JP2004359475A - Method for manufacturing optical element and optical device - Google Patents

Method for manufacturing optical element and optical device Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2004359475A
JP2004359475A JP2003156829A JP2003156829A JP2004359475A JP 2004359475 A JP2004359475 A JP 2004359475A JP 2003156829 A JP2003156829 A JP 2003156829A JP 2003156829 A JP2003156829 A JP 2003156829A JP 2004359475 A JP2004359475 A JP 2004359475A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
laser light
scanning direction
step
optical element
light
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JP2003156829A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Atsushi Amako
Daisuke Sawaki
Shunji Uejima
俊司 上島
淳 尼子
大輔 澤木
Original Assignee
Seiko Epson Corp
セイコーエプソン株式会社
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Priority to JP2003156829A priority Critical patent/JP2004359475A/en
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for manufacturing an optical element capable of accurately forming a pattern of a desired shape. <P>SOLUTION: To a quartz base 120 comprised of a first face 120a to which a pulse laser light is incident and a second face 120b which is provided with a specified thickness d1 and from which the pulse laser light outgoes, an alignment to perform a relative positioning is conducted so that the converging position f1 of the pulsed laser light and the position in the proximity of the second face 120b within the quartz base 120 are approximately in coincidence. A degenerated area 400 is formed by irradiating the quartz base 120 with the pulse laser light to modify the physical properties in the proximity of the second face 120b. The desired pattern is formed by performing an etching treatment of the quartz base 120 using a solution in a state that the etching rate of the quartz base 120 and the etching rate of the modified area 400 are different each other. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2005,JPO&NCIPI

Description

[0001]
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing an optical element and an optical device, particularly, a method for manufacturing an optical element suitable for a liquid crystal spatial light modulator, and an optical apparatus using a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System; hereinafter, referred to as “MEMS”). .
[0002]
[Prior art]
When forming a pattern of a predetermined shape on an optically transparent substrate such as a quartz substrate, transfer a groove-shaped pattern to a resin material using a manufacturing method by a photoresist method or a cut mold. Is known. Further, in recent years, a groove shape whose aspect ratio, that is, the so-called aspect ratio of the cross section of the groove shape is larger than 10: 1 may be formed. In this case, a manufacturing method of a groove shape using an ultrashort pulse laser beam instead of a photoresist method or the like has been proposed (for example, see Patent Literature 1, Patent Literature 2, Non-Patent Literature 1).
[0003]
A method for manufacturing a through hole or a groove shape using an ultrashort pulse laser beam will be described. An ultrashort pulse laser beam is focused by a lens on a predetermined position in a transparent substrate, for example, a glass substrate. In the region where the ultrashort pulse laser light is condensed and irradiated, the altered region is formed due to the change in the physical properties of the glass substrate. An example of a change in the physical properties of glass is that the dielectric constant of glass changes due to irradiation with ultrashort pulse laser light. The diameter of the altered area is several μm, and the depth is about several tens μm. Then, the condensing position of the ultrashort pulse laser beam and the glass are relatively moved to grow the altered region in the thickness direction of the glass substrate. Thereafter, the glass substrate is immersed in the solution to remove the altered region. The size of the altered region is determined by parameters such as the intensity of the ultrashort pulse laser beam, the numerical aperture of the condenser lens (hereinafter, referred to as “NA”), and the irradiation time. Therefore, these parameters are appropriately controlled to form through-holes, grooves, and the like in the glass substrate.
[0004]
[Patent Document 1]
JP-A-11-197498
[Patent Document 2]
U.S. Pat. No. 5,761,111
[Non-patent document 1]
Optics Letters vol. 26, 277-279, 2001
[0005]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
If a predetermined shape can be formed in the glass substrate that seals the MEMS, the use of the MEMS can be expanded and the light use efficiency can be improved. In particular, a groove having a substantially V-shaped (triangular) cross section can function as a prism element by using a substantially V-shaped slope. Therefore, it is conceivable to form a V-shaped groove in the glass substrate in which the MEMS is sealed. However, it is difficult and problematic to form a desired shape pattern such as a substantially V-shaped groove in a glass substrate by the various manufacturing methods described in the related art including the manufacturing method using an ultrashort pulse laser beam. is there. In particular, it is more difficult to manufacture a substantially V-shaped groove having a large aspect ratio.
[0006]
Also, when manufacturing a predetermined shape, particularly a continuous groove shape or the like using the ultrashort pulse laser beam of the related art, the continuously formed surface is not a smooth surface but an uneven surface of about several μm. There is also the problem that As described above, in the case of the substantially V-shaped groove, the substantially V-shaped slope functions as the slope of the prism element. For this reason, if the slope has unevenness, for example, when the slope is used as a reflection surface, the direction of light reflected on the slope is not constant, so that there is a disadvantage that light use efficiency is reduced.
[0007]
The present invention has been made in order to solve the above-described problems, and a first invention is to provide a method of manufacturing an optical element that can accurately form a pattern having a desired shape. I do. Another object of the second invention is to provide a method for manufacturing an optical element capable of forming a pattern having a desired shape formed of a smooth surface. Still another object of the third invention is to provide an optical device such as a MEMS including an optical element for emitting incident light in an arbitrary direction.
[0008]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided a laser beam condensing step of converging or superimposing a laser beam from an ultrashort pulse laser light source near a converging position. The condensing position of the laser light on an optically transparent substrate including a first surface on which light is incident and a second surface provided at a predetermined thickness from the first surface and emitting the laser light. And an alignment step of relatively positioning the optical transparent substrate so that the position near the second surface in the optical transparent substrate substantially coincides with the optical transparent substrate. A laser light irradiating step of irradiating light, a deteriorated area forming step of changing a physical property near the second surface in the optically transparent substrate on which the laser light is focused to form a deteriorated area, Etching of transparent substrate And bets, the different states and the etching rate of the affected region, may provide a method of manufacturing an optical element, which comprises a, and an etching step of etching treatment with a solution of said optically transparent substrate.
[0009]
In the first invention, the ultrashort pulse laser light is focused or superimposed on a position near the second surface, which is the emission surface of the optically transparent substrate having a predetermined thickness. Therefore, there is no change in physical properties on the first side, which is the incident side surface of the optically transparent substrate. On the other hand, by changing the physical properties in the vicinity of the second surface, which is the condensing position of the laser beam, the altered region can be formed in the vicinity of the second surface. For example, if an altered region is formed on the first surface side of the optically transparent substrate, when the ultrashort pulse laser beam enters from the first surface side, the progress of the ultrashort pulse laser beam is hindered by the altered region. Is not preferred. Furthermore, if the laser beam is focused near the first surface, which is the incident surface, ablation occurs at the interface between air and the first surface, for example, and the first surface side of the optically transparent substrate may be dissolved. It is not preferable because it causes damage. On the other hand, in the first invention, the ultrashort pulse laser light is focused near the second surface. For this reason, the altered region can be formed in a specific region near the second surface, which is the emission surface, without causing any damage to the first surface on which the ultrashort pulse laser light is incident. As a result, an optical element having a pattern of a desired shape can be accurately and stably formed by an etching (wet etching) process using a solution. Further, the influence of the reflection of the ultrashort pulse laser beam from the second surface can be reduced. Further, as an example of the ultrashort pulse laser light, a femtosecond laser light can be used. Note that another type of etching process may be used as long as the process has the same etching effect as wet etching.
[0010]
Further, according to a preferred aspect of the present invention, in the etching step, the etching rate of the altered region is higher than the etching rate of the optically transparent substrate, and the optically transparent substrate contains the etching rate in the optically transparent substrate. It is desirable to form a concave portion having a substantially V-shaped cross section with two surfaces as bases. In the vicinity of the converging position of the ultrashort pulse laser beam, the altered region is formed in a needle shape having a longitudinal direction in the traveling direction of the laser beam. The etching rate of the altered region is higher than the etching rate of the optically transparent substrate. In other regions except the altered region, the etching rate is low, and as a result, the etching in the longitudinal direction of the needle-shaped altered region is performed faster than the etching in the direction substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal direction. Thus, after the etching step, a concave portion having a substantially V-shaped (triangular) cross-sectional shape with the second surface as the base can be formed. The concave portion can function as an optical element, for example, a prism element by using the substantially V-shaped inclined surface, which is the concave portion, as the reflection surface.
[0011]
According to a preferred aspect of the present invention, in the laser light focusing step, it is desirable that the light beams split by the diffractive optical element be superimposed in the vicinity of the focusing position. This makes it possible to arbitrarily control the energy density distribution of the ultrashort pulse laser light in the vicinity of the focusing position. As a result, by forming the altered region in the desired region, the shape of the pattern formed on the optically transparent substrate can be controlled. Further, since the scanning speed described later can be increased, the manufacturing cost can be reduced.
[0012]
Further, according to a preferred aspect of the present invention, after the first laser light irradiation is performed in the scanning step of moving the light condensing position in a predetermined scanning direction in the optical transparent substrate, A repetitive irradiation step of moving the condensing position by a predetermined interval in the scanning direction by the scanning step, and repeating the further irradiation of the second laser light at the moved position. The light-converging region near the second surface irradiated with the laser light has a first length along the scanning direction and a second length along a direction substantially orthogonal to the scanning direction. Preferably, the etching step forms a substantially V-shaped groove having a longitudinal direction in the scanning direction. As described above, the etching of the optically transparent substrate proceeds isotropically. For this reason, if the first length and the second length of the region irradiated with the ultrashort pulse laser beam are different, for example, the region that is etched along the scanning direction is etched in the adjacent light-collecting region. It smoothly connects to the area where it goes. As a result, a substantially V-shaped groove having a smooth slope can be continuously formed through the etching process.
[0013]
According to a preferred aspect of the present invention, the light-converging region has an elliptical shape having a major axis of the first length and a minor axis of the second length, or has a first length. Desirably, it is a rectangular shape having a long side and a short side having the second length. Thereby, the region etched along the long axis of the elliptical shape or the long side of the rectangular shape can form a smoother surface. As a result, a substantially V-shaped groove having a smoother slope can be formed.
[0014]
Further, according to a preferred aspect of the present invention, in the repetitive irradiation step, the laser light is repeatedly irradiated along a first scanning direction and a second scanning direction substantially orthogonal to the first scanning direction. Preferably, in the etching step, the substantially V-shaped grooves are formed in a substantially orthogonal lattice shape. Thereby, a substantially V-shaped groove can be formed in a lattice shape substantially orthogonal to the second surface side of the optically transparent substrate. As a result, an optically transparent substrate provided with a prism group as an optical element can be obtained.
[0015]
According to a preferred aspect of the present invention, in the first scanning direction and the second scanning direction, the light focusing position in the first scanning direction and the light focusing position in the second scanning direction It is preferable to perform at least one of the following: differentiating the laser beam irradiation conditions in the first scanning direction from the laser beam irradiation conditions in the second scanning direction. Thereby, the cross-sectional shape of the substantially V-shaped groove formed along the first scanning direction is different from the cross-sectional shape of the substantially V-shaped groove formed along the second scanning direction. Can be.
[0016]
According to a preferred aspect of the present invention, in the cross area where the first scanning direction and the second scanning direction overlap, the light-condensing position in the first scanning direction and the light-converging position in the second scanning direction are different. It is desirable to perform at least one of making the light-condensing position different, and making the irradiation condition of the laser light in the first scanning direction different from the irradiation condition of the laser light in the second scanning direction. . In the cross region, etching based on the altered region formed by the irradiation of the ultrashort pulse laser beam in the first scanning direction and etching based on the altered region formed by the irradiation of the ultrashort pulse laser beam in the second scanning direction Etching is performed in an overlapping manner. For this reason, in the cross region, the region removed by etching may be larger than other regions. In this embodiment, at least one of the condensing position of the ultrashort pulse laser beam and the irradiation condition is made different depending on the scanning direction. Therefore, at least one of the position and the range (size) of the deteriorated region can be made different depending on the respective scanning directions. As a result, in the cross region after the etching step, a substantially V-shaped groove having the same shape as the other regions can be obtained.
[0017]
According to a preferred aspect of the present invention, it is preferable that the irradiation condition of the laser light is at least one of a laser light intensity, a laser light irradiation time, and a polarization state of the laser light. Thereby, the range in which the altered region is formed can be controlled.
[0018]
Further, according to the second aspect, the laser light from the ultrashort pulse laser light source is provided at a predetermined thickness from the first surface on which the laser light is incident, and the laser light is emitted from the first surface. Laser irradiation step of irradiating an optically transparent substrate composed of a second surface to be formed and a deteriorated area forming step of changing physical properties in the optically transparent substrate irradiated with the laser light to form a deteriorated area An etching step of etching the optically transparent substrate using a solution in a state where the etching rate of the optically transparent substrate and the etching rate of the altered region are different from each other; A scanning step of moving a laser condensing area in the vicinity of a surface in a predetermined scanning direction, and performing the first laser light irradiation in the laser light irradiation step, and then performing the laser irradiation in the vicinity of the second surface. A repetitive irradiation step of moving the light-collecting region by a predetermined interval in the scanning direction and further repeating the second laser light irradiation at the moved position, and in the laser light irradiation step, The laser condensing area in the vicinity of the second surface being irradiated is different from a first length along the scanning direction and a second length along a direction substantially perpendicular to the scanning direction. According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of manufacturing an optical element, wherein a continuous smooth shape having a longitudinal direction in the scanning direction is formed by the etching step.
[0019]
As described above, the etching of the optically transparent substrate proceeds isotropically. For this reason, when the first length and the second length of the region irradiated with the ultrashort pulse laser beam are different, for example, the region that is etched along the scanning direction is etched in the adjacent light-collecting region. It smoothly connects to the area where it goes. As a result, through the etching process, a predetermined pattern having a continuous smooth slope can be formed.
[0020]
According to a preferred aspect of the present invention, the light-converging region has an elliptical shape having a major axis of the first length and a minor axis of the second length, or has a first length. Desirably, it is a rectangular shape having a long side and a short side having the second length. Thereby, the region etched along the long axis of the elliptical shape or the long side of the rectangular shape can form a smoother surface. As a result, a predetermined pattern having a smoother slope can be formed.
[0021]
Further, according to the third aspect, a tilt mirror device having a plurality of movable mirror elements capable of selectively selecting the first reflection position and the second reflection position, and an optical element formed by the above-described manufacturing method. And the optical element further reflects incident light reflected when the movable mirror element is at the first reflection position or the second reflection position. Thereby, the light incident on the optical device is first reflected by the movable mirror element of the tilt mirror device. The light reflected by the movable mirror element is reflected in a further different direction by the slope of an optical element, for example, a prism element having a substantially V-shaped cross section. As a result, the light incident on the optical device can be deflected in an arbitrary direction according to the signal for driving the movable mirror element of the tilt mirror device and emitted.
[0022]
Further, according to a preferred aspect of the present invention, the optical elements are a first optical element and a second optical element each having a longitudinal direction in two directions substantially orthogonal to each other, and the movable mirror element is provided with the first reflection element. When the movable mirror element is at the second reflection position, the incident light is reflected toward the second optical element when the movable mirror element is at the second reflection position. Is desirable. Thus, the light incident on the optical device can be selectively emitted in two directions substantially orthogonal to each other in accordance with a signal for driving the movable mirror element of the tilt mirror device.
[0023]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
(1st Embodiment)
(Description of laser processing equipment)
FIG. 1 is a diagram showing a schematic configuration of a laser processing apparatus 100 for manufacturing an optical element. A femtosecond pulse laser light source 101 which is an ultrashort pulse laser light source oscillates pulse laser light. The femtosecond pulse laser light source 101 oscillates pulse laser light having a wavelength of 800 nm, a pulse width of about 100 fs (femtosecond), and a repetition frequency of about 1 kHz, for example. The pulsed laser beam enters the shutter 105 via a pulse width adjuster 102, an output adjuster 103, and a beam-type polarization adjuster 104. The pulse width adjuster 102 adjusts the pulse width of the pulse laser light to a predetermined value. The output adjuster 103 includes, for example, an ND filter or a polarization beam splitter, and adjusts the intensity of the pulse laser light to a predetermined value. The beam shape / polarization adjuster 104 includes an aperture such as a variable aperture stop, and optical components such as a lens as an optical beam shaping unit, a wavelength plate for controlling a diffraction grating and a polarization plane, and a polarizing plate. Adjust shape and plane of polarization. Then, the shutter 105 turns ON or OFF the pulse laser light.
[0024]
The optical path of the pulse laser beam emitted from the shutter 105 is bent by 90 ° by the mirror 106. The pulse laser beam whose optical path has been bent enters the processing head unit 107. The processing head unit 107 has a condenser lens LS. Then, the pulse laser light is focused on the focusing position f1 by the focusing lens LS. The processing head unit 107 can move the condenser lens LS along the optical axis z direction. The NA of the condenser lens LS is about 0.8. In FIG. 1, the condenser lens LS is shown as a single lens having a biconvex shape, but is not limited to this, and may have another configuration such as a doublet.
[0025]
The quartz substrate 120, which is an optically transparent substrate, is mounted on the xyz stage 108 and fixed on the xyz stage 108 by a substrate suction device (not shown). The xyz stage 108 can be moved in three orthogonal directions (x-axis, y-axis, z-axis) in micron steps by a stage drive unit 109 having a servomotor. The quartz substrate 120 has a diameter of 8 inches and a thickness d1 (see FIG. 3) = 2.5 mm. Further, an optical sensor 112 is provided in parallel with the optical axis of the condenser lens LS. The optical sensor 112 detects the position of the second surface 120b of the quartz substrate 120 in the z direction in a non-contact manner. The interface detection calculation unit 111 calculates and calculates position data of the second surface 120b of the quartz substrate 120 in the z direction based on the data from the optical sensor 112. The position data is output to the processing control circuit 110.
[0026]
The processing control circuit 110 outputs data for finely adjusting the position of the condenser lens LS in the z direction to the height correction operation circuit 114. The height correction calculation circuit 114 sends the movement data of the processing head unit 107 to the focusing position adjustment unit 113. Then, the processing head unit 107 provided with the condenser lens LS moves the condenser position f1 along the z-axis direction by the condenser position adjustment unit 113. The processing control circuit 110 also outputs a control signal to the shutter 105 and performs pulse laser irradiation according to a procedure described later. The configuration is not limited to the configuration shown in FIG. 1, but may be any configuration that allows the focusing position f1 to be aligned with a predetermined position described below, for example, a configuration that allows the focusing lens LS and the xyz stage 108 to relatively move.
[0027]
The position of the processing head 107 and the position of the optical sensor 112 are adjusted and calibrated in advance. Further, the position data in the z direction obtained by the interface detection calculation unit 111 can be subjected to data transfer by feedforward control, data transfer by feedback control, or data transfer to the height correction calculation circuit 114 by another means. it can.
[0028]
Next, with reference to FIG. 2 and FIG. 3, the focusing area and the focusing position of the pulse laser light will be described respectively. Originally, the beam shape in the light-converging region near the second surface is described, but for the sake of convenience, the description will be made assuming that the beam shape on the first surface is reduced and condensed near the second surface. FIG. 2 is an enlarged perspective view showing the quartz substrate 120. The pulse laser light from the femtosecond pulse laser light source 101 is shaped into an elliptical shape, which will be described later, by the beam shape / polarization adjuster 104, and is converted into circularly polarized light via a quarter wavelength plate. Then, pulse laser light is repeatedly irradiated at predetermined intervals along a first scanning direction SC1 and a second scanning direction SC2 substantially perpendicular to the first scanning direction SC1.
[0029]
(Formation of altered area)
Here, a cross-sectional configuration of the quartz substrate 120 will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 3 shows a cross section near the irradiation area 121a in the first scanning direction SC1 in FIG. The quartz substrate 120 includes a first surface 120a on which the pulsed laser light is incident, and a second surface 120b provided with the first surface 120a separated by a predetermined thickness d1 and from which the pulsed laser light is emitted. The condensing lens LS condenses the pulse laser light from the femtosecond pulse laser light source 101 to a position near the condensing position f1.
[0030]
Then, the alignment is performed so that the focal position f1 of the pulsed laser beam substantially coincides with the position near the second surface 120b in the quartz substrate 120. The alignment is relatively performed by driving the xyz stage 108 in the z-axis direction and driving the processing head unit 107 in the z-axis direction. The position near the second surface 120b refers to a position inside the quartz substrate 120 from the second surface 120b by a minute distance d2 with respect to the thickness d1 of the quartz substrate 120. For example, the thickness d1 of the quartz substrate 120 is 2.5 mm, and the distance d2 is 100 μm.
[0031]
(Process of forming V-shaped groove)
Next, a process of forming a predetermined pattern, for example, a V-shaped groove by irradiating a pulse laser beam will be described with reference to FIGS. In FIG. 4A, pulsed laser light is emitted in a state where the vicinity of the second surface 120b of the quartz substrate 120 and the focusing position f1 are aligned. In the vicinity of the second surface 120b in the quartz substrate 120 where the pulsed laser light is focused, interaction between the laser light and the substance (quartz) occurs through a nonlinear absorption process. Due to the interaction, the physical properties of the quartz substrate 120 are changed, and a damaged region or an altered region 400 is formed. The altered region 400 is formed, for example, in a needle shape having a longitudinal direction along the z-axis direction.
[0032]
In the present embodiment, the pulse laser light is focused on a position near the second surface 120b which is the emission surface of the quartz substrate 120 having a predetermined thickness d1. Therefore, there is no change in physical properties on the first surface 120a side, which is the incident side surface of the quartz substrate 120. On the other hand, the altered region 400 can be formed near the second surface 120b by changing the physical properties near the second surface 120b, which is the focal position f1 of the pulsed laser light. For example, if the altered region 400 is formed on the first surface 120a side of the quartz substrate 120, when the pulsed laser light enters from the first surface 120a side, the progress of the pulsed laser light is hindered by the altered region 400. I will. Further, when the pulse laser light is focused near the first surface 120a, which is the incident surface, ablation occurs at, for example, the interface between air and the first surface 120a. Therefore, damage such as melting of the first surface 120a side of the quartz substrate 120 occurs, which is not preferable. On the other hand, in the present embodiment, the pulse laser light is focused near the second surface 120b. Therefore, the altered region 400 can be formed in a specific region near the second surface 120b, which is the emission surface, without causing any damage to the first surface 120a on which the pulsed laser light is incident. Further, the influence of the reflection of the pulse laser beam from the second surface 120b can be reduced. As a result, an optical element having a pattern of a desired shape can be accurately and stably formed by a wet etching process using a solution described later.
[0033]
(V-groove forming process)
The etching rate of the quartz substrate 120 and the etching rate of the altered region 400 are different. Specifically, the etching rate of the altered region 400 is higher than the etching rate of the quartz substrate 120. If the quartz substrate 120 is etched in this state, the etching proceeds slowly in other regions except the altered region 400. On the other hand, in the altered region 400, as shown in FIG. 4B, the speed at which the quartz substrate is removed in the z-axis direction (negative direction) is higher than the speed at which the quartz substrate is removed in the x direction. As a result, as shown in FIG. 4C, a groove 401 which is a concave portion having a substantially V-shaped (triangular) cross-sectional shape with the second surface 120b as the base is formed in the quartz substrate 120. Then, by using the slope of the groove 401 which is a concave portion as a reflection surface, the groove 401 which is a concave portion can function as an optical element, for example, a prism element.
[0034]
(Formation of a continuous V-shaped groove by scanning)
Next, with reference to FIGS. 5A to 5D, formation of a continuous V-shaped groove by repeated irradiation of pulsed laser light will be described. FIG. 5A shows the light condensing regions 121a, 121b, and 121c in the first scanning direction SC1 on the quartz substrate 120. In the state where the alignment is performed as described above, first, the first laser beam irradiation is performed on the condensing region 121a. The light-collecting region 121a on the first surface 120a has a first length W1 along the first scanning direction SC1 and a second length W1 along a second scanning direction SC2 which is a direction substantially orthogonal to the first scanning direction. 2 is different from the length W2. For example, the light-collecting region 121a has an elliptical shape having a major axis of a first length W1 and a minor axis of a second length W2. Next, the converging position f1 in the quartz substrate 120 is moved by moving the quartz substrate 120 by the xyz stage 108 in the first scanning direction SC1 by a predetermined interval PT. The scanning speed is, for example, 5 mm / sec. Next, at the position where the quartz substrate 120 has moved, a second laser beam irradiation is further performed on the condensing region 121b. Then, such laser light irradiation is repeatedly and repeatedly performed to sequentially form the light-collecting region 121c and the like.
[0035]
As shown in FIG. 5A, a process in which elliptical light-collecting regions 121a, 121b, and 121c continuously formed at a predetermined interval PT are etched will be described. In the elliptical light-collecting region 121a formed through the repetitive irradiation described above, the region where removal of the quartz substrate 120 by etching proceeds along the first scanning direction SC1 is etched in the adjacent light-collecting region 121b. It is smoothly connected to the area being processed. 5B and 5C show a process in which the three light-collecting regions 121a, 121b, and 121c are connected to each other to form one region 500. In the etching process, the etching proceeds so that the boundary area of the quartz substrate 120 is minimized. The case where the boundary area is minimized means that in FIG. 5D, the boundary in the direction along the first scanning direction SC1 has a linear shape, and the direction along a direction substantially perpendicular to the first scanning direction SC1 (that is, (y-axis direction) means a semicircular shape. As a result, as shown in FIG. 5D, a substantially V-shaped groove 501 which is a predetermined pattern having a continuous smooth slope can be finally formed. Note that, by the above-described irradiation of the pulse laser beam, a smooth surface can be continuously obtained in any shape pattern without being limited to the substantially V-shaped groove.
[0036]
(Formed in a substantially V-shaped groove in a lattice)
Next, a method of forming the substantially V-shaped grooves formed as described above in a substantially orthogonal lattice shape will be described. Returning to FIG. 2, in the step of repeatedly irradiating the pulsed laser light, the pulsed laser light is repeatedly irradiated along the first scanning direction SC1. Next, the quartz substrate 120 is rotated by an angle of 90 °. In this state, pulse laser light is repeatedly irradiated along a second scanning direction SC2 substantially orthogonal to the first scanning direction SC1. Then, through a step of etching the quartz substrate 120, as shown in FIG. 6, the V-shaped grooves 401 can be formed in a lattice shape substantially orthogonal to the second surface 120b side of the quartz substrate 120. As a result, it is possible to obtain a quartz substrate 120 having a prism group as an optical element. The pulse laser light may be irradiated two-dimensionally by driving the xyz stage 108 in the xy plane without rotating the quartz substrate 120 itself at an angle of 90 °.
[0037]
Further, the shape of the light-collecting region is not limited to the above-described elliptical shape. For example, as shown in FIG. 7A, rectangular light-collecting regions 701a, 701b, and 701c having a long side of a first length W1 and a short side of a second length W2 may be used. The light-collecting regions 701a, 701b, and 701c are formed along the first scanning direction SC1 at a predetermined interval PT. In the rectangular light-collecting region 701a formed through the repetitive irradiation described above, the region in which the removal of the quartz substrate 120 by etching proceeds along the first scanning direction SC1 is etched in the adjacent light-collecting region 701b. It is smoothly connected to the area being processed. FIG. 5B shows a region 702 in an intermediate process in which the three light-collecting regions 121a, 121b, and 121c are connected to each other. Further, as the removal by etching proceeds, as shown in FIG. 7C, the three light-collecting regions 121a, 121b, and 121c are connected to each other, so that a region 703 is formed. Finally, as shown in FIG. 7D, a substantially V-shaped groove 704 having a predetermined pattern having a continuously smooth slope can be formed. Note that, as described above, the irradiation of the pulsed laser beam enables a smooth surface to be continuously obtained with any pattern, not limited to the substantially V-shaped groove.
[0038]
Further, a desired pattern to be formed can be formed by changing various parameters related to irradiation at the time of irradiation with the pulsed laser light. For example, in the first scanning direction SC1 and the second scanning direction SC2, the condensing position f1 in the first scanning direction SC1 and the condensing position f2 in the second scanning direction SC2 shown in FIG. Can be. In other words, the distance d2 between the light condensing position f1 and the second surface 120b and the distance d2 between the light condensing position f2 and the second surface 120b can be made different. Furthermore, the irradiation condition of the laser beam in the first scanning direction SC1 and the irradiation condition of the laser beam in the second scanning direction SC2 can be made different. Thereby, for example, as shown in FIG. 8A, the cross-sectional shape such as the width and the depth of the V-shaped groove 501a formed along the first scanning direction SC1 and the second scanning direction SC2 Can be made different in cross-sectional shape of the V-shaped groove 501b formed along.
[0039]
Further, as shown in FIG. 8B, in the cross area 800 where the first scanning direction SC1 and the second scanning direction SC2 overlap, the light condensing position f1 in the first scanning direction SC1 and the second scanning direction SC1 At least one of making the converging position f2 of SC2 different and making the irradiation condition of the pulse laser light in the first scanning direction SC1 and the irradiation condition of the pulse laser light in the second scanning direction SC2 different. It is desirable to do. Here, the irradiation condition of the pulsed laser light refers to at least one of the laser light intensity, the laser light irradiation time (pulse width), the polarization state of the laser light, and the number of times of pulse irradiation.
[0040]
8B, the cross region 800 is formed by etching based on the altered region formed by the irradiation of the pulse laser beam in the first scanning direction SC1 and by irradiating the pulse laser beam in the second scanning direction SC2. The etching based on the altered region that has been performed is performed in an overlapping manner. For this reason, in the cross region 800, the region from which the quartz substrate 120 is removed by etching may be larger than the substantially V-shaped grooves 501a and 501b in other regions. In the present embodiment, at least one of the light condensing positions f1 and f2 of the pulse laser light and the irradiation conditions are made different depending on the scanning direction. Therefore, at least one of the position and the range (size) of the deteriorated region can be made different depending on the respective scanning directions. As a result, in the cross region 800 after the etching step, a substantially V-shaped groove having the same shape as the substantially V-shaped grooves 501a and 501b in the other regions can be obtained. For example, in the cross region 800, the irradiation of the pulse laser light in the first scanning direction SC1 is performed without changing certain conditions. On the other hand, in the second scanning direction SC2, the irradiation of the pulse laser light is not performed at all in the cross area 800. Thus, a V-shaped groove 501b having the same width can be obtained also in the cross region 800. Further, in the cross area 800, the same effect can be obtained even if the irradiation intensity of the pulse laser light in the first scanning direction SC1 and the irradiation intensity of the pulse laser light in the second scanning direction SC2 are each halved.
[0041]
(Modification of First Embodiment)
FIG. 9 is a diagram illustrating a configuration near the xyz stage 108 according to a modification of the embodiment. In the first embodiment, the pulse laser light is focused on the focusing position f by the refraction of the focusing lens LS. In this case, the energy density distribution of the pulse laser light localized at the on-axis focal position is a Gaussian distribution as shown in FIG. Then, by controlling the energy density distribution near the light condensing position f, the range of the altered region 400 can be controlled. For example, as shown in FIG. 9, a diffractive optical element 900 is provided in the processing head unit 107 on the incident side of the condenser lens LS. The diffractive optical element 900 diffracts the pulsed laser light into two pulsed laser lights, for example, ± first-order lights 901a and 901b. The ± primary lights 901a and 901b, which are two pulsed laser lights, are superimposed by the condenser lens LS near the focal position f. This makes it possible to obtain an energy density distribution different from the case where the pulsed laser light is focused on the axial focusing position f. For example, a flat energy density distribution near the optical axis as shown in FIG. 10B, or an energy density distribution having two peaks near the optical axis as shown in FIG. 10C can be obtained. Thus, by controlling the energy density distribution near the light condensing position f, the position, size, and range of the altered region 400 can be changed. As a result, a desired pattern shape can be formed. Further, the scanning speed can be increased by various energy density distributions. Therefore, the manufacturing cost can be reduced.
[0042]
(Manufacturing process of spatial light modulator)
Next, with reference to FIGS. 11 and 12, a method of manufacturing a liquid crystal spatial light modulator having a group of prisms having substantially V-shaped grooves will be described. As shown in FIG. 11, lattice-shaped substantially V-shaped grooves 501a and 501b are formed on the second surface 120b side of the quartz substrate 120. Here, when forming the V-shaped grooves 501a and 501b, four alignment marks 1100 for alignment are simultaneously formed in the peripheral portion. When the V-shaped groove 401 formed in a lattice as shown in FIG. 6 is one unit, a plurality of units are formed on the quartz substrate 120 in consideration of the yield. FIG. 11 shows a case where an alignment mark 1100 is provided around one unit for simplicity.
[0043]
Further, a procedure for manufacturing the spatial light modulator using the alignment mark 1100 will be described with reference to FIGS. As shown in FIG. 12A, the altered region 400 is formed on the quartz substrate 120 by the above-described procedure. At this time, an alignment mark 1100 as shown in FIG. 11 is also formed on the periphery of the quartz substrate 1200 at the same time. The material of the substrate is not limited to quartz. If it is an optically transparent substrate, it can be made of, for example, a glass material such as Pyrex (R), Neoceram, blue plate, white plate, or the like. After forming the altered region 400, the quartz substrate 120 is immersed in a hydrofluoric acid solution to perform etching. When the etching process is completed, a substantially V-shaped groove 401 is formed as shown in FIG. At the time of the etching treatment, it is desirable to add ammonium fluoride, glycerin, or the like to the hydrofluoric acid solution. By these additions, effects such as smoothing the etched region and preventing deterioration of the etchant can be obtained. In this embodiment, 14% glycerin is added to a 10% aqueous HF solution, and the quartz substrate 120 is immersed in a solution at a temperature of 30 ° C. for about 2 hours. At the time of immersion, the solution may be stirred with ultrasonic waves. Further, irregularities may occur on the etched surface due to the variation in the etching rate. In order to reduce the surface irregularities, it is possible to add glycerin to the etchant, dilute the hydrofluoric acid concentration, lower the etching temperature, and the like. Under the above etching conditions, a groove having a V-shaped bottom length to height ratio, a so-called aspect ratio of 10: 1 or more, preferably 100: 1 or more, can be formed.
[0044]
Next, as shown in FIG. 12C, a cover glass 1202 is attached to the quartz substrate 120 via an adhesive layer 1201. A chromium film 1203 is further formed on the cover glass 1202. Then, as shown in FIG. 12D, the black matrix portion 1204 is patterned by photolithography at a position corresponding to the substantially V-shaped bottom of the substantially V-shaped groove 401. The black matrix portion 1204 has a function of blocking light to a liquid crystal wiring portion and a thin film transistor (hereinafter, abbreviated as “TFT”) described below. When the black matrix portion 1204 is formed at a position corresponding to the substantially V-shaped bottom portion, alignment is performed between the above-described alignment mark 1100 and a black matrix alignment mark (not shown). Thus, the black matrix portion 1204 can be accurately formed at a position corresponding to the substantially V-shaped bottom side. After that, an ITO film 1205 constituting the counter electrode and an alignment film 1206 are formed. As described above, when the V-shaped groove 401 is formed, the alignment mark 1100 is formed at the same time. Therefore, when the quartz substrate 120 is irradiated with the pulsed laser beam, the alignment of the quartz substrate 120 itself in the xy plane is required. Rough alignment is enough. As a result, the work of aligning the quartz substrate 120 can be omitted, so that productivity can be improved.
[0045]
Further, a TFT 1209, a pixel electrode 1210, and an alignment film 1208 are sequentially formed on the emission-side glass substrate 1211. Then, the quartz substrate 120 and the emission-side glass substrate 1211 are bonded so that the alignment films 1206 and 1208 face each other. Finally, a liquid crystal 1207 is sealed between the alignment films 1206 and 1208. The spatial light modulator manufactured as described above will be described. The substantially V-shaped groove 401 is filled with a medium having a refractive index such that incident light is totally reflected on a slope, or is in a hollow state. Thereby, as shown in FIG. 12E, the light L1 originally incident in the direction of the black matrix portion 1204 is totally reflected on the slope. Then, the totally reflected light L1 enters the liquid crystal 1207 and is modulated according to the image signal.
[0046]
Thus, the lattice-shaped substantially V-shaped groove 401 functions as a two-dimensional array illuminator. Therefore, the light use efficiency can be improved to approximately 100%. This is 20 to 30% higher efficiency than a conventional microlens array, particularly a spatial light modulator using an aspherical microlens array. Furthermore, in the present embodiment, the V-shaped slope can be a smooth surface. Therefore, a decrease in light use efficiency due to unevenness and warpage of the slope, undulation of the surface, and the like does not occur.
[0047]
In the spatial light modulator, the width of the black matrix portion 1204, that is, the size of the substantially V-shaped groove may be different in two orthogonal directions due to the arrangement of the wiring and the TFT. In this case, as described with reference to FIGS. 8A and 8B, by changing the light condensing position f and the irradiation condition of the pulse laser beam in two orthogonal directions, a desired line width is obtained in each direction. V-shaped groove can be formed.
[0048]
(2nd Embodiment)
An optical device 1300 according to a second embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. The optical device 1300 is a device for deflecting the direction of incident light using MEMS. The optical device 1300 is configured by bonding a first glass substrate 1301 and a second glass substrate 1302 together.
[0049]
The first glass substrate 1301 is provided with V-shaped grooves 1301a and 1301b, which are optical elements manufactured by the manufacturing method described in the first embodiment. The V-shaped grooves 1301a and 1301b are formed along two directions in which the longitudinal directions are substantially orthogonal. The V-shaped grooves 1301a and 1301b are filled with a medium having a refractive index such that incident light is reflected on an inclined surface which is an interface with the glass substrate 1301, and in particular, is totally reflected.
[0050]
As shown in FIG. 13B, a tilt mirror device 1310 is formed in the second glass substrate 1302. The tilt mirror device 1310 has a movable mirror element 1306 having one end supported by a flexible support 1305 on a MEMS substrate 1304. An electrode 1307 is provided at an end of the MEMS substrate 1304 opposite to the column 1305. Then, when no voltage is applied to the electrode 1307, the movable mirror element 1306 is at the first reflection position shown by a solid line in the figure. On the other hand, when a voltage is applied to the electrode 1307, the column 1305 bends due to the attractive force of the electrostatic force, and one end of the movable mirror element 1306 abuts on the electrode 1307 at the second reflection position indicated by a broken line in the figure. It becomes. Further, when the voltage application to the electrode 1307 is released, the movable mirror element 1306 returns to the state of the first reflection position by the elastic force of the column 1305. Thus, the first reflection position and the second reflection position can be selected alternatively.
[0051]
Then, when the movable mirror element 1306 is in the first reflection position, the light Lin incident on the second glass substrate 1302 is reflected in the direction of light Lout1. Similarly, when the movable mirror element 1306 is in the second reflection position, the light Lin incident on the second glass substrate 1302 is reflected in the direction of light Lout2. Light Lout1, which is reflected when the movable mirror element 1306 is in the first reflection position, exits the second glass substrate 1302 and enters the first glass substrate 1301. The light Lout1 incident on the first glass substrate 1301 is incident on the slope of the substantially V-shaped groove 1301b. The light incident on the slope is further totally reflected and exits from the first glass substrate 1301 in a direction along the traveling direction of the incident light Lin.
[0052]
The light Lout2 reflected when the movable mirror element 1306 is in the second reflection position is emitted from the second glass substrate 1302 and enters the first glass substrate 1301. The light Lout2 incident on the first glass substrate 1301 is incident on the slope of the substantially V-shaped groove 1301a. The light incident on the slope is further totally reflected and exits from the first glass substrate 1301 in a direction substantially perpendicular to the traveling direction of the incident light Lin. As described above, the light Lin that has entered the optical device 1300 can be deflected in an arbitrary direction, in particular, a direction substantially orthogonal to the light according to the signal for driving the movable mirror element 1306 of the tilt mirror device 1310 and emitted.
[0053]
The light Lout1 reflected on the slope of the V-shaped groove 1301b as described above is emitted from the first glass substrate 1301 into the air. At this time, depending on the angle at which the light Lout1 travels, the light Lout1 may be reflected at the interface between the air and the first glass substrate 1301, and may not be emitted into the air. Here, when the glass substrate is irradiated with a femtosecond pulsed laser beam, the physical properties of the glass can be altered or modified. Therefore, the first glass substrate 1301 is modified in advance by irradiating a femtosecond pulsed laser beam to the vicinity of the emission side surface. For example, as shown in FIG. 14, the refractive index distribution of the glass in the conical region 1400 is modified so as to have a function as a waveguide. According to this configuration, the light Lout1 reflected on the slope of the substantially V-shaped groove 1301b travels at a certain angle, but is swallowed by the modified cone-shaped region 1400, and becomes the first light. It can be emitted from a glass substrate 1301. Therefore, the deflection control of the incident light Lin can be performed more reliably.
[0054]
In the first embodiment, an example in which an optical element is applied to a liquid crystal spatial light modulator is described, but the invention is not limited to this. For example, a two-dimensional array illuminator having a lattice-shaped substantially V-shaped groove 401 can be widely applied to various image display devices, optical processing devices, optical measurement devices, and optical sensors.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a schematic configuration diagram of a laser processing apparatus for implementing a first embodiment.
FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing irradiation of a quartz substrate with pulsed laser light.
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view showing irradiation of a quartz substrate with pulsed laser light.
FIG. 4 is a view showing a process of forming a substantially V-shaped groove.
FIG. 5 is a diagram showing an etching process of an elliptical light-collecting region.
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a V-shaped groove formed in a lattice shape.
FIG. 7 is a view showing an etching process of a rectangular converging region.
FIG. 8 is an explanatory view of grooves formed in two orthogonal directions.
FIG. 9 is an explanatory diagram of superposition by diffracted light.
FIG. 10 is a diagram showing an example of an energy density distribution.
FIG. 11 is an explanatory diagram of an alignment mark on a quartz substrate.
FIG. 12 is a diagram showing a manufacturing process of the spatial light modulator.
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of an optical device using MEMS according to a second embodiment.
FIG. 14 is a diagram of a modification of the optical device using MEMS.
[Explanation of symbols]
Reference Signs List 101 101 femtosecond pulse laser light source, 102 pulse width adjuster, 103 output adjuster, 104 beam shape / polarization adjuster, 105 shutter, 106 mirror, 107 processing head unit, LS condenser lens, 108 xyz stage, 109 stage drive unit , 110 processing control circuit, 111 interface detection operation unit, 112 optical sensor, 113 light condensing position adjustment unit, 114 correction operation circuit, 120 quartz substrate, 121a, 121b, 121c light condensing area, 400 altered area, 401 groove, 501 groove , 501a, 501b Groove, 701a, 701b Focusing area, 702 area, 703 area, 800 cross area, 900 diffractive optical element, 901a, 901b ± first-order light, 1100 alignment mark, 1200 quartz substrate, 1201 adhesive layer, 1202 cover Glass, 1203 chrome film, 1 04 black matrix part, 1205 ITO film, 1206 alignment film, 1207 liquid crystal, 1208 alignment film, 1210 pixel electrode, 1211 emission side glass substrate, 1300 optical device, 1301a, 1301b groove, 1301 first glass substrate, 1302 second Glass substrate, 1304 MEMS substrate, 1305 support, 1306 movable mirror element, 1307 electrode, 1310 tilt mirror device, 1400 conical area, f, f1, f2 Focusing position, PT predetermined interval, SC1 first scanning direction, SC2 2 scanning direction

Claims (14)

  1. A laser light focusing step of focusing or superimposing the laser light from the ultrashort pulse laser light source near the focusing position,
    The collection of the laser light is performed on an optically transparent substrate including a first surface on which the laser light is incident and a second surface provided at a predetermined thickness from the first surface and emitting the laser light. An alignment step of relatively positioning a light position and a position near the second surface in the optically transparent substrate so as to substantially coincide with each other;
    For the optical transparent substrate positioned in the alignment step, a laser light irradiation step of irradiating the laser light,
    A deteriorated region forming step of forming a deteriorated region by changing physical properties near the second surface in the optically transparent substrate on which the laser light is focused;
    In the state where the etching rate of the optically transparent substrate and the etching rate of the altered region are different, an etching step of etching the optically transparent substrate using a solution,
    A method for producing an optical element, comprising:
  2. In the etching step, in a state where the etching rate of the altered region is higher than the etching rate of the optically transparent substrate, a V-shaped cross section having the second surface as a base is formed in the optically transparent substrate. The method for manufacturing an optical element according to claim 1, wherein a concave portion having the following is formed.
  3. 3. The method of manufacturing an optical element according to claim 1, wherein, in the laser light focusing step, the light beams split by the diffractive optical element are overlapped in the vicinity of the focusing position.
  4. A scanning step of moving the focusing position in a predetermined scanning direction within the optically transparent substrate,
    After the first laser light irradiation is performed in the laser light irradiation step, the condensing position is moved by a predetermined distance in the scanning direction in the scanning step, and the second laser light irradiation is further performed at the moved position. The laser light irradiating step, wherein the condensing area near the second surface irradiated with the laser light has a first length along the scanning direction and the scanning A second length along a direction substantially perpendicular to the direction,
    The method of manufacturing an optical element according to claim 1, wherein the etching step forms a V-shaped groove having a longitudinal direction in the scanning direction.
  5. The light-converging region has an elliptical shape having a major axis of the first length and a minor axis of the second length, or a major side of the first length and a minor length of the second length. The method for manufacturing an optical element according to claim 4, wherein the optical element has a rectangular shape having sides.
  6. The repetitive irradiation step is to repeatedly irradiate the laser light along a first scanning direction and a second scanning direction substantially orthogonal to the first scanning direction,
    The method according to claim 4, wherein, in the etching step, the V-shaped grooves are formed in a substantially orthogonal lattice shape.
  7. In the first scanning direction and the second scanning direction, the light focusing position in the first scanning direction and the light focusing position in the second scanning direction are different, and the first The method for manufacturing an optical element according to claim 6, wherein at least one of differentiating the irradiation condition of the laser light in the scanning direction from the irradiation condition of the laser light in the second scanning direction is performed.
  8. In a cross area where the first scanning direction and the second scanning direction overlap, the light focusing position in the first scanning direction and the light focusing position in the second scanning direction are made different, and 7. The optical element according to claim 6, wherein at least one of differentiating the irradiation condition of the laser light in the first scanning direction from the irradiation condition of the laser light in the second scanning direction is performed. Production method.
  9. 9. The method according to claim 7, wherein the irradiation condition of the laser light is at least one of a laser light intensity, a laser light irradiation time, and a polarization state of the laser light. .
  10. A laser light from an ultrashort pulse laser light source is optically transparent, comprising a first surface on which the laser light is incident, and a second surface provided with a predetermined thickness from the first surface and emitting the laser light. A laser light irradiation step of irradiating the substrate,
    A deteriorated region forming step of forming a deteriorated region by changing physical properties in the optically transparent substrate irradiated with the laser light,
    In the state where the etching rate of the optically transparent substrate and the etching rate of the altered region are different, an etching step of etching the optically transparent substrate using a solution,
    A scanning step of moving the laser focusing area in the vicinity of the second surface of the optically transparent substrate in a predetermined scanning direction;
    After irradiating the first laser beam in the laser beam irradiating step, the condensing area is moved by a predetermined distance in the scanning direction in the scanning step, and further irradiating the second laser beam at the moved position. Repeating the irradiation step,
    In the laser light irradiation step, the light-collecting region in the vicinity of the second surface where the laser light is condensed has a first length along the scanning direction and a direction substantially orthogonal to the scanning direction. Different from the second length,
    A method of manufacturing an optical element, wherein a continuous smooth shape having a longitudinal direction in the scanning direction is formed by the etching step.
  11. The light-collecting region in the vicinity of the second surface is an elliptical shape having a major axis of the first length and a minor axis of the second length, or a long side of the first length and the second side. The method of manufacturing an optical element according to claim 10, wherein the optical element has a rectangular shape having a short side having a length.
  12. A tilt mirror device having a plurality of movable mirror elements capable of selectively selecting a first reflection position and a second reflection position;
    An optical element manufactured by the method for manufacturing an optical element according to any one of claims 1 to 9,
    An optical device, wherein the optical element further reflects incident light reflected when the movable mirror element is at the first reflection position or the second reflection position.
  13. The optical element is a first optical element and a second optical element each having a longitudinal direction in two directions substantially orthogonal to each other,
    When the movable mirror element is at the first reflection position, it reflects incident light in the direction of the first optical element,
    13. The optical device according to claim 12, wherein when the movable mirror element is at the second reflection position, incident light is reflected in a direction toward the second optical element.
  14. A laser light focusing step of focusing or superimposing the laser light from the ultrashort pulse laser light source near the focusing position,
    The collection of the laser light is performed on an optically transparent substrate including a first surface on which the laser light is incident and a second surface provided at a predetermined thickness from the first surface and emitting the laser light. An alignment step of relatively positioning a light position and a position near the second surface in the optically transparent substrate so as to substantially coincide with each other;
    For the optical transparent substrate positioned in the alignment step, a laser light irradiation step of irradiating the laser light,
    A deteriorated region forming step of forming a deteriorated region by changing physical properties near the second surface in the optically transparent substrate on which the laser light is focused;
    An etching step of etching the optically transparent substrate in a state where the etching rate of the optically transparent substrate and the etching rate of the altered region are different,
    A method for producing an optical element, comprising:
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US8841213B2 (en) 2010-07-26 2014-09-23 Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. Method for manufacturing interposer
US8945416B2 (en) 2010-07-26 2015-02-03 Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. Laser processing method
US8961806B2 (en) 2010-07-26 2015-02-24 Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. Laser processing method
US9108269B2 (en) 2010-07-26 2015-08-18 Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. Method for manufacturing light-absorbing substrate and method for manufacturing mold for making same
KR20200029541A (en) 2017-07-20 2020-03-18 이와타니 산교 가부시키가이샤 Cutting processing method
KR20200029542A (en) 2017-07-20 2020-03-18 이와타니 산교 가부시키가이샤 Cutting processing method

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