposure, and based on the prediction result. Thus, adjustment of the projection state such as image characteristic adjustment and substrate position adjustment may be performed.

  Further, as shown in FIG. 9, a pattern measurement device 60 that measures the pattern distribution of the mask M may be provided at a position different from the mask stage MST. As shown in FIG. 9, the pattern measurement device 60 is provided above the mask M supported by the support unit 66, and is provided below the mask M, a light projecting unit 61 that irradiates the mask M with measurement light, And a light receiving unit 62 that receives light transmitted through the mask M based on the measurement light applied to the mask M. The mask M emits measurement light from the light projecting unit 61 while moving relative to the light projecting unit 61 and the light receiving unit 62 in the X-axis direction. The light receiving unit 62 receives the transmitted light of the mask M while moving in synchronization with the light projecting unit 61, thereby receiving the transmitted light of the measurement light on the entire pattern area PA of the mask M. Here, the relative movement between the mask M and the light projecting unit 61 and the light receiving unit 62 may be such that the mask M is moved in the X-axis direction together with the support unit 66 while the positions of the light projecting unit 61 and the light receiving unit 62 are fixed. Alternatively, the light projecting unit 61 and the light receiving unit 62 may be synchronously moved in the X-axis direction while the position of the mask M is fixed, or both the mask M, the light projecting unit 61, and the light receiving unit 62 may be moved along the X axis. It may be configured to move in directions opposite to each other.

  The measurement result of the light receiving unit 62 is output to the control device CONT, and the control device CONT obtains the pattern distribution of the mask M based on the measurement result of the light receiving unit 62 (pattern measurement device 60). Information regarding the pattern density of the mask M measured by the pattern measurement device 60 is stored in the storage device MRY. When performing immersion scanning exposure, image characteristic adjustment and substrate position adjustment (projection state adjustment) are performed based on correction information obtained from the stored pattern distribution.

  Further, the illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL that reaches the substrate stage PST (the image plane side of the projection optical system PL) via the mask M supported by the mask stage MST and the projection optical system PL is a pattern (pattern distribution) of the mask M. There is a case that does not correspond. However, even in such a case, instead of obtaining the mask pattern distribution from the illuminance distribution measured by the optical sensor 20 on the substrate stage PST as described above, the change in the temperature distribution of the liquid is directly obtained to adjust the image characteristics. By adjusting the posture of the substrate P, the pattern can be transferred to the substrate P satisfactorily.

  In the present embodiment, the optical sensor 20 having a plurality of light receiving surfaces in the non-scanning direction is used. However, the optical sensor 20 having a small light receiving surface is used in the X-axis direction and / or the Y-axis direction by the substrate stage PST. To obtain the illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL.

Second Embodiment Next, a second embodiment of the exposure apparatus of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. In the present embodiment, due to the pattern distribution of the mask M (the distribution of the exposure light EL incident on the projection area AR1), no temperature distribution is generated in the liquid 1 in the immersion area AR2, that is, the temperature distribution of the liquid 1 is changed. The projection state is adjusted by adjusting so as to be uniform. In particular, the temperature distribution in the Y-axis direction that is a direction orthogonal to the scanning direction (X-axis direction) is adjusted to be uniform. In this embodiment, the configuration is the same as that of the first embodiment except for the liquid supply mechanism. In the following description, the same or equivalent components as those in the first embodiment described above are denoted by the same reference numerals, and the description thereof is simplified or omitted.

  In FIG. 10, the liquid supply mechanism 50 includes a first liquid supply unit 51 and a second liquid supply unit 52. One end portions of a plurality of supply pipes 51a, 51b, 51c, 51d, 51e, 51f are connected to the first liquid supply portion 51, and the other end portion is close to the substrate P in the non-scanning direction ( A plurality of supply ports 53a, 53b, 53c, 53d, 53e, and 53f arranged along the (Y-axis direction) are provided. Similarly, one end portions of a plurality of supply pipes 52a, 52b, 52c, 52d, 52e, and 52f are connected to the second liquid supply portion 52, and the other end portions are close to the substrate P and are not connected. A plurality of supply ports 54a, 54b, 54c, 54d, 54e, 54f arranged along the scanning direction (Y-axis direction) are provided. Supply ports 53a to 53f and 54a to 54f of the liquid supply mechanism 50 are provided in a plurality of directions and at different distances from the projection area AR1 (center thereof). The supply ports 53a to 53f and 54a to 54f in the present embodiment are arranged side by side in the Y-axis direction, and supply the liquid 1 from a plurality of positions separated in the Y-axis direction.

  The first and second liquid supply units 51 and 52 include a plurality of temperature adjustment mechanisms connected to the supply pipes 51a to 51f and 52a to 52f, and are connected to the supply ports 53a to 53f and 54a to 54f. Liquids 1 having different temperatures can be supplied onto the substrate P. That is, the liquid supply mechanism 50 that supplies the liquid 1 onto the substrate P to form the liquid immersion area AR2 in the present embodiment can supply the liquid 1 at different temperatures from a plurality of positions. Is performed at a plurality of positions, and the temperature of the liquid 1 can be varied according to the liquid supply positions, that is, the positions of the supply ports 53a to 53f and 54a to 54f. The supply ports 53a to 53f and 54a to 54f can supply liquids 1 having different temperatures from a plurality of positions separated from each other in the Y axis direction, which is a direction perpendicular to the X axis direction, which is the scanning direction.

  In the present embodiment, the supply of the liquid 1 is not performed by both the first liquid supply unit 51 and the second liquid supply unit 52 at the same time, but is switched according to the scanning direction of the substrate P. That is, when scanning exposure is performed while moving the substrate P in the + X direction, the first liquid supply unit 51 is operated to supply liquid from the supply ports 53a to 53f, and the substrate P is moved in the -X direction. When scanning exposure is performed while the second liquid supply unit 52 is operated, the liquid 1 is supplied from the supply ports 54a to 54f.

  The operation of the liquid supply mechanism 50 is controlled by the control device CONT. The storage device MRY stores pattern distribution information of the mask M in advance. As described above, the distribution of the exposure light EL incident on the liquid 1 between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P also changes depending on the pattern distribution of the mask M. In the present embodiment, the control device CONT supplies each supply of the liquid supply mechanism 50 based on the pattern distribution information of the mask M so that the temperature distribution of the liquid 1 is made uniform regardless of the distribution of the exposure light EL. The temperature of the liquid supplied from the ports 53a to 53f (or 54a to 54f) is controlled.

  For example, when the shot area SA on the substrate P is scanned and exposed while moving the substrate P in the + X direction, the supply port is considered in consideration of the pattern distribution of the mask M (the distribution of the exposure light EL incident on the liquid 1). A liquid 1 having a temperature of about 23 ° C., which is substantially the same as the chamber internal temperature, is supplied from 53d, 53e, and 53f, and a liquid having a temperature lower than that supplied from the supply ports 53d, 53e, and 53f is supplied from the supply ports 53a, 53b, and 53c . Thereby, even when the distribution (illuminance distribution) of the incident exposure light EL is biased (see, for example, FIG. 8A), the projection state is achieved by uniformizing the temperature distribution of the liquid 1 through which the exposure light EL passes. Therefore, the pattern image of the mask M can be accurately projected onto the substrate P.

  Next, a method for adjusting the projection state by equalizing the temperature of the liquid in the liquid immersion region will be described with reference to FIG. First, before performing immersion exposure, as described with reference to FIG. 4, the distribution of the exposure light EL incident on the liquid 1 is obtained in advance (step S1), and the pattern distribution of the mask M (step S2) and The temperature distribution of the liquid 1 is obtained (step S3). In this case, in step S3, the temperature distribution information of the liquid 1 is obtained particularly in the Y-axis direction (non-scanning direction) that is a direction intersecting the scanning direction (X-axis direction). And the control apparatus CONT adjusts the temperature of the liquid supplied from each supply port 53a-53f based on the calculated | required liquid temperature distribution information, respectively. Thereby, the temperature of the liquid 1 forming the liquid immersion area AR2 can be made uniform, particularly in the Y-axis direction, and deterioration of the pattern image due to the liquid temperature distribution can be prevented.

  In this embodiment, the temperature of the liquid 1 supplied onto the substrate P is adjusted to make the temperature of the liquid 1 between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P uniform. The temperature distribution of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 may be made uniform by injecting non-exposure light (such as infrared rays that do not sensitize the resist) into the portion where the incidence of light is incident and heating the liquid in that portion. .

  In the present embodiment, when adjusting the image projected onto the substrate according to the pattern distribution of the mask M (adjustment of the projection state), the adjustment method in the present embodiment and the adjustment method in the first embodiment May be combined. For example, the zero-order component of the image plane position change described with reference to FIG. 8 is corrected by adjusting the position of the surface of the substrate P using the substrate stage PST. Further, the primary component of the image plane position change is corrected by adjusting the image characteristics of the projection optical system PL using the imaging characteristic control device 3 or the like. Further, the higher order component of the image plane position change is corrected by adjusting the temperature of the liquid supplied from each of the plurality of supply ports 53a to 53f.

  Further, in the present embodiment, the liquid temperature distribution in the non-scanning direction of the liquid immersion area AR2 is made uniform by changing the temperatures of the liquids 1 supplied from the supply ports 53a to 53f. The liquid temperature distribution in the non-scanning direction of the liquid immersion area AR2 can be made uniform by changing the supply amount of the liquid supplied from the supply ports 53a to 53f per unit time. In this case, the temperature rise of the liquid is suppressed as the liquid supply amount per unit time is larger, and conversely, the liquid temperature increase is promoted as the liquid supply amount per unit time is smaller. Note that the pressure applied to the substrate P by the liquid 1 forming the liquid immersion area AR2 changes according to the supply amount of the liquid supplied from the supply ports 53a to 53f, and the surface of the substrate P and the image plane of the pattern image In the case where an error occurs in the alignment, the positional relationship between the surface of the substrate P and the imaging surface of the pattern image may be corrected according to the supply amount of the liquid supplied from the supply ports 53a to 53f.

  In the present embodiment, the liquid temperature distribution in the non-scanning direction of the liquid immersion area AR2 is made uniform by changing the temperatures of the liquid 1 supplied from the supply ports 53a to 53f. In order to adjust the projection state of the pattern image to a desired state, the temperatures of the liquids 1 supplied from the supply ports 53a to 53f are set so that the liquid temperature distribution in the non-scanning direction of the liquid immersion area AR2 becomes nonuniform. It can also be adjusted.

  In the present embodiment, the liquid 1 is supplied from one side in the X-axis direction (scanning direction) to the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL. However, the X-axis direction (scanning direction) is related to the projection area AR1. The liquid 1 may be supplied from both sides. Further, a liquid supply port may be provided on one side or both sides in the Y-axis direction (non-scanning direction) to supply the liquid 1 from the X-axis and Y-axis directions. Further, a plurality of these liquid supply ports may be provided, and liquids having different temperatures may be supplied from the respective supply ports.

Third Embodiment Next, a third embodiment of the exposure apparatus EX of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. In the present embodiment, the liquid supply mechanism and the liquid recovery mechanism are changed as follows. In FIG. 11, the exposure apparatus EX includes a liquid supply mechanism 10 having two supply pipes 71 and 72 (supply ports 71A and 72A) provided side by side in the Z-axis direction, which is a direction perpendicular to the X-axis direction, and a supply pipe. And a liquid recovery mechanism 30 having recovery pipes 73 and 74 (recovery ports 73A and 74A) provided side by side in the Z-axis direction so as to face 71 and 72. The liquid supply mechanism 10 can supply liquids having different temperatures from the supply ports 71A and 72A. Thereby, two liquid layers LQ1 and LQ2 having different temperatures can be formed in the liquid immersion area AR2.

By supplying the liquid by the method as described above, for example, the liquid 1 for forming the upper liquid layer LQ1 in contact with the optical element 2 at the tip of the projection optical system PL is always supplied at substantially the same temperature, Supply while changing the temperature of the liquid 1 of the lower liquid layer LQ2 that is in contact with the surface of the substrate P, which is likely to rise in temperature when irradiated with the exposure light EL, according to the pattern distribution of the mask M (distribution of incident exposure light) can do. By constantly adjusting the temperature of the liquid 1 for forming the upper liquid layer LQ1 to a substantially constant temperature, it is possible to prevent the heat change caused by the heat generated from the substrate P from being transmitted to the optical element 2 at the tip of the projection optical system PL. it can. In addition, the temperature of the liquid supplied to form the lower liquid layer LQ2 may be lower than the temperature of the liquid supplied to form the upper liquid layer LQ1. Of course, the temperature of the liquid 1 forming the upper liquid layer LQ1 may be changed according to the pattern distribution of the mask M (distribution of incident exposure light).
Further, the temperature of the liquid supplied from each of the supply ports 71A and 72A may be adjusted so that the temperature of the liquid in the upper liquid layer LQ1 and the temperature of the liquid in the lower liquid layer LQ2 are substantially the same. However, the temperature difference may be adjusted.

  In this embodiment, two supply pipes and two recovery pipes are provided in the Z-axis direction, but any number of three or more supply pipes and recovery pipes are arranged side by side in the Z-axis direction. Also good. Thereby, the liquid supply mechanism 10 can supply the liquids 1 having different temperatures from a plurality of positions separated in the Z-axis direction.

FIG. 11 shows only one set of supply pipes 71 and 72 and recovery pipes 73 and 74 separated in the X-axis direction. However, a plurality of sets of supply pipes and recovery pipes are arranged side by side in the Y-axis direction. Also good.
Also in the present embodiment, it is possible to vary the amount of liquid supplied from the supply ports 71A and 72A per unit time. In this case, the supply amounts of the supply port 71A and the supply port 71B can be made different so that the temperature of the liquid of the liquid layer LQ1 and the liquid of the liquid layer LQ2 are the same, or a desired temperature difference is generated. Further, the supply amounts of the supply port 71A and the supply port 71B are made different so that the liquid flow in the liquid layer LQ1 and the liquid flow in the liquid layer LQ2 have substantially the same speed, or a desired speed difference occurs. You can also.

Fourth Embodiment Next, a fourth embodiment of the exposure apparatus EX of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. In the present embodiment, the following liquid temperature measuring device (sensor) is provided, and the first and second liquid supply units are used as the liquid recovery mechanism. As shown in FIG. 12, the exposure apparatus EX has a temperature sensor 81 having a plurality of sensor elements 81a to 81f separated in the Y-axis direction and a temperature sensor 82 having sensor elements 82a to 82f in order to measure the temperature of the liquid. It has. The sensor elements 81a to 81f are provided in the supply pipes 51a to 51f, respectively. The sensor elements 82a to 82f are provided in the supply pipes 52a to 52f, respectively.

  The first liquid supply unit 51 and the second liquid supply unit 52 of the present embodiment each function as a liquid recovery mechanism that recovers the liquid 1 on the substrate P. That is, the first and second liquid supply units 51 and 52 can suck and collect the liquid 1 on the substrate P through the supply port and the supply pipe. For example, while the first liquid supply unit 51 supplies the liquid 1 onto the substrate P, the second liquid supply unit 52 functions as a liquid recovery mechanism and recovers the liquid 1 on the substrate P. When the recovered liquid 1 passes through the supply pipes (recovery pipes) 52a to 52f, the temperature is measured by the sensor elements 82a to 82f. That is, in the second liquid supply unit 52 functioning as a liquid recovery mechanism, the liquid 1 on the substrate P is recovered by the recovery ports (supply ports) 54a to 54e provided at a plurality of positions separated in the Y-axis direction. The temperatures of the liquid 1 collected at a plurality of positions can be measured by the plurality of sensor elements 82a to 82f, respectively. Similarly, while the second liquid supply unit 52 supplies the liquid 1 onto the substrate P, the first liquid supply unit 51 functions as a liquid recovery mechanism and recovers the liquid 1 on the substrate P. The temperature of the recovered liquid 1 is measured by the sensor elements 81a to 81f when flowing through the supply tubes (recovery tubes) 51a to 51f.

  Next, the procedure of immersion exposure using the exposure apparatus EX shown in FIG. 12 will be described with reference to the flowchart shown in FIG. First, the mask M is loaded on the mask stage MST, and the substrate P is loaded on the substrate stage PST. Next, the control device CONT drives the liquid supply mechanism 50 and the liquid recovery mechanism 30 to form the liquid immersion area AR2 between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P. Next, the mask M is illuminated with the exposure light EL, and test exposure is performed on the substrate P (step SB1). Since the liquid 1 in the immersion area AR2 is irradiated only by the exposure light EL in an area corresponding to the slit-shaped projection area AR1 whose longitudinal direction is the Y-axis direction, a temperature distribution is mainly generated in the Y-axis direction. . Here, as the substrate P, a test substrate different from the device manufacturing substrate may be used.

  For example, when liquid is supplied by the second liquid supply unit 52 to perform immersion exposure while moving the substrate P in the −X direction, the first liquid supply unit 51 functions as a liquid recovery mechanism. Therefore, the liquid 1 on the substrate P is recovered through the recovery tubes (supply tubes) 51a to 51f. The temperature of the liquid flowing through the collection pipes 51a to 51f is measured by the sensor elements 81a to 81f. The measurement results of the temperatures of the sensor elements 81a to 81f are output to the control device CONT. The control device CONT obtains the temperature distribution in the Y-axis direction of the liquid 1 based on the detection results of the plurality of sensor elements 81a to 18f arranged in the Y-axis direction (step SB2). Here, the 1st liquid supply part 51 which functions as a liquid collection | recovery mechanism can be set as the structure which collect | recovers the quantity of liquid which can measure liquid temperature.

  Based on the liquid temperature distribution obtained in step SB2, the control device CONT projects a desired pattern image on the substrate P via the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1, that is, in the immersion area AR2. A correction amount for the temperature of the liquid supplied from each of the supply ports 54a to 54f connected to the second liquid supply unit 52 is obtained so that the temperature of the liquid 1 in the Y-axis direction is uniform (step SB3).

  Next, the controller CONT adjusts the temperature of the liquid 1 supplied onto the substrate P from each of the supply ports 54a to 54f based on the obtained correction amount of the liquid temperature, and immersion exposure for actual device manufacturing. (Hereinafter referred to as main exposure) is performed (step SB4). During the main exposure, the first liquid supply unit 51 does not function as a liquid recovery unit (the function is released).

  On the other hand, when performing exposure while moving the substrate P in the + X direction, the second liquid supply unit 52 functions as a liquid recovery mechanism, and test exposure and main exposure are performed in the same procedure as described above.

  In the present embodiment, as a method for adjusting the projection state, after obtaining the temperature distribution of the liquid 1 (step SB2), the temperature of the supplied liquid 1 so that a desired pattern image is projected onto the substrate P. However, as described above, adjustment of the supply amount of the liquid 1 per unit time, adjustment of the position and orientation of the substrate P, adjustment of the image characteristics of the projection optical system PL, and the like may be performed. Further, these various adjustments may be performed in combination.

  In the present embodiment, the temperature of the liquid supplied from each supply port is adjusted so that the temperature of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 is uniform based on the detection results of the plurality of sensor elements 81a to 18f. However, after analyzing the pattern formed on the substrate P by the test exposure, the correction amount of the liquid temperature supplied from each supply port may be determined. In this case, the temperature of the liquid supplied from each supply port may be adjusted so that the temperature of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 is not uniform.

Fifth Embodiment Next, a fifth embodiment of the exposure apparatus EX of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. In this embodiment, the temperature distribution of the liquid is obtained using a dummy substrate. As shown in FIG. 14, a plurality of temperature sensors 90 are provided on the surface of the dummy substrate DP. The dummy substrate DP has substantially the same size and shape as the device manufacturing substrate P, and can be placed (held) on the substrate stage PST, which is a movable member that can hold and move the substrate P. Yes. The dummy substrate DP is detachable from the substrate stage PST. That is, the temperature sensor 90 on the dummy substrate DP can also be attached to and detached from the substrate stage PST.

  The temperature sensor 90 has a plurality of sensor elements 91 provided on the surface of the dummy substrate DP. The sensor element 91 is composed of, for example, a thermocouple.

  On the dummy substrate DP, a plurality of sensor placement areas SC corresponding to the shot area SA (see FIG. 6) are set. The sensor arrangement area SC is set to be substantially the same as the size (shape) and arrangement of the shot area SA where the device pattern is exposed. In the present embodiment, a total of nine sensor placement areas SC are set in a substantially matrix shape, three in each of the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction (3 × 3).

  A plurality of sensor elements 91 are arranged in a matrix in plan view in each sensor arrangement area SC. In the present embodiment, a total of 25 sensor elements 91 are provided in each sensor arrangement region SC, 5 each (5 × 5) in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction. That is, the temperature sensor 90 on the dummy substrate DP includes a plurality of sensor elements 91 that are separated at least in the non-scanning direction (Y-axis direction) of the substrate P (dummy substrate DP).

  The detection part (probe) of the sensor element 91 of the temperature sensor 90 is exposed on the surface of the dummy substrate DP, and can detect the temperature of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2. By holding the dummy substrate DP provided with the temperature sensor 90 by the substrate stage PST, the temperature sensor 90 for measuring the temperature of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 is movably disposed near the image plane of the projection optical system PL. be able to.

  Further, the sensor element 91 arranged in the shot area SA including the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL is arranged in the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL and its vicinity. By arranging a plurality of sensor elements 91 in the non-scanning direction (Y-axis direction) with respect to the projection area AR1, it is possible to measure the temperature distribution in at least the non-scanning direction (Y-axis direction) of the projection area AR1.

  In addition, a signal transmission line (cable) 93 that transmits a temperature detection signal of the sensor element 91 (temperature sensor 90) to the control device CONT is connected to each sensor arrangement area SC. One end of the signal transmission line is connected to the sensor element 91 (temperature sensor 90) of each sensor arrangement area SC, and the other end is connected to the control device CONT outside the dummy substrate DP (outside the substrate stage PST). . The signal transmission line 93 is embedded in the dummy substrate DP, and the signal transmission line 93 extending from the end of the dummy substrate DP is connected to the control device CONT.

  In addition, each sensor arrangement region SC provided on the surface of the dummy substrate DP is subjected to a surface treatment so as to have a different light reflectance. Specifically, each sensor arrangement region SC is coated with a material film having a different light reflectance. Thereby, the sensor element 91 (temperature sensor 90) arranged in each sensor arrangement area SC is exposed to the exposure light EL through the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1, under different light reflection conditions. The temperature of the liquid 1 can be measured.

  On the dummy substrate DP, an alignment mark 94 for aligning the sensor placement area SC with a predetermined position is provided for each sensor placement area SC. The alignment mark 94 is detected by an alignment system (not shown). The alignment system obtains position information of the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL with respect to the temperature sensor 90 (sensor element 91) arranged in the sensor arrangement area SC based on the detection result of the position of the alignment mark 94. Next, using the alignment mark 94, the sensor element 91 in each sensor arrangement area SC and the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL are aligned. Specifically, among the sensor elements 91 arranged in a matrix in the sensor arrangement area SC, the sensor elements 91 arranged in the non-scanning direction (Y-axis direction) are arranged in the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL. In other words, the alignment process is performed so that the arrangement direction of the plurality of sensor elements 91 in the Y-axis direction matches the longitudinal direction of the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL.

  Next, a procedure for measuring the temperature of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 with the temperature sensor 90 shown in FIG. 14 will be described. Before performing immersion exposure processing for device manufacture, first, the mask M is loaded on the mask stage MST, and the dummy substrate DP including the temperature sensor 90 described above is loaded on the substrate stage PST. Next, the control device CONT detects the position of the alignment mark 94 described above, obtains the positional relationship between the projection area AR1 of the projection optical system PL and the temperature sensor 90 of the sensor arrangement area SC, and determines the longitudinal direction (Y (Axis direction) and the arrangement direction of the sensor elements 91 with respect to the Y-axis direction are matched. Next, the control device CONT drives the liquid supply mechanism 50 and the liquid recovery mechanism 30 to form the liquid immersion area AR2 between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P, and illuminates the mask M with the exposure light EL. . By irradiating the liquid 1 with the exposure light EL that has passed through the mask M and the projection optical system PL, a temperature distribution resulting from the illuminance distribution of the exposure light EL is generated in the liquid 1. Similarly to the operation during device manufacturing, the control apparatus CONT moves the mask stage MST supporting the mask M and the substrate stage PST supporting the dummy substrate DP in the X-axis direction on the substrate stage PST. The temperature distribution of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 is measured using the arranged temperature sensor 90. The temperature distribution in the Y-axis direction of the shot area SA (projection area AR1) and thus the pattern distribution in the Y-axis direction of the mask M are measured based on the detection results of the sensor elements 91 arranged in the Y-axis direction. On the other hand, the temperature distribution in the X-axis direction of the shot area SA and the pattern distribution in the X-axis direction of the mask M are provided in the X-axis direction in the sensor arrangement area SC that scans and moves in the X-axis direction with respect to the projection area AR1. Measurement is performed based on the detection results of the plurality of sensor elements 91. Thereby, the temperature distribution of the liquid 1 in the XY directions with respect to one shot area SA can be measured.

  At this time, the control device CONT performs temperature distribution measurement for each of the sensor placement areas SC set on the dummy substrate DP. Since the sensor arrangement areas SC are set to have different light reflectivities, for example, when using the substrates P having different light reflectivities (specifically, the types of photoresists) at the time of device manufacture, The liquid temperature distribution information under the corresponding light reflection conditions can be measured.

  The control device CONT is arranged on the substrate P via the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 based on the temperature information (temperature distribution information) of the liquid 1 measured using the temperature sensor 90 provided on the dummy substrate DP. Various operations as described above can be executed so that a desired pattern image is projected onto the screen. For example, a correction amount for correcting the drive of the imaging characteristic control device 3 is obtained, or a correction amount for correcting the movement (posture) of the substrate stage PST during scanning exposure is obtained. Further, as in the second embodiment, the temperature of the liquid supplied from each of the supply ports 54a to 54f (53a to 53f) (see FIG. 10) so that the temperature of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 is uniform. A correction amount for correcting is obtained. These obtained correction amounts are stored in the storage device MRY.

  While the control device CONT performs the process of obtaining the correction amount, the dummy substrate DP is unloaded from the substrate stage PST, and the device manufacturing substrate P is loaded onto the substrate stage PST. Next, the control device CONT adjusts the temperature of the liquid 1 supplied to form the immersion area AR2, based on the obtained correction amount, adjusts the image characteristics of the projection optical system PL, or the substrate stage. By adjusting the movement (posture) of the PST, the positional relationship between the image plane formed through the projection optical system PL and the liquid 1 and the substrate P surface is adjusted, and the liquid immersion with respect to the substrate P is performed. Scan exposure is performed.

  FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of the dummy substrate DP provided with the temperature sensor 90. In FIG. 15, a storage element 95 that stores a temperature detection signal of the temperature sensor 90 is provided on a dummy substrate DP. Specifically, the storage element 95 is embedded in the dummy substrate DP.

  When the temperature of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 is detected using the dummy substrate DP shown in FIG. 15, the temperature of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 is detected while the dummy substrate DP is held on the substrate stage PST. The detection result is stored in the storage element 95. Next, after performing this test exposure, the dummy substrate DP is unloaded from the substrate stage PST, and the temperature detection result stored in the storage element 95 is extracted (read out). When the immersion exposure process for device manufacturing is performed, the control apparatus CONT adjusts the image characteristics of the projection optical system PL based on the extracted temperature information of the liquid as in the above embodiment. Or a correction amount for adjusting the temperature of the liquid 1 forming the liquid immersion area AR2. The storage element 95 is detachably provided to the dummy substrate DP, and after detecting the temperature of the liquid 1, the storage element 95 is removed from the dummy substrate DP, and the liquid temperature detection result stored in the storage element 95 is detected. May be extracted.

  As described above, by arranging the substrate provided with the temperature sensor 90 on the movable substrate stage PST, the liquid temperature can be measured while moving the scanning with respect to the exposure light EL. The liquid temperature distribution in the liquid immersion area AR2 corresponding to the area SA can be measured. Further, by providing the temperature sensor 90 on the dummy substrate DP having substantially the same shape as the device manufacturing substrate P, the liquid immersion area AR2 is favorably formed between the projection optical system PL and the dummy substrate DP. That is, the temperature can be measured under substantially the same conditions as the immersion exposure conditions during device manufacture. Furthermore, based on the measurement result, the temperature of the liquid 1 can be accurately adjusted during the immersion exposure.

  Further, as described above, the temperature distribution in the liquid immersion area AR2 is mainly caused by the irradiation of the exposure light EL. For example, it may be caused by the temperature environment around the exposure apparatus (around the liquid immersion area). It is done. In this case, as in this embodiment, by directly measuring the liquid temperature with the temperature sensor 90, the liquid temperature distribution in the immersion area AR2 can be accurately measured even if the temperature environment around the exposure apparatus varies. .

  In the present embodiment, the temperature sensor 90 that detects the temperature of the liquid 1 in the liquid immersion area AR2 is provided on the dummy substrate DP that is detachable from the substrate stage PST. You may provide in a position. Moreover, you may provide so that attachment or detachment with respect to the predetermined position of the substrate stage PST is possible. Alternatively, the temperature sensor 90 may be movably provided within a predetermined area on the substrate stage PST. Or you may provide the temperature sensor which detects the liquid temperature of immersion area AR2 in the optical element 2 vicinity of the front-end | tip part of projection optical system PL.

  In each of the above-described embodiments, the temperature of the liquid supplied from each supply port is adjusted mainly to adjust the projection state. However, the liquid is supplied from each supply port for other purposes. The temperature of the liquid may be adjusted. For example, the temperature of the liquid supplied from each supply port may be adjusted so as to obtain a desired temperature distribution of the substrate P.

  As described above, pure water is used as the liquid 1 in the above embodiment. Pure water has an advantage that it can be easily obtained in large quantities at a semiconductor manufacturing factory or the like, and has no adverse effect on the photoresist, optical element (lens), etc. on the substrate P. In addition, pure water has no adverse effects on the environment, and since the impurity content is extremely low, it can be expected to clean the surface of the substrate P and the surface of the optical element provided on the front end surface of the projection optical system PL.

  The refractive index n of pure water (water) with respect to the exposure light EL having a wavelength of about 193 nm is said to be about 1.44, and ArF excimer laser light (wavelength 193 nm) is used as the light source of the exposure light EL. On the substrate P, the wavelength is shortened to 1 / n, that is, about 134 nm, and a high resolution is obtained. Furthermore, since the depth of focus is expanded to about n times, that is, about 1.44 times compared with that in the air, if it is sufficient to ensure the same depth of focus as that used in the air, the projection optics The numerical aperture of the system PL can be further increased, and the resolution is improved also in this respect.

  In the present embodiment, the optical element 2 is attached to the tip of the projection optical system PL, and the optical characteristics of the projection optical system PL, for example, aberration (spherical aberration, coma aberration, etc.) can be adjusted by this lens. The optical element attached to the tip of the projection optical system PL may be an optical plate used for adjusting the optical characteristics of the projection optical system PL. Alternatively, it may be a plane parallel plate that can transmit the exposure light EL. By making the optical element in contact with the liquid 1 into a plane parallel plate that is cheaper than the lens, the transmittance of the projection optical system PL and the exposure light EL on the substrate P during transportation, assembly, and adjustment of the exposure apparatus EX. Even if a substance that reduces the illuminance and the uniformity of the illuminance distribution (for example, a silicon-based organic substance) adheres to the plane-parallel plate, the plane-parallel plate need only be replaced immediately before the liquid 1 is supplied. There is an advantage that the replacement cost is lower than in the case where the optical element in contact with the lens is a lens. That is, the surface of the optical element that comes into contact with the liquid 1 is contaminated due to scattering particles generated from the resist by irradiation of the exposure light EL, or adhesion of impurities in the liquid 1, and the optical element is periodically replaced. Although it is necessary, by making this optical element an inexpensive parallel flat plate, the cost of replacement parts is lower than that of lenses and the time required for replacement can be shortened, resulting in an increase in maintenance costs (running costs). And a decrease in throughput.

  When the pressure between the optical element at the tip of the projection optical system PL generated by the flow of the liquid 1 and the substrate P is large, the optical element is not exchangeable but the optical element is moved by the pressure. It may be fixed firmly so that there is no.

  In the present embodiment, the space between the projection optical system PL and the surface of the substrate P is filled with the liquid 1. For example, the liquid is obtained with a cover glass made of a plane parallel plate attached to the surface of the substrate P. 1 may be satisfied.

Although the liquid 1 of the present embodiment is water, a liquid other than water may be, for example, when the light source of exposure light EL is an F 2 laser, the F 2 laser beam is not transmitted through water The liquid 1 may be a fluorine-based fluid such as fluorine-based oil that can transmit the F 2 laser beam. In addition, as the liquid 1, there are other materials that are transmissive to the exposure light EL, have a refractive index as high as possible, and are stable with respect to the photoresist applied to the projection optical system PL and the surface of the substrate P (for example, Cedar). Oil) can also be used. Also in this case, the surface treatment is performed according to the polarity of the liquid 1 to be used.

  The substrate P in each of the above embodiments is not only a semiconductor wafer for manufacturing a semiconductor device, but also a glass substrate for a display device, a ceramic wafer for a thin film magnetic head, or an original mask or reticle used in an exposure apparatus. (Synthetic quartz, silicon wafer) or the like is applied.

  As the exposure apparatus EX, in addition to the step-and-scan type scanning exposure apparatus (scanning stepper) that scans and exposes the pattern of the mask M by moving the mask M and the substrate P synchronously, the mask M and the substrate P Can be applied to a step-and-repeat type projection exposure apparatus (stepper) in which the pattern of the mask M is collectively exposed while the substrate P is stationary and the substrate P is sequentially moved stepwise. The present invention can also be applied to a step-and-stitch type exposure apparatus that partially transfers at least two patterns on the substrate P.

  The present invention can also be applied to a twin stage type exposure apparatus. The structure and exposure operation of a twin stage type exposure apparatus are disclosed in, for example, Japanese Patent Laid-Open Nos. 10-163099 and 10-214783 (corresponding US Pat. Nos. 6,341,007, 6,400,441, 6,549,269 and 6). , 590, 634), JP 2000-505958 (corresponding US Pat. No. 5,969,441) or US Pat. No. 6,208,407, and is permitted by the laws of the country designated or selected in this international application. Insofar as possible, those disclosures are incorporated herein by reference.

  The type of the exposure apparatus EX is not limited to an exposure apparatus for manufacturing a semiconductor element that exposes a semiconductor element pattern on the substrate P, but an exposure apparatus for manufacturing a liquid crystal display element or a display, a thin film magnetic head, an image sensor (CCD). ) Or an exposure apparatus or the like for manufacturing a reticle or a mask.

  When a linear motor is used for the substrate stage PST and the mask stage MST, either an air levitation type using an air bearing or a magnetic levitation type using a Lorentz force or a reactance force may be used. Each stage PST, MST may be a type that moves along a guide, or may be a guideless type that does not have a guide. Examples using linear motors on the stage are disclosed in US Pat. Nos. 5,623,853 and 5,528,118, the disclosure of which is permitted by national legislation designated or selected in this international application. To the extent that it is incorporated as part of the description of the text.

As a driving mechanism for each stage PST, MST, a planar motor that drives each stage PST, MST by electromagnetic force with a magnet unit having a two-dimensionally arranged magnet and an armature unit having a two-dimensionally arranged coil facing each other is provided. It may be used. In this case, either one of the magnet unit and the armature unit may be connected to the stages PST and MST, and the other of the magnet unit and the armature unit may be provided on the moving surface side of the stages PST and MST.

  The reaction force generated by the movement of the substrate stage PST may be released mechanically to the floor (ground) using a frame member so as not to be transmitted to the projection optical system PL. This reaction force processing method is disclosed in detail in, for example, US Pat. No. 5,528,118 (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. Hei 8-166475), and these disclosures are based on the country designated or selected in this international application. To the extent permitted by law, it is incorporated as part of the text.

  The reaction force generated by the movement of the mask stage MST may be released mechanically to the floor (ground) using a frame member so as not to be transmitted to the projection optical system PL. This reaction force processing method is disclosed in detail, for example, in US Pat. No. 5,874,820 (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 8-330224) and is allowed by the laws of the country designated or selected in this international application. As long as it is part of the description of the main text.

  As described above, the exposure apparatus EX according to the present embodiment maintains various mechanical subsystems including the respective constituent elements recited in the claims of the present application so as to maintain predetermined mechanical accuracy, electrical accuracy, and optical accuracy. Manufactured by assembling. To ensure these various accuracies, before and after this assembly, various optical systems are adjusted to achieve optical accuracy, various mechanical systems are adjusted to achieve mechanical accuracy, and various electrical systems are Adjustments are made to achieve electrical accuracy. The assembly process from the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus includes mechanical connection, electrical circuit wiring connection, pneumatic circuit piping connection, and the like between the various subsystems. Needless to say, there is an assembly process for each subsystem before the assembly process from the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus. When the assembly process of the various subsystems to the exposure apparatus is completed, comprehensive adjustment is performed to ensure various accuracies as the entire exposure apparatus. The exposure apparatus is preferably manufactured in a clean room where the temperature, cleanliness, etc. are controlled.

  As shown in FIG. 16, a microdevice such as a semiconductor device includes a step 201 for designing a function / performance of the microdevice, a step 202 for producing a mask (reticle) based on the design step, and a substrate as a substrate of the device. Manufacturing step 203, exposure processing step 204 for exposing the mask pattern onto the substrate by the exposure apparatus EX of the above-described embodiment, device assembly step (including dicing process, bonding process, packaging process) 205, inspection step 206, etc. It is manufactured after.

It is a schematic block diagram which shows 1st Embodiment of the exposure apparatus of this invention. It is a top view which shows schematic structure of the liquid supply mechanism and liquid recovery mechanism which comprise some exposure apparatuses of this invention. It is a top view of the substrate stage which comprises a part of exposure apparatus of this invention. It is a flowchart figure which shows one Embodiment of the exposure method of this invention. It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the state which is measuring the pattern distribution of a mask. It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating the state which is carrying out immersion exposure of the pattern of a mask to a board | substrate. It is a schematic diagram for demonstrating a change of the position of the image plane through a projection optical system and a liquid by the temperature distribution of a liquid. It is a schematic diagram showing a procedure for obtaining a correction amount for correcting a change in image plane position according to the distribution of exposure light. It is a schematic diagram which shows the other method of measuring the pattern distribution of a mask. It is a schematic block diagram which shows 2nd Embodiment of the exposure apparatus of this invention. It is a schematic block diagram which shows 3rd Embodiment of the exposure apparatus of this invention. It is a schematic block diagram which shows 4th Embodiment of the exposure apparatus of this invention. It is a flowchart figure which shows one Embodiment of the exposure method of this invention. It is a schematic block diagram which shows 5th Embodiment of the exposure apparatus of this invention. It is a schematic block diagram which shows the modification of FIG. It is a flowchart figure which shows an example of the manufacturing process of a semiconductor device.

Explanation of symbols

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Liquid, 3 ... Imaging characteristic control apparatus (adjustment means), 10 ... Liquid supply mechanism, 30 ... Liquid recovery mechanism, 50 ... Liquid supply mechanism (adjustment means), 51 ... 1st liquid supply part (Adjustment means, liquid) (Recovery mechanism), 52... Second liquid supply unit (adjustment means, liquid recovery mechanism), 81 a to 81 f... Temperature sensor, 82 a to 82 f... Temperature sensor, 90. ... liquid immersion area, CONT ... control device (adjustment means), DP ... dummy substrate, EX ... exposure apparatus, IA ... illumination area (irradiation area), M ... mask, MP ... mask pattern, MST ... mask stage (adjustment means) , P ... substrate, PL ... projection optical system, PST ... substrate stage (movable member, adjusting means)

Claims (48)

  1. An exposure method for exposing a substrate by projecting an image of a mask pattern onto the substrate via a liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate,
    Adjusting the projection state of the pattern image according to the distribution of exposure light incident on the liquid;
    An exposure method comprising exposing a substrate in the adjusted projection state.
  2.   The exposure method according to claim 1, wherein a distribution of exposure light incident on the liquid changes according to a distribution of patterns on the mask.
  3. An exposure method for exposing a substrate by projecting an image of a mask pattern onto the substrate via a liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate,
    Adjusting the projection state of the pattern image according to the distribution of the pattern on the mask;
    An exposure method comprising exposing a substrate in the adjusted projection state.
  4.   The substrate is exposed while relatively moving exposure light and the mask, and the adjustment of the projection state of the pattern image is performed on the mask with relative movement of the exposure light and the mask. The exposure method as described in any one of Claims 1-3 performed according to the change of the pattern distribution in the irradiation area | region of light.
  5. An exposure method for exposing a substrate by projecting an image of a mask pattern onto the substrate via a liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate,
    Prior to the exposure, measuring distribution information of the exposure light incident on the liquid via the projection optical system;
    An exposure method comprising exposing a substrate by adjusting a projection state of a pattern image based on the measured distribution information.
  6.   6. The exposure method according to claim 5, wherein the substrate is exposed while moving in a predetermined direction with respect to the exposure light, and the distribution information is an incident energy distribution in a direction perpendicular to the predetermined direction.
  7. An exposure method for exposing the substrate by projecting an image of a pattern onto the substrate through a liquid by a projection optical system while moving the substrate in a predetermined direction,
    Measuring a temperature distribution of the liquid in a direction intersecting the predetermined direction;
    Adjusting the projection state of the pattern image based on the measured temperature distribution information;
    An exposure method comprising exposing a substrate in a projected state of the pattern image.
  8.   The adjustment of the projection state of the pattern image includes adjustment of a positional relationship between an image surface formed via the projection optical system and the liquid and an exposure surface on the substrate. The exposure method according to item.
  9.   The exposure method according to claim 1, wherein the adjustment of the projection state of the pattern image includes a temperature adjustment of a liquid supplied to form the immersion area.
  10.   The exposure method according to claim 9, wherein the liquid is supplied at a plurality of positions, and the temperature of the liquid is varied according to the supply position.
  11.   The exposure method according to claim 7, wherein the temperature distribution of the liquid is measured by using a temperature sensor disposed on a movable substrate stage holding the substrate.
  12. An exposure method for exposing a substrate by projecting an image of a mask pattern onto the substrate via a liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate,
    Measuring a temperature distribution of the liquid using a temperature sensor disposed on a movable substrate stage holding the substrate;
    Exposing the substrate on the substrate stage.
  13.   The exposure method according to claim 11, wherein the temperature sensor is detachable from a substrate stage.
  14.   The exposure method according to claim 7, wherein the temperature distribution of the liquid is generated by irradiation with the exposure light.
  15. An exposure method for exposing the substrate by projecting an image of a pattern onto the substrate through a liquid,
    Setting exposure conditions according to the temperature distribution of the liquid on the substrate onto which the pattern image is projected;
    An exposure method comprising exposing a substrate under the set exposure conditions.
  16.   The exposure method according to claim 15, wherein the temperature distribution of the liquid is obtained from the distribution of the pattern.
  17.   The exposure method according to claim 16, wherein the pattern distribution is obtained by irradiating the pattern with light and measuring the transmittance of the pattern.
  18. The exposure condition includes an image characteristic correction amount,
    Further, the image characteristic change information is obtained based on the liquid temperature distribution information, and an image characteristic correction amount is obtained from the image characteristic change information, and the projection state of the pattern image is adjusted based on the obtained image characteristic correction amount. The exposure method according to any one of claims 15 to 17, wherein the substrate is exposed.
  19.   The exposure condition includes at least one of adjustment of a substrate posture, adjustment of a substrate position, adjustment of imaging characteristics, adjustment of a mask position, and adjustment of a wavelength of light for irradiating a pattern. The exposure method according to claim 1.
  20.   The exposure method according to claim 15, wherein the exposure condition includes a temperature of a liquid supplied onto the substrate.
  21.   21. The exposure method according to claim 20, wherein the temperature of the liquid is adjusted by supplying liquids of different temperatures onto the substrate from a plurality of supply ports.
  22.   The exposure method according to any one of claims 15 to 21, wherein the temperature distribution of the liquid is measured by a temperature sensor.
  23.   23. The exposure method according to claim 22, wherein the temperature sensor is a dummy substrate having a plurality of detection units corresponding to the shot areas.
  24.   The device manufacturing method using the exposure method as described in any one of Claims 1-23.
  25. An exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate by projecting an image of a predetermined pattern onto the substrate through a liquid:
    A projection optical system that projects an image of the pattern onto a substrate;
    An exposure apparatus comprising: a temperature sensor that is movably disposed near an image plane of the projection optical system and measures the temperature of the liquid.
  26.   The exposure apparatus according to claim 25, further comprising a movable member that holds the temperature sensor.
  27.   27. The exposure apparatus according to claim 26, wherein the temperature sensor is detachable from the movable member.
  28.   28. The exposure apparatus according to claim 26, wherein the movable member is a substrate stage that can move while holding the substrate.
  29.   29. The liquid supply mechanism according to claim 25, further comprising a liquid supply mechanism for supplying a liquid onto the substrate, wherein the liquid supply mechanism adjusts a temperature of the liquid supplied onto the substrate based on a measurement result of the temperature sensor. The exposure apparatus according to any one of the above.
  30.   29. The substrate according to claim 25, wherein the substrate is exposed while moving in a predetermined direction, and the temperature sensor has a plurality of sensor elements arranged apart from each other in a direction perpendicular to the predetermined direction. Exposure device.
  31. An exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate by projecting an image of a predetermined pattern onto the substrate through a liquid:
    A projection optical system that projects an image of the pattern onto a substrate;
    A substrate stage for moving the substrate during exposure;
    An exposure apparatus comprising a temperature sensor having a plurality of sensor elements arranged apart from each other in a direction perpendicular to the predetermined direction in order to measure the temperature of the liquid.
  32.   32. The exposure apparatus according to claim 31, wherein the plurality of sensor elements are arranged in the vicinity of a projection region of the projection optical system.
  33.   And a liquid recovery mechanism for recovering the liquid on the substrate at a plurality of positions separated from each other in a direction perpendicular to the predetermined direction, wherein the plurality of sensor elements are configured to control the temperature of the liquid recovered at the plurality of positions. 32. The exposure apparatus according to claim 31, which measures each of them.
  34.   Based on the temperature information of the liquid measured using the temperature sensor, the projection state of the pattern image is adjusted so that a desired pattern image is projected onto the substrate via the projection optical system and the liquid. The exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 25 to 33, further comprising an adjusting unit.
  35.   35. The exposure apparatus according to claim 34, wherein the adjustment unit adjusts a positional relationship between an image plane formed via the projection optical system and the liquid and the substrate surface.
  36.   36. The liquid supply mechanism according to claim 34, further comprising a liquid supply mechanism for supplying a liquid onto the substrate, wherein the adjusting means adjusts the temperature of the liquid supplied from the liquid supply mechanism based on a measurement result of the temperature sensor. Exposure equipment.
  37.   The liquid supply mechanism which supplies a liquid on the said board | substrate further, The said liquid supply mechanism adjusts the temperature of the liquid supplied on the said board | substrate based on the measurement result of the said temperature sensor. The exposure apparatus according to any one of the above.
  38.   36. The exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 31 to 35, further comprising a liquid supply mechanism that supplies a liquid onto the substrate, wherein the liquid supply mechanism supplies liquids having different temperatures from a plurality of positions.
  39. An exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate by projecting an image of a predetermined pattern onto the substrate through a liquid:
    A projection optical system that projects an image of the pattern onto a substrate;
    An exposure apparatus comprising: a liquid supply mechanism capable of supplying liquids having different temperatures from a plurality of positions in order to form the liquid immersion region between the substrate and the projection optical system.
  40.   40. The exposure according to claim 38, wherein the substrate is exposed while moving in a predetermined direction, and the liquid supply mechanism supplies liquids having different temperatures from a plurality of positions separated from each other in a direction perpendicular to the predetermined direction. apparatus.
  41.   41. The exposure apparatus according to claim 40, wherein the plurality of positions are separated from each other in a direction perpendicular to the substrate surface.
  42.   42. The exposure apparatus according to claim 41, wherein the temperature of the liquid supplied from a position near the substrate surface is lower than the temperature of the liquid supplied from a position farther from the surface.
  43. An exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate by projecting a pattern image onto the substrate through a liquid:
    A projection optical system that projects an image of the pattern onto a substrate;
    A sensor for measuring the distribution of the pattern:
    An exposure apparatus comprising: a control device that adjusts a projection state of a pattern image based on a pattern distribution measured by the sensor.
  44. An exposure apparatus that exposes a substrate by projecting a pattern image onto the substrate through a liquid:
    A projection optical system that projects an image of the pattern onto a substrate;
    A liquid recovery mechanism for recovering the liquid on the substrate;
    An exposure apparatus comprising: a temperature sensor that measures the temperature of the liquid recovered by the liquid recovery mechanism.
  45.   45. The exposure apparatus according to claim 44, further comprising a liquid supply mechanism for supplying a liquid onto the substrate, wherein the temperature of the liquid supplied from the liquid supply mechanism is adjusted based on a measurement result of the temperature sensor.
  46.   46. The exposure apparatus according to claim 44 or 45, further comprising adjustment means for adjusting a projection state of the pattern image based on a measurement result of the temperature sensor.
  47.   45. The exposure apparatus according to claim 44, wherein the temperature sensor is disposed in a recovery tube of the liquid recovery mechanism.
  48. 48. A device manufacturing method using the exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 25 to 47.
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