JP2004325909A - Light shutter and image display using the same - Google Patents

Light shutter and image display using the same Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2004325909A
JP2004325909A JP2003122112A JP2003122112A JP2004325909A JP 2004325909 A JP2004325909 A JP 2004325909A JP 2003122112 A JP2003122112 A JP 2003122112A JP 2003122112 A JP2003122112 A JP 2003122112A JP 2004325909 A JP2004325909 A JP 2004325909A
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Prior art keywords
light
liquid
optical shutter
conductive liquid
cell
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JP2003122112A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP4149305B2 (en
Inventor
Takamitsu Fujii
Atsushi Osawa
敦 大澤
隆満 藤井
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Fuji Photo Film Co Ltd
富士写真フイルム株式会社
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a display having no dependency on an angle of view, an excellent light transmission efficiency, a high contrast, no light reflection and is friendly to environment. <P>SOLUTION: In the light shutter, an liquid sealing cell is composed by a pair of opposite magnets, a pair of opposite electrodes and a pair of opposite partition walls, at least one of the electrodes is a transparent electrode, a part of the electrodes are covered with a shade part, a liquid or a quasi-liquid having a light shield and conductive characteristics and a volume of substantially a half of the volume of the liquid sealing cell is included in the liquid sealing cell. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2005,JPO&NCIPI

Description

[0001]
[Prior art]
Liquid crystal display (LCD) technology, which is the mainstream of flat panel display (FPD), is now a well-known technology. (For example, refer nonpatent literature 1).
[0002]
[Non-patent literature]
"Liquid Crystal Display" (by Takayoshi Ohkoshi, 1985, Shosodo)
[0003]
An LCD is a display device that applies the characteristics of both the fluidity of a liquid and the optical properties of a solid (crystal), which encloses a liquid crystal substance between two glass plates and applies a voltage to the liquid crystal molecules. The image is displayed by changing the direction and increasing or decreasing the light transmittance. The liquid crystal itself does not emit light, and display is performed using reflected light in a bright place and fluorescent light (backlight) in the back in a dark place.
[0004]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, LCDs are light-shutting based on the polarization principle. (1) Since the liquid crystal display device controls the transmitted light amount based on the polarization principle and constructs image information, the viewing angle dependency from the observer is large. (2) Since the light transmittance of the liquid crystal display device is remarkably reduced by a color filter, a polarizing plate or the like, it is difficult to increase the luminance. (3) Since the liquid crystal display device performs light shielding based on the polarization principle, light leakage occurs. For this reason, it is difficult to increase the contrast. The problem that occurred.
[0005]
Also, mercury is used as a shutter liquid, a magnetic field is applied to it, and a current is passed in a direction perpendicular thereto, so that mercury is moved according to Fleming's left hand rule to pass and block light. Are known.
However, this does not suggest a display device, because mercury placed in the middle of the optical waveguide is driven by Lorentz force to simply pass or block light through the optical waveguide. Moreover, since mercury is used, there is a big problem for the environment when it is damaged. Even if this idea is adopted for a display device, since mercury reflects light, it is not preferable as a display device because reflected light is emitted when black display is desired and the contrast is not good. There was a big drawback that it would be quite heavy.
[0006]
The object of the present invention is to solve all of these problems, and is a display device that does not depend on the viewing angle, has high light transmission efficiency, and has high contrast, and is environmentally friendly and capable of reducing weight without light reflection. Is to provide.
[0007]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to solve the above-mentioned problem, according to the optical shutter of the present invention, a liquid-sealed cell is formed by a pair of facing magnets, a pair of facing electrodes, and a pair of facing partition walls. And at least one of the electrodes is a transparent electrode, a part of the electrode is covered with a shade portion, and is in a state similar to a light-shielding conductive liquid or liquid in an amount approximately half the volume of the liquid-sealed cell. An object is sealed in the liquid sealed cell.
By adopting such a configuration, a polarizing plate is not used, so that the display device has a viewing angle dependency, a high light transmission efficiency, a high contrast, and an optical shutter that does not use mercury. A lightweight display device without light reflection can be obtained.
[0008]
According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the optical shutter according to the first aspect, the optical shutter according to the first aspect includes a narrow portion and a wide portion between the pair of electrodes, and the narrow portion has a large area and the wide space. The part has a small area, and the volume of both is substantially equal. With such a configuration, the aperture ratio can be increased to 50% or more, and bright display can be performed as compared with an optical shutter having an aperture ratio of 50%.
[0009]
According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the optical shutter according to the first or second aspect, the backlight provided on the back of the liquid sealed cell, or the light source provided on the side of the liquid sealed cell and the light source A light guide plate that guides the light to the back, or a reflection plate that reflects incident light from the front surface of the liquid-sealed cell on the lower surface of the liquid-sealed cell.
With such a configuration, a backlight, a side light, and a front light can be seen in a dark place, and an external light can save an energy-saving display device. By merging the former and the latter, the advantages of both can be used, and external light can be used in bright places and light can be used in dark places.
[0010]
According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the optical shutter according to any one of the first to third aspects of the present invention, the optical shutter has a bypass that allows the medium compressed by the movement of the light-shielding conductive liquid to escape. .
With such a configuration, the light-shielding conductive liquid does not compress air, so it is not pushed back, and no pressure difference is generated, so that it can move smoothly.
[0011]
According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, in the optical shutter according to any one of the first to fourth aspects, at least one current drive circuit is formed on the rear side of the shade portion or the magnet.
By adopting such a configuration, it is possible to add a drive circuit without reducing the aperture ratio by disposing it directly under the shade part or on the back side of the magnet.
[0012]
According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, in the optical shutter according to any one of the first to fifth aspects, the light-blocking conductive liquid is not mixed with the light-blocking conductive liquid, and is generated by Lorentz force. Conductive liquid + filler> It is characterized in that it is filled with an insulating gas or liquid that is not highly viscous to hinder the movement of the entire system.
By doing so, the position of the light-shielding conductive liquid can be reliably fixed.
[0013]
According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, there is provided an image display device according to any one of the first to sixth aspects, wherein a plurality of optical shutters according to any one of the first to sixth aspects are arranged on a plane, and word lines and bit lines are connected to the respective electrodes of the optical shutter It is characterized by that.
With such a configuration, active matrix driving can be performed.
[0014]
According to an eighth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a full-color image display device according to the seventh aspect, wherein the optical shutter in the image display device according to the seventh aspect is divided into three, each for R (red), G (green), and B (blue). A color filter is provided on the front surface or the back surface of the liquid-sealed cell.
With this configuration, a color display can be made with a simple configuration.
[0015]
According to a ninth aspect of the present invention, in the image display device according to the seventh or eighth aspect, the supply current to the light-shielding conductive liquid is interrupted at an arbitrary position during the movement of the light-shielding conductive liquid. It is characterized in that gradation expression is performed by controlling the light transmission amount by shielding the light with area modulation.
With such a configuration, area modulation can be continuously performed within a range of 0% to 100%.
[0016]
According to a tenth aspect of the present invention, in the image display device according to the seventh or eighth aspect, the movement of the light-shielding conductive liquid is performed at a high frequency, and the light transmission amount per unit time is controlled by time modulation, so that gradation It is characterized by expressing.
With such a configuration, area modulation can be continuously performed within a range of 0% to 100%.
[0017]
The invention of an optical shutter according to claim 11 comprises a liquid-sealed cell comprising a pair of opposed magnets, a pair of opposed electrodes, and a pair of opposed partition walls, and at least one of the magnets is A transparent magnet, a portion of the magnet covered with a shade portion, and a light-shielding conductive liquid having an amount approximately half the volume of the liquid-sealed cell or an object equivalent to the liquid is placed in the liquid-sealed cell. It is sealed.
By adopting such a configuration, a polarizing plate is not used, so that there is no viewing angle dependency, a light transmission efficiency, a high contrast display device, and an optical shutter that does not use mercury. A lightweight display device that is gentle and has no light reflection can be obtained.
[0018]
In addition, the light-shielding conductive liquid used for the optical shutter should have poor wettability with the transparent electrode, and expressed as a contact angle θ, θ> 10 ° or more, preferably θ> 60. It is preferable that the angle is not less than °, more preferably θ> 90 °.
With such a configuration, the light-shielding conductive liquid moves smoothly without sticking on the transparent electrode regardless of time.
[0019]
As described above, according to the present invention, the fluid is physically driven (moved) in the cell by using the Lorentz force induced by the direct correlation between the electric field and the magnetic field as the driving force of the fluid. Thus, the optical shutter is configured to control the amount of transmitted light, so that the following advantages can be obtained.
(1) Since the polarization principle is not used, viewing angle dependency does not occur.
(2) Since the light is controlled to be blocked by the light shielding property of the shutter fluid, a good contrast can be obtained.
(3) The light transmittance is remarkably improved because no polarizing filter is required.
(4) Since mercury is not used, a display device that is environmentally friendly, has no light reflection, and can be reduced in weight can be obtained.
[0020]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.
[First Embodiment]
First, the configuration of the optical shutter according to the first embodiment of the present invention will be described based on FIG. 1 and FIG.
FIG. 1 shows an example of the configuration of a liquid-sealed cell, where (a) is a perspective view during energization in one direction, and (b) is a cross-sectional view taken along line AA in FIG.
2 shows a perspective view (a) when energized in the direction opposite to the direction of current flow in FIG. 1 and an AA cross-sectional view (b) in FIG.
1 and 2, 11 is a liquid sealed cell, 12 is a permanent magnet (12L is the left side in the figure, 12R is each permanent magnet on the right side in the figure), 13 is a bit line, 14 is a word line, and 17 is A transparent electrode (17u indicates the upper transparent electrode in the figure, 17d indicates the lower transparent electrode in the figure), and 18 is a shade portion for shielding light. In addition, although the partition wall of the cell 11 is provided in the near side and back side of a figure, it removes and has drawn here in order to make it easy to see.
[0021]
The distance between the upper electrode 17u and the lower electrode 17d may be at least the minimum thickness at which the OD value of the encapsulated fluid is 2 or more. The minimum is 1 μm or more, and the maximum is the aspect ratio corresponding to the cell width and pitch. The maximum thickness is 1 mm or less.
W is a light-shielding property in which half of the cell volume is sealed in a cell surrounded by upper and lower transparent electrodes 17u and 17d, left and right permanent magnets 12R and 12L, and front and rear partition walls. A conductive liquid. An interval in the vertical direction in the cell is an interval at which the conductive liquid can cause capillary action.
[0022]
A bit line 13 is connected to the upper transparent electrode 17u, and a word line 14 is connected to the lower transparent electrode 17d, and a current is passed from one side to the other, and the other way around. It is a mechanism that passes through the liquid W.
Since each of the permanent magnets 12L and 12R is provided with NS, the permanent magnets 12L and 12R are arranged so that the NS direction is aligned so that the magnetic field is directed in the same direction, and the direction of the magnetic field B is determined by the method of the transparent electrodes 17u and 17d. It arrange | positions so that it may face in a line direction and an orthogonal direction.
Of course, an electromagnetic coil may be used instead of the permanent magnet for generating the magnetic field B.
[0023]
Next, the operation principle of the optical shutter according to the first embodiment will be described.
As shown in FIG. 1A, when the magnetic field B is directed from the left to the right, the current I is changed to the bit line 13 → the upper transparent electrode 17u → the light-shielding conductive liquid W → the lower transparent electrode 17d → the word line. 14, a force F1 acts on the light-shielding conductive liquid W in the direction shown in the figure according to Fleming's left-hand rule, and as a result, the light-shielding conductive liquid W moves to the front side of the figure as shown in the figure. Become. As a result, the light-shielding conductive liquid W occupies the volume of the front half of the cell, and the back half of the cell is covered with the shade portion 18, so that the entire cell eventually functions as a light shield, The light from the backlight 16 (see FIG. 3) is blocked and does not reach upward.
[0024]
FIG. 1B is a cross-sectional view showing this state.
As can be seen from FIG. 1B, since the light-shielding conductive liquid W occupies the volume of the left half in the cell, the backlight light L1 is shielded here, and the right half of the cell is covered with the shade portion 18. Therefore, the backlight light L2 is also shielded here, so that the whole cell functions as a light shielding effect, and the light of the backlight 16 (FIG. 3) is shielded and does not reach the upper side. Therefore, it looks dark to the observer's eyes.
[0025]
On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 2A, when the magnetic field B is directed from the left to the right, the current I is changed to the word line 14 → the lower transparent electrode 17d → the light-shielding conductive liquid W → the upper transparent electrode 17u → the bit line. When the liquid is passed through 13, Lorentz's force acts in the direction F2 in the figure and moves to the back side in the figure according to Fleming's left-hand rule. Accordingly, the light-shielding conductive liquid W occupies the volume of the back half of the cell and is stored in the shade (light shielding) portion 18 in the back half of the cell, and the front half of the cell functions to transmit light. The light of the backlight 16 (FIG. 3) passes upward through the transparent electrodes 17d and 17u.
[0026]
FIG. 2B is a cross-sectional view showing this state.
As can be seen from FIG. 2B, since the light-shielding conductive liquid W moves from the left side to the right side in the cell, the light-shielding liquid disappears on the left side. Accordingly, the backlight light L1 passes upward through the transparent electrodes 17d and 17u. Therefore, it looks bright to the eyes of the observer.
[0027]
Accordingly, a large number of such optical shutters 10 are two-dimensionally arranged on a plane, only the optical shutter 10 desired to be displayed is selected in the mode of FIG. 2, and the other pixels are selected in the mode of FIG. A current flows through the optical shutter 10 in a predetermined direction to transmit light, and an unselected optical shutter 10 flows in the reverse direction to block light. Thus, an image can be displayed by an optical shutter in which light transmission and light shielding are mixed.
[0028]
FIG. 3 is a conceptual perspective view of a matrix type image display device in which a number of optical shutters according to the present invention are arranged on a plane.
In FIG. 3, 100 is a matrix type image display device, 10 is an optical shutter, 11 is a liquid sealed cell according to the present invention, 12 is a permanent magnet, 13 is a bit line, 13D is a bit driver, 14 is a word line, 14D is A word driver, 15 is a switching circuit, and 16 is a backlight.
This image display apparatus is divided into a plurality of optical shutters 10 in a two-dimensional matrix, and each optical shutter 10 constitutes one pixel. For example, in order to realize a display capacity of 640 × 400 dots, optical shutters 10 corresponding to the number of dots are arranged. The structure of each optical shutter 10 is as described above.
Below the optical shutter 10, the backlight 16 emits light toward the optical shutter 10.
[0029]
Next, the operation principle of the matrix type image display device of FIG. 3 will be described.
Under the control of the switching control circuit 15, the bit line 13 and the word line 14 of the pixel (optical shutter) 10 to be displayed are selected from each bit driver 13D and the word driver 14D, and from one transparent electrode to the other transparent electrode. Current from the bit line 13 and the word line 14 of the other pixel (optical shutter) 10 in the opposite direction.
In this way, the optical shutter 10 between the selected bit line 13 and the word line 14 is in a translucent mode, and light from the backlight 16 that emits light below the optical shutter 10 reaches upward. Other optical shutters 10 are in a light shielding mode. This enables image display.
[0030]
When driving each optical shutter 10 in a simple matrix type, a dedicated word line is provided for each optical shutter 10 and the bit line is provided as a common line.
For example, a common potential of ½ H volts is applied to the bit line, while a high voltage H volt is applied to the dedicated word line of the optical shutter 10 that is desired to transmit the word line, and the optical shutter 10 that is desired to be shielded from light is transmitted. A low voltage of 0 volts is applied to the dedicated word line. As a result, a current flows through the selected optical shutter 10 in a predetermined direction, and a current flows through the non-selected optical shutter 10 in the reverse direction, thereby enabling image display in which light transmission and light shielding are mixed.
[0031]
When driving each optical shutter 10 in an active matrix type, a common word line is provided for each row of optical shutters 10 and a common bit line is provided for each column of optical shutters 10.
Of all the optical shutters 10 connected to a certain bit line, a high voltage H volt is applied to the word line to which the optical shutter 10 desired to transmit light belongs, and a low voltage is applied to the word line to which the remaining optical shutter 10 belongs. Give 0 volts. As a result, when a voltage of, for example, 1/2 H volts is applied to the bit line for a moment, the selected optical shutter 10 enters the light-transmitting mode and the non-selected optical shutter 10 enters the light-shielding mode only by that moment. An image display in which light transmission and light shielding are mixed is performed.
Next, when the same operation is performed for the bit line in the adjacent column, an image display in which light transmission and light shielding are mixed is performed in the adjacent column column.
Thereafter, when the same is sequentially performed for each bit line, an image display in which light transmission and light shielding are mixed is performed for each column.
Therefore, by repeating this at a high frequency shorter than the afterimage period (for example, 30 times or more per second), it is felt that the human eyes are continuously displaying.
[0032]
Here, the relationship between the energization amount and the driving force will be considered.
When a voltage is applied between the transparent electrodes 17u and 17d under the magnetic field B and a current I is passed through the light-shielding conductive liquid W, assuming that the distance between the electrodes is d, the light-shielding conductive liquid W has the formula (1 ) Lorentz force F.
F = I × B × d (Formula 1)
Further, the direction of the Lorentz force F can be reversed by reversing the voltage application direction and reversing the current direction.
This uniaxial Lorentz force F becomes a driving force for the movement of the light-shielding conductive liquid W, and the surface effect in the optical shutter 10 (the liquid flow is approximately governed by the surface layer flow as a whole, and the fluid is positioned. By removing the applied voltage while the light-shielding conductive liquid W is moving, the light-shielding conductive liquid W is fixed at that position, so that the concentration can be controlled.
[0033]
The magnitude of the Lorentz force F needs to be at least larger than the weight of the conductive liquid and to break the surface tension energy and frictional force of the liquid. The weight can be ignored because the droplets are sufficiently small, and the frictional force can be ignored because the moving speed of the liquid is small.
[0034]
The surface tension σ is 73 dyne / cm (= 7.3 × 10 -2 N / m) and a liquid having a surface tension larger than this is generally 475 dyne / cm (= 4.75 × 10 6) of mercury. -1 N / m), but the surface tension energy difference does not occur when the shape does not change.
[0035]
Next, constituent materials of each constituent element will be described.
[Light-shielding conductive liquid used]
It is desirable that the light-shielding liquid W to be used has an electron conduction performance. In order to obtain a high-contrast image, a black liquid having high light absorption and light shielding performance is desired. For example, it is desirable that the liquid thickness (that is, the distance between electrodes) is about 1 μm, and it is desirable to have a light-shielding ability so as to completely shield the light. If the thickness is not so large that the ratio of the numbers becomes extremely large, there is no problem even if the liquid thickness is actually increased.
[0036]
In addition, the light-shielding conductive liquid W has poor wettability with the transparent electrode surface, and residual liquid droplets or the like remain at the end of the electrode surface even in liquid movement more than once (preferably 10 10 to 10 12). A material in combination with the electrode surface that does not remain is desired. The term “poor wettability” as used herein means that when the so-called contact angle is θ, θ> 10 ° or more, desirably θ> 60 ° or more, more preferably θ> 90 ° or more. Is. For example, conductivity imparting materials (silver powder, silver oxide, silver nitrate, silver organic compounds, copper powder, nickel powder, carbon black, etc.) and binders (synthetic resins such as ethyl cellulose, phenol resin, acrylic resin, low melting glass) Powder, lead borate, lead silicate, vegetable oil, etc.) and a solvent (acetone, cellosolve derivative, ethyl acetate, ketones, benzene, toluene, ethylene chloride, etc.).
[0037]
[Magnet to be used]
The magnet to be used may be a permanent magnet or an electromagnet that can generate a magnetic field of 0.01 to 0.3 T (Tessler) inside the liquid sealed cell 11, but if the magnetic field becomes larger than that, Since a large Lorentz force can be generated with such a small amount of current, it is more desirable that the magnet used be a permanent magnet or an electromagnet that can generate a large magnetic field of 0.3 T or more. However, when the light-shielding conductive liquid W having high conductivity is used and the energization amount can be increased, the present invention is not limited thereto, and a considerably small magnetic field may be used.
[0038]
[Electrodes used]
In the case where transmitted light is used as the electrode of the display unit as shown in FIG. 3, it is desirable to use a transparent material for the electrode 17. However, when using reflected light, the lower electrode may not be transparent. This will be described later.
[0039]
[Display pixel]
In the case of monochromatic display, one liquid sealed cell 11 or more corresponds to one pixel.
In the case of performing full color display, at least three liquid sealed cells 11 having R, G, B color filters are arranged to correspond to one pixel. One pixel may be used.
[0040]
[Pixel arrangement]
The pixel arrangement method is not limited to the arrangement method of FIG. 3, and may be a circular shape, a honeycomb shape, or the like, and the arrangement order of R, G, B arrangement is an arrangement order (R, G, B3 primary colors for obtaining color display). As long as they can be superimposed). Further, the area / number ratio of R, G, and B does not have to be equal, but can be varied depending on filter design or the like, and may be a complicated arrangement such as a checkered pattern.
[0041]
The permanent magnet is preferably screen-printed, the transparent electrode on the observation side is pasted, and the light-shielding conductive liquid is placed in each liquid-sealed cell by an ink-jet method.
[0042]
[Second Embodiment]
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view showing the configuration of the optical shutter 10 ′ according to the second embodiment. As can be seen from the longitudinal cross-sectional views of FIGS. 1 and 2B, in the casing structure of the liquid sealed cell 11 in FIGS. 1 and 2, the distance between the upper surface and the lower surface is the same over the entire length. On the other hand, the liquid sealed cell 11 ′ of FIG. 4 is characterized in that the upper surface of the liquid sealed cell has a two-stage configuration. That is, on the left side of the cell in FIG. 1A, the distance between the upper and lower electrodes is as narrow as h1 and the width is as long as l1, while on the right side of the cell, the distance between the upper and lower electrodes is as wide as h2 and the width is as small as l2. ing.
The narrow cell side volume (h1 × l1) and the wide cell side volume (h2 × l2) are equal, and the light-blocking conductive liquid corresponding to this volume is sealed in this. . Further, the upper electrode 17 u in the wide portion on the right side of the cell is covered with the shade portion 18.
Other configurations are the same as those in FIGS.
[0043]
Therefore, since the operating principle of the optical shutter 10 ′ is the same as that in FIG. 1A, a brief description will be given with reference to FIG.
When the magnetic field B is directed from the left to the right, when the current I is passed through the upper transparent electrode 17u → the light-shielding conductive liquid W → the lower transparent electrode 17d, the light-shielding conductive liquid W is in accordance with Fleming's left-hand rule. As a result, Lorentz force acts, and as shown in FIG. 4A, the light-shielding conductive liquid W moves to the left side in the cell and occupies a range from the length to the length l1.
Further, since the range from the right side of the cell to the length l2 is covered by the shade portion 18, the backlight light from the bottom is shielded over the entire range from the length l1 to the length l2. Therefore, it looks dark to the observer's eyes.
[0044]
On the other hand, when the magnetic field B is directed from the left to the right as shown in FIG. 2A, if the current I is passed through the lower transparent electrode 17d → the light-shielding conductive liquid W → the upper transparent electrode 17u, the left hand of Fleming 4b, a Lorentz force acts on the light-shielding conductive liquid W in the right direction in FIG. 4B. As a result, the light-shielding conductive liquid W moves to the right side from the range of the length l1 on the left side in the cell as shown in the figure. Move towards the length l2 range. Therefore, the backlight light from below passes through the transparent electrodes 17d and 17u over the length l1 range on the left side in the cell. Therefore, it looks bright to the observer's eyes.
[0045]
Therefore, a large number of such optical shutters 10 'are arranged on a plane, only the optical shutter 10' to be displayed is selected in the mode shown in FIG. (B), and the other optical shutters 10 'are set in the mode shown in FIG. A current flows through the selected optical shutter 10 ′ in a predetermined direction, and a current flows through the non-selected optical shutter 10 ′ in the reverse direction, thereby enabling image display in which light transmission and light shielding are mixed.
In addition, since the light transmission range l1> the light shielding range l2 according to the second embodiment, the aperture ratio can be increased to 50% or more, which is brighter than the optical shutter having an aperture ratio of 50% in FIGS. It becomes possible to display.
[0046]
[Third Embodiment]
A third embodiment will be described with reference to FIG.
In the description of the third embodiment, the optical shutter of FIG. 4 having a large aperture ratio will be described as an example. However, the third embodiment is not limited to this, of course.
FIG. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of the third embodiment using the optical shutter of FIG. 4, and the ratio of each transmission aperture area to the light transmission aperture area is (a) 100%, (b) 75%, (C) is 25% and (d) is 0%.
This is because when a current is passed between the transparent electrodes 17u and 17d under a magnetic field, Lorentz force acts on the light-shielding conductive liquid W according to Fleming's left-hand rule, and as a result, the light-shielding conductive liquid W moves within the cell. start.
[0047]
If the movement from the state of FIG. (A) (aperture ratio 100%) to the state of FIG. (D) (aperture ratio 0%) is started now, the movement of the light-shielding conductive liquid W1 is performed in the third embodiment. By blocking the supply current to the light-shielding conductive liquid W2 at an arbitrary position (time t2), the Lorentz force is not applied to the light-shielding conductive liquid W1, and the light-shielding conductive liquid is in the middle of its movement. W1 is stationary. This enables 75% area modulation of (b).
Similarly, by blocking the supply current to the light-shielding conductive liquid W3 at a certain position (time t3) during the movement of the light-shielding conductive liquid W1, the area modulation of 25% of (c) can be achieved.
75% and 25% of such area modulation is an example, and according to the third embodiment, area modulation is continuously performed within a range of 0% to 100% by finely controlling current flow. Can be performed.
[0048]
[Fourth Embodiment]
The fourth embodiment is also related to gradation control, which performs gradation movement by moving light-shielding conductive liquid at a high frequency and controlling the amount of light transmission per unit time by time modulation. Is to do.
In other words, in the case of the above-described active matrix type, when display is repeated 100 times per second per cell, the third embodiment has a light shielding property 100 times in order to produce a gradation with an aperture ratio of 75%. Although the conductive liquid W2 is in the state of FIG. 5B, in the fourth embodiment, 75 times out of 100 displays are set to the 100% mode of FIG. 5A, and the remaining 25 times. Is set to 0% mode in FIG. 5 (d), for a total of 75%. In this case, in order to avoid the friction (flicker), it is preferable to repeat this in a short time unit of 3 times in the 100% mode and once in the 0% mode.
[0049]
In order to obtain a gradation with an aperture ratio of 50% in the fourth embodiment, it is only necessary to repeat the 100% mode once and the 0% mode once in a short time.
In order to obtain a gradation with an aperture ratio of 25%, one time in the 100% mode and three times in the 0% mode may be repeated in a short time.
In order to obtain a gradation with an aperture ratio of 20%, it is only necessary to repeat the 100% mode once and the 0% mode four times in a short time.
In order to obtain a gradation with an aperture ratio of 10%, one time in the 100% mode and nine times in the 0% mode may be repeated in a short time.
As described above, according to the fourth embodiment, gradation expression is performed by causing the light-blocking conductive liquid to move at a high frequency and controlling the light transmission amount per unit time by time modulation. Will be able to.
[0050]
[Fifth Embodiment]
FIG. 6 is a schematic plan view illustrating an optical shutter according to the fifth embodiment of the present invention. In the figure, 60 is an optical shutter according to the fifth embodiment, 61 is a liquid sealed cell, 62 is a permanent magnet (62L is a left permanent magnet in the figure, 62R is a right permanent magnet in the figure), 68. Is a shade portion, and W is a light-shielding conductive liquid sealed in a cell.
Reference numeral 20 denotes a bypass path provided according to the fifth embodiment. The cell rear end portion 20c passes through the side portion 20b of the cell from the cell front end portion 20a in the traveling direction of the arrow with the light-shielding conductive liquid W interposed therebetween. It is a passage that leads to
[0051]
Next, the operation principle of the optical shutter 60 will be described.
When a current is passed through the light-shielding conductive liquid W from the back of the paper to the front of the paper under a magnetic field formed from the left to the right by the permanent magnets 62R and 62L, the light-shielding conductive liquid W is shown in the upper part of the figure ( Start moving in the direction of the arrow). At this time, if the optical shutter 10 or 10 ′ of the preceding embodiment without the bypass path 20, the light-shielding conductive liquid W has to advance while compressing the air in the cell 61 ahead of the traveling direction, and pushes it. However, in the optical shutter 60 according to the present embodiment, the air in the cell 61 in the forward direction of travel passes through the cell side portion 20b from the cell tip portion 20a. Since it goes around to the rear end 20c, there is no pressure difference in the cell, and the light-shielding conductive liquid W can move smoothly. Therefore, it is possible to speed up image display.
[0052]
[Sixth Embodiment]
In each of the above embodiments, the light-shielding conductive liquid W and air are sealed in the liquid-sealed cell. However, in the seventh embodiment of the present invention, the light-shielding property is used instead of the air. It is characterized in that it is filled with an insulating gas or liquid that does not mix with the conductive liquid W (for example, has a relationship such as water and oil) and has a higher flow transfer characteristic. Examples of insulating gases or liquids with high flow transfer characteristics include, for example, Idemitsu water-insoluble lubricating oil, low viscosity oil (Shell Tellus Oil C5) (kinematic viscosity 3.8 cp @ 40 ° C), and NTT is heat. Silicone oil (viscosity 10 cp, “NTT R & D” Vol. 51, No. 11, 2002, p873) used for a capillary light switch or the like can be used. An example of viscosity unit cp is H 2 In the case of O, it is 1 cp, and general glycerin is 1000-1500 cp.
In this way, the position of the light-shielding conductive liquid can be reliably fixed.
[0053]
[Seventh Embodiment]
FIG. 7 relates to the seventh embodiment, and is a schematic plan view of a matrix type image display device composed of a large number of optical shutters. FIG. 7 (a) is a matrix type image display device shown in FIG. FIG. 10 is a schematic plan view of each of matrix type image display devices according to a seventh embodiment.
In FIG. 7A, 10 is an optical shutter, and 12 is a permanent magnet. A matrix type image display device is configured by arranging a large number of optical shutters 10 and permanent magnets 12 in a planar shape. All the permanent magnets 12 are regularly arranged with the same polarity so that the magnetic fields of NS are directed in the same direction.
However, according to this matrix type image display device, since the area occupied by the permanent magnet 12 is not negligible, there is a disadvantage that the aperture area through which light can be transmitted cannot be increased.
[0054]
FIG. 7B solves this, and paying attention to the fact that all the permanent magnets 12 are arranged so that the magnetic field is directed in the same direction in FIG. 7A, the magnitude of the magnetic field is allowed. The magnet is shared as much as possible in the range.
In FIG. 7B, three horizontal shutters of FIG. 7A are combined into one, and the three optical shutters are sandwiched between permanent magnets 72 and 72, and a magnetic field common to the three optical shutters. Like to give. This eliminates the need for the two magnets 12 and 12 in the middle, and the space can be used as a cell space, so that an optical shutter 70 larger than the optical shutter 10 in FIG.
In FIG. 7B, one permanent magnet 72 is placed in the middle. However, if the strength of the magnetic field can be obtained, this can also be omitted and only the both ends of the figure can be omitted.
It goes without saying that an electromagnet capable of controlling the magnetic field may be used instead of the permanent magnet 72.
[0055]
[Eighth Embodiment]
FIG. 8 relates to the eighth embodiment, and R (red), G (green), and B (blue) filters are provided for each optical shutter of the matrix type image display device of FIG. 7B. Color display is possible.
In the figure, there are three optical shutters 10 between permanent magnets 12 and 12, and R, G, and B filters are provided in the optical path to constitute one color pixel. Reference numeral 18 denotes a shade portion. With such a configuration, various colors can be expressed by one pixel by adopting the above-described gradation control here.
Color display may be performed using color filters or color inks of C (cyan), M (magenta), Y (yellow), and K (black) that are complementary to each other instead of R, G, and B.
[0056]
[Ninth Embodiment]
FIG. 9 relates to the ninth embodiment. In the figure, 17 is a transparent electrode (17u is an upper transparent electrode in the figure, 17d is a lower transparent electrode in the figure), 18 is a shade part, W is a light-shielding conductive liquid. Reference numeral 90 denotes a drive circuit provided on the lower side of the shade portion 18 according to the ninth embodiment. This driving circuit is a driving circuit required when energizing the light-shielding conductive liquid by active driving using a TFT circuit or the like, and thus disposed directly under the shade portion 18 to reduce the aperture ratio. It is possible to add a drive circuit without causing it to occur.
Instead of the shade portion 18, a current drive circuit may be produced on the back side of the magnet (12R or 12L in FIG. 1).
[0057]
[Tenth embodiment]
FIG. 10 relates to the tenth embodiment. In the figure, 17 is the upper transparent electrode, 18 is the shade portion, W is the light-shielding conductive liquid, and 90 is the shade portion described in the ninth embodiment. 18 is a drive circuit that is provided below 18 and can be driven without reducing the aperture ratio. Reference numeral 92 denotes a lower electrode / reflection plate provided according to the tenth embodiment.
By doing so, the light L from the front surface such as sunlight, room light, and front light is taken from the upper transparent electrode without using a backlight, and after being light-modulated, is reflected by the reflector 92. , Going up.
In this way, if the external light is used when it is bright and the front light is used only in a dark place, an energy-saving reflective display can be obtained.
In addition, it is possible to use not only the above-mentioned front light but also the backlight in a dark place by arranging a semi-transmissive film consisting of a metal film and a light passage hole opened in this metal film on the light emission side of the backlight. become. Specifically, as described in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 2001-174797, a semi-transmissive film is formed of a light-shielding metal film such as chromium, aluminum, or silver, and a light passage hole is formed in the surface of the metal film. By forming, the metal film itself also has a function as a light reflection film. The light transmitting hole has an area ratio to provide both light transmitting and light reflecting functions. If the area of the light passage hole is increased, the configuration is suitable for the transmissive display mode, and if the area is reduced, the configuration is suitable for the reflective display mode. When a transflective film formed of a metal film with a light passage hole is used in the reflective display mode, the light reaching the metal film can be reflected to improve the reflection performance and transmit the light. Even in the use of the mold display mode, light is not absorbed by the semi-transmissive film, but only passes through the light passage hole, and the transmission performance can be improved.
[0058]
[Eleventh embodiment]
FIG. 11 relates to the eleventh embodiment and is an exploded perspective view of a sidelight type display device. In the figure, reference numeral 100 denotes a display device comprising an optical shutter according to the present invention, and below this is a scattering plate 94. This scattering plate 94 is a thin plate having an uneven surface. A light guide plate 95 is disposed below the light guide plate 95. The light guide plate 95 is a light guide plate such as acrylic resin, and a reflective member such as white paint is applied to the lower surface thereof. There are light sources at both ends of the light guide plate 95, and the light source is realized here by the unit 96 of the light emitting diode 96a.
Therefore, the light of the light emitting diode 96 a emitted from the light emitting diode unit 96 is incident on the light guide plate 95 from the side surface of the light guide plate 95, reflected by the reflecting member applied to the lower surface of the light guide plate 95, and the upper surface of the light guide plate 95. Exits from. The light emitted from the light guide plate 95 is incident on the display device 100 in a uniform light intensity distribution over a wide angle range by the scattering plate 94. As the display device 100, any one of the display devices described so far may be used. As a result, information can be displayed.
[0059]
[Twelfth embodiment]
FIG. 12 is an example showing the configuration of the optical shutter according to the twelfth embodiment, where (a) is a perspective view when energized in one direction, and (b) is energized in the direction opposite to the direction of current flowing in FIG. FIG.
In the figure, 120 is an optical shutter according to the twelfth embodiment, 11 is a liquid-sealed cell, 12 is a transparent permanent magnet (12u is an upper transparent permanent magnet, and 12d is a lower transparent permanent magnet). 13 is a bit line, 14 is a word line, 27 is an electrode (27R is a right electrode in the figure, 27L is a left electrode in the figure), 18 is a shade portion for shielding light, and the front side of the figure A partition wall of the cell 11 is provided on the far side, but is removed here for easy understanding.
W1 and W2 are upper and lower transparent permanent magnets 22u and 22d and left and right electrodes 27R and 27L, respectively, and have a light shielding property in which half the cell volume is sealed in a cell surrounded by front and rear partition walls. It is a conductive liquid. W1 in (a) shows a state of being sucked in front of the drawing, and W2 in (b) shows a state of being pushed back in the drawing.
The bit line 13 is connected to the right electrode 27R, and the word line 14 is connected to the left electrode 27L, and a current flows from one side to the other and vice versa, thereby passing the light-shielding conductive liquid W on the way. It is a mechanism to do.
The permanent magnets 12L and 12R are arranged so that the direction of the magnetic field B is oriented in a direction perpendicular to the normal direction of the surfaces of the electrodes 17R and 17L.
[0060]
As described in JP-A-2002-145622, a transparent permanent magnet itself is made of a titanium dioxide / cobalt magnetic film having a chemical formula: Ti1-x Cox O 2 However, it is formed by a titanium dioxide / cobalt magnetic film represented by 0 <x ≦ 0.3, in which Co is substituted at the Ti lattice position and epitaxially grown on the single crystal substrate. The crystal structure of the magnetic film is preferably an anatase structure, and the crystal structure of the magnetic film is preferably a rutile structure. The titanium dioxide / cobalt magnetic film having the anatase structure is characterized in that the band gap energy varies in the range of 3.13 eV to 3.33 eV depending on the Co concentration (X) substituting for the Ti lattice position. Further, the titanium dioxide / cobalt magnetic film can maintain magnetization even at a temperature of room temperature or higher and is transparent to visible light. The single crystal substrate is preferably LaAlO when the crystal structure is an anatase structure. 3 (001) substrate. The single crystal substrate is preferably Al when the crystal structure is a rutile structure. 2 O 3 It is a substrate. The single crystal substrate is preferably TiO having a rutile crystal structure when the crystal structure is a rutile structure. 2 It is a substrate.
[0061]
Next, the operation principle of the optical shutter according to the twelfth embodiment will be described.
Now, as shown in FIG. 12A, when the magnetic field B is directed from the top to the bottom, the current I is changed from the bit line 13 to the right electrode 27R, the light-shielding conductive liquid W1, the left electrode 27L, and the word line. When flowing, the Lorentz force F1 acts on the light-shielding conductive liquid W2 in the direction shown in the figure according to Fleming's left-hand rule, and as a result, the light-shielding conductive liquid W2 moves to the front side in the figure. . Thereby, the light-shielding conductive liquid W1 occupies the volume of the front half in the cell, and the back half of the cell is covered with the shade portion 18, so that the entire cell eventually functions as a light shield, The light from the backlight (not shown) is blocked and does not reach the top.
[0062]
On the other hand, as shown in FIG. 12B, when the magnetic field B is directed from the top to the bottom, the current I is changed to the word line 14 → the left electrode 27L → the light-shielding conductive liquid W2 → the right electrode 27R →→ the bit line 13. The light-shielding conductive liquid W2 moves in the direction F2 (that is, the back side) according to Fleming's left-hand rule. As a result, the light-shielding conductive liquid W2 occupies the volume of the back half of the cell and is stored in the shade (light shielding) portion 18 in the back half of the cell, so that the front half of the cell functions to transmit light. Thus, the light from the backlight 26 (not shown) passes upward through the transparent permanent magnets 22d and 22u.
As described above, the optical shutter according to the twelfth embodiment uses a transparent permanent magnet instead of the transparent electrode used in the previous embodiments. Even if this is done, since there is no need to use a polarizing plate, the display device does not depend on the viewing angle, has a high light transmission efficiency, has a high contrast, and is an optical shutter that does not use mercury. A light weight display device is obtained.
[0063]
Finally, an active matrix driving circuit for driving the optical shutter according to the present invention will be described.
FIG. 13 shows an example of an active matrix driving circuit for driving an optical shutter according to the present invention. Configure a series circuit of P-channel FET and N-channel FET, connect the terminal of the P-channel FET to the bit line, connect the terminal of the N-channel FET to the ground side, and connect the source and drain of the P-channel FET and N-channel FET A point is connected to one electrode of the Lorentz pixel, and a predetermined voltage, for example, about half the voltage applied to the bit line is constantly applied to the other electrode of the Lorentz pixel. The gate terminals of the P channel FET and the N channel FET are connected to the word line.
This is the connection relationship of one pixel. When the FET gate is H (input above the threshold), a current flows in the direction (1), and when the FET gate is L (below the threshold), a current flows in the direction (2). It is only necessary to display “bright” in the case of (1) and “dark” in the case of (2).
[0064]
In order to drive a plurality of pixels in a matrix, a plurality of pixels in FIG. 13 are arranged vertically and horizontally and connected in the same manner. For example, the word lines of the pixels in the first vertical column are connected to the first word line, The word lines of the pixels in the second column are connected to the second word line and connected to the last column. Further, the bit lines of the pixels in the first horizontal row are connected to the first bit line, and the bit lines of the pixels in the second horizontal row are connected to the second bit line and connected to the last row.
Accordingly, among the plurality of pixels in the matrix array, among the plurality of pixels in the first row, the word line of the pixel to be displayed “bright” is set to H, the others are set to L, and a high voltage (+2 V in the figure) is applied to the first bit. Then, the pixels whose word line is H are displayed as “bright”, and the other pixels are displayed as “dark”.
Similarly, the pixel groups in the second and third rows are similarly repeated, and this is repeated at a high speed of at least 30 times per second, whereby a desired image can be displayed without flickering in the eyes.
[0065]
The image display apparatus using the optical shutter according to the present invention has been described above. However, the present invention is not limited to this application, and other possible applications include a projection projector and a digital photo exposure. There is.
[0066]
If the size pitch of the liquid-sealed cell is set to, for example, about 200 ppi, it is possible to achieve a liquid display cell with a resolution comparable to that of the human eye, which is suitable as a medical display.
[0067]
【The invention's effect】
As described above, according to the present invention, a liquid-sealed cell is constituted by a pair of facing magnets, a pair of facing electrodes, and a pair of facing partition walls, and at least one of the electrodes is A transparent electrode, a part of the electrode covered with a shade portion, and a light-shielding conductive liquid having an amount approximately half the volume of the liquid-sealed cell, or an object equivalent to the liquid is placed in the liquid-sealed cell. Since sealing eliminates the use of a polarizing plate, there is no viewing angle dependency, so there is no problem in use by many people, and eye strain is also reduced. In addition, the degree of freedom of use by the observer is improved, the screen can be enlarged, and the brightness is improved.
Furthermore, since the display device has high light transmission efficiency and high contrast, the reliability as a medical diagnostic display is improved.
Moreover, since it is an optical shutter that does not use mercury, a lightweight display device that is environmentally friendly and has no light reflection can be obtained.
[Brief description of the drawings]
1 is an example showing the configuration of a liquid-sealed cell according to the present invention, in which (a) is a perspective view when energized in one direction, and (b) is a cross-sectional view taken along line AA in FIG. .
2 shows a perspective view (a) when a current is applied in the direction opposite to the direction of current flow in FIG. 1 and a cross-sectional view taken along line AA in FIG. 2 (b).
FIG. 3 is a conceptual perspective view of a matrix type image display device in which a large number of liquid sealed cells according to the present invention are arranged on a plane.
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view showing a configuration of an optical shutter according to a second embodiment.
5 is a longitudinal sectional view of the third embodiment using the optical shutter of FIG. 4, wherein the ratio of each transmission aperture area to the light transmission aperture area is (a) 100%, (b) 75%, c) 25% and (d) 0%, respectively.
FIG. 6 is a schematic plan view illustrating an optical shutter according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention.
7 is a schematic plan view of a matrix-type image display device including a plurality of optical shutters according to a seventh embodiment, and FIG. 7A is a matrix-type image display device described in FIG. 3, and FIG. FIG. 9 is a schematic plan view of a matrix type image display device according to a seventh embodiment.
FIG. 8 relates to an eighth embodiment, and enables color display.
FIG. 9 relates to a ninth embodiment, in which a drive circuit is provided below the shade part.
FIG. 10 relates to a tenth embodiment and shows a reflective display device.
FIG. 11 is an exploded perspective view of a sidelight type display device according to an eleventh embodiment.
FIGS. 12A and 12B show an example of a configuration of a liquid-sealed cell according to a twelfth embodiment, in which FIG. 12A is a perspective view when energized in one direction, and FIG. 12B is opposite to the direction of current flowing in FIG. The perspective view when electricity is supplied in the direction is shown.
FIG. 13 shows an example of an active matrix driving circuit for driving an optical shutter according to the present invention.
[Explanation of symbols]
10, 10'60, 70, 120 Optical shutter
11, 11'61 Liquid sealed cell
12, 62, 72 Permanent magnet
12L, 62L Left permanent magnet
12R, 62R right permanent magnet
13 bit line
13D bit driver
14 word lines
14D word driver
15 Switching control circuit
16 Backlight
17 Transparent electrode
17u Upper transparent electrode
17d lower transparent electrode
18, 68 shade parts
20 Bypass
20a Cell tip in the direction of travel
20b Cell side
20c Cell rear end
22 Transparent permanent magnet
22u Upper transparent permanent magnet
22d Lower transparent permanent magnet
27 electrodes
27R Right electrode
27L Left electrode
90 Drive circuit
92 Lower electrode and reflector
94 Scattering plate
95 Light guide plate
96 Light Emitting Diode Unit
96a light emitting diode
100 Display device comprising optical shutter according to the present invention
W, W1, W2 Light-shielding conductive liquid
B Magnetic field
F Lorentz force

Claims (11)

  1. A pair of opposing magnets, a pair of opposing electrodes, and a pair of opposing partition walls form a liquid-sealed cell, at least one of the electrodes being a transparent electrode, and a portion of the electrode being a shade An optical shutter characterized in that a light-blocking conductive liquid or an object equivalent to the liquid in an amount approximately half the volume of the liquid-sealed cell is sealed in the liquid-sealed cell.
  2. The region between the pair of electrodes is composed of a narrow part and a wide part, the narrow part has a large area, the wide part has a small area, and the volume of both is substantially equal. The optical shutter according to claim 1.
  3. A backlight provided on the back of the liquid-sealed cell, a light source provided on a side of the liquid-sealed cell, a light guide plate for guiding the light of the light source to the back, or the front surface of the liquid-sealed cell The optical shutter according to claim 1, further comprising a reflector that reflects incident light from the bottom surface of the liquid-sealed cell.
  4. The optical shutter according to claim 1, further comprising a bypass through which the medium compressed by the movement of the light-shielding conductive liquid can escape.
  5. 5. The optical shutter according to claim 1, wherein at least one current driving circuit is formed on a rear side of the shade portion or the magnet.
  6. Around the light-shielding conductive liquid, there is an insulating gas that does not intersect with the light-shielding conductive liquid and is not highly viscous so as to inhibit the movement of the <conductive liquid + filling> system by Lorentz force. The optical shutter according to claim 1, wherein the optical shutter is filled with a liquid.
  7. 7. An image display device comprising: a plurality of optical shutters according to claim 1 arranged on a plane; and a word line and a bit line connected to each electrode of the optical shutter.
  8. 8. The image display device according to claim 7, wherein the optical shutter is divided into three, and color filters for R (red), G (green), and B (blue) are respectively provided on the front surface or the back surface of the liquid-sealed cell. A full-color image display device characterized by being provided.
  9. By blocking the current supplied to the light-shielding conductive liquid at an arbitrary position during the movement of the light-shielding conductive liquid, the light shielding is shielded by area modulation, and the light transmission amount is controlled to perform gradation expression. The image display apparatus according to claim 7 or 8, wherein
  10. 9. The image display apparatus according to claim 7, wherein the light-shielding conductive liquid is moved at a high frequency, and the light transmission amount per unit time is controlled by time modulation to perform gradation expression.
  11. A pair of opposing magnets, a pair of opposing electrodes, and a pair of opposing partition walls constitute a liquid-sealed cell, at least one of the magnets being a transparent magnet, and a portion of the magnet being a shade An optical shutter characterized in that a light-blocking conductive liquid or an object equivalent to a liquid in an amount approximately half the volume of the liquid-sealed cell is sealed in the liquid-sealed cell.
    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
    The present invention relates to an image display device obtained by driving a colored conductive liquid with Lorentz force.
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