JP2004301784A - Dischargeable capacity estimating method and device for battery - Google Patents

Dischargeable capacity estimating method and device for battery Download PDF

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JP2004301784A
JP2004301784A JP2003097471A JP2003097471A JP2004301784A JP 2004301784 A JP2004301784 A JP 2004301784A JP 2003097471 A JP2003097471 A JP 2003097471A JP 2003097471 A JP2003097471 A JP 2003097471A JP 2004301784 A JP2004301784 A JP 2004301784A
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dischargeable capacity
battery
current
estimated
currents
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Kenichi Amano
Yoichi Arai
兼一 天野
洋一 荒井
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Yazaki Corp
Yuasa Corp
株式会社ユアサコーポレーション
矢崎総業株式会社
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a dischargeable capacity estimating method and device for a battery capable of estimating the quantity of electricity changeable in accordance with the magnitude of the discharged electric current as the dischargeable capacity to surely drive various large and small loads. <P>SOLUTION: A dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1 estimates the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the electric current on the basis of the pair of data of the discharged electric current and the battery terminal voltage obtained in high-rate discharging of the battery. A relational expression determining means 23a-2 determines the relational expression applied to the battery on the basis of a general formula prepared in advance and indicating the relationship between the electric current and the dischargeable capacity for continuously discharging the electric current, and the relationship between the electric current and the dischargeable capacity estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1, and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the electric current of the arbitrary magnitude, is estimated by using the determined relational expression. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2005,JPO&NCIPI

Description

【0001】
【発明の属する技術分野】
本発明は、バッテリの放電可能な容量を推定するバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法及び装置に関するものである。
【0002】
【従来の技術】
バッテリは放電或いは充放電によって取り出せる電気量である放電可能容量が時々刻々変化するが、バッテリからの電力供給によって負荷を適切に動作する上で、この放電可能容量を把握することが求められる。例えば、車載のバッテリでは、 車両の種類によってその求められる機能が若干相違するものの、以下のような理由で、その放電可能容量が適切に把握される必要がある。
【0003】
例えば、駆動動力源が燃料の燃焼によって回転力を発生する内燃機関(以下エンジンという。)であるエンジン搭載車では、エンジンの始動を行うためのスタータモータへの電力供給をバッテリから行われるが、バッテリがスタータモータを回転動作させる電力を供給することができなければ、エンジンを始動することができなくなる。 For example, in an engine-equipped vehicle in which the driving power source is an internal combustion engine (hereinafter referred to as an engine) that generates rotational force by burning fuel, power is supplied from a battery to a starter motor for starting the engine. If the battery cannot supply the power to rotate the starter motor, the engine cannot be started. エンジンを始動させた後は、エンジンによって駆動させるジェネレータが電力を発生するので、この電力によってバッテリへの充電が行われるとともに、他の負荷が動作されるようになり、バッテリは補助的な位置づけとなる。 After starting the engine, the generator driven by the engine generates electric power, which charges the battery and allows other loads to operate, and the battery is positioned as an auxiliary position. Become. 勿論、ジェネレータが故障したときには、バッテリは電気的負荷を駆動するための唯一無二の電力供給源となり、重要な役割を果たさなければならなくなる。 Of course, in the event of a generator failure, the battery becomes the only source of power to drive the electrical load and must play an important role.
【0004】 0004
また、駆動動力源がバッテリからの電力の供給を受けて回転力を発生する電動モータとなっている電気自動車では、バッテリが唯一無二の電力供給源であり、バッテリが電動モータを回転動作する電力を供給することができなければ、自動車の走行が停止してしまう。 Further, in an electric vehicle in which the driving power source is an electric motor that generates rotational force by receiving power supplied from the battery, the battery is the unique power supply source, and the battery rotates the electric motor. If the power cannot be supplied, the vehicle will stop running.
【0005】 0005
その他、駆動動力源としてエンジンとバッテリからの電力の供給を受けて回転する電動モータの両方を有するハイブリット車では、バッテリの補助的機能が、走行途中でエンジンを停止し、エンジンに代わって走行の駆動力を発生する電動モータに電力供給する機能分高められているが、基本的には、エンジン搭載車と同様に、エンジンの始動するためのスタータモータを回転動作するだけの電力をバッテリが供給できなければ、エンジンを始動することができなくなる。 In addition, in a hybrid vehicle that has both an engine and an electric motor that rotates by receiving power from the battery as a drive power source, the auxiliary function of the battery stops the engine in the middle of running and runs in place of the engine. The function to supply power to the electric motor that generates the driving force has been enhanced, but basically, the battery supplies enough power to rotate the starter motor to start the engine, similar to the engine-equipped vehicle. If you can't, you won't be able to start the engine.
【0006】 0006
以上のような背景で、少なくとも、エンジン搭載車においてはスタータモータによってエンジンを始動することができること、或いは、電気自動車においては電動モータによって走行可能なうちにバッテリへの充電が行われることを目安に、バッテリの放電可能容量を把握することが必要とされている。 Against the above background, at least in vehicles equipped with an engine, the engine can be started by a starter motor, or in an electric vehicle, the battery is charged while it can be driven by the electric motor. , It is necessary to know the dischargeable capacity of the battery. さらに、電気自動車におけるバッテリの放電可能容量はエンジン搭載車における燃料残量に相当するものであるので、容量の量的な把握を行うことも求められる。 Further, since the dischargeable capacity of a battery in an electric vehicle corresponds to the remaining amount of fuel in a vehicle equipped with an engine, it is also required to quantitatively grasp the capacity.
【0007】 0007
ところで、バッテリから取り出すことのできる電気量である充電状態は一般にSOCで表され、これに対し、実際に負荷を動作できるような電気量を取り出すことができる放電可能な容量は一般にADCで表される。 By the way, the charging state, which is the amount of electricity that can be taken out from the battery, is generally expressed in SOC, while the dischargeable capacity that can take out the amount of electricity that can actually operate the load is generally expressed in ADC. To. ADCについては、電流時間積Ahで表される満充電時の充電状態SOCと放電終止電圧時の充電状態SOCとの差に相当する電気量として把握され、場合によっては、満充電時を100%、放電終止電圧時を0%とする電気量に対する百分率%で表すこともある。 The ADC is grasped as the amount of electricity corresponding to the difference between the charged state SOC at the time of full charge and the charged state SOC at the discharge end voltage expressed by the current-time product Ah, and in some cases, 100% at the time of full charge. , It may be expressed as a percentage% of the amount of electricity with 0% at the end of discharge voltage.
【0008】 0008
なお、バッテリのSOCは、充放電によってバッテリ内に発生する各種の分極が解消している平衡状態にあるときのバッテリの開放端子電圧である開回路電圧に対し、一定の関係にあることが知られており、この関係を利用して推定或いは実測したバッテリの開回路電圧から求めることが一般に行われる(例えば特許文献1参照。)。 It is known that the SOC of the battery has a certain relationship with the open circuit voltage, which is the open terminal voltage of the battery when it is in the equilibrium state in which various polarizations generated in the battery are eliminated by charging and discharging. It is generally performed from the open circuit voltage of the battery estimated or actually measured by utilizing this relationship (see, for example, Patent Document 1). 勿論、SOCは電流時間積で表されるものであるので、充放電によりバッテリ端子を通じて流れる電流を測定して時間積を取ることによって、時々刻々変化するSOCを把握することもできる。 Of course, since the SOC is represented by the current-time product, it is possible to grasp the SOC that changes from moment to moment by measuring the current flowing through the battery terminal by charging / discharging and taking the time product.
【0009】 0009
【特許文献1】 [Patent Document 1]
特開2002−236157号公報【0010】 JP-A-2002-236157.
【発明が解決しようとする課題】 [Problems to be Solved by the Invention]
以上のように求めたSOCはバッテリから取り出せる電気量ではあるが、バッテリには内部抵抗が存在し、この内部抵抗によって放電電流に応じた大きさの電圧降下が内部的に発生してバッテリ端子電圧が低下するようになる。 The SOC obtained as described above is the amount of electricity that can be taken out from the battery, but the battery has an internal resistance, and this internal resistance internally causes a voltage drop of a magnitude corresponding to the discharge current, resulting in a battery terminal voltage. Will decrease. このため、バッテリの端子電圧が負荷を駆動できる電圧(放電終止電圧)以下に低下するようなSOCとなるような状況の電気量は、負荷を駆動するために放電可能な容量とはみることができない。 For this reason, the amount of electricity in a situation where the terminal voltage of the battery drops below the voltage that can drive the load (discharge end voltage) is considered to be the capacity that can be discharged to drive the load. Can not.
【0011】 0011
上述した従来のADCの捉え方では、現在のSOCと放電終止電圧に対応するSOCとの差を単にバッテリの放電可能な容量としているため、バッテリに放電可能な電気量があるにも拘わらず、負荷を実際に駆動しようとしたとき、駆動することができなくなる状況が発生しかねない。 In the conventional way of thinking of ADC described above, the difference between the current SOC and the SOC corresponding to the discharge end voltage is simply the dischargeable capacity of the battery, so that despite the fact that the battery has the amount of electricity that can be discharged. When you actually try to drive the load, you may not be able to drive it. また、負荷には、動作に必要な電流が異なる大小さまざまなものがあるが、その大小とは関係なく、状況によってその負荷の機能の重要度が変化する。 In addition, there are various sizes of loads that differ in the current required for operation, but the importance of the function of the load changes depending on the situation regardless of the size. このようなことを背景として、状況によって必要とされる重要度の変化する大小さまざまな負荷を確実に駆動できるバッテリの放電可能な容量を把握できることが求められる。 Against this background, it is required to be able to grasp the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can reliably drive a load of various sizes, which is required depending on the situation.
【0012】 [0012]
よって、本発明は、状況によって必要とされる重要度の変化する大小さまざまな負荷を確実に駆動できるように、放電電流の大きさに応じて変化する電気量を放電可能な容量として推定できるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法及び装置を提供することを課題としている。 Therefore, the present invention is a battery capable of estimating the amount of electricity that changes according to the magnitude of the discharge current as the dischargeable capacity so that it can reliably drive various large and small loads that are required depending on the situation. It is an object of the present invention to provide a method and an apparatus for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the above.
【0013】 0013
【課題を解決するための手段】 [Means for solving problems]
前記課題を解決する請求項1乃至請求項10記載の本発明は、バッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に、請求項11記載の本発明は、バッテリの放電可能容量推定装置にそれぞれ関し、いずれの発明も、バッテリの高率放電時の放電電流とバッテリ端子電圧とのデータ対から得た放電特性に基づいて、バッテリから電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を表す一般式から当該バッテリの関係式を定め、任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を推定するようにしたものである。 The present invention according to claim 1 to 10 which solves the above problems relates to a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, and the present invention according to claim 11 relates to a device for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery. Also, based on the discharge characteristics obtained from the data pair of the discharge current at the time of high rate discharge of the battery and the battery terminal voltage, the battery can be continuously discharged from the battery from the general formula representing the dischargeable capacity. The relational expression of is defined, and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated.
【0014】 0014.
上記課題を解決するためなされた請求項1記載の発明は、バッテリの放電可能な容量を推定する方法であって、任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することのできる放電可能容量を示す一般式を予め用意し、バッテリの高率放電時の放電電流とバッテリ端子電圧とのデータ対から得た放電特性に基づいて、特定の大きさの放電電流を持続的に放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能容量を推定し、該放電電流と推定した放電可能容量との関係を前記一般式に適用して、当該バッテリの任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す関係式を定め、該関係式を用いて任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を推定するようにしたことを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に存する。 The invention according to claim 1 made to solve the above problems is a method of estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, and shows a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude. A general formula is prepared in advance, and the discharge current of a specific magnitude can be continuously discharged based on the discharge characteristics obtained from the data pair of the discharge current at the time of high rate discharge of the battery and the battery terminal voltage. The dischargeable capacity of the battery is estimated, and the relationship between the discharge current and the estimated dischargeable capacity is applied to the general formula to continuously discharge a current of an arbitrary magnitude of the battery. Estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which is characterized in that a relational expression indicating the capacity relationship is defined and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated using the relational expression. Be in the way.
【0015】 0015.
上述した請求項1記載の手順によれば、バッテリの高率放電時の放電電流とバッテリ端子電圧とのデータ対から得た放電特性に基づいて推定した特定の大きさの放電電流を持続的に放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能容量と、任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することのできる放電可能容量を示す予め用意した一般式とにより、バッテリの任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す関係式を定めて任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を推定するようにしているので、関係式によって推定した、任意の大きさの放電電流についての放電可能容量の残余の有る限り、任意の大きさの電流を流す必要のある負荷を確実に駆動できるバッテリの放電可能容量を管理することができる。 According to the procedure according to claim 1 described above, a discharge current of a specific magnitude estimated based on the discharge characteristics obtained from the data pair of the discharge current at the time of high rate discharge of the battery and the battery terminal voltage is continuously maintained. The dischargeable capacity of the battery that can be discharged and the general formula prepared in advance indicating the dischargeable capacity that can continuously discharge a current of an arbitrary size can be used to generate a current of an arbitrary size of the battery. Since a relational expression showing the relationship between the dischargeable capacities that can be continuously discharged is defined and the dischargeable capacity that can continuously discharge an arbitrary magnitude of current is estimated, the relational expression is used. As long as there is a residual dischargeable capacity for an estimated discharge current of any magnitude, it is possible to manage the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can reliably drive a load that requires a current of any magnitude to flow.
【0016】 0016.
請求項2記載の発明は、請求項1記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法において、前記一般式がポイケルトの式I ・t=C According to a second aspect of the invention, the dischargeable capacity estimation method of battery of claim 1 wherein the formula of the general formula Poikeruto I n · t = C
(式中、Iは放電電流、tは放電持続時間、nは放電電流によって放電可能容量が変わる程度を示す目安となる1.1〜1.4の値であり、Cは放電可能容量の大小の目安を示す値である。) (In the formula, I is the discharge current, t is the discharge duration, n is a value of 1.1 to 1.4 that indicates the degree to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current, and C is the magnitude of the dischargeable capacity. It is a value that indicates a guideline for.)
からなり、該一般式の定数nとCを、異なる大きさの2電流と、該2電流について推定した前記放電可能容量との関係によって決定して前記関係式を定め、該定めた関係式を用いて任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電できる放電可能容量を推定することを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に存する。 The constants n and C of the general formula are determined by the relationship between two currents of different magnitudes and the dischargeable capacity estimated for the two currents to determine the relational expression, and the determined relational expression is obtained. A method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery is characterized in that it is used to estimate the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude.
【0017】 [0017]
上述した請求項2記載の手順によれば、放電電流I、放電持続時間t、放電電流によって放電可能容量が変わる程度を示す目安となる1.1〜1.4の値からなる定数n、放電可能容量の大小の目安となる定数Cの関係を示すポイケルトの式I ・t=C According to the procedure according to claim 2 described above, a constant n consisting of a value of 1.1 to 1.4, which is a guideline indicating the degree to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current I, the discharge duration t, and the discharge current, and the discharge. formula I n · t = C of Poikeruto showing the guide and becomes constant C relationship magnitude of capacity
の2つの未知数である定数nとCを、異なる大きさの2電流と、該2電流について推定した放電可能容量との関係によって決定しているので、任意の大きさの放電電流Iに対する持続時間tを求めることができ、両者の積を取ることによって、任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電できる放電可能容量を推定することができる。 Since the two unknown constants n and C are determined by the relationship between the two currents of different magnitudes and the dischargeable capacity estimated for the two currents, the duration for the discharge current I of any magnitude is determined. t can be obtained, and by taking the product of both, it is possible to estimate the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude.
【0018】 0018
請求項3記載の発明は、請求項2記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法において、前記2電流の一方が前記高率放電時の最大電流であり、他方が放電可能容量を低下させないような小電流であることを特徴する請求項2記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に存する。 The invention according to claim 3 is the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to claim 2, wherein one of the two currents is the maximum current at the time of the high rate discharge and the other is small so as not to reduce the dischargeable capacity. The method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to claim 2, wherein the battery is an electric current.
【0019】 0019
上述した請求項3記載の手順によれば、ポイケルトの式の定数を決定するに当たって、高率放電時の最大電流と予め定め小電流の2電流を用いているので、関係式の決定が、比較的精度良く推定できる放電可能容量を用いて行うことができる。 According to the procedure according to claim 3 described above, in determining the constant of the Poikelt equation, two currents, a maximum current at the time of high rate discharge and a predetermined small current, are used, so that the determination of the relational expression can be compared. This can be done using a dischargeable capacity that can be estimated with high accuracy.
【0020】 0020
請求項4記載の発明は、請求項1乃至3の何れかに記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法において、前記関係式を、当該バッテリの高率放電時毎に更新することを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に存する。 The invention according to claim 4 is the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the relational expression is updated every time the battery is discharged at a high rate. It exists in the method of estimating the dischargeable capacity.
【0021】 0021.
上述した請求項4記載の発明によれば、関係式の更新をバッテリの高率放電時毎に行っているので、バッテリの状態変化を反映した最新の関係式を用いて、バッテリの任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を推定することができる。 According to the invention of claim 4 described above, since the relational expression is updated every time the battery is discharged at a high rate, the latest relational expression reflecting the change of state of the battery is used to obtain an arbitrary size of the battery. It is possible to estimate the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current.
【0022】 0022.
請求項5記載の発明は、請求項2乃至4の何れかに記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法において、前記2電流を持続的にそれぞれ放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能な容量は、前記2電流をそれぞれ流し続けたときのバッテリ端子電圧の電圧降下を推定し、該2電流に対して推定した電圧降下に基づいて求めた放電できない電気量分を、前記高率放電時の放電可能な容量からそれぞれ減らした電気量として推定したものであることを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に存する。 According to the invention of claim 5, in the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to any one of claims 2 to 4, the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the two currents is the same. The voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents are continuously applied is estimated, and the amount of electricity that cannot be discharged obtained based on the estimated voltage drop for the two currents can be discharged at the time of the high rate discharge. There is a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which is characterized in that it is estimated as the amount of electricity reduced from each of the different capacities.
【0023】 [0023]
上述した請求項5記載の発明によれば、2電流をそれぞれ流し続けたときのバッテリ端子電圧の推定電圧降下に基づいて放電できない電気量分を求め、高率放電時の放電可能な容量からそれぞれ減らした電気量として推定したものであるので、放電電流によってバッテリ内部に発生する電圧降下を反映した放電可能容量によって関係式の決定を行うことができる。 According to the invention of claim 5 described above, the amount of electricity that cannot be discharged is obtained based on the estimated voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when two currents are continuously applied, and each of them is calculated from the dischargeable capacity at the time of high rate discharge. Since it is estimated as the reduced amount of electricity, the relational expression can be determined by the dischargeable capacity that reflects the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to the discharge current.
【0024】 0024
請求項6記載の発明は、請求項2乃至4の何れかに記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法において、前記2電流を持続的にそれぞれ放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能な容量は、前記2電流をそれぞれ流し続けたときのバッテリ端子電圧の電圧降下を推定し、該推定した最大の電圧降下の、前記2電流による各放電時にバッテリに許容される最大の電圧降下幅に対する割合を求め、該求めた割合分を前記高率放電時の放電可能な電気量からそれぞれ差し引いた残余として推定したものであることを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に存する。 According to the invention of claim 6, in the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to any one of claims 2 to 4, the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the two currents is the same. The voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents are continuously applied is estimated, and the ratio of the estimated maximum voltage drop to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery at each discharge by the two currents is obtained. The method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery is characterized in that the obtained ratio is estimated as the residual amount obtained by subtracting the amount of electricity that can be discharged at the time of high rate discharge.
【0025】 0025
上述した請求項6記載の手順によれば、2電流を流し続けたときのバッテリ端子電圧の推定した最大の電圧降下の2電流による放電時にバッテリに許容される最大の電圧降下幅に対する割合分、任意の充電状態において放電可能な電気量から差し引いた残余を、2電流に相当する大きさの電流をバッテリから負荷を通じて持続的に放電することができる放電可能な電気量として推定しているので、2放電電流によってバッテリ内部に発生する電圧降下を反映した放電可能容量によって関係式の決定を行うことができる。 According to the procedure according to claim 6 described above, the ratio of the estimated maximum voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when two currents are continuously applied to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery when discharged by the two currents. The remainder obtained by subtracting the amount of electricity that can be discharged in an arbitrary charging state is estimated as the amount of electricity that can be discharged so that a current equivalent to two currents can be continuously discharged from the battery through a load. 2 The relational expression can be determined by the dischargeable capacity that reflects the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to the discharge current.
【0026】 0026
請求項7記載の発明は、請求項6記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法において、前記最大の電圧降下幅は、バッテリの満充電時の開回路電圧と、バッテリの放電終止電圧が前記最大電流の放電により発生する満充電時純抵抗分降下した電圧との差電圧であることを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に存する。 The invention according to claim 7 is the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to claim 6, wherein the maximum voltage drop width is the open circuit voltage when the battery is fully charged and the discharge end voltage of the battery is the maximum current. It exists in a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which is a voltage difference from a voltage dropped by the net resistance at full charge generated by the discharge of.
【0027】 [0027]
上述した請求項7記載の手順によれば、2電流をそれぞれ流し続けたときのバッテリ端子電圧の最大の電圧降下幅を、バッテリの満充電時の開回路電圧と、負荷を通じて2電流の放電を行うことができなくなる負荷時の放電終止電圧との差電圧としているので、2電流が定まれば既知の値として予め定めることができ、高率放電時に電圧降下が推定されることで、この電圧降下の最大の電圧降下幅に対するの割合を簡単に求めることができる。 According to the procedure according to claim 7 described above, the maximum voltage drop width of the battery terminal voltage when two currents are continuously applied, the open circuit voltage when the battery is fully charged, and the discharge of two currents through the load. Since it is the difference voltage from the discharge end voltage at the time of load that cannot be performed, it can be predetermined as a known value once the two currents are determined, and this voltage is estimated by estimating the voltage drop at the time of high rate discharge. The ratio of the drop to the maximum voltage drop width can be easily obtained.
【0028】 [0028]
請求項8記載の発明は、請求項5乃至7の何れかに記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法において、前記推定した電圧降下は、前記高率放電時に推定した当該バッテリの純抵抗による推定純抵抗電圧降下、バッテリの充電状態に応じて変化する最大の純抵抗変化分による純抵抗増加電圧降下、及び前記2電流によってそれぞれ発生する分極による最大の電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下を含むことを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に存する。 The invention according to claim 8 is the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to any one of claims 5 to 7, wherein the estimated voltage drop is an estimated net by the net resistance of the battery estimated at the time of high rate discharge. Includes a resistance voltage drop, a net resistance increase voltage drop due to the maximum net resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery, and a saturated polarization voltage drop that is the maximum voltage drop due to polarization generated by the two currents. It exists in a characteristic method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery.
【0029】 [0029]
上述した請求項8記載の手順によれば、推定した電圧降下が、高率放電時に推定した当該バッテリの純抵抗による推定純抵抗電圧降下、バッテリの充電状態に応じて変化する最大の純抵抗変化分による純抵抗増加電圧降下、及び2電流によってそれぞれ発生する分極による最大の電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下を含むので、2電流で放電し続けたときに飽和点に向かって増大する分極を含む最大の電圧降下となり、かつ、推定純抵抗電圧降下のうちには、充電状態、温度や劣化によって増減する純抵抗変動分も含まれることになり、2放電電流によってバッテリ内部に発生する電圧降下を反映した放電可能容量によって関係式の決定を精度良く行うことができる。 According to the procedure according to claim 8 described above, the estimated voltage drop is the estimated net resistance voltage drop due to the net resistance of the battery estimated at the time of high rate discharge, and the maximum net resistance change that changes according to the charging state of the battery. It includes a net resistance increase voltage drop due to minutes and a saturation polarization voltage drop which is the maximum voltage drop due to polarization generated by two currents, so it includes polarization that increases toward the saturation point when discharging with two currents is continued. It is the maximum voltage drop, and the estimated net resistance voltage drop includes the net resistance fluctuation that increases or decreases depending on the charging state, temperature and deterioration, and the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to 2 discharge currents. The relational expression can be determined accurately by the reflected dischargeable capacity.
【0030】 [0030]
請求項9記載の発明は、請求項1又は2記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法において、前記2電流の一方が前記高率放電時の最大電流であり、他方が予め定めた小電流であり、前記推定した電圧降下は、前記高率放電時に推定した当該バッテリの純抵抗による推定純抵抗電圧降下、バッテリの充電状態に応じて変化する最大の純抵抗変化分による純抵抗増加電圧降下、及び前記2電流によってそれぞれ発生する分極による最大の電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下を含み、前記2電流のうちの最大電流での飽和分極電圧降下は、高率放電時の放電電流と該放電電流に対応するバッテリ端子電圧とを周期的に測定して得たデータ対に基づいて作成した電流−電圧特性の近似曲線式から純抵抗電圧降下分を除いた分極電圧降下のみの電流−分極特性の近似曲線式を得、該電流−分極特性の近似曲線式を用いて求めた電流に対する最大の電圧降下として推定され、前記小電流での飽和分極電圧降下は、前記分極による最大の電圧降下を当該分極電圧を発生させる電流によって除算して電流に依存しない一定値を求め、該求めた一定値に前記小電流を乗じて求めた電圧降下として推定されることを特徴とするバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に存する。 The invention according to claim 9 is the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to claim 1 or 2, wherein one of the two currents is the maximum current at the time of the high rate discharge and the other is a predetermined small current. The estimated voltage drop includes an estimated net resistance voltage drop due to the net resistance of the battery estimated at the time of high rate discharge, a net resistance increase voltage drop due to the maximum net resistance change that changes according to the charging state of the battery, and The saturation polarization voltage drop, which is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization generated by the two currents, is included, and the saturation polarization voltage drop at the maximum current of the two currents is the discharge current at the time of high rate discharge and the discharge current. Approximate current-voltage characteristics created based on a pair of data obtained by periodically measuring the corresponding battery terminal voltage Approximate current-polarization characteristics of only the polarization voltage drop excluding the pure resistance voltage drop from the curve equation A curved formula is obtained and estimated as the maximum voltage drop with respect to the current obtained by using the approximate curved formula of the current-polarization characteristic. The saturated polarization voltage drop at the small current is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization. A method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which is estimated as a voltage drop obtained by dividing by a current that generates a voltage to obtain a constant value independent of the current, and multiplying the obtained constant value by the small current. Exists in.
【0031】 0031
上述した請求項9記載の手順によれば、高率放電時の最大電流での飽和分極電圧降下は、負荷への高率放電時の放電電流と該放電電流に対応するバッテリ端子電圧とを周期的に測定して得たデータ対に基づいて作成した電流−電圧特性の近似曲線式から純抵抗電圧降下分を除いた分極電圧降下のみの電流−分極特性の近似曲線式を得、該電流−分極特性の近似曲線式を用いて求めた電流に対する最大の電圧降下として推定され、小電流での飽和分極電圧降下は、分極による最大の電圧降下を当該分極電圧を発生させる電流によって除算して電流に依存しない一定値を求め、該求めた一定値に前記小電流を乗じて求めた電圧降下として推定されるので、高率放電時に純抵抗による電圧降下を求めるため推定した純抵抗を用いて、関係式を決定するための分極による飽和電圧降下を精度良く推定することができる。 According to the procedure according to claim 9 described above, the saturation polarization voltage drop at the maximum current at the time of high rate discharge cycles between the discharge current at the time of high rate discharge to the load and the battery terminal voltage corresponding to the discharge current. The current-polarization characteristic approximate curve formula was obtained by removing the pure resistance voltage drop from the current-voltage characteristic approximate curve formula created based on the data pair obtained by the above-mentioned measurement. It is estimated as the maximum voltage drop with respect to the current obtained by using the approximate curve formula of the polarization characteristics, and the saturated polarization voltage drop at a small current is the current by dividing the maximum voltage drop due to polarization by the current that generates the polarization voltage. Since a constant value independent of is calculated and estimated as a voltage drop obtained by multiplying the obtained constant value by the small current, the estimated pure resistance is used to obtain the voltage drop due to the pure resistance at the time of high rate discharge. The saturation voltage drop due to polarization for determining the relational expression can be estimated accurately.
【0032】 [0032]
請求項10記載の発明は、請求項1乃至9の何れかに記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法において、非劣化バッテリの放電可能容量に対する劣化後の放電可能容量の割合を示す劣化度を予め求めておき、該劣化度を前記推定した放電可能容量に乗じて放電可能容量を修正するようにしたことを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法に存する。 In the invention according to claim 10, in the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to any one of claims 1 to 9, the degree of deterioration indicating the ratio of the dischargeable capacity after deterioration to the dischargeable capacity of a non-deteriorated battery is determined in advance. A method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery is characterized in that the degree of deterioration is multiplied by the estimated dischargeable capacity to correct the dischargeable capacity.
【0033】 0033
上述した請求項10記載の手順によれば、非劣化バッテリの放電可能容量に対する劣化後の放電可能容量の割合を示す、予め求めておいた劣化度を、推定した放電可能容量に乗じて放電可能容量を修正するようにしたので、バッテリが劣化していても、任意の大きさの電流を流す必要のある負荷を確実に駆動できるバッテリの放電可能容量を管理することができる。 According to the procedure according to claim 10, the degree of deterioration obtained in advance, which indicates the ratio of the dischargeable capacity after deterioration to the dischargeable capacity of the non-deteriorated battery, can be multiplied by the estimated dischargeable capacity to discharge. Since the capacity is corrected, even if the battery is deteriorated, it is possible to manage the dischargeable capacity of the battery that can reliably drive a load that requires an arbitrary amount of current to flow.
【0034】 0034
請求項11記載の発明は、図1に示す基本構成図に示すように、バッテリの放電可能な容量を推定する装置であって、バッテリの高率放電時に得られる放電電流とバッテリ端子電圧とのデータ対に基づいて、電流を持続的に放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能容量を推定する放電可能容量推定手段23a−1と、電流と該電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す予め用意した一般式と、前記放電可能容量推定手段23a−1により推定した電流と放電可能容量との関係とに基づいて、当該バッテリに適用される、電流と該電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す関係式を決定する関係式決定手段23a−2とを備え、該関係式決定手段23a−2によって決定した関係式を用いて任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を推定するようにしたことを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定装置に存する。 The invention according to claim 11 is an apparatus for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, as shown in the basic configuration diagram shown in FIG. 1, which comprises a discharge current and a battery terminal voltage obtained when the battery is discharged at a high rate. Dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1 that estimates the dischargeable capacity of the battery that can continuously discharge the current based on the data pair, and the dischargeable that can continuously discharge the current and the current. Based on a general formula prepared in advance showing the relationship between capacities and the relationship between the current estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimation means 23a-1 and the dischargeable capacity, the current applied to the battery and the current are sustained. It is provided with the relational expression determining means 23a-2 for determining the relational expression indicating the relationship between the dischargeable capacities capable of being discharged, and the relational expression determined by the relational expression determining means 23a-2 is used to have an arbitrary size. It exists in the dischargeable capacity estimation device of the battery, which is characterized in that the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current is estimated.
【0035】 0035.
上述した請求項11記載の発明によれば、放電可能容量推定手段23a−1がバッテリの高率放電時に得られる放電電流とバッテリ端子電圧とのデータ対に基づいて、電流を持続的に放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能容量を推定する。 According to the invention of claim 11 described above, the dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1 continuously discharges the current based on the data pair of the discharge current and the battery terminal voltage obtained at the time of high rate discharge of the battery. Estimate the dischargeable capacity of the battery. 関係式決定手段23a−2が、電流と該電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す予め用意した一般式と、前記放電可能容量推定手段23a−1により推定した電流と放電可能容量との関係とに基づいて、当該バッテリに適用される、電流と該電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す関係式を決定し、この決定した関係式を用いて任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を推定するので、関係式によって推定した、任意の大きさの放電電流についての放電可能電気量の残余の有る限り、任意の大きさの電流を流す必要のある負荷を確実に駆動できるバッテリの放電可能容量を管理することができる。 The relational expression determining means 23a-2 includes a general formula prepared in advance showing the relationship between the current and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current, and the current estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1. Based on the relationship with the dischargeable capacity, a relational expression showing the relationship between the current and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current, which is applied to the battery, is determined, and the determined relational expression is used. Since the dischargeable capacity that can continuously discharge a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated by using, as long as there is a residual amount of dischargeable electricity for the discharge current of an arbitrary magnitude estimated by the relational expression. It is possible to manage the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can reliably drive a load that requires an arbitrary amount of current to flow.
【0036】 0036
【発明の実施の形態】 BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
以下、本発明によるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を、図2を参照して本発明によるバッテリの放電可能容量推定装置の一実施形態と共に説明する前に、本発明の基本的な考え方を図3〜図6を参照して説明する。 Hereinafter, before the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. 2 together with one embodiment of the battery dischargeable capacity estimation device according to the present invention, the basic concept of the present invention will be described in FIG. This will be described with reference to FIG.
【0037】 0037
一般に、放電容量は放電電流や温度によって変化する他、電解液比重によっても変化するが、放電電流と放電持続時間との関係がポイケルトの式で表されることが知られている。 In general, the discharge capacity changes depending on the discharge current and temperature, and also on the specific gravity of the electrolytic solution, but it is known that the relationship between the discharge current and the discharge duration is expressed by the Poikelt equation. また、バッテリの端子電圧は、バッテリの充電状態を反映した電圧値を示し、その内部の状態、すなわち、平衡状態にあるときと不平衡状態にあるときで異なるだけでなく、バッテリから放電電流が流れることによって、バッテリ内部に発生する電圧降下を反映した値をとることも知られている。 In addition, the terminal voltage of the battery indicates a voltage value that reflects the state of charge of the battery, and not only is it different depending on the internal state, that is, when it is in the balanced state and when it is in the unbalanced state, but also the discharge current from the battery is different. It is also known to take a value that reflects the voltage drop that occurs inside the battery due to the flow.
【0038】 [0038]
そこで、本発明は、このようなことに着目し、高率放電時にバッテリ内部において発生する電圧降下の内訳を特定の条件下で明確にすることによって、バッテリの放電可能電気量を特定の放電電流について推定し、この推定した特定の放電電流における放電可能容量を用いて一般式であるポイケルトの式を当該バッテリに適用可能な関係式に決定したものである。 Therefore, the present invention pays attention to such a thing, and by clarifying the breakdown of the voltage drop generated inside the battery at the time of high rate discharge under specific conditions, the amount of dischargeable electricity of the battery can be determined by a specific discharge current. Is estimated, and the Poikelt equation, which is a general equation, is determined as a relational expression applicable to the battery by using the dischargeable capacity at the estimated specific discharge current.
【0039】 [0039]
ところで、ポイケルトの式は次式(1)のように表される。 By the way, Poikelt's equation is expressed as the following equation (1).
・t=C (1) I n · t = C (1 )
式中、Iは放電電流、tは放電持続時間、nとCは放電データから決定される定数である。 In the formula, I is the discharge current, t is the discharge duration, and n and C are constants determined from the discharge data. nは放電電流によって放電可能容量が変わる程度を示す目安となるもので、n=1のときには、放電電流を大きくしても放電可能容量は低下せず、nが大きいと、高率放電時の放電可能容量の低下が大きくなる。 n is a guideline indicating the degree to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current. When n = 1, the dischargeable capacity does not decrease even if the discharge current is increased, and when n is large, at high rate discharge. The decrease in dischargeable capacity becomes large. 通常の鉛バッテリではnの値は1.1〜1.4である。 In a normal lead battery, the value of n is 1.1 to 1.4. Cは放電可能容量の大小の目安となるものである。 C is a measure of the magnitude of the dischargeable capacity.
【0040】 0040
上記式(1)は次式(2)のように書き直すことができる。 The above equation (1) can be rewritten as the following equation (2).
logt=−nlogI+C′ (2) log = -nlogI + C'(2)
ここで、C′=logCである。 Here, C'= logC.
このポイケルトの式は、一般式であるが、2つの放電電流I1,I2と該放電電流に対応する放電持続時間t1,t2との関係が明らかなときには、式中の定数nとCを決定することができる。 This Poikelt equation is a general equation, but when the relationship between the two discharge currents I1 and I2 and the discharge durations t1 and t2 corresponding to the discharge currents is clear, the constants n and C in the equation are determined. be able to. このような定数を決定した関係式は、上記関係の成り立つ当該バッテリに適用可能な関係式として決定することができる。 The relational expression for which such a constant is determined can be determined as a relational expression applicable to the battery in which the above relation holds.
【0041】 [0041]
今、上記放電電流I1,I2と該放電電流に対応する放電持続時間t1,t2を式(2)に代入すると、次の2式が生成できる。 Now, by substituting the discharge currents I1 and I2 and the discharge durations t1 and t2 corresponding to the discharge currents into the equation (2), the following two equations can be generated.
logt1=−nlogI1+C′ log1 = -nlogI1 + C'
logt2=−nlogI2+C′ log2 = -nlogI2 + C'
この2つの式の両辺の差をとると、次式が得られる。 By taking the difference between both sides of these two equations, the following equation is obtained.
logt1−logt2=−nlogI1+nlogI2 log1-logt2 = -nlogI1 + nlogI2
この式を書き直すと、次式が得られる。 By rewriting this equation, the following equation is obtained.
log(t1/t2)=nlog(I2/I1) log (t1 / t2) = nlog (I2 / I1)
n=log(t1/t2)/log(I2/I1) n = log (t1 / t2) / log (I2 / I1)
C=I ・t C = I n · t
【0042】 [0042]
以上によって、nとCが求められた関係式によって、各放電電流に対する放電持続時間、すなわち、電流と時間の積である当該放電電流によって放電可能容量Ahを知ることができるようになる。 From the above, the discharge duration for each discharge current, that is, the discharge current, which is the product of the current and the time, makes it possible to know the dischargeable capacity Ah by the relational expression in which n and C are obtained.
【0043】 [0043]
次に、高率放電時にバッテリ内部において発生する電圧降下の内訳を特定の条件下で明確にすることによって、バッテリの放電可能容量を特定の放電電流について推定する方法を以下説明する。 Next, a method of estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery for a specific discharge current by clarifying the breakdown of the voltage drop that occurs inside the battery during high-rate discharge under specific conditions will be described below.
【0044】 [0044]
例えば、車載バッテリでは、エンジンの始動の際にスタータモータを通じて放電が行われるが、このとき、突入電流と一般に呼ばれる、定常電流値と比べて非常に大きな値の最大電流値まで短時間に増大し最大電流値から定常電流値まで短時間に減少する放電電流が流れる。 For example, in an in-vehicle battery, discharge is performed through a starter motor when the engine is started, and at this time, the maximum current value, which is generally called an inrush current, is increased to a maximum current value that is much larger than the steady current value. A discharge current that decreases in a short time from the maximum current value to the steady current value flows. 一般に、このような放電を高率放電と呼ぶが、この高率放電時の放電電流とバッテリ端子電圧を高速サンプリングによって測定して得たデータ対について例えば最小自乗法を用いた近似処理を施し二次近似特性曲線を求め、横軸を放電電流、縦軸を端子電圧とするグラフにプロットすると、図3に示すような放電電流−端子電圧の関係を示す特性曲線が描かれる。 Generally, such a discharge is called a high-rate discharge, and the data pair obtained by measuring the discharge current and the battery terminal voltage at the time of the high-rate discharge by high-speed sampling is subjected to, for example, an approximation process using the minimum self-power method. When the next approximate characteristic curve is obtained and plotted on a graph in which the horizontal axis is the discharge current and the vertical axis is the terminal voltage, a characteristic curve showing the relationship between the discharge current and the terminal voltage as shown in FIG. 3 is drawn.
【0045】 0045
二次近似特性曲線のうち電流増加方向についての特性曲線に現れる放電電流の増大に伴う端子電圧の低下要因には、バッテリの内部抵抗による各種の電圧降下が含まれているが、図4を参照して、放電電流の最大電流(ピーク電流)の電流軸に着目して電圧降下の内訳を検討し、最大電流と小電流の2電流での負電荷能容量の求め方の説明を行う。 Among the quadratic approximate characteristic curves, the factors that cause the terminal voltage to decrease with the increase in the discharge current appearing in the characteristic curve in the direction of current increase include various voltage drops due to the internal resistance of the battery. See FIG. Then, the breakdown of the voltage drop is examined by focusing on the current axis of the maximum current (peak current) of the discharge current, and the method of obtaining the negative charge capacity at the two currents of the maximum current and the small current is explained.
【0046】 [0046]
先ず、最大電流での電圧降下には、バッテリのそのときの充電状態における内部純抵抗Rjを最大電流Ipが流れることによる電圧降下(Rj×Ip)が含まれている。 First, the voltage drop at the maximum current includes a voltage drop (Rj × Ip) due to the maximum current Ip flowing through the internal pure resistance Rj of the battery in the charged state at that time. なお、この内部純抵抗Rjは、例えば上述した高率放電時にサンプリングによって得たデータ対によって得られる2つの二次近似曲線を解析することによって推定することができるが、ここではその具体的な方法の詳細な説明は省略する。 The internal pure resistance Rj can be estimated, for example, by analyzing two quadratic approximation curves obtained from the data pair obtained by sampling at the time of high-rate discharge described above. Here, a specific method thereof is used. The detailed description of is omitted.
【0047】 [0047]
この内部純抵抗Rjには、バッテリの充電状態、すなわち、そのときのSOCの減少に伴う増加分、温度や劣化による変化分も含まれている。 The internal net resistance Rj also includes the state of charge of the battery, that is, the amount of increase due to the decrease of SOC at that time, and the amount of change due to temperature and deterioration. バッテリの充電状態に応じた純抵抗の増加分については、満充電時の最小値と放電終止時の最大値の間で変化し、最大の純抵抗電圧降下の増加分としては、バッテリ設計仕様によって決まる既知の値である満充電純抵抗Rfと放電終止純抵抗Reとの差(ΔR=Re−Rf)に相当する純抵抗の増加によるもので、(Re−Rf)×Ipなる計算式によって求めることができる。 The increase in net resistance according to the state of charge of the battery changes between the minimum value at full charge and the maximum value at the end of discharge, and the increase in maximum net resistance voltage drop depends on the battery design specifications. It is due to the increase in the pure resistance corresponding to the difference (ΔR = Re-Rf) between the full charge pure resistance Rf and the discharge termination pure resistance Re, which are known values ​​to be determined, and is calculated by the formula (Re-Rf) × Ip. be able to.
【0048】 0048
次に、純抵抗による電圧降下(Rj×Ip)以外の電圧降下は、バッテリ内に発生する分極による電圧降下である。 Next, the voltage drop other than the voltage drop due to the pure resistance (Rj × Ip) is the voltage drop due to the polarization generated in the battery. したがって、放電電流−端子電圧の二次近似特性曲線から純抵抗による電圧降下分を除去することによって、図5に示すような分極電圧降下の二次近似特性曲線を得ることができる。 Therefore, the quadratic approximate characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop as shown in FIG. 5 can be obtained by removing the voltage drop due to the pure resistance from the quadratic approximate characteristic curve of the discharge current-terminal voltage.
【0049】 [0049]
なお、ダヴィット・リンデン著の「最新電池ハンドブック」P10図2.1「作動電流の関数としてのセル」によれば、分極はある程度大きな放電電流を流したとき、その大きさに応じた一定値に飽和する飽和分極電圧降下が存在するといえる。 According to David Linden's "Latest Battery Handbook" P10 Figure 2.1 "Cells as a Function of Operating Current", the polarization becomes a constant value according to the magnitude of a large discharge current. It can be said that there is a saturated saturation polarization voltage drop that saturates.
【0050】 0050
そこで、分極電圧降下の二次近似特性曲線の最大電圧降下点の電圧Vppと放電開始前端子電圧Vxとの差ΔVを最大電流Ipにおける飽和分極電圧降下(Vpip)とする。 Therefore, the difference ΔV between the voltage Vpp at the maximum voltage drop point of the quadratic approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop and the terminal voltage Vx before the start of discharge is defined as the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip) at the maximum current Ip. また、差ΔVをその点の電流値Ipolによって除算し単位放電電流当たりの分極電圧降下を求めた上で、これに高率放電時の小電流を乗じることによって、小電流における最大の分極電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下を求めることができる。 Further, the difference ΔV is divided by the current value Ipol at that point to obtain the polarization voltage drop per unit discharge current, and then this is multiplied by the small current at the time of high rate discharge to obtain the maximum polarization voltage drop at the small current. It is possible to obtain the saturation polarization voltage drop. この飽和分極電圧降下の具体的な求め方については、分極電圧降下の二次近似特性曲線の求め方とともに後述する。 The specific method for obtaining the saturation polarization voltage drop will be described later together with the method for obtaining the quadratic approximation characteristic curve for the polarization voltage drop.
【0051】 0051
そこで、最大電流Ipでの放電を持続したときにバッテリ内部に発生する最大の電圧降下については、図5に示すように、現時点での内部純抵抗Rjによる電圧降下(Rj×Ip)に、最大の純抵抗電圧降下の増加分(ΔR×Ip)と飽和分極電圧降下(Vpip)とを加算したものを総電圧降下(Vmax)として推定する。 Therefore, as shown in FIG. 5, the maximum voltage drop that occurs inside the battery when the discharge at the maximum current Ip is continued is the maximum voltage drop (Rj × Ip) due to the internal pure resistance Rj at the present time. The total voltage drop (Vmax) is estimated by adding the increase in the net resistance voltage drop (ΔR × Ip) and the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip). このような電圧降下がバッテリ内に発生することによって、この電圧降下分放電可能な電気量が減少することになる。 When such a voltage drop occurs in the battery, the amount of electricity that can be discharged is reduced by the amount of the voltage drop.
【0052】 [0052]
一方、最大電流で放電したとき現実にはないが想定される内部に発生する最小の電圧降下、すなわち、満充電純抵抗Rfに最大電流Ipを乗じて求めた電圧降下(Rf×Ip)を、既知の放電終止電圧(Ve)に加算することによって、最大電流での放電によって許容される最大の電圧降下値に対応する電圧として負荷時放電終止電圧(Vef)を求める。 On the other hand, the minimum voltage drop (Rf × Ip) obtained by multiplying the full charge pure resistance Rf by the maximum current Ip, which is not actually expected when discharged at the maximum current, is assumed. By adding to the known discharge end voltage (Ve), the load discharge end voltage (Vef) is obtained as the voltage corresponding to the maximum voltage drop value allowed by the discharge at the maximum current. この負荷時放電終止電圧は、バッテリについて既知の放電終止電圧が最大電流の放電により発生する満充電時純抵抗分降下した電圧である。 The discharge end voltage under load is a voltage obtained by lowering the discharge end voltage known for the battery by the net resistance at full charge generated by discharging the maximum current.
【0053】 [0053]
そして、この負荷時放電終止電圧(Vef)と満充電開回路電圧(Vf)との差電圧(Vadc=Vf−Vef)に占める上記総電圧降下(Vmax=Rj×Ip+ΔR×Ip+Vpip))の割合分(Vmax/Vadc)を、元々放電できるとされた電気量より差し引いて実際に放電できる割合を示すADC率[=100%−(Vmax/Vadc)×100%]を求め、これを実測又は推定したOCVから推定した放電可能な電気量、すなわち、該OCVに対応するSOCjと負荷時放電終止電圧に対応するSOCefとの差(ΔSOC)に乗じて求めたものを、高率放電時の最大電流で放電し続けたときに放電可能な電気量(ADCip)として推定する。 Then, the ratio of the total voltage drop (Vmax = Rj × Ip + ΔR × Ip + Vpip) to the difference voltage (Vacc = Vf-Vef) between the discharge end voltage (Vef) under load and the fully charged open circuit voltage (Vf). (Vmax / Vadc) was subtracted from the amount of electricity that was originally supposed to be able to discharge, and the ADC rate [= 100%-(Vmax / Vadc) x 100%] indicating the ratio of actual discharge was obtained, and this was actually measured or estimated. The amount of electricity that can be discharged estimated from the OCV, that is, the value obtained by multiplying the difference (ΔSOC) between the SOCj corresponding to the OCV and the SOCef corresponding to the discharge end voltage at load, is the maximum current at the time of high rate discharge. It is estimated as the amount of electricity (ADCip) that can be discharged when it continues to be discharged.
【0054】 0054
また、最大電流以下の大きさの複数の放電電流について、上述した小電流の場合と同様の方法で、放電可能容量を推定し、プロットして見たところ、図6にAで示すような直線が得られた。 Further, for a plurality of discharge currents having a magnitude equal to or less than the maximum current, the dischargeable capacity was estimated and plotted in the same manner as in the case of the small current described above, and a straight line as shown by A in FIG. 6 was obtained. was gotten. これを実測した各放電電流と放電可能な電気量との関係を示す曲線Bと比較して見ると、最大電流とこれに比べて十分に小さい、例えば、100分の1以下の小電流とにおいて、推定値と実測値が非常に近似していることが確認できた。 Comparing this with the curve B showing the relationship between each discharged current actually measured and the amount of electricity that can be discharged, the maximum current and a sufficiently small current, for example, a small current of 1/100 or less, , It was confirmed that the estimated value and the measured value are very close.
【0055】 0055
そこで、高率放電時の最大電流と、実験的に実測値との一致度合いが高い比較的小さな予め定めた小電流とを、上述した2電流I1,I2とし、各電流について上述のようにして推定した放電可能容量X1,X2を用い、この放電可能容量をI1,I2で割って求めた放電時続時間をt1(=X1/I1),t2(=X2/I2)としてポイケルトの式の決定を行った。 Therefore, the maximum current at the time of high rate discharge and a relatively small predetermined small current having a high degree of agreement with the experimentally measured values ​​are defined as the above-mentioned two currents I1 and I2, and each current is described as described above. Using the estimated dischargeable capacities X1 and X2, the discharge duration obtained by dividing the dischargeable capacities by I1 and I2 is t1 (= X1 / I1) and t2 (= X2 / I2) to determine the Poikelt equation. Was done. 同図には、この決定によって得られた曲線Cも一緒にプロットしているが、最小電流から最大電流まで広い範囲での放電電流に対して放電可能容量の推定曲線Cと実測曲線Bが非常に近似していることが確認された。 In the figure, the curve C obtained by this determination is also plotted, but the estimated curve C and the measured curve B of the dischargeable capacity are very large for the discharge current in a wide range from the minimum current to the maximum current. It was confirmed that it was close to. 従って、この電流を2電流のうちの小電流として予め定めておく。 Therefore, this current is predetermined as the smaller current of the two currents.
【0056】 0056
なお、上述した分極電圧降下の二次近似特性曲線は、電流増大時の放電電流−端子電圧の二次近似特性曲線から純抵抗Rjによる電圧降下分を除去することによって得られ、得られた分極電圧降下の二次近似特性曲線をV=aI +bI+c The above-mentioned quadratic approximate characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop is obtained by removing the voltage drop due to the pure resistance Rj from the quadratic approximate characteristic curve of the discharge current-terminal voltage when the current increases, and the obtained polarization is obtained. The quadratic approximation characteristic curve of the voltage drop is V = aI 2 + bI + c
とする。 And. このバッテリの端子電圧Vは、バッテリの純抵抗Rj以外の内部抵抗による電圧降下Voを表したものである。 The terminal voltage V of this battery represents a voltage drop Vo due to an internal resistance other than the net resistance Rj of the battery.
【0057】 [0057]
この式から、単位電流当たりの純抵抗以外の内部抵抗による電圧降下ΔV/ΔIを求めるため微分すると、次式が得られる。 From this equation, the following equation is obtained by differentiating to obtain the voltage drop ΔV / ΔI due to the internal resistance other than the pure resistance per unit current.
ΔV/ΔI=2aI+b ΔV / ΔI = 2aI + b
【0058】 0058.
この式のΔV/ΔIが零になった点が、上記近似曲線の最大値であるので、 Since the point where ΔV / ΔI of this equation becomes zero is the maximum value of the above approximate curve,
0=2aI+b 0 = 2aI + b
なる式が得られ、この式を整理すると、 Is obtained, and if this formula is rearranged,
I=−b/2a I = -b / 2a
となる。 Will be.
【0059】 [0059]
したがって、この電流値Iを分極電圧降下の二次近似特性曲線を表す近似式に代入することによって、最大電流Ipにおける最大の分極電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下(Vpip)を求めることができる。 Therefore, by substituting this current value I into an approximate expression representing a quadratic approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop, the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip), which is the maximum polarization voltage drop at the maximum current Ip, can be obtained.
【0060】 [0060]
なお、何等かの分極が残っている非平衡状態から放電が開始した場合、放電開始時点において推定した平衡状態の開回路電圧OCVと端子電圧の差に相当する電圧は、上述したようにして近似式から求めた最大電流Ipにおける分極電圧降下に含まれていないので、近似式から求めた最大電流での飽和分極電圧降下(Vpip)に加算したものを飽和分極電圧降下とする必要がある。 When the discharge is started from the non-balanced state in which some polarization remains, the voltage corresponding to the difference between the open circuit voltage OCV in the balanced state estimated at the start of the discharge and the terminal voltage is approximated as described above. Since it is not included in the polarization voltage drop at the maximum current Ip obtained from the equation, it is necessary to add the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip) at the maximum current obtained from the approximate equation to the saturation polarization voltage drop.
【0061】 [0061]
これに対し、小電流での飽和分極電圧降下については、最大電流Ipにおける最大の分極電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下(Vpip)をその点の電流値によって除算し単位放電電流当たりの分極電圧降下を求め、これに高率放電時の小電流値を乗じることによって、小電流における最大の分極電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下を求めることができる。 On the other hand, for the saturated polarization voltage drop at a small current, the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip), which is the maximum polarization voltage drop at the maximum current Ip, is divided by the current value at that point, and the polarization voltage drop per unit discharge current. By multiplying this by the small current value at the time of high rate discharge, the saturated polarization voltage drop, which is the maximum polarization voltage drop in the small current, can be obtained.
【0062】 [0062]
なお、何等かの分極が残っている非平衡状態から放電が開始した場合には、最大電流の場合と同様に、放電開始時点において推定した平衡状態の開回路電圧OCVと端子電圧の差に相当する電圧を、小電流での飽和分極電圧降下に加算したものを飽和分極電圧降下とする必要がある。 When the discharge is started from the non-equilibrium state where some polarization remains, it corresponds to the difference between the open circuit voltage OCV and the terminal voltage in the balanced state estimated at the start of the discharge, as in the case of the maximum current. It is necessary to add the voltage to be generated to the saturation polarization voltage drop at a small current to obtain the saturation polarization voltage drop.
【0063】 [0063]
図2は本発明のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を適用した本発明の一実施形態に係る車載バッテリの放電可能容量推定装置の概略構成を一部ブロックにて示す説明図であり、図中符号1で示す本実施形態の装置は、エンジン3に加えてモータジェネレータ5を有するハイブリッド車両に搭載されている。 FIG. 2 is an explanatory diagram showing a schematic configuration of an in-vehicle battery dischargeable capacity estimation device according to an embodiment of the present invention to which the battery dischargeable capacity estimation method of the present invention is applied, with some blocks. The device of the present embodiment shown in 1 is mounted on a hybrid vehicle having a motor generator 5 in addition to the engine 3.
【0064】 [0064]
そして、このハイブリッド車両は、通常時はエンジン3の出力のみをドライブシャフト7からディファレンシャルケース9を介して車輪11に伝達して走行させ、高負荷時には、バッテリ13からの電力によりモータジェネレータ5をモータとして機能させて、エンジン3の出力に加えてモータジェネレータ5の出力をドライブシャフト7から車輪11に伝達し、アシスト走行を行わせるように構成されている。 In this hybrid vehicle, normally, only the output of the engine 3 is transmitted from the drive shaft 7 to the wheels 11 via the differential case 9 to run, and when the load is high, the motor generator 5 is driven by the power from the battery 13. In addition to the output of the engine 3, the output of the motor generator 5 is transmitted from the drive shaft 7 to the wheels 11 to perform assisted running.
【0065】 [0065]
また、このハイブリッド車両は、減速時や制動時にモータジェネレータ5をジェネレータ(発電機)として機能させ、運動エネルギを電気エネルギに変換してバッテリ13を充電させるように構成されている。 Further, this hybrid vehicle is configured to function as a generator (generator) at the time of deceleration or braking, convert kinetic energy into electric energy, and charge the battery 13.
【0066】 [0066]
なお、車両の場合、イグニッションスイッチ又はアクセサリ(ACC)スイッチがオンされることによって、そのときオン状態にある負荷への電源供給に伴い、バッテリの放電電流が流れる。 In the case of a vehicle, when the ignition switch or the accessory (ACC) switch is turned on, the discharge current of the battery flows along with the power supply to the load in the on state at that time. モータジェネレータ5はさらに、図示しないスタータスイッチのオンに伴うエンジン3の始動時に、エンジン3のフライホイールを強制的に回転させるスタータモータとして用いられるが、その場合にモータジェネレータ5には、短時間に大きな突入電流が流される。 The motor generator 5 is further used as a starter motor for forcibly rotating the flywheel of the engine 3 when the engine 3 is started when a starter switch (not shown) is turned on. In that case, the motor generator 5 is used in a short time. A large inrush current is passed. スタータスイッチのオンによりモータジェネレータ5によってエンジン3が始動されると、イグニッションキー(図示せず。)の操作解除に伴って、スタータスイッチがオフになってイグニッションスイッチのオン状態に移行し、これに伴ってバッテリ13から流れる放電電流は、負荷に応じた定常電流に移行する。 When the engine 3 is started by the motor generator 5 by turning on the starter switch, the starter switch is turned off and the ignition switch is turned on when the ignition key (not shown) is released. Along with this, the discharge current flowing from the battery 13 shifts to a steady current according to the load.
【0067】 [0067]
話を構成の説明に戻すと、本実施形態の装置1は、アシスト走行用のモータやスタータモータとして機能するモータジェネレータ5等、電装品に対するバッテリ13の放電電流Iや、ジェネレータとして機能するモータジェネレータ5からのバッテリ13に対する充電電流を検出する電流センサ15と、バッテリ13に並列接続した1Mオーム程度の抵抗値を有し、バッテリ13の端子電圧Vを検出する電圧センサ17とを備えている。 Returning to the description of the configuration, the device 1 of the present embodiment includes the discharge current I of the battery 13 for electrical components such as the motor for assisted driving and the motor generator 5 that functions as a starter motor, and the motor generator that functions as a generator. It includes a current sensor 15 for detecting the charging current for the battery 13 from 5 and a voltage sensor 17 having a resistance value of about 1 M ohm connected in parallel to the battery 13 and detecting the terminal voltage V of the battery 13.
【0068】 [0068]
また、本実施形態の装置1は、上述した電流センサ15及び電圧センサ17の出力がインタフェース回路(以下、「I/F」と略記する。)21におけるA/D変換後に取り込まれるマイクロコンピュータ(以下、「マイコン」と略記する。)23をさらに備えている。 Further, in the device 1 of the present embodiment, the outputs of the above-mentioned current sensor 15 and voltage sensor 17 are taken in after A / D conversion in the interface circuit (hereinafter, abbreviated as “I / F”) 21 (hereinafter, referred to as “I / F”). , Abbreviated as "microcomputer".) 23 is further provided.
【0069】 [0069]
そして、前記マイコン23は、CPU23a、RAM23b、及び、ROM23cを有しており、このうち、CPU23aには、RAM23b及びROM23cの他、前記I/F21が接続されており、また、上述した図示しないスタータスイッチ、イグニッションスイッチやアクセサリスイッチ、モータジェネレータ5以外の電装品(負荷)のスイッチ等が、さらに接続されている。 The microcomputer 23 has a CPU 23a, a RAM 23b, and a ROM 23c. Among them, the CPU 23a is connected to the I / F 21 in addition to the RAM 23b and the ROM 23c, and a starter (not shown) described above. Switches, ignition switches, accessory switches, switches for electrical components (loads) other than the motor generator 5 and the like are further connected.
【0070】 [0070]
前記RAM23bは、各種データ記憶用のデータエリア及び各種処理作業に用いるワークエリアを有しており、前記ROM23cには、CPU23aに各種処理動作を行わせるための制御プログラムが格納されている。 The RAM 23b has a data area for storing various data and a work area used for various processing operations, and the ROM 23c stores a control program for causing the CPU 23a to perform various processing operations.
【0071】 [0071]
なお、上述した電流センサ15及び電圧センサ17の出力である電流値及び電圧値は、短い周期で高速にサンプリングされてI/F21を介して、マイコン23のCPU23aに取り込まれ、取り込まれた電流値及び電圧値は、各種の処理のために使用される。 The current value and the voltage value which are the outputs of the current sensor 15 and the voltage sensor 17 described above are sampled at high speed in a short cycle and taken into the CPU 23a of the microcomputer 23 via the I / F 21, and the taken-in current value. And voltage values ​​are used for various processes.
【0072】 [0072]
次に、前記ROM23cに格納された制御プログラムに従いCPU23aが行う処理を、図7のフローチャートを参照して説明する。 Next, the process performed by the CPU 23a according to the control program stored in the ROM 23c will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG. 7.
【0073】 [0073]
イグニッション(IG)スイッチがオンされバッテリ13からの給電を受けてマイコン23が起動しプログラムがスタートすると、CPU23aは、比較的長いサンプリング周期での放電電流及び端子電圧のサンプリングを開始し(ステップS1)、電流センサ15の検出したバッテリ13の放電電流Iと電圧センサ17の検出したバッテリ13の端子電圧VとのA/D変換値を対にしてI/F21を介して測定データを読み込む処理を実行して放電電流が予め定めた所定値を越えるのを監視する。 When the ignition (IG) switch is turned on, the power is supplied from the battery 13, the microcomputer 23 is started, and the program is started, the CPU 23a starts sampling the discharge current and the terminal voltage in a relatively long sampling cycle (step S1). , A / D conversion value of the discharge current I of the battery 13 detected by the current sensor 15 and the terminal voltage V of the battery 13 detected by the voltage sensor 17 is paired and the measurement data is read via the I / F 21. Then, it is monitored that the discharge current exceeds a predetermined value. 放電電流が所定値を越えたときには、突入電流が流れ始めたと判断し、サンプリング周期を例えば100μsecの短い周期に切り替えて近似式を求めるための処理に入る(ステップS2)。 When the discharge current exceeds a predetermined value, it is determined that the inrush current has started to flow, and the sampling period is switched to a short period of, for example, 100 μsec, and a process for obtaining an approximate expression is started (step S2). 放電電流の最大電流(ピーク電流)を検出する近似式を求めるための処理の途中で行われる。 It is performed in the middle of the process for obtaining an approximate expression for detecting the maximum current (peak current) of the discharge current.
【0074】 [0074]
なお、近似式を求める処理は、最小自乗法が用いられ、サンプリングした放電電流と端子電圧とに基づいて、電流増加時の近似式を求めるための各Σ項の演算を行い、サンプリング値が連続してn回減少しているとき、放電電流がピーク値から減少に転じていると判断し、以後、サンプリングした放電電流と端子電圧とに基づいて、電流減少時の近似式を求めるための各Σ項の演算を行う。 In the process of obtaining the approximate expression, the minimum squared method is used, and each Σ term is calculated based on the sampled discharge current and the terminal voltage to obtain the approximate expression when the current increases, and the sampling values ​​are continuous. Then, when it decreases n times, it is judged that the discharge current has changed from the peak value to the decrease, and thereafter, based on the sampled discharge current and the terminal voltage, each for obtaining an approximate expression at the time of current decrease. Perform the calculation of the Σ term. その後に、放電電流が予め定めた所定値を越えて減少するかどうかを監視し、放電電流が所定値を越えて減少したとき、突入電流が終了したと判断して近似式を求めるための処理を終了し(ステップS3)、演算した電流増加時の各Σ項を用いて電流増加時の近似式を、演算した電流減少時の各Σ項を用いて電流減少時の近似式をそれぞれ求める(ステップS4)。 After that, it is monitored whether the discharge current decreases beyond a predetermined value, and when the discharge current decreases beyond a predetermined value, it is determined that the inrush current has ended and an approximate expression is obtained. (Step S3), the approximate equation for the current increase is obtained using each of the calculated current increasing Σ terms, and the approximate expression for the current decreasing is obtained using each of the calculated current decreasing Σ terms (step S3). Step S4).
【0075】 [0075]
なお、図7のフローチャートには明記していないが、求めた近似式が有効なものであるかどうかの判定を行うことが当然に必要であり、この判定は、近似式の各係数を決定するための各Σ項の演算結果を利用して求めることができる電流増加時と電流減少時の相関係数と、ピーク電流の大きさとを予め定めた値と比較することによって行うことができる。 Although not specified in the flowchart of FIG. 7, it is naturally necessary to determine whether or not the obtained approximate expression is valid, and this determination determines each coefficient of the approximate expression. This can be performed by comparing the correlation coefficient between the increase in current and the decrease in current, which can be obtained by using the calculation result of each Σ term, and the magnitude of the peak current with a predetermined value. 特に、2つの所定値を設けることによって、誤差要因を取り除くことができる。 In particular, by providing two predetermined values, an error factor can be removed.
【0076】 [0076]
上述のようにして求まった二次近似式からバッテリの純抵抗を求めるための演算処理を実行する(ステップS5)。 An arithmetic process for obtaining the pure resistance of the battery from the quadratic approximation formula obtained as described above is executed (step S5). この演算処理においては、二次式に濃度分極成分による電圧降下が含まれている場合、この濃度分極電圧降下を除いた修正二次近似式を求める修正二次近似式算出処理を行い、この修正二次近似式を用いてバッテリの純抵抗を求めるための演算処理を実行することになり、この場合には、増加する放電電流及び減少する放電電流に対する電流−電圧特性の2つの修正二次近似式のピーク値での微分値を算出した上で、2つの微分値の中間の値をバッテリの純抵抗として求める演算を行う。 In this arithmetic processing, when the quadratic equation includes a voltage drop due to the concentration polarization component, a modified quadratic approximation formula calculation process for obtaining a modified quadratic approximation formula excluding this concentration polarization voltage drop is performed, and this modification is performed. Arithmetic processing to determine the net resistance of the battery will be performed using a quadratic approximation formula, in which case two modified quadratic approximations of the current-voltage characteristics for the increasing and decreasing discharge currents. After calculating the differential value at the peak value of the equation, the calculation is performed to obtain the intermediate value between the two differential values ​​as the pure resistance of the battery. そして、この求めたバッテリの純抵抗は種々の目的で使用するため、RAM23bのデータエリアに格納されて記憶される。 Then, since the obtained pure resistance of the battery is used for various purposes, it is stored and stored in the data area of ​​the RAM 23b.
【0077】 [0077]
この微分値の中間の値を求める方法としては、突入電流の流れ方によって2つの方法がある。 There are two methods for obtaining an intermediate value of this differential value, depending on how the inrush current flows.
突入電流の増加方向の時間と減少方向の時間とがほぼ等しいときには、2つの微分値の加算平均値を純抵抗Rjとして求める演算を行う。 When the time in the increasing direction and the time in the decreasing direction of the inrush current are substantially equal, the calculation is performed to obtain the summed average value of the two differential values ​​as the pure resistance Rj.
【0078】 [0078]
これに対して、突入電流の増加方向の時間と減少方向の時間とが大きく異なるときには、増加する放電電流に対する電流−電圧特性の修正二次近似式のピーク値での微分値に、放電電流の総時間に占める増加する放電電流の流れた時間の比率を乗じたものと、減少する放電電流に対する電流−電圧特性の2つの修正二次近似式のピーク値での微分値に、放電電流の総時間に占める減少する放電電流の流れた時間の比率を乗じたものとを加算した加算値を純抵抗として求める演算を行う。 On the other hand, when the time in the increasing direction and the time in the decreasing direction of the inrush current are significantly different, the differential value at the peak value of the modified quadratic approximation formula for the current-voltage characteristic for the increasing discharge current is the value of the discharge current. The total discharge current is multiplied by the ratio of the time that the increasing discharge current flows to the total time, and the differential value at the peak value of the two modified quadratic approximation formulas of the current-voltage characteristic for the decreasing discharge current. The calculation is performed to obtain the added value as the pure resistance, which is the sum of the time multiplied by the ratio of the time when the decreasing discharge current flows to the time. いずれの方法で純抵抗を求めた場合にも、バッテリの純抵抗Rjは2つの微分値の中間の値として求められる。 Whichever method is used to determine the pure resistance, the pure resistance Rj of the battery is determined as an intermediate value between the two differential values.
【0079】 [0079]
また、上述した例では、第1及び第2の近似式が共に二次近似式としているが、第1の近似式が一次近似式であるときには、修正近似式を求める処理は当然に不要になる。 Further, in the above-mentioned example, both the first and second approximate expressions are quadratic approximate expressions, but when the first approximate expression is a first-order approximate expression, the process of obtaining the modified approximate expression is naturally unnecessary. .. そして、この場合には、一次式の傾きを微分値に代えて利用することになる。 Then, in this case, the slope of the linear equation is used instead of the differential value.
【0080】 [0080]
次に、上述したステップS5において算出した純抵抗Rjを利用し、ステップS4において算出した、電流増大時の近似式から純抵抗による電圧降下分を削除し、電流増大時の純抵抗以外の要因による電圧降下の近似式、すなわち、、電流増大時の分極近似式を求める(ステップS6)。 Next, using the pure resistance Rj calculated in step S5 described above, the voltage drop due to the pure resistance is deleted from the approximate expression at the time of current increase calculated in step S4, and due to a factor other than the pure resistance at the time of current increase. An approximate expression for the voltage drop, that is, an approximate expression for polarization when the current increases is obtained (step S6). ステップSにおいて算出した純抵抗とステップS6で求めた分極近似式は、次のステップS7の総電圧降下推定処理において、純抵抗電圧降下及び飽和分極電圧降下を求めるために利用される。 The pure resistance calculated in step S and the polarization approximation formula obtained in step S6 are used to obtain the pure resistance voltage drop and the saturated polarization voltage drop in the total voltage drop estimation process in the next step S7.
【0081】 [0081]
ステップS7の総電圧降下推定処理においては、ステップS5において算出したバッテリの純抵抗Rjによる純抵抗電圧降下(Rf×Ip)と、バッテリの充電状態に応じて変化する最大の純抵抗変化分による純抵抗増加電圧降下と、最大電流によって発生する分極による最大の電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下Vpipとを含む、最大電流で放電し続けたときに飽和点に向かって増大する分極を含む最大の電圧降下である総電圧降下を推定する。 In the total voltage drop estimation process in step S7, the net resistance voltage drop (Rf × Ip) due to the net resistance Rj of the battery calculated in step S5 and the net due to the maximum net resistance change that changes according to the charging state of the battery. Maximum voltage including resistance increasing voltage drop and saturation polarization voltage drop Vpip, which is the maximum voltage drop due to polarization generated by the maximum current, and polarization increasing toward the saturation point when discharging at the maximum current continues. Estimate the total voltage drop, which is the drop.
【0082】 [882]
純抵抗電圧降下については、算出した純抵抗Rjに最大電流Ipを乗じることによって求められ、これには充電状態、温度や劣化によって増減する純抵抗変動分が含まれる。 The pure resistance voltage drop is obtained by multiplying the calculated pure resistance Rj by the maximum current Ip, and includes the pure resistance fluctuation amount that increases or decreases depending on the charging state, temperature, and deterioration. 純抵抗増加電圧降下については、バッテリの充電状態に応じた純抵抗の最大の増加分によって発生するもので、バッテリ設計仕様によって決まる既知の値である満充電純抵抗Rfと放電終止純抵抗Reとの差(ΔR=Re−Rf)に相当する純抵抗の増加によるもので、(Re−Rf)×Ipなる計算式によって求めることができる。 The net resistance increase voltage drop is caused by the maximum increase in the net resistance according to the state of charge of the battery, and is a known value determined by the battery design specifications. Full charge pure resistance Rf and discharge termination pure resistance Re. This is due to an increase in the pure resistance corresponding to the difference (ΔR = Re-Rf), and can be obtained by the formula (Re-Rf) × Ip. 飽和分極電圧降下Vpipについては、ステップS6の処理よって求めた電流増大時の分極電圧降下の近似式を用い、電流に対する分極電圧降下の最大点を推定し、この推定した最大点の分極電圧降下を当該分極電圧を発生させる電流によって除算して電流に依存しない一定値を求め、この一定値に最大電流Ipを乗じて求めることができる。 For the saturated polarization voltage drop Vpip, the maximum point of the polarization voltage drop with respect to the current is estimated using the approximate expression of the polarization voltage drop at the time of current increase obtained by the process of step S6, and the polarization voltage drop of the estimated maximum point is calculated. It can be obtained by dividing by the current that generates the polarization voltage to obtain a constant value that does not depend on the current, and multiplying this constant value by the maximum current Ip.
【0083】 [0083].
ステップS7の総電圧降下推定処理によって、最大の電圧降下が求まったら、次のステップS8において、ADC率算出処理を行う。 When the maximum voltage drop is obtained by the total voltage drop estimation process in step S7, the ADC rate calculation process is performed in the next step S8. このADC率は、負荷への高率放電時の最大電流を流し続けたとき推定されるバッテリ端子電圧の最大の電圧降下の、最大電流による放電時にバッテリに許容される最大の電圧降下幅に対する割合分減少した実際に放電できる電気量の割合であり、具体的には次のようにして求める【0084】 This ADC ratio is the ratio of the maximum voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage estimated when the maximum current during high-rate discharge to the load is continued to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery when discharged by the maximum current. It is the ratio of the amount of electricity that can actually be discharged, which is reduced by the amount, and is specifically calculated as follows.
すなわち、ADC率は、負荷時放電終止電圧(Vef)と満充電開回路電圧(Vf)との差電圧(Vadc=Vf−Vef)に占める上記総電圧降下(Vmax=Rj×Ip+ΔR×Ip+Vpip))の割合分(Vmax/Vadc)を、元々放電できるとされた電気量より差し引いて実際に放電できる割合を示し、100%−(Vmax/Vadc)×100%なる式の計算を実行することによって求められる。 That is, the ADC rate is the total voltage drop (Vmax = Rj × Ip + ΔR × Ip + Vpip) in the difference voltage (Vacc = Vf-Vef) between the discharge end voltage (Vef) under load and the fully charged open circuit voltage (Vf). (Vmax / Vadc) is subtracted from the amount of electricity that was originally supposed to be able to discharge, and the ratio that can actually be discharged is shown, and it is calculated by executing the calculation of the formula 100%-(Vmax / Vadc) x 100%. Be done.
【0085】 [0085]
ステップS8におけるADC率の算出が終わったら、これを用いた推定するADCを求めるADCの算出処理を行う(ステップS9)。 After the calculation of the ADC rate in step S8 is completed, the ADC calculation process for obtaining the estimated ADC using this is performed (step S9). 具体的には、実測又は推定したOCVから推定した放電可能な電気量、すなわち、該OCVに対応するSOCjと負荷時放電終止電圧に対応するSOCefとの差(ΔSOC)にADC率を乗じて求めたものを、高率放電時の最大電流で放電し続けたときに放電可能な電気量(ADCip)として推定する。 Specifically, it is obtained by multiplying the amount of electricity that can be discharged estimated from the measured or estimated OCV, that is, the difference (ΔSOC) between the SOCj corresponding to the OCV and the SOCef corresponding to the discharge end voltage under load, by the ADC rate. Is estimated as the amount of electricity (ADCip) that can be discharged when the battery continues to be discharged at the maximum current at the time of high rate discharge. また、予め定めた小電流Isでの放電可能容量(ADCIs)も同様にして求める。 Further, the dischargeable capacity (ADCIs) at a predetermined small current Is is also obtained in the same manner.
【0086】 0083.
ステップS9の処理によって推定した2電流でのADC、すなわち、高率放電時の最大電流と小電流で放電し続けることのできる放電可能電気量は、続く関係式決定処理において利用される(ステップS10)。 The ADC with two currents estimated by the process of step S9, that is, the amount of dischargeable electricity that can be continuously discharged with the maximum current and the small current at the time of high rate discharge is used in the subsequent relational expression determination process (step S10). ). このステップS10における関係式決定処理については、上述したように、ポイケルトの式のnとCを決定する演算処理である。 As described above, the relational expression determination process in step S10 is an arithmetic operation for determining n and C of the Poikelt equation.
【0087】 [0087]
ステップS10の処理によって当該バッテリの関係式が決定されることによって、任意の大きさの電流にて放電することのできる容量、すなわち、放電可能容量を求めることができる。 By determining the relational expression of the battery by the process of step S10, the capacity that can be discharged with a current of an arbitrary magnitude, that is, the dischargeable capacity can be obtained. そして、ステップS10において決定された関係式は、次のステップS11のその他の処理において利用される。 Then, the relational expression determined in step S10 is used in the other processing of the next step S11.
【0088】 [0088]
ステップS11のその他の処理においては、任意の大きさの放電電流での放電可能容量は、例えば、アイドリングストップ制御の際に、アイドリングストップすべき状況が発生したときに、実際にアイドリングストップを実行して良いかどうかを判定する際に、アイドリングストップした後に再度エンジンを始動できるかどうかの判定を行う目安として利用することができる。 In the other processing of step S11, the dischargeable capacity at a discharge current of an arbitrary magnitude actually executes the idling stop when a situation should be caused during the idling stop control, for example. It can be used as a guide for determining whether or not the engine can be started again after idling stop when determining whether or not the engine is acceptable. また、各種の電気負荷を駆動するために、バッテリにどの程度の余裕度があるかを判断する目安になる情報を提供する。 It also provides information that can be used as a guide to determine how much margin the battery has in order to drive various electrical loads. なお、図7のフローチャートに示す処理は、イグニッションスイッチがONしている限り継続して実行される(ステップS12)。 The process shown in the flowchart of FIG. 7 is continuously executed as long as the ignition switch is ON (step S12).
【0089】 [089]
本実施形態の車載バッテリの放電可能容量推定装置1では、図7に示すフローチャートにおける処理を行うCPU23aが、図1に示したバッテリの放電可能な容量を推定する装置を構成し、バッテリの高率放電時に得られる放電電流とバッテリ端子電圧とのデータ対に基づいて、電流を持続的に放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能容量を推定する放電可能容量推定手段23a−1と、電流と該電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す予め用意した一般式と、前記放電可能容量推定手段により推定した電流と放電可能容量との関係とに基づいて、当該バッテリに適用される、電流と該電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す関係式を決定する関係式決定手段23a−2として機能し、関係式決定手段23a−2によって決定した関係式を用いて任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を推定することができる。 In the in-vehicle battery dischargeable capacity estimation device 1 of the present embodiment, the CPU 23a that performs the process in the flowchart shown in FIG. 7 constitutes a device that estimates the dischargeable capacity of the battery shown in FIG. 1, and has a high battery rate. Dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1 for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the current based on the data pair of the discharge current obtained at the time of discharge and the battery terminal voltage, and the current and the said Applicable to the battery based on a general formula prepared in advance showing the relationship between the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current and the relationship between the current estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimation means and the dischargeable capacity. The relationship is determined by the relational expression determining means 23a-2, which functions as the relational expression determining means 23a-2 for determining the relational expression indicating the relationship between the current and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current. The formula can be used to estimate the dischargeable capacity that can continuously discharge a current of any magnitude.
【0090】 [0090]
CPU23aはまた、放電可能容量推定手段23a−1として機能するに当たって、負荷への高率放電時の2電流をそれぞれ流し続けたときのバッテリ端子電圧の電圧降下を推定する電圧降下推定手段と、この推定した電圧降下に基づいて求めた放電できない電気量分を任意の充電状態において放電可能な電気量から減らした電気量を、バッテリから前記負荷を通じて2電流を持続的にそれぞれ放電することができる放電可能な電気量として推定する放電可能電気量推定手段としても機能している。 In functioning as the dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1, the CPU 23a also includes a voltage drop estimating means for estimating the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when two currents at the time of high rate discharge to the load are continuously applied. Discharge that can continuously discharge two currents from the battery through the load, which is obtained by subtracting the amount of undischargeable electricity obtained based on the estimated voltage drop from the amount of electricity that can be discharged in an arbitrary charging state. It also functions as a means for estimating the amount of dischargeable electricity that can be estimated as the amount of possible electricity.
【0091】 [0091]
よって、CPU23aは、負荷への高率放電時の2電流を流し続けたときのバッテリ端子電圧の電圧降下を推定し、推定した電圧降下に基づいて求めた放電できない電気量分を任意の充電状態において放電可能な電気量から減らした電気量を、バッテリから負荷を通じて最大電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能な電気量として推定しているので、推定した電圧降下に基づいて求めた放電できない電気量分を任意の充電状態において放電可能な電気量から減らした電気量の有る限り、負荷を通じて2電流を持続的に流すことができるバッテリの放電可能電気量を知ることができる。 Therefore, the CPU 23a estimates the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when two currents at the time of high-rate discharge to the load are continuously applied, and obtains the amount of undischargeable electricity obtained based on the estimated voltage drop in an arbitrary charging state. Since the amount of electricity reduced from the amount of dischargeable electricity is estimated as the amount of dischargeable electricity that can continuously discharge the maximum current from the battery through the load, the discharge obtained based on the estimated voltage drop As long as there is an amount of electricity obtained by reducing the amount of electricity that cannot be discharged from the amount of electricity that can be discharged in an arbitrary charging state, it is possible to know the amount of dischargeable electricity of a battery capable of continuously flowing two currents through a load.
【0092】 [0092]
CPU23aはさらに、バッテリについて既知の満充電時の開回路電圧と負荷を通じて2電流の放電を行うことができなくなる負荷時の放電終止電圧との差電圧に対する前記推定した電圧降下の割合を求め、高率放電時のバッテリの充電状態に応じた負荷時放電終止電圧まで放電できる電気量のうち、求めた割合分任意の電気量から減じて求めた電気量を放電可能な電気量として推定するように機能する。 The CPU 23a further obtains the ratio of the estimated voltage drop to the difference voltage between the known open circuit voltage at full charge of the battery and the discharge end voltage at load that makes it impossible to discharge two currents through the load. Of the amount of electricity that can be discharged to the discharge end voltage under load according to the state of charge of the battery at the time of rate discharge, the amount of electricity obtained by subtracting the obtained amount from an arbitrary amount of electricity is estimated as the amount of electricity that can be discharged. Function.
【0093】 [093]
よって、CPU23aは、バッテリについて既知の満充電時の開回路電圧と負荷を通じて2電流の放電を行うことができなくなる負荷時の放電終止電圧との差電圧に対する推定した電圧降下の割合を求め、高率放電時のバッテリの充電状態に応じた負荷時の放電終止電圧まで放電できる電気量のうち、求めた割合分任意の電気量から減じて求めた電気量を放電可能な容量として推定するので、2電流が定まれば既知の値として予め定めることができる差電圧に対して求めた、高率放電時に推定した最大の電圧降下の割合を用いて簡単に任意の時点での放電可能な電気量求めることができる。 Therefore, the CPU 23a obtains the estimated ratio of the voltage drop to the difference voltage between the known open circuit voltage at the time of full charge and the discharge end voltage at the time of the load that makes it impossible to discharge two currents through the load. Of the amount of electricity that can be discharged to the discharge end voltage at load according to the state of charge of the battery at the time of rate discharge, the amount of electricity obtained by subtracting the obtained amount from an arbitrary amount is estimated as the dischargeable capacity. 2 The amount of electricity that can be easily discharged at any time using the ratio of the maximum voltage drop estimated at the time of high-rate discharge, which is obtained for the difference voltage that can be predetermined as a known value once the current is determined. You can ask.
【0094】 [0094]
CPU23aはまた、高率放電時に推定した当該バッテリの純抵抗による純抵抗電圧降下を推定し、バッテリの充電状態に応じて変化する最大の純抵抗変化分による純抵抗増加電圧降下を算出し、2電流によってそれぞれ発生する分極による最大の電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下を推定するように機能し、推定或いは算出した電圧により最大の電圧降下を推定するので、2電流で放電し続けたときに飽和点に向かって増大する分極を含む最大の電圧降下となり、かつ、推定純抵抗電圧降下のうちには、充電状態、温度や劣化によって増減する純抵抗変動分も含まれることになり、最大電流を流す必要のある負荷を確実に駆動できるバッテリの放電可能電気量を全ての変動要因を含めて適切に知ることができる。 The CPU 23a also estimates the net resistance voltage drop due to the net resistance of the battery estimated at the time of high rate discharge, calculates the net resistance increase voltage drop due to the maximum net resistance change that changes according to the charging state of the battery, and 2 It functions to estimate the saturated polarization voltage drop, which is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization generated by each current, and estimates the maximum voltage drop from the estimated or calculated voltage, so it is saturated when discharging with two currents. It is the maximum voltage drop including polarization that increases toward the point, and the estimated net resistance voltage drop also includes the net resistance fluctuation that increases or decreases depending on the charging state, temperature and deterioration, and the maximum current is increased. It is possible to appropriately know the amount of dischargeable electricity of a battery that can reliably drive the load that needs to flow, including all fluctuation factors.
【0095】 [0995]
CPU23aはまた、負荷への高率放電時の放電電流と該放電電流に対応するバッテリ端子電圧とを周期的に測定して得たデータ対に基づいて作成した電流−電圧特性の近似曲線式から純抵抗電圧降下分を除いた分極抵抗電圧降下のみの電流−分極特性の近似曲線式を得て、該電流−分極特性の近似曲線式を用いて電流に対する分極電圧降下の最大点を推定し、この推定した分極電圧降下を最大電流での飽和分極電圧降下とするとともに、該推定した最大点の分極電圧降下を当該分極電圧を発生させる電流によって除算して電流に依存しない一定の飽和分極抵抗を求め、該求めた飽和分極抵抗に小電流を乗じて求めた電圧降下を小電流での飽和分極電圧降下としてそれぞれ推定するように機能し、高率放電時に純抵抗による電圧降下を推定するため推定した純抵抗を用いて、分極による飽和電圧降下も推定することができる。 The CPU 23a also uses an approximate curve equation of current-voltage characteristics created based on a data pair obtained by periodically measuring the discharge current at the time of high-rate discharge to the load and the battery terminal voltage corresponding to the discharge current. An approximate curve equation of the current-polarization characteristic of only the polarization resistance voltage drop excluding the pure resistance voltage drop is obtained, and the maximum point of the polarization voltage drop with respect to the current is estimated using the approximate curve equation of the current-polarization characteristic. This estimated polarization voltage drop is taken as the saturation polarization voltage drop at the maximum current, and the polarization voltage drop at the estimated maximum point is divided by the current that generates the polarization voltage to obtain a constant saturation polarization resistance that does not depend on the current. It functions to estimate the voltage drop obtained by multiplying the obtained saturated polarization resistance by a small current as the saturated polarization voltage drop at a small current, and estimates the voltage drop due to the pure resistance at the time of high rate discharge. The saturation voltage drop due to polarization can also be estimated by using the obtained pure resistance.
【0096】 [0906]
上述の説明では、車載バッテリの用途以外について特に言及しなかったが、バッテリの充電状態を適切に知り、効率的にバッテリの利用を図るために有効に適用できる。 In the above description, although the application other than the use of the in-vehicle battery is not particularly mentioned, it can be effectively applied in order to properly know the charge state of the battery and efficiently use the battery.
【0097】 [097]
なお、本願明細書中においては、分極などの影響を受けた端子電圧を開放電圧とし、平衡状態のときの端子電圧を開回路電圧としている。 In the specification of the present application, the terminal voltage affected by polarization or the like is defined as the open circuit voltage, and the terminal voltage in the equilibrium state is defined as the open circuit voltage.
【0098】 [0998]
また、適用する車両としては、一般的な14V車両や14Vと42V等の多電源車、電気自動車、通常のガソリン自動車等、種々の車両に搭載されたバッテリの開回路電圧の推定に適用可能であることは、言うまでもない。 In addition, as applicable vehicles, it can be applied to estimate the open circuit voltage of batteries mounted on various vehicles such as general 14V vehicles, multi-power vehicles such as 14V and 42V, electric vehicles, and ordinary gasoline vehicles. Needless to say, there is.
【0099】 [00099]
なお、上述の実施の形態では言及していないが、バッテリにおいては、バッテリ電極板の有効的に機能する部分の欠如や電解液の変質又は減少など、物理的或いは化学的な劣化が発生し、経時的に進行することが知られている。 Although not mentioned in the above-described embodiment, in the battery, physical or chemical deterioration such as lack of an effectively functioning portion of the battery electrode plate and deterioration or reduction of the electrolytic solution occurs. It is known to progress over time. したがって、非劣化バッテリの初期放電可能電気量に対する任意時点の放電可能電気量の割合、或いは、充放電に伴う充電状態と開回路電圧の変化が初期の関係と異なる割合などを、例えば、開回路電圧を推定或いは実測できる機会を捉えて、劣化度として予め求め求めておき、これを上述したように本発明により推定して求めた放電可能容量に乗じることによって、劣化度による変化を補正した放電可能容量を推定することができるようになる。 Therefore, for example, the ratio of the amount of dischargeable electricity at an arbitrary time point to the initial amount of dischargeable electricity of the non-deteriorated battery, or the ratio of the change in the charge state and the open circuit voltage due to charging / discharging different from the initial relationship, is set. By seizing the opportunity to estimate or measure the voltage, obtain it in advance as the degree of deterioration, and multiply this by the dischargeable capacity estimated and obtained by the present invention as described above, the discharge corrected for the change due to the degree of deterioration. It will be possible to estimate the possible capacity.
【0100】 [0100]
【発明の効果】 【Effect of the invention】
以上説明したように、請求項1乃至11記載の発明によれば、状況によって必要とされる重要度の変化する大小さまざまな負荷を確実に駆動できるように、放電電流の大きさに応じて変化する電気量を放電可能な容量として推定できるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法及び装置を提供することができる。 As described above, according to the inventions of claims 1 to 11, the load changes according to the magnitude of the discharge current so that a load of various sizes, which is required depending on the situation, can be reliably driven. It is possible to provide a method and an apparatus for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can estimate the amount of electricity to be discharged as the dischargeable capacity.
【0101】 [0101]
請求項1記載の発明によれば、関係式によって推定した、任意の大きさの放電電流についての放電可能容量の残余の有る限り、任意の大きさの電流を流す必要のある負荷を確実に駆動できるバッテリの放電可能容量を管理することができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定推定方法を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 1, as long as there is a residual dischargeable capacity for a discharge current of an arbitrary size estimated by the relational expression, a load that requires a current of an arbitrary size to flow is reliably driven. It is possible to provide a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can manage the dischargeable capacity of the battery.
【0102】 [0102]
請求項2記載の発明によれば、当該バッテリについて決定された2電流について推定した放電可能容量との関係を示す関係式によって、任意の大きさの放電電流Iに対する持続時間tを求めることができ、両者の積を取ることによって、任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電できる放電可能容量を推定することができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 2, the duration t with respect to the discharge current I of an arbitrary size can be obtained by the relational expression showing the relationship between the two currents determined for the battery and the estimated dischargeable capacity. By taking the product of both, it is possible to provide a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can estimate the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude.
【0103】 [0103]
請求項3記載の発明によれば、ポイケルトの式の定数を決定するに当たって、高率放電時の最大電流と小電流の2電流を用いているので、関係式の決定が、比較的精度良く推定できる放電可能容量を用いて行うことができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 3, in determining the constant of the Poikelt equation, two currents, the maximum current and the small current at the time of high rate discharge, are used, so that the determination of the relational expression can be estimated with relatively high accuracy. It is possible to provide a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can be performed using the available dischargeable capacity.
【0104】 [0104]
請求項4記載の発明によれば、バッテリの状態変化を反映した最新の関係式を用いて、バッテリの任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を推定することができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 4, it is possible to estimate the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude of the battery by using the latest relational expression reflecting the change of state of the battery. It is possible to provide a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery.
【0105】 [0105]
請求項5記載の発明によれば、放電電流によってバッテリ内部に発生する電圧降下を反映した放電可能容量によって関係式の決定を行うことができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 5, it is possible to provide a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can determine a relational expression based on the dischargeable capacity reflecting a voltage drop generated inside the battery due to a discharge current.
【0106】 [0106]
請求項6記載の発明によれば、2放電電流によってバッテリ内部に発生する電圧降下を反映した放電可能容量によって関係式の決定を行うことができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 6, it is possible to provide a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can determine the relational expression by the dischargeable capacity reflecting the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to the two discharge currents. ..
【0107】 [0107]
請求項7記載の発明によれば、2電流が定まれば既知の値として予め定めることができ、高率放電時に電圧降下が推定されることで、この電圧降下の最大の電圧降下幅に対するの割合を簡単に求めることができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 7, if the two currents are determined, they can be predetermined as known values, and the voltage drop is estimated at the time of high rate discharge, so that the maximum voltage drop width of this voltage drop can be determined. It is possible to provide a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery from which the ratio can be easily obtained.
【0108】 [0108]
請求項8記載の発明によれば、2電流で放電し続けたときに飽和点に向かって増大する分極を含む最大の電圧降下となり、かつ、推定純抵抗電圧降下のうちには、充電状態、温度や劣化によって増減する純抵抗変動分も含まれることになり、2放電電流によってバッテリ内部に発生する電圧降下を反映した放電可能容量によって関係式の決定を精度良く行うことができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 8, the maximum voltage drop including polarization increasing toward the saturation point when continuously discharging with two currents is obtained, and the charged state is included in the estimated net resistance voltage drop. The net resistance fluctuation that increases or decreases depending on the temperature and deterioration is also included, and the dischargeable capacity that reflects the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to the two discharge currents makes it possible to accurately determine the relational expression. A capacity estimation method can be provided.
【0109】 [0109]
請求項9記載の発明によれば、高率放電時に純抵抗による電圧降下を推定するため推定した純抵抗を用いて、関係式を決定するための分極による飽和電圧降下を精度良く推定することができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 9, it is possible to accurately estimate the saturation voltage drop due to polarization for determining the relational expression by using the estimated pure resistance for estimating the voltage drop due to the pure resistance at the time of high rate discharge. It is possible to provide a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery.
【0110】 [0110]
請求項10記載の発明によれば、バッテリが劣化していても、任意の大きさの電流を流す必要のある負荷を確実に駆動できるバッテリの放電可能容量を管理することができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 10, even if the battery is deteriorated, the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of reliably driving a load that requires an arbitrary amount of current to flow can be managed. A capacity estimation method can be provided.
【0111】 [0111]
請求項11記載の発明によれば、関係式によって推定した、任意の大きさの放電電流についての放電可能電気量の残余の有る限り、任意の大きさの電流を流す必要のある負荷を確実に駆動できるバッテリの放電可能容量を管理することができるバッテリの放電可能容量推定装置を提供することができる。 According to the invention of claim 11, as long as there is a residual amount of dischargeable electricity for a discharge current of an arbitrary magnitude estimated by the relational expression, a load that requires a current of an arbitrary magnitude to flow is surely applied. It is possible to provide a battery dischargeable capacity estimation device capable of managing the dischargeable capacity of a driveable battery.
【図面の簡単な説明】 [Simple explanation of drawings]
【図1】本発明のバッテリの放電可能容量推定装置の基本構成を示すブロック図である。 FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a basic configuration of a battery dischargeable capacity estimation device of the present invention.
【図2】本発明のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法を実施する本発明の推定装置の一実施形態を示す構成図である。 FIG. 2 is a configuration diagram showing an embodiment of an estimation device of the present invention that implements the dischargeable capacity estimation method of the battery of the present invention.
【図3】高率放電時の放電電流とバッテリ端子電圧の変化を示すグラフである。 FIG. 3 is a graph showing changes in discharge current and battery terminal voltage during high-rate discharge.
【図4】本発明の放電可能容量推定方法の原理を説明するために使用するグラフである。 FIG. 4 is a graph used to explain the principle of the dischargeable capacity estimation method of the present invention.
【図5】図4中の飽和分極電圧降下の推定の仕方を説明するために使用するグラフである。 5 is a graph used to explain how to estimate the saturation polarization voltage drop in FIG. 4. FIG.
【図6】ポイケルトの式を特定のバッテリの関係式に決定する方法を説明するとともに決定した関係式と実測曲線との対比を行うために使用するグラフである。 FIG. 6 is a graph used to explain a method of determining a Poikelt equation as a relational expression of a specific battery and to compare the determined relational expression with an actually measured curve.
【図7】図2中のマイコンがバッテリ放電可能容量推定のため予め定めたプログラムに従って行うメイン処理を示すフローチャートである。 FIG. 7 is a flowchart showing a main process performed by the microcomputer in FIG. 2 according to a predetermined program for estimating the battery dischargeable capacity.
【符号の説明】 [Explanation of symbols]
23a−1 放電可能容量推定手段(CPU) 23a-1 Dischargeable capacity estimation means (CPU)
23a−2 関係式決定手段(CPU) [0001] 23a-2 Relational expression determining means (CPU) [0001]
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE Invention
The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery for estimating a dischargeable capacity of the battery. The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery for estimating a dischargeable capacity of the battery.
[0002] [0002]
[Prior art] [Prior art]
In a battery, a dischargeable capacity, which is an amount of electricity that can be taken out by discharging or charging / discharging, changes every moment. However, in order to properly operate a load by supplying power from the battery, it is necessary to grasp the dischargeable capacity. For example, in a vehicle-mounted battery, although the required functions are slightly different depending on the type of vehicle, the dischargeable capacity needs to be properly grasped for the following reasons. In a battery, a dischargeable capacity, which is an amount of electricity that can be taken out by electrically charging or charging, changes every moment. However, in order to properly operate a load by supplying power from the battery, it is necessary to For example, in a vehicle-mounted battery, although the required functions are slightly different depending on the type of vehicle, the dischargeable capacity needs to be properly grasped for the following reasons.
[0003] [0003]
For example, in an engine-equipped vehicle in which a driving power source is an internal combustion engine (hereinafter referred to as an engine) that generates a rotational force by burning fuel, power is supplied from a battery to a starter motor for starting the engine. If the battery cannot supply electric power for rotating the starter motor, the engine cannot be started. After the engine is started, the generator driven by the engine generates electric power, and this electric power charges the battery and activates other loads. Become. Of course, when the generator fails, the battery becomes the only power supply to drive the electrical load and must play an important role. For example, in an engine-equipped vehicle in which a driving power source is an internal combustion engine (hereinafter referred to as an engine) that generates a rotational force by burning fuel, power is supplied from a battery to a starter motor for starting the If the battery cannot supply electric power for rotating the starter motor, the engine cannot be started. After the engine is started, the generator driven by the engine generates electric power, and this electric power charges the battery and activates other loads. Become Of course, when the generator fails, the battery becomes the only power supply to drive the electrical load and must play an important role.
[0004] [0004]
Also, in an electric vehicle in which the driving power source is an electric motor that generates rotational force by receiving supply of electric power from a battery, the battery is the only power supply source, and the battery rotates the electric motor. If power cannot be supplied, the vehicle will stop running. Also, in an electric vehicle in which the driving power source is an electric motor that generates rotational force by receiving supply of electric power from a battery, the battery is the only power supply source, and the battery rotates the electric motor. If power cannot be supplied, the vehicle will stop running.
[0005] [0005]
In addition, in a hybrid vehicle having both an engine and an electric motor that rotates by receiving power supplied from a battery as a driving power source, an auxiliary function of the battery stops the engine during traveling, and stops the engine in place of the engine. Although the power is increased by the function of supplying power to the electric motor that generates the driving force, the battery supplies basically enough power to rotate the starter motor for starting the engine, as in the case of vehicles with an engine. If not, the engine cannot be started. In addition, in a hybrid vehicle having both an engine and an electric motor that rotates by receiving power supplied from a battery as a driving power source, an auxiliary function of the battery stops the engine during traveling, and stops the engine in place of the engine. Although the power is increased by the function of supplying power to the electric motor that generates the driving force, the battery supplies basically enough power to rotate the starter motor for starting the engine, as in the case of vehicles with an engine. not, the engine cannot be started.
[0006] [0006]
Against this background, at least the engine can be started by a starter motor in an engine-equipped vehicle, or the battery is charged while the vehicle can be driven by an electric motor in an electric vehicle. Therefore, it is necessary to grasp the dischargeable capacity of the battery. Furthermore, since the dischargeable capacity of the battery in an electric vehicle is equivalent to the remaining amount of fuel in an engine-equipped vehicle, it is also required to grasp the capacity quantitatively. Against this background, at least the engine can be started by a starter motor in an engine-equipped vehicle, or the battery is charged while the vehicle can be driven by an electric motor in an electric vehicle. Therefore, it is necessary to grasp the dischargeable capacity of the battery. Further, since the dischargeable capacity of the battery in an electric vehicle is equivalent to the remaining amount of fuel in an engine-equipped vehicle, it is also required to grasp the capacity quantitatively.
[0007] [0007]
By the way, the state of charge, which is the amount of electricity that can be extracted from the battery, is generally represented by SOC, whereas the dischargeable capacity that can extract the amount of electricity that can actually operate the load is generally represented by ADC. You. The ADC is grasped as an amount of electricity corresponding to a difference between a state of charge SOC at full charge and a state of charge SOC at discharge end voltage represented by a current-time product Ah. , And may be expressed as a percentage of the amount of electricity when the discharge end voltage is 0%. By the way, the state of charge, which is the amount of electricity that can be extracted from the battery, is generally represented by SOC, the dischargeable capacity that can extract the amount of electricity that can actually operate the load is generally represented by ADC. You. The ADC is grasped as an amount of electricity corresponding to a difference between a state of charge SOC at full charge and a state of charge SOC at discharge end voltage represented by a current-time product Ah., And may be expressed as a percentage of the amount of electricity when the discharge end voltage is 0%.
[0008] [0008]
It is known that the SOC of the battery has a fixed relationship with the open circuit voltage which is the open terminal voltage of the battery when the battery is in an equilibrium state in which various polarizations generated in the battery due to charging and discharging are eliminated. The relationship is generally obtained from the estimated or measured open circuit voltage of the battery using this relationship (see, for example, Patent Document 1). Of course, the SOC is represented by a current-time product, so that the SOC that changes every moment can also be grasped by measuring the current flowing through the battery terminal by charging and discharging and taking the time product. It is known that the SOC of the battery has a fixed relationship with the open circuit voltage which is the open terminal voltage of the battery when the battery is in an equilibrium state in which various polarizations generated in the battery due to charging and electrically eliminated The relationship is generally obtained from the estimated or measured open circuit voltage of the battery using this relationship (see, for example, Patent Document 1). Of course, the SOC is represented by a current-time product, so that the SOC that changes every moment can also be grasped by measuring the current flowing through the battery terminal by charging and electrically taking the time product.
[0009] [0009]
[Patent Document 1] [Patent Document 1]
JP-A-2002-236157 JP-A-2002-236157
[0010] [0010]
[Problems to be solved by the invention] [Problems to be solved by the invention]
Although the SOC determined as described above is an amount of electricity that can be extracted from the battery, the battery has an internal resistance, and a voltage drop corresponding to the discharge current is generated internally by the internal resistance, and the battery terminal voltage is reduced. Will decrease. For this reason, the quantity of electricity in a situation where the terminal voltage of the battery falls below the voltage at which the load can be driven (discharge end voltage) can be regarded as the capacity that can be discharged to drive the load. Can not. Although the SOC determined as described above is an amount of electricity that can be extracted from the battery, the battery has an internal resistance, and a voltage drop corresponding to the discharge current is generated internally by the internal resistance, and the battery terminal voltage is Will decrease. For this reason, the quantity of electricity in a situation where the terminal voltage of the battery falls below the voltage at which the load can be driven (discharge end voltage) can be regarded as the capacity that can be discharged to drive the load. Can not.
[0011] [0011]
In the above-described conventional ADC method, the difference between the current SOC and the SOC corresponding to the discharge end voltage is simply defined as the dischargeable capacity of the battery. When attempting to actually drive the load, a situation may occur in which the load cannot be driven. In addition, there are various types of loads that require different currents for operation, and the importance of the function of the load changes depending on the situation regardless of the magnitude. Against this background, it is required to be able to ascertain the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can reliably drive various large and small loads of varying importance depending on the situation. In the above-described conventional ADC method, the difference between the current SOC and the SOC corresponding to the discharge end voltage is simply defined as the dischargeable capacity of the battery. When attempting to actually drive the load, a situation may occur in which the In addition, there are various types of loads that require different currents for operation, and the importance of the function of the load changes depending on the situation regardless of the magnitude. Against this background, it is required to be able to ascertain the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can reliably drive various large and small loads of varying importance depending on the situation.
[0012] [0012]
Therefore, the present invention provides a battery capable of estimating, as a dischargeable capacity, an amount of electricity that changes in accordance with the magnitude of a discharge current so as to reliably drive various loads of varying importance depending on the situation. It is an object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity. Therefore, the present invention provides a battery capable of estimating, as a dischargeable capacity, an amount of electricity that changes in accordance with the magnitude of a discharge current so as to reliably drive various loads of varying importance depending on the situation. It is an object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity.
[0013] [0013]
[Means for Solving the Problems] [Means for Solving the Problems]
The present invention according to any one of the first to tenth aspects of the present invention relates to a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, and the present invention according to the eleventh aspect relates to an apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery. Also, based on a discharge characteristic obtained from a data pair of a discharge current and a battery terminal voltage at the time of high-rate discharge of the battery, a general formula representing a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current from the battery is used. Is determined, and a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated. The present invention according to any one of the first to tenth aspects of the present invention relates to a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, and the present invention according to the eleventh aspect related to an apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery. Also, based on a discharge characteristic obtained from a data pair of a discharge current and a battery terminal voltage at the time of high-rate discharge of the battery, a general formula representing a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously flowing the current from the battery is used. Is determined, and a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously appropriately a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated.
[0014] [0014]
The invention according to claim 1 for solving the above-mentioned problem is a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, and shows a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude. A general formula is prepared in advance, and a discharge current of a specific magnitude can be continuously discharged based on a discharge characteristic obtained from a data pair of a discharge current and a battery terminal voltage at the time of high-rate discharge of the battery. Estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery, applying the relationship between the discharge current and the estimated dischargeable capacity to the general formula, and continuously discharging a current of any magnitude of the battery. A relational expression indicating a relationship between the capacities is determined, and a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated using the rela The invention according to claim 1 for solving the above-mentioned problem is a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, and shows a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously communicating a current of an arbitrary magnitude. A general formula is prepared in advance, and Estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery, a discharge current of a specific magnitude can be continuously discharged based on a discharge characteristic obtained from a data pair of a discharge current and a battery terminal voltage at the time of high-rate discharge of the battery. A relational expression indicating a relationship between the capacities is determined, and a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously utilizing a relational expression indicating a relationship between the capacities is determined, and a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously utilizing a. current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated using the rela tional expression. Method Exist for. tional expression. Method Exist for.
[0015] [0015]
According to the above-described procedure of the first aspect, the discharge current of the specific magnitude estimated based on the discharge characteristics obtained from the data pair of the discharge current and the battery terminal voltage at the time of high-rate discharge of the battery is continuously generated. By using a dischargeable capacity of the battery that can be discharged and a general formula that indicates a dischargeable capacity that can continuously discharge a current of an arbitrary magnitude, a current of an arbitrary magnitude of the battery can be obtained. Since the relational expression indicating the relation of the dischargeable capacity that can be continuously discharged is determined and the dischargeable capacity that can continuously discharge the current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated, the relational expression is used. Manages the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can reliably drive a load that needs to flow a current of any size According to the above-described procedure of the first aspect, the discharge current of the specific magnitude estimated based on the discharge characteristics obtained from the data pair of the discharge current and the battery terminal voltage at the time of high-rate discharge of the battery Is continuously generated. By using a dischargeable capacity of the battery that can be discharged and a general formula that indicates a dischargeable capacity that can continuously discharge a current of an arbitrary magnitude, a current of an arbitrary magnitude of the battery can be obtained. Since The relational expression indicating the relation of the dischargeable capacity that can be continuously discharged is determined and the dischargeable capacity that can continuously discharge the current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated, the relational expression is used. Manages the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can reliably drive a load that needs to flow a current of any size as long as the estimated discharge current of any size has a residual dischargeable capacity. Door can be. As long as the estimated discharge current of any size has a residual dischargeable capacity. Door can be.
[0016] [0016]
According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the first aspect, the general formula is a Poikelt's formula. According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the first aspect, the general formula is a Poikelt's formula.
I n・ T = C I n · T = C
(Where I is the discharge current, t is the discharge duration time, n is a value of 1.1 to 1.4 that is a measure of the degree to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current, and C is the magnitude of the dischargeable capacity. This is a value that indicates a guideline for.) (Where I is the discharge current, t is the discharge duration time, n is a value of 1.1 to 1.4 that is a measure of the degree to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current, and C is the magnitude of the dischargeable capacity. This is a value that indicates a guideline for.)
And the constants n and C of the general formula are determined by the relationship between two currents of different magnitudes and the dischargeable capacity estimated for the two currents, and the relational expression is determined. The present invention resides in a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, characterized by estimating a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude using the method. And the constants n and C of the general formula are determined by the relationship between two currents of different magnitudes and the dischargeable capacity estimated for the two currents, and the relational expression is determined. The present invention resides in a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, characterized by estimating a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously flowing a current of an arbitrary magnitude using the method.
[0017] [0017]
According to the above-described procedure, the discharge current I, the discharge duration time t, the constant n having a value of 1.1 to 1.4, which is a measure of the degree to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current, Poikelt's equation showing the relationship between the constant C, which is a measure of the possible capacity According to the above-described procedure, the discharge current I, the discharge duration time t, the constant n having a value of 1.1 to 1.4, which is a measure of the degree to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current, Poikelt's equation showing the relationship between the constant C, which is a measure of the possible capacity
I n・ T = C I n · T = C
Are determined by the relationship between two currents of different magnitudes and the dischargeable capacity estimated for the two currents, the durations for a discharge current I of any magnitude t can be obtained, and by taking the product of the two, it is possible to estimate a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of any magnitude. Are determined by the relationship between two currents of different magnitudes and the dischargeable capacity estimated for the two currents, the durations for a discharge current I of any magnitude t can be obtained, and by taking the product of the two, it is possible to estimate a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously extending a current of any magnitude.
[0018] [0018]
According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to the second aspect, one of the two currents is a maximum current at the time of the high-rate discharge, and the other is a small current that does not decrease the dischargeable capacity. 3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the current is a current. According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to the second aspect, one of the two currents is a maximum current at the time of the high-rate discharge, and the other is a small current that does not decrease the dischargeable capacity. 3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the current is a current.
[0019] [0019]
According to the above-described procedure of the third aspect, in determining the constants of the Poykert equation, two currents of the maximum current during the high-rate discharge and the predetermined small current are used. This can be performed using a dischargeable capacity that can be estimated with high precision. According to the above-described procedure of the third aspect, in determining the constants of the Poykert equation, two currents of the maximum current during the high-rate discharge and the predetermined small current are used. This can be performed using a dischargeable capacity that can be estimated with high precision.
[0020] [0020]
According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the battery discharge capacity estimation method according to any one of the first to third aspects, the relational expression is updated each time the battery is discharged at a high rate. It is in the method of estimating the dischargeable capacity. According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the battery discharge capacity estimation method according to any one of the first to third aspects, the relational expression is updated each time the battery is discharged at a high rate. It is in the method of estimating the dischargeable capacity.
[0021] [0021]
According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, since the relational expression is updated every time the battery is discharged at a high rate, the latest relational expression reflecting a change in the state of the battery is used to arbitrarily increase the size of the battery. It is possible to estimate the dischargeable capacity at which the current can be continuously discharged. According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, since the relational expression is updated every time the battery is discharged at a high rate, the latest relational expression reflecting a change in the state of the battery is used to efficiently increase the size of the battery It is possible to estimate the dischargeable capacity at which the current can be continuously discharged.
[0022] [0022]
According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, in the battery dischargeable capacity estimation method according to any one of the second to fourth aspects, the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the two currents is: Estimate the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow, respectively, and discharge the undischarged amount of electricity obtained based on the voltage drop estimated for the two currents, at the time of the high-rate discharge. The present invention resides in a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, characterized in that it is estimated as an amount of electricity reduced from a specific capacity. According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, in the battery dischargeable capacity estimation method according to any one of the second to fourth aspects, the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously electrically the two currents is: Estimate the voltage drop of the battery The present invention resides in a method for estimating terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow, respectively, and discharge the undischarged amount of electricity obtained based on the voltage drop estimated for the two currents, at the time of the high-rate discharge. a dischargeable capacity of a battery, characterized in that it is estimated as an amount of electricity reduced from a specific capacity.
[0023] [0023]
According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, the amount of electricity that cannot be discharged is obtained based on the estimated voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow, respectively, Since it is estimated as the reduced amount of electricity, the relational expression can be determined by the dischargeable capacity reflecting the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to the discharge current. According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, the amount of electricity that cannot be discharged is obtained based on the estimated voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow, respectively, Since it is estimated as the reduced amount of electricity, the relational expression can be determined by the dischargeable capacity reflecting the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to the discharge current.
[0024] [0024]
According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, in the battery dischargeable capacity estimation method according to any one of the second to fourth aspects, the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the two currents is: Estimate the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow, and calculate the ratio of the estimated maximum voltage drop to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery at each discharge by the two currents. And a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery, characterized in that the obtained ratio is estimated as a residue obtained by subtracting each from the dischargeable electricity amount at the high rate discharge. According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, in the battery dischargeable capacity estimation method according to any one of the second to fourth aspects, the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously substantially the two currents is: Estimate the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow, and calculate the ratio of the estimated maximum voltage drop to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery at each discharge by the two currents. And a method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery, characterized in that the obtained ratio is estimated as a residue obtained by subtracting each from the dischargeable electricity amount at the high rate discharge.
[0025] [0025]
According to the above-described procedure of claim 6, the ratio of the estimated maximum voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery at the time of discharging by the two currents, Since the residue obtained by subtracting the amount of electricity that can be discharged in an arbitrary state of charge is estimated as the amount of dischargeable electricity that can continuously discharge a current corresponding to two currents from the battery through the load, (2) The relational expression can be determined by the dischargeable capacity reflecting the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to the discharge current. According to the above-described procedure of claim 6, the ratio of the estimated maximum voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery at the time of electricity by the two currents , Since the residue obtained by subtracting the amount of electricity that can be discharged in an arbitrary state of charge is estimated as the amount of dischargeable electricity that can continuously discharge a current corresponding to two currents from the battery through the load, (2) The relational expression can be determined by the dischargeable capacity reflecting the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to the discharge current.
[0026] [0026]
According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to the sixth aspect, the maximum voltage drop width is determined by the open circuit voltage when the battery is fully charged and the discharge end voltage of the battery being the maximum current. And a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, characterized in that the difference voltage is a voltage difference from a voltage dropped by a pure resistance at the time of full charge generated by the discharge of the battery. According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to the sixth aspect, the maximum voltage drop width is determined by the open circuit voltage when the battery is fully charged and the discharge end voltage And a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, characterized in that the difference voltage is a voltage difference from a voltage dropped by a pure resistance at the time of full charge generated by the discharge of the battery.
[0027] [0027]
According to the above-described procedure, the maximum voltage drop width of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow is determined by the open circuit voltage when the battery is fully charged, and the discharge of the two currents through the load. Since the difference voltage from the end-of-discharge voltage at the time of a load that cannot be performed can be predetermined as a known value if the two currents are determined, the voltage drop is estimated by estimating the voltage drop during high-rate discharge. The ratio of the voltage drop to the maximum voltage drop width can be easily obtained. According to the above-described procedure, the maximum voltage drop width of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow is determined by the open circuit voltage when the battery is fully charged, and the discharge of the two currents through the load. Since the difference voltage from the end-of-discharge voltage at the time of a load that cannot be performed can be predetermined as a known value if the two currents are determined, the voltage drop is estimated by estimating the voltage drop during high-rate discharge. The ratio of the voltage drop to the maximum voltage drop width can be easily obtained.
[0028] [0028]
According to an eighth aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to any one of the fifth to seventh aspects, the estimated voltage drop is estimated by a pure resistance of the battery estimated during the high-rate discharge. Including a resistance voltage drop, a pure resistance increase voltage drop due to the maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery, and a saturation polarization voltage drop that is the maximum voltage drop due to polarization generated by each of the two currents. The present invention resides in a characteristic method of estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery. According to an eighth aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to any one of the fifth to seventh aspects, the estimated voltage drop is estimated by a pure resistance of the battery estimated during the high- rate discharge. Including a resistance voltage drop, a pure resistance increase voltage drop due to the maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery, and a saturation polarization voltage drop that is the maximum voltage drop due to polarization generated. by each of the two currents. The present invention resides in a characteristic method of estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery.
[0029] [0029]
According to the above-described procedure of the eighth aspect, the estimated voltage drop is an estimated pure resistance voltage drop due to the pure resistance of the battery estimated at the time of high rate discharge, and the maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery. Includes the voltage drop due to the increase in resistance due to the minute, and the saturation polarization voltage drop which is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization generated by each of the two currents. The maximum voltage drop and the estimated pure resistance voltage drop include the pure resistance fluctuation that increases and decreases due to the state of charge, temperature and deterioration, and the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to the two discharge currents The relational expression can be determined with high accuracy by the reflected dischargeable capacity. According to the above-described procedure of the eighth aspect, the estimated voltage drop is an estimated pure resistance voltage drop due to the pure resistance of the battery estimated at the time of high rate discharge, and the maximum pure resistance change that changes according to The state of charge of the battery. Includes the voltage drop due to the increase in resistance due to the minute, and the saturation polarization voltage drop which is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization generated by each of the two currents. The maximum voltage drop and the estimated pure resistance voltage drop include the pure resistance fluctuation that increases and decreases due to the state of charge, temperature and deterioration, and the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to the two discharge currents The relational expression can be determined with high accuracy by the reflected dischargeable capacity.
[0030] [0030]
According to a ninth aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the first or second aspect, one of the two currents is a maximum current during the high-rate discharge, and the other is a predetermined small current. The estimated voltage drop is an estimated pure resistance voltage drop due to the pure resistance of the battery estimated during the high rate discharge, a pure resistance increase voltage drop due to a maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery, and The saturation polarization voltage drop, which is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization generated by the two currents, includes the saturation polarization voltage drop at the maximum current of the two currents. The current-polarization of only the polarization voltage drop excluding the pure resistance voltage drop from the approximate curve formula of the current-voltage characteristic created According to a ninth aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the first or second aspect, one of the two currents is a maximum current during the high-rate discharge, and the other is a The estimated voltage drop is an estimated pure resistance voltage drop due to the pure resistance of the battery estimated during the high rate discharge, a pure resistance increase voltage drop due to a maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery, and The saturation polarization voltage drop, which is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization generated by the two currents, includes the saturation polarization voltage drop at the maximum current of the two currents. The current-polarization of only the polarization voltage drop excluding the pure resistance voltage drop from the approximate curve formula of the current-voltage characteristic created based on the data pair obtained by periodically measuring the corresponding battery terminal voltage. Is obtained as the maximum voltage drop with respect to the current obtained by using the current-polarization characteristic approximate curve equation. The saturation polarization voltage drop at the small current is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization. Is divided by the current that generates the polarization voltage to obtain a constant value independent of the current, and is estimated as a voltage drop obtained by multiplying the obtained constant value by the small current. It lies in the capacity estimation method. Based on the data pair obtained by periodically measuring the corresponding battery terminal voltage. Is obtained as the maximum voltage drop with respect to the current obtained by using the current-polarization characteristic approximate curve equation. The saturation polarization voltage drop at the small current is the Is divided by the current that generates the polarization voltage to obtain a constant value independent of the current, and is estimated as a voltage drop obtained by multiplying the obtained constant value by the small current. It lies in the capacity estimation method.
[0031] [0031]
According to the above-described procedure of the ninth aspect, the saturation polarization voltage drop at the maximum current at the time of high-rate discharge is obtained by periodically changing the discharge current at the time of high-rate discharge to the load and the battery terminal voltage corresponding to the discharge current. An approximate curve expression of the current-polarization characteristic of only the polarization voltage drop excluding the pure resistance voltage drop is obtained from the approximate curve expression of the current-voltage characteristic created based on the data pair obtained by performing the measurement. It is estimated as the maximum voltage drop with respect to the current obtained using the approximation curve expression of the polarization characteristic.The saturation polarization voltage drop at a small current is obtained by dividing the maximum voltage drop due to polarization by the current that generates the polarization voltage. I According to the above-described procedure of the ninth aspect, the polarization polarization voltage drop at the maximum current at the time of high-rate discharge is obtained by periodically changing the discharge current at the time of high-rate discharge to the load and the battery terminal voltage corresponding to the discharge current. An approximate curve expression of the current-polarization characteristic of only the polarization voltage drop excluding the pure resistance voltage drop is obtained from the approximate curve expression of the current-voltage characteristic created based on the data pair Obtained by performing the measurement. It is estimated as the maximum voltage drop with respect to the current obtained using the approximation curve expression of the polarization characteristic. The saturation polarization voltage drop at a small current is obtained by dividing the maximum voltage drop due to polarization. by the current that generates the polarization voltage. I t is estimated as a voltage drop obtained by multiplying the obtained constant value by the small current, so using the pure resistance estimated to obtain the voltage drop due to the pure resistance at high rate discharge, Determine relational expression The saturation voltage drop due to the polarization can be accurately estimated for. t is estimated as a voltage drop obtained by multiplying the obtained constant value by the small current, so using the pure resistance estimated to obtain the voltage drop due to the pure resistance at high rate discharge, Determine relational expression The saturation voltage drop due to the polarization can be accurately estimated for.
[0032] [0032]
According to a tenth aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to any one of the first to ninth aspects, the deterioration degree indicating the ratio of the dischargeable capacity after deterioration to the dischargeable capacity of the non-deteriorated battery is determined in advance. The present invention also provides a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, wherein the degree of deterioration is multiplied by the estimated dischargeable capacity to correct the dischargeable capacity. According to a tenth aspect of the present invention, in the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery according to any one of the first to ninth aspects, the deterioration degree indicating the ratio of the dischargeable capacity after deterioration to the dischargeable capacity of the Non-deteriorated battery is determined in advance. The present invention also provides a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, wherein the degree of deterioration is multiplied by the estimated dischargeable capacity to correct the dischargeable capacity.
[0033] [0033]
According to the above-described procedure, the dischargeable capacity is calculated by multiplying the estimated dischargeable capacity by the previously determined degree of deterioration, which indicates the ratio of the discharged dischargeable capacity after deterioration to the dischargeable capacity of the non-deteriorated battery. Since the capacity is corrected, even if the battery is deteriorated, the dischargeable capacity of the battery that can reliably drive a load that needs to flow an arbitrary amount of current can be managed. According to the above-described procedure, the dischargeable capacity is calculated by multiplying the estimated dischargeable capacity by the previously determined degree of deterioration, which indicates the ratio of the discharged dischargeable capacity after deterioration to the dischargeable capacity of the non-deteriorated battery. Since the capacity is corrected, even if the battery is deteriorated, the dischargeable capacity of the battery that can reliably drive a load that needs to flow an arbitrary amount of current can be managed.
[0034] [0034]
The invention according to claim 11 is an apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, as shown in the basic configuration diagram of FIG. 1, wherein a discharge current obtained at a high rate of discharge of the battery and a battery terminal voltage are compared. Dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1 for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the current based on the data pair, and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current and the current; The current applied to the battery and the current applied to the battery are maintained based on a general formula prepared in advance indicating the relationship between the capacities and the current estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimating unit 23a-1. And a relational expression determining means 23a-2 for determining a relational expression indicating a relation between dischargeable capacities that can be electrically disch The invention according to claim 11 is an apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, as shown in the basic configuration diagram of FIG. 1, wherein a discharge current obtained at a high rate of discharge of the battery and a battery terminal voltage are compared. Dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1 for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously relating the current based on the data pair, and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously relating the current and the current; The current applied to the battery and The current applied to the battery are maintained based on a general formula prepared in advance indicating the relationship between the capacities and the current estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimating unit 23a-1. And a relational expression determining means 23a-2 for determining a relational expression indicating a relation between dischargeable capacities that can be electrically disch arged, and using a relational expression determined by the relational expression determining means 23a-2. It consists in size dischargeable capacity estimating apparatus of a battery which is characterized in that so as to estimate the discharge capacity that can be sustained discharge current. arged, and using a relational expression determined by the relational expression determining means 23a-2. It consists in size dischargeable capacity estimating apparatus of a battery which is characterized in that so as to estimate the discharge capacity that can be sustained discharge current.
[0035] [0035]
According to the eleventh aspect of the present invention, the dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1 continuously discharges the current based on the data pair of the discharge current and the battery terminal voltage obtained at the time of high-rate discharge of the battery. Estimate the dischargeable capacity of the battery that can be used. The relational expression determining means 23a-2 calculates a relation between a current and a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current, a general formula prepared in advance, and a current estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1. Based on the relationship with the dischargeable capacity, a relational expression indicating the relationship between the current applied to the battery and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current is determined. Since a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of any magnitude is estimated using According to the eleventh aspect of the present invention, the dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1 continuously discharges the current based on the data pair of the discharge current and the battery terminal voltage obtained at the time of high-rate discharge of the battery. Estimate The dischargeable capacity of the battery that can be used. The relational expression determining means 23a-2 calculates a relation between a current and a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously calculating the current, a general formula prepared in advance, and a current estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1. Based on the relationship with the dischargeable capacity, a relational expression indicating the relationship between the current applied to the battery and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously relating the current is determined. Since a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously appropriately a current of any magnitude is estimated using the above, as long as there is a residual amount of dischargeable electricity for a discharge current of any magnitude, estimated by a relational expression, It is possible to manage the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can reliably drive a load that needs to flow a current of an arbitrary magnitude. the above, as long as there is a residual amount of dischargeable electricity for a discharge current of any magnitude, estimated by a relational expression, It is possible to manage the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can reliably drive a load that needs to flow a current of an arbitrary magnitude.
[0036] [0036]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE Invention
Before describing the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the present invention together with one embodiment of the apparatus for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the present invention with reference to FIG. 2, the basic concept of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. This will be described with reference to FIGS. Before describing the method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the present invention together with one embodiment of the apparatus for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the present invention with reference to FIG. 2, the basic concept of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. This will be described with reference to FIGS.
[0037] [0037]
Generally, the discharge capacity changes not only with the discharge current and temperature, but also with the specific gravity of the electrolytic solution, and it is known that the relationship between the discharge current and the discharge duration is expressed by Pokert's equation. In addition, the terminal voltage of the battery indicates a voltage value reflecting the state of charge of the battery, and not only is its internal state different, that is, not only when it is in an equilibrium state but when it is in an unbalanced state, but also when the discharge current is It is also known to take a value that reflects a voltage drop generated inside the battery by flowing. Generally, the discharge capacity changes not only with the discharge current and temperature, but also with the specific gravity of the electrolyte solution, and it is known that the relationship between the discharge current and the discharge duration is expressed by Pokert's equation. In addition, the terminal voltage of the battery indicates a voltage value reflecting the state of charge of the battery, and not only is its internal state different, that is, not only when it is in an equilibrium state but when it is in an unbalanced state, but also when the discharge current is It is also known to take a value that reflects a voltage drop generated inside the battery by flowing.
[0038] [0038]
Therefore, the present invention focuses on this point, and clarifies the breakdown of the voltage drop that occurs inside the battery during high-rate discharge under specific conditions, so that the amount of dischargeable electricity of the battery can be reduced to a specific discharge current. Is estimated, and Poickelt's formula, which is a general formula, is determined as a relational expression applicable to the battery using the estimated dischargeable capacity at a specific discharge current. Therefore, the present invention focuses on this point, and clarifies the breakdown of the voltage drop that occurs inside the battery during high-rate discharge under specific conditions, so that the amount of dischargeable electricity of the battery can be reduced to a specific discharge current. Is estimated, and Poickelt's formula, which is a general formula, is determined as a relational expression applicable to the battery using the estimated dischargeable capacity at a specific discharge current.
[0039] [0039]
By the way, Pokert's equation is expressed as the following equation (1). By the way, Pokert's equation is expressed as the following equation (1).
I n・ T = C (1) I n · T = C (1)
In the equation, I is a discharge current, t is a discharge duration time, and n and C are constants determined from discharge data. n is a measure of the extent to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current. When n = 1, the dischargeable capacity does not decrease even if the discharge current is increased. The dischargeable capacity is greatly reduced. In a normal lead battery, the value of n is 1.1 to 1.4. C is a measure of the dischargeable capacity. In the equation, I is a discharge current, t is a discharge duration time, and n and C are constants determined from discharge data. N is a measure of the extent to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current. When n = 1, the dischargeable capacity does not decrease even if the discharge current is increased. The dischargeable capacity is greatly reduced. In a normal lead battery, the value of n is 1.1 to 1.4. C is a measure of the dischargeable capacity.
[0040] [0040]
The above equation (1) can be rewritten as the following equation (2). The above equation (1) can be rewritten as the following equation (2).
logt = -nlogI + C '(2) logt = -nlogI + C'(2)
Here, C ′ = logC. Here, C ′ = logC.
The Pokert's equation is a general equation. When the relationship between the two discharge currents I1 and I2 and the discharge durations t1 and t2 corresponding to the discharge currents is clear, the constants n and C in the equation are determined. be able to. The relational expression that has determined such a constant can be determined as a relational expression applicable to the battery in which the above relation holds. The Pokert's equation is a general equation. When the relationship between the two discharge currents I1 and I2 and the discharge durations t1 and t2 corresponding to the discharge currents is clear, the constants n and C in the equation are determined. Be able to. The relational expression that has determined such a constant can be determined as a relational expression applicable to the battery in which the above relation holds.
[0041] [0041]
When the discharge currents I1 and I2 and the discharge durations t1 and t2 corresponding to the discharge currents are substituted into Expression (2), the following two expressions can be generated. When the discharge currents I1 and I2 and the discharge durations t1 and t2 corresponding to the discharge currents are substituted into Expression (2), the following two expressions can be generated.
logt1 = -nlogI1 + C ' logt1 = -nlogI1 + C'
logt2 = -nlogI2 + C ' logt2 = -nlogI2 + C'
Taking the difference between the two sides of the two equations gives the following equation. Taking the difference between the two sides of the two equations gives the following equation.
logt1-logt2 = -nlogI1 + nlogI2 logt1-logt2 = -nlogI1 + nlogI2
Rewriting this equation gives the following equation: Rewriting this equation gives the following equation:
log (t1 / t2) = nlog (I2 / I1) log (t1 / t2) = nlog (I2 / I1)
n = log (t1 / t2) / log (I2 / I1) n = log (t1 / t2) / log (I2 / I1)
C = I n・ T C = I n · T
[0042] [0042]
As described above, the discharge duration A for each discharge current, that is, the dischargeable capacity Ah can be known from the discharge current, which is the product of the current and time, by the relational expression in which n and C are obtained. As described above, the discharge duration A for each discharge current, that is, the dischargeable capacity Ah can be known from the discharge current, which is the product of the current and time, by the relational expression in which n and C are obtained.
[0043] [0043]
Next, a method of estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery for a specific discharge current by clarifying the breakdown of the voltage drop that occurs inside the battery during high-rate discharge under specific conditions will be described below. Next, a method of estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery for a specific discharge current by clarifying the breakdown of the voltage drop that occurs inside the battery during high-rate discharge under specific conditions will be described below.
[0044] [0044]
For example, in the case of an in-vehicle battery, discharge is performed through a starter motor when the engine is started.At this time, the discharge current increases in a short time to a maximum current value, which is generally called an inrush current and is much larger than a steady current value. A discharge current that decreases in a short time from the maximum current value to the steady current value flows. Generally, such a discharge is called a high-rate discharge. Data pairs obtained by measuring the discharge current and the battery terminal voltage at the high-rate discharge by high-speed sampling are subjected to an approximation process using, for example, a least square method. When the next approximation characteristic curve is obtained and plotted on a graph in which the horizontal axis represents the discharge current and the vertical axis represents the terminal voltage, a characteristic curve showing the relationship between the discharge current and the termi For example, in the case of an in-vehicle battery, discharge is performed through a starter motor when the engine is started. At this time, the discharge current increases in a short time to a maximum current value, which is generally called an inrush Current and is much larger than a steady current value. A discharge current that decreases in a short time from the maximum current value to the steady current value flows. Generally, such a discharge is called a high-rate discharge. Data pairs obtained by measuring. the discharge current and the battery terminal voltage at the high-rate discharge by high-speed sampling are subjected to an approximation process using, for example, a least square method. When the next approximation characteristic curve is obtained and plotted on a graph in which the horizontal axis represents the discharge current and the vertical axis represents the terminal voltage, a characteristic curve showing the relationship between the discharge current and the termi nal voltage as shown in FIG. 3 is drawn. nal voltage as shown in FIG. 3 is drawn.
[0045] [0045]
Among the secondary approximation characteristic curves, the cause of the decrease in the terminal voltage due to the increase in the discharge current appearing in the characteristic curve in the current increasing direction includes various voltage drops due to the internal resistance of the battery, see FIG. Then, the breakdown of the voltage drop will be examined by focusing on the current axis of the maximum current (peak current) of the discharge current, and a method of obtaining the negative charge capacity at two currents of the maximum current and the small current will be described. Among the secondary approximation characteristic curves, the cause of the decrease in the terminal voltage due to the increase in the discharge current appearing in the characteristic curve in the current increasing direction includes various voltage drops due to the internal resistance of the battery, see FIG. Then, the breakdown of the voltage drop will be examined by focusing on the current axis of the maximum current (peak current) of the discharge current, and a method of obtaining the negative charge capacity at two currents of the maximum current and the small current will be described.
[0046] [0046]
First, the voltage drop at the maximum current includes a voltage drop (Rj × Ip) caused by the flow of the maximum current Ip through the internal pure resistance Rj in the current charged state of the battery. The internal pure resistance Rj can be estimated by, for example, analyzing two quadratic approximation curves obtained by a pair of data obtained by sampling at the time of the high-rate discharge described above. The detailed description of is omitted. First, the voltage drop at the maximum current includes a voltage drop (Rj × Ip) caused by the flow of the maximum current Ip through the internal pure resistance Rj in the current charged state of the battery. The internal pure resistance Rj can be estimated by, for example, analyzing two quadratic metrics curves obtained by a pair of data obtained by sampling at the time of the high-rate discharge described above. The detailed description of is omitted.
[0047] [0047]
The internal pure resistance Rj includes the state of charge of the battery, that is, the increase due to the decrease in the SOC at that time, and the change due to temperature and deterioration. The increase in net resistance according to the state of charge of the battery varies between the minimum value at full charge and the maximum value at the end of discharge, and the maximum increase in net resistance voltage drop depends on the battery design specifications. This is due to an increase in the pure resistance corresponding to the difference (ΔR = Re−Rf) between the full charge pure resistance Rf and the discharge termination pure resistance Re, which is a known value that is determined, and is obtained by a calculation formula of (Re−Rf) × Ip. be able to. The internal pure resistance Rj includes the state of charge of the battery, that is, the increase due to the decrease in the SOC at that time, and the change due to temperature and deterioration. The increase in net resistance according to the state of charge This is due to an increase in the pure resistance corresponding to the of the battery varies between the minimum value at full charge and the maximum value at the end of discharge, and the maximum increase in net resistance voltage drop depends on the battery design specifications. difference (ΔR = Re−Rf) between the full charge pure resistance Rf and the discharge termination pure resistance Re, which is a known value that is determined, and is obtained by a calculation formula of (Re−Rf) × Ip. Be able to.
[0048] [0048]
Next, the voltage drop other than the voltage drop (Rj × Ip) due to the pure resistance is a voltage drop due to polarization generated in the battery. Therefore, by removing the voltage drop due to the pure resistance from the secondary approximation characteristic curve of the discharge current-terminal voltage, a secondary approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop as shown in FIG. 5 can be obtained. Next, the voltage drop other than the voltage drop (Rj × Ip) due to the pure resistance is a voltage drop due to polarization generated in the battery. Therefore, by removing the voltage drop due to the pure resistance from the secondary approximation characteristic curve of the discharge current-terminal voltage, a secondary approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop as shown in FIG. 5 can be obtained.
[0049] [0049]
According to David Linden's "Latest Battery Handbook", page 10, Figure 2.1 "Cells as a Function of Operating Current", when a large discharge current is applied to a certain degree, the polarization becomes a constant value corresponding to the magnitude of the discharge current. It can be said that there is a saturation polarization voltage drop that saturates. According to David Linden's "Latest Battery Handbook", page 10, Figure 2.1 "Cells as a Function of Operating Current", when a large discharge current is applied to a certain degree, the polarization becomes a constant value corresponding to the magnitude of the discharge current. It can be said that there is a saturation polarization voltage drop that saturates.
[0050] [0050]
Therefore, the difference ΔV between the voltage Vpp at the maximum voltage drop point of the second approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop and the terminal voltage Vx before the start of discharge is defined as the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip) at the maximum current Ip. Further, the difference ΔV is divided by the current value Ipol at that point to obtain a polarization voltage drop per unit discharge current, and this is multiplied by a small current at a high rate discharge to obtain a maximum polarization voltage drop at a small current. Can be obtained. A specific method of obtaining the saturation polarization voltage drop will be described later together with a method of obtaining a second approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop. Therefore, the difference ΔV between the voltage Vpp at the maximum voltage drop point of the second approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop and the terminal voltage Vx before the start of discharge is defined as the polarization polarization voltage drop (Vpip) at the maximum current Ip. Further, the difference ΔV is divided by the current value Ipol at that point to obtain a polarization voltage drop per unit discharge current, and this is multiplied by a small current at a high rate discharge to obtain a maximum polarization voltage drop at A small current. Can be obtained. A specific method of obtaining the saturation polarization voltage drop will be described later together with a method of obtaining a second approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop.
[0051] [0051]
Therefore, as shown in FIG. 5, the maximum voltage drop generated inside the battery when the discharge at the maximum current Ip is continued is the maximum voltage drop (Rj × Ip) due to the internal pure resistance Rj at the present time. The sum of the increase in the pure resistance voltage drop (ΔR × Ip) and the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip) is estimated as the total voltage drop (Vmax). When such a voltage drop occurs in the battery, the amount of electricity that can be discharged is reduced by the voltage drop. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 5, the maximum voltage drop generated inside the battery when the discharge at the maximum current Ip is continued is the maximum voltage drop (Rj × Ip) due to the internal pure resistance Rj at the present time. sum of the increase in the pure resistance voltage drop (ΔR × Ip) and the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip) is estimated as the total voltage drop (Vmax). When such a voltage drop occurs in the battery, the amount of electricity that can be discharged is reduced by the voltage drop.
[0052] [0052]
On the other hand, the minimum voltage drop that occurs inside the battery when it is discharged at the maximum current but does not actually exist, that is, the voltage drop (Rf × Ip) obtained by multiplying the full-charge pure resistance Rf by the maximum current Ip, By adding to the known end-of-discharge voltage (Ve), the on-load end-of-discharge voltage (Vef) is obtained as a voltage corresponding to the maximum voltage drop value allowed by the discharge at the maximum current. The discharge end voltage at load is a voltage obtained by lowering the known discharge end voltage of the battery by a pure resistance at full charge generated by the discharge of the maximum current. On the other hand, the minimum voltage drop that occurs inside the battery when it is discharged at the maximum current but does not actually exist, that is, the voltage drop (Rf x Ip) obtained by multiplying the full-charge pure resistance Rf by the maximum current Ip, By adding to the known end-of-discharge voltage (Ve), the on-load end-of-discharge voltage (Vef) is obtained as a voltage corresponding to the maximum voltage drop value allowed by the discharge at The maximum current. The discharge end voltage at load is a voltage obtained by lowering the known discharge end voltage of the battery by a pure resistance at full charge generated by the discharge of the maximum current.
[0053] [0053]
The ratio of the total voltage drop (Vmax = Rj × Ip + ΔR × Ip + Vipp) to the difference voltage (Vadc = Vf−Vef) between the on-load discharge end voltage (Vef) and the full charge open circuit voltage (Vf). (Vmax / Vadc) was subtracted from the amount of electricity originally assumed to be dischargeable to obtain an ADC rate [= 100% − (Vmax / Vadc) × 100%] indicating a rate at which discharge was actually possible, and this was measured or estimated. The amount of dischargeable electricity estimated from the OCV, that is, the value obtained by multiplying the difference (ΔSOC) between the SOCj corresponding to the OCV and the SOCef corresponding to the on-load discharge end voltage is determined by the maximum current during high-rate discharge. It is estimated as an amount of electricity (ADCip) that can be discharged when discharging is continued. The ratio of the total voltage drop (Vmax = Rj × Ip + ΔR × Ip + Vipp) to the difference voltage (Vadc = Vf−Vef) between the on-load discharge end voltage (Vef) and the full charge open circuit voltage ( Vf). (Vmax / Vadc) was subtracted from the amount of electricity originally assumed to be dischargeable to obtain an ADC rate [= 100% − (Vmax / Vadc) × 100%] indicating a rate at which discharge was actually possible, and This was measured or estimated. The amount of dischargeable electricity estimated from the OCV, that is, the value obtained by multiplying the difference (ΔSOC) between the SOCj corresponding to the OCV and the SOCef corresponding to the on-load discharge end voltage is determined By the maximum current during high-rate discharge. It is estimated as an amount of electricity (ADCip) that can be discharged when transient is continued.
[0054] [0054]
Further, for a plurality of discharge currents having a magnitude equal to or less than the maximum current, the dischargeable capacity was estimated and plotted in the same manner as in the case of the small current described above. was gotten. When this is compared with a curve B indicating the relationship between each actually measured discharge current and the amount of electricity that can be discharged, the maximum current and a sufficiently small, for example, a small current of 1/100 or less are compared with this. It was confirmed that the estimated value and the measured value were very similar. Further, for a plurality of discharge currents having a magnitude equal to or less than the maximum current, the dischargeable capacity was estimated and plotted in the same manner as in the case of the small current described above. Was gotten. When this is compared with a curve B indicating the relationship between each actually measured discharge current and the amount of electricity that can be discharged, the maximum current and a sufficiently small, for example, a small current of 1/100 or less are compared with this. It was confirmed that the estimated value and the measured value were very similar.
[0055] [0055]
Therefore, the maximum current at the time of the high-rate discharge and the relatively small predetermined small current having a high degree of coincidence with the actually measured value are experimentally referred to as the two currents I1 and I2, and the respective currents are calculated as described above. Using the estimated dischargeable capacities X1 and X2, the discharge duration determined by dividing the dischargeable capacities by I1 and I2 is set as t1 (= X1 / I1) and t2 (= X2 / I2), and the Poikelt equation is determined. Was done. In the same figure, the curve C obtained by this determination is also plotted, and the estimated curve C of the dischargeable capacity and the actually measured curve B are very different for a discharge current in a wide range from the minimum current to the maximum current. It was confirmed that it was close to Therefore, this current is determined in advance as the smaller current of the two currents. Therefore, the maximum current at the time of the high-rate discharge and the relatively small predetermined small current having a high degree of coincidence with the actually measured value are experimentally referred to as the two currents I1 and I2, and the respective currents are calculated. Using the estimated dischargeable capacities X1 and X2, the discharge duration determined by dividing the dischargeable capacities by I1 and I2 is set as t1 (= X1 / I1) and t2 (= X2 / I2), and the Poikelt equation is determined. Was done. In the same figure, the curve C obtained by this determination is also plotted, and the estimated curve C of the dischargeable capacity and the actually measured curve B are very different for a discharge current in a wide range from the minimum It was confirmed that it was close to therefore, this current is determined in advance as the smaller current of the two currents.
[0056] [0056]
The above-described second-order approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop is obtained by removing the voltage drop due to the pure resistance Rj from the second-order approximation characteristic curve of the discharge current-terminal voltage when the current is increased. The second approximation characteristic curve of the voltage drop The above-described second-order approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop is obtained by removing the voltage drop due to the pure resistance Rj from the second-order approximation characteristic curve of the discharge current-terminal voltage when the current is increased. second approximation characteristic curve of the voltage drop
V = aI 2 + BI + c V = aI 2 + BI + c
And The terminal voltage V of the battery represents a voltage drop Vo due to an internal resistance other than the pure resistance Rj of the battery. And The terminal voltage V of the battery represents a voltage drop Vo due to an internal resistance other than the pure resistance Rj of the battery.
[0057] [0057]
By differentiating this equation to find a voltage drop ΔV / ΔI due to an internal resistance other than a pure resistance per unit current, the following equation is obtained. By differentiating this equation to find a voltage drop ΔV / ΔI due to an internal resistance other than a pure resistance per unit current, the following equation is obtained.
ΔV / ΔI = 2aI + b ΔV / ΔI = 2aI + b
[0058] [0058]
Since the point at which ΔV / ΔI in this equation becomes zero is the maximum value of the approximate curve, Since the point at which ΔV / ΔI in this equation becomes zero is the maximum value of the approximate curve,
0 = 2aI + b 0 = 2aI + b
The following equation is obtained. The following equation is obtained.
I = -b / 2a I = -b / 2a
It becomes. It becomes.
[0059] [0059]
Therefore, the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip), which is the maximum polarization voltage drop at the maximum current Ip, can be obtained by substituting the current value I into an approximation formula representing a second approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop. Therefore, the polarization polarization voltage drop (Vpip), which is the maximum polarization voltage drop at the maximum current Ip, can be obtained by substituting the current value I into an approximation formula representing a second approximation characteristic curve of the polarization voltage drop.
[0060] [0060]
When the discharge is started from the non-equilibrium state where some polarization remains, the voltage corresponding to the difference between the open circuit voltage OCV in the equilibrium state and the terminal voltage estimated at the discharge start time is approximated as described above. Since it is not included in the polarization voltage drop at the maximum current Ip obtained from the equation, it is necessary to add the sum to the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip) at the maximum current obtained from the approximate equation as the saturation polarization voltage drop. When the discharge is started from the non-equilibrium state where some polarization remains, the voltage corresponding to the difference between the open circuit voltage OCV in the equilibrium state and the terminal voltage estimated at the discharge start time is approximated as described above. is not included in the polarization voltage drop at the maximum current Ip obtained from the equation, it is necessary to add the sum to the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip) at the maximum current obtained from the approximate equation as the saturation polarization voltage drop.
[0061] [0061]
On the other hand, with respect to the saturation polarization voltage drop at a small current, the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip), which is the maximum polarization voltage drop at the maximum current Ip, is divided by the current value at that point to obtain the polarization voltage drop per unit discharge current. , And by multiplying this by a small current value at the time of high-rate discharge, a saturation polarization voltage drop, which is the maximum polarization voltage drop at a small current, can be obtained. On the other hand, with respect to the saturation polarization voltage drop at a small current, the saturation polarization voltage drop (Vpip), which is the maximum polarization voltage drop at the maximum current Ip, is divided by the current value at that point to obtain the polarization voltage drop per unit discharge current., And by multiplying this by a small current value at the time of high-rate discharge, a saturation polarization voltage drop, which is the maximum polarization voltage drop at a small current, can be obtained ..
[0062] [0062]
When the discharge starts from the non-equilibrium state where some polarization remains, it corresponds to the difference between the open circuit voltage OCV in the equilibrium state estimated at the discharge start time and the terminal voltage as in the case of the maximum current. It is necessary to add the voltage to be added to the saturation polarization voltage drop at a small current as the saturation polarization voltage drop. When the discharge starts from the non-equilibrium state where some polarization remains, it corresponds to the difference between the open circuit voltage OCV in the equilibrium state estimated at the discharge start time and the terminal voltage as in the case of the maximum current. is necessary to add the voltage to be added to the polarization polarization voltage drop at a small current as the saturation polarization voltage drop.
[0063] [0063]
FIG. 2 is an explanatory diagram partially showing a schematic configuration of an apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a vehicle-mounted battery according to an embodiment of the present invention to which the method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the present invention is applied. 1 is mounted on a hybrid vehicle having a motor generator 5 in addition to the engine 3. FIG. 2 is an explanatory diagram partially showing a schematic configuration of an apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a vehicle-mounted battery according to an embodiment of the present invention to which the method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the present invention is applied. 1 is mounted on a hybrid vehicle having a motor generator 5 in addition to the engine 3.
[0064] [0064]
Normally, this hybrid vehicle travels by transmitting only the output of the engine 3 from the drive shaft 7 to the wheels 11 via the differential case 9 at normal times, and drives the motor generator 5 with electric power from the battery 13 at high load. , And the output of the motor generator 5 in addition to the output of the engine 3 is transmitted from the drive shaft 7 to the wheels 11 to perform the assist traveling. Normally, this hybrid vehicle travels by transmitting only the output of the engine 3 from the drive shaft 7 to the wheels 11 via the differential case 9 at normal times, and drives the motor generator 5 with electric power from the battery 13 at high load. , And the output of the motor generator 5 in addition to the output of the engine 3 is transmitted from the drive shaft 7 to the wheels 11 to perform the assist traveling.
[0065] [0065]
Further, the hybrid vehicle is configured so that the motor generator 5 functions as a generator (generator) during deceleration or braking, and converts the kinetic energy into electric energy to charge the battery 13. Further, the hybrid vehicle is configured so that the motor generator 5 functions as a generator (generator) during deceleration or braking, and converts the kinetic energy into electric energy to charge the battery 13.
[0066] [0066]
In the case of a vehicle, when an ignition switch or an accessory (ACC) switch is turned on, a discharge current of a battery flows with power supply to a load that is in an ON state at that time. Further, the motor generator 5 is used as a starter motor for forcibly rotating the flywheel of the engine 3 when the engine 3 is started when a starter switch (not shown) is turned on. A large inrush current flows. When the engine 3 is started by the motor generator 5 by turning on the starter switch, the starter switch is turned off and the ignition switch is turned on with the release of the operation of the ignition key (not shown). Accordingly, the discharge current flowing from the battery 13 shifts to a steady current according to the load. In the case of a vehicle, when an ignition switch or an accessory (ACC) switch is turned on, a discharge current of a battery flows with power supply to a load that is in an ON state at that time. Further, the motor generator 5 is used as a starter motor for forcibly rotating the flywheel of the engine 3 when the engine 3 is started when a starter switch (not shown) is turned on. A large inrush current flows. When the engine 3 is started by the motor generator 5 by turning on the starter switch, the starter switch is turned off and the ignition switch is turned on with the release of the operation of the ignition key (not shown). Accordingly, the discharge current flowing from the battery 13 shifts to a steady current according to the load.
[0067] [0067]
Returning to the description of the configuration, the device 1 of the present embodiment includes a discharge current I of the battery 13 for electrical components, such as the motor generator 5 functioning as a motor for assisting traveling and a starter motor, and a motor generator functioning as a generator. 5 and a voltage sensor 17 connected in parallel with the battery 13 and having a resistance value of about 1 M ohm and detecting the terminal voltage V of the battery 13. Returning to the description of the configuration, the device 1 of the present embodiment includes a discharge current I of the battery 13 for electrical components, such as the motor generator 5 functioning as a motor for assisting traveling and a starter motor, and a motor generator functioning as a generator. 5 and a voltage sensor 17 connected in parallel with the battery 13 and having a resistance value of about 1 M ohm and detecting the terminal voltage V of the battery 13.
[0068] [0068]
Further, in the device 1 of the present embodiment, the microcomputer (hereinafter, referred to as “the I / F”) in which the outputs of the current sensor 15 and the voltage sensor 17 are fetched after A / D conversion in the interface circuit (hereinafter, abbreviated as “I / F”) 21. , “Microcomputer”.) 23. Further, in the device 1 of the present embodiment, the microcomputer (hereinafter, referred to as “the I / F”) in which the outputs of the current sensor 15 and the voltage sensor 17 are fetched after A / D conversion in the interface circuit (hereinafter, abbreviated as “I / F”) 21., “Microcomputer”.) 23.
[0069] [0069]
The microcomputer 23 has a CPU 23a, a RAM 23b, and a ROM 23c. The CPU 23a is connected to the I / F 21 in addition to the RAM 23b and the ROM 23c. Switches, ignition switches and accessory switches, and switches for electrical components (loads) other than the motor generator 5 are further connected. The microcomputer 23 has a CPU 23a, a RAM 23b, and a ROM 23c. The CPU 23a is connected to the I / F 21 in addition to the RAM 23b and the ROM 23c. Switches, ignition switches and accessory switches, and switches for electrical components (loads) other than the motor generator 5 are further connected.
[0070] [0070]
The RAM 23b has a data area for storing various data and a work area used for various processing operations, and the ROM 23c stores a control program for causing the CPU 23a to perform various processing operations. The RAM 23b has a data area for storing various data and a work area used for various processing operations, and the ROM 23c stores a control program for causing the CPU 23a to perform various processing operations.
[0071] [0071]
The current value and the voltage value output from the current sensor 15 and the voltage sensor 17 are sampled at high speed in a short cycle, taken in by the CPU 23a of the microcomputer 23 through the I / F 21, and taken in by the CPU 23a. And the voltage value are used for various processes. The current value and the voltage value output from the current sensor 15 and the voltage sensor 17 are sampled at high speed in a short cycle, taken in by the CPU 23a of the microcomputer 23 through the I / F 21, and taken in by the CPU 23a. And the voltage value are used for various processes.
[0072] [0072]
Next, processing performed by the CPU 23a according to the control program stored in the ROM 23c will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG. Next, processing performed by the CPU 23a according to the control program stored in the ROM 23c will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG.
[0073] [0073]
When an ignition (IG) switch is turned on and the microcomputer 23 is started up and receives a power supply from the battery 13 to start a program, the CPU 23a starts sampling the discharge current and the terminal voltage in a relatively long sampling cycle (step S1). A process of reading measurement data via the I / F 21 is executed by pairing an A / D conversion value between the discharge current I of the battery 13 detected by the current sensor 15 and the terminal voltage V of the battery 13 detected by the voltage sensor 17. Then, it is monitored that the discharge current exceeds a predetermined value. When the discharge current exceeds a predetermined value, it is determined that the rush current has started to flow, and the sampling cycle is switched to a short cycle of, for example, 100 μsec, and processing for obtaining an approximate expression is started (step S2). This is performed in the middle of processing for obtaining an approximate expression for detecting the max When an ignition (IG) switch is turned on and the microcomputer 23 is started up and receives a power supply from the battery 13 to start a program, the CPU 23a starts sampling the discharge current and the terminal voltage in a relatively long sampling cycle ( step S1). A process of reading measurement data via the I / F 21 is executed by pairing an A / D conversion value between the discharge current I of the battery 13 detected by the current sensor 15 and the terminal voltage V of the battery 13 detected by the voltage sensor 17. Then, it is monitored that the discharge current exceeds a predetermined value. When the discharge current exceeds a predetermined value, it is determined that the rush current has started to flow, and the sampling cycle is switched to a short cycle of, for example, 100 μsec, and processing for obtaining an approximate expression is started (step S2). This is performed in the middle of processing for obtaining an approximate expression for detecting the max imum current (peak current) of the discharge current. imum current (peak current) of the discharge current.
[0074] [0074]
In addition, the process of obtaining the approximate expression uses the least squares method. Based on the sampled discharge current and the terminal voltage, the calculation of each Σ term for obtaining the approximate expression when the current increases is performed, and the sampling value is continuously calculated. When the current has decreased n times, it is determined that the discharge current has started to decrease from the peak value, and thereafter, based on the sampled discharge current and the terminal voltage, each equation for obtaining an approximate expression at the time of current decrease is determined. Calculate the Σ term. Thereafter, a process for monitoring whether the discharge current exceeds a predetermined value or not, and when the discharge current decreases beyond the predetermined value, determining that the inrush current has ended and obtaining an approximate expression. Is completed (step S3), and an approximate expression at the time of current In addition, the process of obtaining the approximate expression uses the least squares method. Based on the sampled discharge current and the terminal voltage, the calculation of each Σ term for obtaining the approximate expression when the current increases is performed, and the sampling value is continuously calculated. When the current has decreased n times, it is determined that the discharge current has started to decrease from the peak value, and subsequently, based on the sampled discharge current and the terminal voltage, each equation for obtaining an approximate expression at the time of current decrease is determined. Calculate the Σ term. Approximate, a process for monitoring whether the discharge current exceeds a predetermined value or not, and when the discharge current decreases beyond the predetermined value, determining that the inrush current has ended and obtaining an approximate expression. Is completed (step S3), and an approximate expression at the time of current increase is calculated by using each calculated Σ term at the time of current increase, and an approximate expression at the time of current decrease is calculated by using each of the calculated Σ terms at current decrease ( Step S4). increase is calculated by using each calculated Σ term at the time of current increase, and an approximate expression at the time of current decrease is calculated by using each of the calculated Σ terms at current decrease (Step S4).
[0075] [0075]
Although not explicitly shown in the flowchart of FIG. 7, it is naturally necessary to determine whether the obtained approximate expression is valid, and this determination determines each coefficient of the approximate expression. This can be performed by comparing the correlation coefficient between the current increase and the current decrease, which can be obtained by using the calculation result of each Σ term, and the magnitude of the peak current with a predetermined value. In particular, by providing two predetermined values, an error factor can be eliminated. Although not explicitly shown in the flowchart of FIG. 7, it is naturally necessary to determine whether the obtained approximate expression is valid, and this determination determines each coefficient of the approximate expression. This can be performed by comparing the correlation coefficient between the current increase. In particular, by providing two predetermined values, an error factor can be eliminated. And the current decrease, which can be obtained by using the calculation result of each Σ term, and the magnitude of the peak current with a predetermined value.
[0076] [0076]
An arithmetic process for calculating the pure resistance of the battery from the quadratic approximation formula obtained as described above is executed (step S5). In this calculation process, when the voltage drop due to the concentration polarization component is included in the quadratic expression, a correction quadratic approximation expression calculation process for obtaining a correction quadratic approximation expression excluding the concentration polarization voltage drop is performed. An arithmetic process for calculating the pure resistance of the battery is performed using the quadratic approximation formula. In this case, two modified quadratic approximations of the current-voltage characteristic with respect to the increasing discharge current and the decreasing discharge current are performed. After calculating the differential value at the peak value of the equation, an operation is performed to obtain an intermediate value between the two differential values as the An arithmetic process for calculating the pure resistance of the battery from the quadratic approximation formula obtained as described above is executed (step S5). In this arithmetic process, when the voltage drop due to the concentration polarization component is included in the quadratic expression, a An arithmetic process for calculating the pure resistance of the battery is performed using the quadratic approximation formula. In this case, two modified quadratic approximations of the correction quadratic approximation calculation process for obtaining a correction quadratic approximation expression excluding the concentration polarization voltage drop is performed. After calculating the differential value at the peak value of the equation, an operation is performed to obtain an intermediate value between the two differential values ​​as the current-voltage characteristic with respect to the increasing discharge current and the decreasing discharge current are performed. pure resistance of the battery. Then, the obtained pure resistance of the battery is stored in the data area of the RAM 23b for use for various purposes. pure resistance of the battery. Then, the obtained pure resistance of the battery is stored in the data area of ​​the RAM 23b for use for various purposes.
[0077] [0077]
There are two methods for obtaining an intermediate value between the differential values, depending on how the inrush current flows. There are two methods for obtaining an intermediate value between the differential values, depending on how the inrush current flows.
When the time in the increasing direction and the time in the decreasing direction of the inrush current are substantially equal, an operation is performed to find the average value of the two differential values as the pure resistance Rj. When the time in the increasing direction and the time in the decreasing direction of the inrush current are substantially equal, an operation is performed to find the average value of the two differential values ​​as the pure resistance Rj.
[0078] [0078]
On the other hand, when the time in the increasing direction and the time in the decreasing direction of the inrush current are greatly different, the derivative of the discharge current is calculated as the derivative of the peak value of the modified quadratic approximation of the current-voltage characteristic with respect to the increasing discharge current. The derivative of the peak value of the two modified quadratic approximations of the current-voltage characteristic with respect to the decreasing discharge current multiplied by the product of the ratio of the time that the increasing discharge current flows to the total time, and the total value of the discharging current A calculation is performed to obtain an addition value obtained by adding a value obtained by multiplying the ratio of the time during which the discharge current decreases in time to the time as a pure resistance. In any case, the pure resistance Rj of the battery is obtained as an intermediate value betwee On the other hand, when the time in the increasing direction and the time in the decreasing direction of the inrush current are greatly different, the derivative of the discharge current is calculated as the derivative of the peak value of the modified quadratic comparison of the current -voltage characteristic with respect to the increasing discharge current. The derivative of the peak value of the two modified quadratic estimates of the current-voltage characteristic with respect to the decreasing discharge current multiplied by the product of the ratio of the time that the increasing discharge current flows to the total time, and the total value of the electrically characteristic A calculation is performed to obtain an addition value obtained by adding a value obtained by multiplying the ratio of the time during which the discharge current decreases in time to the time as a pure resistance. In any case, the pure resistance Rj of the battery is obtained as an intermediate value betwee n the two differential values. n the two differential values.
[0079] [0079]
In the above-described example, both the first and second approximation expressions are quadratic approximation expressions. However, when the first approximation expression is a first-order approximation expression, the process of obtaining the modified approximation expression is naturally unnecessary. . In this case, the gradient of the linear expression is used instead of the differential value. In the above-described example, both the first and second approximation expressions are quadratic approximation expressions. However, when the first approximation expression is a first-order approximation expression, the process of obtaining the modified approximation expression is naturally unnecessary. In this case , the gradient of the linear expression is used instead of the differential value.
[0080] [0080]
Next, using the pure resistance Rj calculated in step S5 described above, the voltage drop due to the pure resistance is deleted from the approximation formula for the current increase calculated in step S4. An approximate expression for the voltage drop, that is, an approximate expression for polarization when the current increases is obtained (step S6). The pure resistance calculated in step S and the polarization approximation formula obtained in step S6 are used to calculate the pure resistance voltage drop and the saturation polarization voltage drop in the total voltage drop estimating process in step S7. Next, using the pure resistance Rj calculated in step S5 described above, the voltage drop due to the pure resistance is deleted from the approximation formula for the current increase calculated in step S4. An approximate expression for the voltage drop, that is, an approximate expression for polarization when the current increases is obtained (step S6). The pure resistance calculated in step S and the polarization approximation formula obtained in step S6 are used to calculate the pure resistance voltage drop and the saturation polarization voltage drop in the total voltage drop estimating process in step S7.
[0081] [0081]
In the total voltage drop estimating process of step S7, the pure resistance voltage drop (Rf × Ip) by the battery pure resistance Rj calculated in step S5 and the net resistance by the maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery. The maximum voltage including the polarization that increases toward the saturation point when the discharge is continued at the maximum current, including the resistance increase voltage drop and the saturation polarization voltage drop Vpip which is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization generated by the maximum current. Estimate the total voltage drop, which is the drop. In the total voltage drop estimating process of step S7, the pure resistance voltage drop (Rf × Ip) by the battery pure resistance Rj calculated in step S5 and the net resistance by the maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery. The maximum voltage including the polarization that increases toward the saturation point when the discharge is continued at the maximum current, including the resistance increase voltage drop and the saturation polarization voltage drop Vpip which is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization generated by the maximum current. Estimate the total voltage drop, which is the drop.
[0082] [0082]
The net resistance voltage drop is obtained by multiplying the calculated net resistance Rj by the maximum current Ip, and includes a net resistance variation that increases or decreases due to the state of charge, temperature, or deterioration. The pure resistance increase voltage drop is generated by the maximum increase of the pure resistance according to the state of charge of the battery, and is a known value determined by battery design specifications, a full charge pure resistance Rf and a discharge end pure resistance Re. The difference (ΔR = Re−Rf) is caused by an increase in the pure resistance, and can be obtained by a calculation formula of (Re−Rf) × Ip. For the saturation polarization voltage drop Vpip, the maximum point of the polarization voltage drop with respect to the current is estimated using the approximate expression of the polarization voltage drop at the time of current increase obtained by the processing in step S6, and the polarization voltage drop at the esti The net resistance voltage drop is obtained by multiplying the calculated net resistance Rj by the maximum current Ip, and includes a net resistance variation that increases or decreases due to the state of charge, temperature, or deterioration. The pure resistance increase voltage drop is generated. by the maximum increase of the pure resistance according to the state of charge of the battery, and is a known value determined by battery design specifications, a full charge pure resistance Rf and a discharge end pure resistance Re. The difference (ΔR = Re− Rf) is caused by an increase in the pure resistance, and can be obtained by a calculation formula of (Re−Rf) × Ip. For the saturation polarization voltage drop Vpip, the maximum point of the polarization voltage drop with respect to the current is estimated using the approximate expression of the polarization voltage drop at the time of current increase obtained by the processing in step S6, and the polarization voltage drop at the esti mated maximum point is calculated. By dividing by the current for generating the polarization voltage, a constant value independent of the current is obtained, and this constant value can be obtained by multiplying by the maximum current Ip. mated maximum point is calculated. By dividing by the current for generating the polarization voltage, a constant value independent of the current is obtained, and this constant value can be obtained by multiplying by the maximum current Ip.
[0083] [0083]
When the maximum voltage drop is obtained by the total voltage drop estimation processing in step S7, the ADC rate calculation processing is performed in the next step S8. The ADC rate is a ratio of the maximum voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage estimated when the maximum current during the high-rate discharge to the load is kept flowing to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery at the time of discharge at the maximum current. It is the ratio of the amount of electricity that can actually be discharged, which is reduced by When the maximum voltage drop is obtained by the total voltage drop estimation processing in step S7, the ADC rate calculation processing is performed in the next step S8. The ADC rate is a ratio of the maximum voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage estimated when the maximum current during the high-rate discharge to the load is kept flowing to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery at the time of discharge at the maximum current. It is the ratio of the amount of electricity that can actually be discharged, which is reduced by
[0084] [0084]
That is, the ADC rate is the total voltage drop (Vmax = Rj × Ip + ΔR × Ip + Vipp) occupying the difference voltage (Vad = Vf−Vef) between the discharge end voltage at load (Vef) and the full charge open circuit voltage (Vf). (Vmax / Vadc) is subtracted from the amount of electricity originally assumed to be dischargeable to indicate the actual dischargeable ratio, and is obtained by executing a calculation of 100% − (Vmax / Vadc) × 100%. Can be That is, the ADC rate is the total voltage drop (Vmax = Rj × Ip + ΔR × Ip + Vipp) occupying the difference voltage (Vad = Vf−Vef) between the discharge end voltage at load (Vef) and the full charge open circuit voltage (Vf). (Vmax / Vadc) is subtracted from the amount of electricity originally assumed to be dischargeable to indicate the actual dischargeable ratio, and is obtained by executing a calculation of 100% − (Vmax / Vadc) × 100%. Can be
[0085] [0085]
After the calculation of the ADC rate in step S8 is completed, an ADC calculation process for obtaining an ADC to be estimated using the ADC rate is performed (step S9). Specifically, the ADC rate is obtained by multiplying the ADC rate by a dischargeable electric quantity estimated from the actually measured or estimated OCV, that is, the difference (ΔSOC) between SOCj corresponding to the OCV and SOCef corresponding to the discharge end voltage at load. Is estimated as the amount of electricity (ADCip) that can be discharged when the discharge is continued at the maximum current during the high-rate discharge. Further, the dischargeable capacity (ADCIs) at a predetermined small current Is is obtained in the same manner. After the calculation of the ADC rate in step S8 is completed, an ADC calculation process for obtaining an ADC to be estimated using the ADC rate is performed (step S9). Specifically, the ADC rate is obtained by multiplying the ADC rate by a dischargeable. electric quantity estimated from the actually measured or estimated OCV, that is, the difference (ΔSOC) between SOCj corresponding to the OCV and SOCef corresponding to the discharge end voltage at load. Is estimated as the amount of electricity (ADCip) that can be discharged Further, the dischargeable capacity (ADCIs) at a predetermined small current Is is obtained in the same manner. When the discharge is continued at the maximum current during the high-rate discharge.
[0086] [0086]
The ADC with two currents estimated by the processing in step S9, that is, the maximum discharge current at the time of high rate discharge and the dischargeable electric quantity that can be continuously discharged with a small current are used in the subsequent relational expression determination processing (step S10). ). The relational expression determination processing in step S10 is, as described above, an arithmetic processing for determining n and C in the Poykert equation. The ADC with two currents estimated by the processing in step S9, that is, the maximum discharge current at the time of high rate discharge and the dischargeable electric quantity that can be continuously discharged with a small current are used in the subsequent relational expression determination processing (step S10).). The relational expression determination processing in step S10 is, as described above, an arithmetic processing for determining n and C in the Poykert equation.
[0087] [0087]
By determining the relational expression of the battery by the processing in step S10, it is possible to obtain a capacity that can be discharged with a current of an arbitrary magnitude, that is, a dischargeable capacity. Then, the relational expression determined in step S10 is used in other processing in the next step S11. By determining the relational expression of the battery by the processing in step S10, it is possible to obtain a capacity that can be discharged with a current of an arbitrary magnitude, that is, a dischargeable capacity. Then, the relational expression determined in step S10 is used in other processing in the next step S11.
[0088] [0088]
In the other processing in step S11, the dischargeable capacity at an arbitrary magnitude of the discharge current is set to, for example, when idling stop control is performed during idling stop control, the idling stop is actually executed. When judging whether the engine can be started, it can be used as a guide for judging whether or not the engine can be restarted after idling stop. Also, information is provided as a guide for determining how much margin a battery has in order to drive various electric loads. Note that the processing shown in the flowchart of FIG. 7 is continuously executed as long as the ignition switch is ON (step S12). In the other processing in step S11, the dischargeable capacity at an arbitrary magnitude of the discharge current is set to, for example, when idling stop control is performed during idling stop control, the idling stop is actually executed. When judging whether the engine can be started, it can be used as a guide for judging whether or not the engine can be restarted after idling stop. Also, information is provided as a guide for determining how much margin a battery has in order to drive various electric loads. Note that the processing shown in the flowchart of FIG. 7 is continuously executed as long as the ignition switch is ON (step S12).
[0089] [0089]
In the in-vehicle battery dischargeable capacity estimation device 1 of the present embodiment, the CPU 23a that performs the processing in the flowchart shown in FIG. 7 constitutes the device for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery shown in FIG. A dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1 for estimating a dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the current based on a data pair of a discharge current and a battery terminal voltage obtained at the time of discharging; The present invention is applied to the battery based on a general formula prepared in advance indicating a relationship between dischargeable capacities capable of continuously discharging current and a relationship between current and dischargeable capacity estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimation means. Functioning as a relational expression determining means 23a-2 for determining a relational expression indicating a relation between a current and a discha In the in-vehicle battery dischargeable capacity estimation device 1 of the present embodiment, the CPU 23a that performs the processing in the flowchart shown in FIG. 7 calculating the device for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery shown in FIG. A dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1 for estimating a dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously relating the current based on a data pair of a discharge current and a battery terminal voltage obtained at the time of similarly; The present invention is applied to the battery based on a General formula prepared in advance indicating a relationship between dischargeable capacities capable of continuously flowing current and a relationship between current and dischargeable capacity estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimation means. Functioning as a relational expression determining means 23a-2 for determining a relational expression indicating a relation between a current and a discha rgeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current. It is possible to estimate the discharge capacity that can be sustained discharge any amount of current by using a relational expression determined by relation determining unit 23a-2. It is possible to estimate the discharge capacity that can be sustained discharge any amount of current by using a relational expression determined by relation determining unit 23a-2.
[0090] [0090]
When functioning as the dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1, the CPU 23a further includes a voltage drop estimating means for estimating a voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when two currents are continuously supplied to the load at the time of high-rate discharge. Discharge that can continuously discharge two currents from a battery through the load, respectively, by reducing the amount of undischargeable electricity obtained based on the estimated voltage drop from the amount of electricity that can be discharged in an arbitrary charging state. It also functions as a dischargeable electric quantity estimating means for estimating a possible electric quantity. When functioning as the dischargeable capacity estimating means 23a-1, the CPU 23a further includes a voltage drop estimating means for estimating a voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when two currents are continuously supplied to the load at the time of high-rate discharge. Discharge that can continuously discharge two currents from a battery through the load, respectively, by reducing the amount of undischargeable electricity obtained based on the estimated voltage drop from the amount of electricity that can be discharged in an arbitrary charging state. It also functions as a dischargeable electric quantity estimating means for estimating a possible electric quantity.
[0091] [0091]
Therefore, the CPU 23a estimates the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents at the time of high-rate discharge to the load continue to flow, and uses the amount of undischargeable electricity obtained based on the estimated voltage drop as an arbitrary charge state. Since the amount of electricity reduced from the amount of electricity that can be discharged is estimated as the amount of dischargeable electricity that can continuously discharge the maximum current from the battery through the load, the discharge obtained based on the estimated voltage drop As long as there is an amount of electricity that is less than the amount of electricity that cannot be discharged in an arbitrary charged state, the amount of dischargeable electricity of the battery that can continuously flow two currents through the load can be known. Therefore, the CPU 23a estimates the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents at the time of high-rate discharge to the load continue to flow, and uses the amount of undischargeable electricity obtained based on the estimated voltage drop as an arbitrary Since the amount of electricity reduced from the amount of electricity that can be discharged is estimated as the amount of dischargeable electricity that can continuously discharge the maximum current from the battery through the load, the discharge obtained based on the estimated voltage drop As long as there is an amount of electricity that is less than the amount of electricity that cannot be discharged in an arbitrary charged state, the amount of dischargeable electricity of the battery that can continuously flow two currents through the load can be known.
[0092] [0092]
The CPU 23a further obtains a ratio of the estimated voltage drop to a difference voltage between the known open circuit voltage at the time of full charge of the battery and the discharge end voltage at the time of the load at which the two currents cannot be discharged through the load. Among the amounts of electricity that can be discharged to the on-load discharge end voltage according to the state of charge of the battery at the time of rate discharge, the amount of electricity obtained by subtracting from the arbitrary amount of electricity by the obtained ratio is estimated as the amount of dischargeable electricity. Function. The CPU 23a further obtains a ratio of the estimated voltage drop to a difference voltage between the known open circuit voltage at the time of full charge of the battery and the discharge end voltage at the time of the load at which the two currents cannot be discharged Through the load. Among the amounts of electricity that can be discharged to the on-load discharge end voltage according to the state of charge of the battery at the time of rate discharge, the amount of electricity obtained by subtracting from the arbitrary amount of electricity. by the obtained ratio is estimated as the amount of dischargeable electricity. Function.
[0093] [0093]
Therefore, the CPU 23a obtains the ratio of the estimated voltage drop to the difference voltage between the known open circuit voltage at the time of full charge of the battery and the discharge end voltage at the time of the load at which the two currents cannot be discharged through the load. Of the amount of electricity that can be discharged to the discharge end voltage at the time of load according to the state of charge of the battery at the time of rate discharge, the amount of electricity obtained by subtracting from the arbitrary amount of electricity by the obtained ratio is estimated as the dischargeable capacity. (2) The amount of electricity that can be easily discharged at any time using the maximum voltage drop ratio estimated at the time of high-rate discharge, obtained for a difference voltage that can be predetermined as a known value when the current is determined. You can ask. Therefore, the CPU 23a obtains the ratio of the estimated voltage drop to the difference voltage between the known open circuit voltage at the time of full charge of the battery and the discharge end voltage at the time of the load at which the two currents cannot be Of the amount of electricity that can be discharged to the discharge end voltage at the time of load according to the state of charge of the battery at the time of rate discharge, the amount of electricity obtained by subtracting from the arbitrary amount of electricity by the obtained ratio is estimated as the dischargeable capacity. (2) The amount of electricity that can be easily discharged at any time using the maximum voltage drop ratio estimated at the time of high-rate discharge, obtained for a difference voltage that can be predetermined as a known value when the current is determined. You can ask.
[0094] [0094]
The CPU 23a also estimates a pure resistance voltage drop due to the pure resistance of the battery estimated at the time of high rate discharge, calculates a pure resistance increase voltage drop due to a maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery, and It functions to estimate the saturation polarization voltage drop, which is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization caused by the current, and estimates the maximum voltage drop using the estimated or calculated voltage. It becomes the maximum voltage drop including the polarization that increases toward the point, and the estimated pure resistance voltage drop also includes the pure resistance variation that increases and decreases due to the state of charge, temperature, and deterioration. The amount of dischargeable electricity of the battery that can reliably drive the load that needs to flow can be properly known, including all fluctuation factors. The CPU 23a also estimates a pure resistance voltage drop due to the pure resistance of the battery estimated at the time of high rate discharge, calculates a pure resistance increase voltage drop due to a maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery, and It functions to estimate the saturation voltage drop, which is the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization caused by the current, and estimates the maximum voltage drop using the estimated or calculated voltage. It becomes the maximum voltage drop including the equivalence that increases toward the point, and the estimated pure resistance voltage drop also includes the pure resistance variation that increases and decreases due to the state of charge, temperature, and deterioration. The amount of dischargeable electricity of the battery that can reliably drive the load that needs to flow can be properly known, including all fluctuation factors.
[0095] [0095]
The CPU 23a also calculates an approximate curve expression of a current-voltage characteristic created based on a data pair obtained by periodically measuring a discharge current at the time of high-rate discharge to the load and a battery terminal voltage corresponding to the discharge current. Obtain an approximate curve expression of the current-polarization characteristic of only the polarization resistance voltage drop excluding the pure resistance voltage drop, and estimate the maximum point of the polarization voltage drop for the current using the approximate curve expression of the current-polarization characteristic, The estimated polarization voltage drop is defined as the saturation polarization voltage drop at the maximum current, and the polarization voltage drop at the estimated maximum point is divided by the current generating the polarization voltage to obtain a constant saturation polarization resistance independent of the current. It functions to estimate the volta The CPU 23a also calculates an approximate curve expression of a current-voltage characteristic created based on a data pair obtained by periodically measuring a discharge current at the time of high-rate discharge to the load and a battery terminal voltage corresponding to the discharge current. Obtain an approximate curve expression of the current-polarization characteristic of only the polarization resistance voltage drop excluding the pure resistance voltage drop, and estimate the maximum point of the polarization voltage drop for the current using the approximate curve expression of the current-polarization characteristic, The estimated maximum point is divided by the current generating the polarization voltage to obtain a constant saturation voltage drop independent of the current. It functions to estimate the volta ge drop obtained by multiplying the obtained saturated polarization resistance by the small current as the saturated polarization voltage drop at the small current, and estimate the voltage drop due to the pure resistance at the high rate discharge. Using a pure resistance estimated for the saturation voltage drop due to the polarization can be estimated. Using a pure resistance estimated for the saturation voltage. Using a pure resistance estimated for the saturation voltage. ge drop obtained by multiplying the obtained saturated polarization resistance by the small current as the saturated polarization voltage drop at the small current, and estimate the voltage drop due to the pure resistance at the high rate discharge. drop due to the polarization can be estimated.
[0096] [0096]
In the above description, no particular reference has been made except for the application of the vehicle-mounted battery. However, the present invention can be effectively applied to appropriately know the state of charge of the battery and efficiently use the battery. In the above description, no particular reference has been made except for the application of the vehicle-mounted battery. However, the present invention can be effectively applied to appropriately know the state of charge of the battery and efficiently use the battery.
[0097] [0097]
In the specification of the present application, a terminal voltage affected by polarization or the like is referred to as an open circuit voltage, and a terminal voltage in an equilibrium state is referred to as an open circuit voltage. In the specification of the present application, a terminal voltage affected by polarization or the like is referred to as an open circuit voltage, and a terminal voltage in an equilibrium state is referred to as an open circuit voltage.
[0098] [0098]
Further, the present invention can be applied to estimation of the open circuit voltage of a battery mounted on various vehicles such as a general 14V vehicle, a multi-powered vehicle such as 14V and 42V, an electric vehicle, and a normal gasoline vehicle. It goes without saying that there is something. Further, the present invention can be applied to estimation of the open circuit voltage of a battery mounted on various vehicles such as a general 14V vehicle, a multi-powered vehicle such as 14V and 42V, an electric vehicle, and a normal gasoline vehicle. It goes without saying that there is something.
[0099] [0099]
Although not mentioned in the above embodiment, in the battery, physical or chemical deterioration such as lack of an effectively functioning portion of the battery electrode plate or deterioration or reduction of the electrolyte occurs, It is known to progress over time. Therefore, the ratio of the amount of dischargeable electricity at any time to the amount of initially dischargeable electricity of the non-deteriorated battery, or the ratio of the change in the state of charge and the open circuit voltage due to charging and discharging different from the initial relationship, for example, By taking the opportunity to estimate or measure the voltage, it is obtained in advance as the degree of deterioration, and by multiplying this by the dischargeable capacity estimated and obtained by the present invention as described above, the discharge corrected for the change due to the degree of deterioration is obtained. The available capacity can be estimated. Although not mentioned in the above embodiment, in the battery, physical or chemical deterioration such as lack of an effectively functioning portion of the battery electrode plate or deterioration or reduction of the electrolyte occurs, It is known to progress over time. Therefore, the ratio of the amount of dischargeable electricity at any time to the amount of initially dischargeable electricity of the non-deteriorated battery, or the ratio of the change in the state of charge and the open circuit voltage due to charging and efficiently different from the initial relationship, for example, By taking the opportunity to estimate or measure the voltage, it is obtained in advance as the degree of deterioration, and by multiplying this by the dischargeable capacity estimated and obtained by the present invention as described above, the discharge corrected for the change Due to the degree of deterioration is obtained. The available capacity can be estimated.
[0100] [0100]
【The invention's effect】 [The invention's effect]
As described above, according to the first to eleventh aspects of the present invention, the magnitude of the discharge current varies according to the magnitude of the discharge current so as to reliably drive various loads having varying degrees of importance required depending on the situation. It is possible to provide a method and apparatus for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can estimate the amount of electricity to be discharged as the dischargeable capacity. As described above, according to the first to eleventh aspects of the present invention, the magnitude of the discharge current varies according to the magnitude of the discharge current so as to reliably drive various loads having varying degrees of importance required depending on the situation. is possible to provide a method and apparatus for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can estimate the amount of electricity to be discharged as the dischargeable capacity.
[0101] [0101]
According to the first aspect of the present invention, as long as there is a remaining dischargeable capacity for a discharge current of an arbitrary magnitude, which is estimated by a relational expression, a load which needs to flow a current of an arbitrary magnitude is surely driven. It is possible to provide a method of estimating and estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can manage the dischargeable capacity of the battery. According to the first aspect of the present invention, as long as there is a remaining dischargeable capacity for a discharge current of an arbitrary magnitude, which is estimated by a relational expression, a load which needs to flow a current of an arbitrary magnitude is surely driven. It is possible to provide a method of estimating and estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can manage the dischargeable capacity of the battery.
[0102] [0102]
According to the second aspect of the present invention, the duration t for an arbitrary magnitude of the discharge current I can be obtained from the relational expression indicating the relation between the two currents determined for the battery and the estimated dischargeable capacity. By taking the product of the two, it is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can estimate a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude. According to the second aspect of the present invention, the duration t for an arbitrary magnitude of the discharge current I can be obtained from the relational expression indicating the relation between the two currents determined for the battery and the estimated dischargeable capacity. By taking the product of the two, it is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can estimate a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously relating a current of an arbitrary magnitude.
[0103] [0103]
According to the third aspect of the present invention, in determining the constant of the Pokert's equation, two currents of the maximum current and the small current at the time of high-rate discharge are used, so that the relational expression is estimated with relatively high accuracy. It is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery that can be performed by using a dischargeable capacity that can be used. According to the third aspect of the present invention, in determining the constant of the Pokert's equation, two currents of the maximum current and the small current at the time of high-rate discharge are used, so that the relational expression is estimated with relatively high accuracy. It is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery that can be performed by using a dischargeable capacity that can be used.
[0104] [0104]
According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to estimate a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging an arbitrary current of the battery by using the latest relational expression reflecting a change in the state of the battery. It is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery that can be performed. According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to estimate a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously flowing an arbitrary current of the battery by using the latest relational expression reflecting a change in the state of the battery. It is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery that can be performed.
[0105] [0105]
According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can determine a relational expression based on a dischargeable capacity reflecting a voltage drop generated inside the battery due to a discharge current. According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can determine a relational expression based on a dischargeable capacity reflecting a voltage drop generated inside the battery due to a discharge current ..
[0106] [0106]
According to the sixth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can determine a relational expression based on a dischargeable capacity reflecting a voltage drop generated inside the battery by two discharge currents. . According to the sixth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, which can determine a relational expression based on a dischargeable capacity reflecting a voltage drop generated inside the battery by two discharge currents. ..
[0107] [0107]
According to the seventh aspect of the present invention, if the two currents are determined, they can be predetermined as known values, and the voltage drop is estimated at the time of high-rate discharge. It is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery that can easily obtain the ratio. According to the seventh aspect of the present invention, if the two currents are determined, they can be predetermined as known values, and the voltage drop is estimated at the time of high-rate discharge. It is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery that can easily obtain the ratio.
[0108] [0108]
According to the invention as set forth in claim 8, the maximum voltage drop including the polarization that increases toward the saturation point when the discharge is continued at two currents is obtained, and the estimated pure resistance voltage drop includes a charge state, Includes the change in pure resistance that increases and decreases due to temperature and deterioration, and allows the relational formula to be determined accurately with the dischargeable capacity reflecting the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to two discharge currents. A capacity estimation method can be provided. According to the invention as set forth in claim 8, the maximum voltage drop including the polarization that increases toward the saturation point when the discharge is continued at two currents is obtained, and the estimated pure resistance voltage drop includes a charge state, Includes the change A capacity estimation method can be provided. In pure resistance that increases and decreases due to temperature and deterioration, and allows the relational formula to be determined accurately with the dischargeable capacity reflecting the voltage drop generated inside the battery due to two discharge currents.
[0109] [0109]
According to the ninth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to accurately estimate the saturation voltage drop due to polarization for determining the relational expression by using the estimated pure resistance for estimating the voltage drop due to the pure resistance during high-rate discharge. It is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery that can be performed. According to the ninth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to accurately estimate the saturation voltage drop due to polarization for determining the relational expression by using the estimated pure resistance for estimating the voltage drop due to the pure resistance during high-rate discharge. It is possible to provide a method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery that can be performed.
[0110] [0110]
According to the tenth aspect of the present invention, even if the battery is deteriorated, it is possible to manage the dischargeable capacity of the battery that can reliably drive a load that needs to flow a current of an arbitrary magnitude. A capacity estimation method can be provided. According to the tenth aspect of the present invention, even if the battery is deteriorated, it is possible to manage the dischargeable capacity of the battery that can reliably drive a load that needs to flow a current of an arbitrary magnitude. A capacity estimation method can be provided.
[0111] [0111]
According to the eleventh aspect of the present invention, as long as there is a residual amount of dischargeable electricity for an arbitrary magnitude of discharge current estimated by the relational expression, a load that needs to flow an arbitrary magnitude current can be reliably set. It is possible to provide an apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery that can manage the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can be driven. According to the eleventh aspect of the present invention, as long as there is a residual amount of dischargeable electricity for an arbitrary magnitude of discharge current estimated by the relational expression, a load that needs to flow an arbitrary magnitude current can be reliably set. is possible to provide an apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery that can manage the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can be driven.
[Brief description of the drawings] [Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a basic configuration of an apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the present invention. FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a basic configuration of an apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a configuration diagram showing an embodiment of an estimating apparatus of the present invention for performing the method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery of the present invention. FIG. 2 is a configuration diagram showing an embodiment of an estimating apparatus of the present invention for performing the method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a graph showing changes in discharge current and battery terminal voltage during high-rate discharge. FIG. 3 is a graph showing changes in discharge current and battery terminal voltage during high-rate discharge.
FIG. 4 is a graph used to explain the principle of the dischargeable capacity estimation method of the present invention. FIG. 4 is a graph used to explain the principle of the dischargeable capacity estimation method of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a graph used to explain how to estimate a saturation polarization voltage drop in FIG. 4; FIG. 5 is a graph used to explain how to estimate a saturation polarization voltage drop in FIG. 4;
FIG. 6 is a graph used to explain a method of determining Pokert's equation as a relational equation of a specific battery and to compare the determined relational equation with an actual measurement curve. FIG. 6 is a graph used to explain a method of determining Pokert's equation as a relational equation of a specific battery and to compare the determined relational equation with an actual measurement curve.
FIG. 7 is a flowchart showing a main process performed by a microcomputer in FIG. 2 according to a predetermined program for estimating a dischargeable battery capacity. FIG. 7 is a flowchart showing a main process performed by a microcomputer in FIG. 2 according to a predetermined program for estimating a dischargeable battery capacity.
[Explanation of symbols] [Explanation of symbols]
23a-1 Dischargeable Capacity Estimating Means (CPU) 23a-1 Dischargeable Capacity Estimating Means (CPU)
23a-2 Relational expression determining means (CPU) 23a-2 Relational expression determining means (CPU)

Claims (11)

  1. バッテリの放電可能な容量を推定する方法であって、
    任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することのできる放電可能容量を示す一般式を予め用意し、
    バッテリの高率放電時の放電電流とバッテリ端子電圧とのデータ対から得た放電特性に基づいて、特定の大きさの放電電流を持続的に放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能容量を推定し、
    該放電電流と推定した放電可能容量との関係を前記一般式に適用して、当該バッテリの任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す関係式を定め、
    該関係式を用いて任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を推定するようにしたことを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法。 A method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery, which comprises estimating the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude using the relational expression. A method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, A method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery,
    A general formula indicating a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of any magnitude is prepared in advance, A general formula indicating a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously flowing a current of any magnitude is prepared in advance,
    Estimate the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can continuously discharge a specific amount of discharge current based on the discharge characteristics obtained from a data pair of the discharge current and the battery terminal voltage during high-rate discharge of the battery And Estimate the dischargeable capacity of a battery that can continuously discharge a specific amount of discharge current based on the discharge characteristics obtained from a data pair of the discharge current and the battery terminal voltage during high-rate discharge of the battery And
    By applying the relationship between the discharge current and the estimated dischargeable capacity to the general formula, a relational expression indicating the relationship between the dischargeable capacity that can continuously discharge a current of any magnitude of the battery is determined. , By applying the relationship between the discharge current and the estimated dischargeable capacity to the general formula, a relational expression indicating the relationship between the dischargeable capacity that can continuously discharge a current of any magnitude of the battery is determined.,
    A method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, wherein the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated using the relational expression. A method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, wherein the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously communicating a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated using the relational expression.
  2. 前記一般式がポイケルトの式I ・t=C
    (式中、Iは放電電流、tは放電持続時間、nは放電電流によって放電可能容量が変わる程度を示す目安となる1.1〜1.4の値であり、Cは放電可能容量の大小の目安を示す値である。)
    からなり、

    該一般式の定数nとCを、異なる大きさの2電流と、該2電流について推定した前記放電可能容量との関係によって決定して前記関係式を定め、 The constants n and C of the general formula are determined by the relationship between two currents of different magnitudes and the dischargeable capacity estimated for the two currents, and the relational expression is determined.
    該定めた関係式を用いて任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電できる放電可能容量を推定することを特徴する請求項1記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法。 The method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to claim 1, wherein the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated using the determined relational expression. Formula I n · t = C in the general formula Poikeruto Formula I n · t = C in the general formula Poikeruto
    (Where I is the discharge current, t is the discharge duration time, n is a value of 1.1 to 1.4 that is a measure of the degree to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current, and C is the magnitude of the dischargeable capacity. This is a value that indicates a guideline for.) (Where I is the discharge current, t is the discharge duration time, n is a value of 1.1 to 1.4 that is a measure of the degree to which the dischargeable capacity changes depending on the discharge current, and C is the magnitude of the dischargeable capacity. This is a value that indicates a guideline for.)
    Consisting of Consisting of
    The constants n and C of the general formula are determined by a relationship between two currents having different magnitudes and the dischargeable capacity estimated for the two currents, thereby defining the relational expression. The constants n and C of the general formula are determined by a relationship between two currents having different magnitudes and the dischargeable capacity estimated for the two currents, thereby defining the relational expression.
    2. The method according to claim 1, further comprising estimating a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude using the determined relational expression. 2. The method according to claim 1, further comprising estimating a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously relating a current of an arbitrary magnitude using the determined relational expression.
  3. 前記2電流の一方が前記高率放電時の最大電流であり、他方が放電可能容量を低下させないような小電流であることを特徴する請求項2記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法。 3. The method according to claim 2, wherein one of the two currents is a maximum current during the high-rate discharge, and the other is a small current that does not decrease the dischargeable capacity.
  4. 前記関係式を、当該バッテリの高率放電時毎に更新することを特徴する請求項1乃至3の何れかに記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法。 4. The method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to claim 1, wherein the relational expression is updated every time the battery is discharged at a high rate.
  5. 前記2電流を持続的にそれぞれ放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能な容量は、
    前記2電流をそれぞれ流し続けたときのバッテリ端子電圧の電圧降下を推定し、該2電流に対して推定した電圧降下に基づいて求めた放電できない電気量分を、前記高率放電時の放電可能な電気量からそれぞれ減らした電気量として推定したものであることを特徴する請求項2乃至4の何れかに記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法。 The voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents are continuously applied is estimated, and the amount of electricity that cannot be discharged obtained based on the estimated voltage drop for the two currents can be discharged at the time of the high rate discharge. The method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to any one of claims 2 to 4, wherein the electric current is estimated as a reduced electric current from the electric current. The dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the two currents is: The dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously utilizing the two currents is:
    Estimate the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow, respectively, and discharge the undischarged amount of electricity obtained based on the voltage drop estimated for the two currents, at the time of the high-rate discharge. 5. The method according to claim 2, wherein the estimated amount of the battery is estimated as a reduced amount of electricity. Estimate the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow, respectively, and discharge the undischarged amount of electricity obtained based on the voltage drop estimated for the two currents, at the time of the high-rate discharge. The method according to claim 2, wherein the estimated amount of the battery is estimated as a reduced amount of electricity.
  6. 前記2電流を持続的にそれぞれ放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能な容量は、
    前記2電流をそれぞれ流し続けたときのバッテリ端子電圧の電圧降下を推定し、該推定した最大の電圧降下の、前記2電流による各放電時にバッテリに許容される最大の電圧降下幅に対する割合を求め、該求めた割合分を前記高率放電時の放電可能な電気量からそれぞれ差し引いた残余として推定したものである
    ことを特徴する請求項2乃至4の何れかに記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法。
    The dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the two currents is:
    Estimate the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow, and calculate the ratio of the estimated maximum voltage drop to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery at each discharge by the two currents. 5. The dischargeable capacity estimation of a battery according to claim 2, wherein the obtained ratio is estimated as a residue obtained by subtracting each from the dischargeable electricity amount at the time of the high-rate discharge. Method. Estimate the voltage drop of the battery terminal voltage when the two currents continue to flow, and calculate the ratio of the estimated maximum voltage drop to the maximum voltage drop width allowed for the battery at each discharge by the two currents. 5. The dischargeable capacity estimation of a battery according to claim 2, wherein the obtained ratio is estimated as a residue obtained by subtracting each from the dischargeable electricity amount at the time of the high-rate discharge. Method.
  7. 前記最大の電圧降下幅は、バッテリの満充電時の開回路電圧と、バッテリの放電終止電圧が前記最大電流の放電により発生する満充電時純抵抗分降下した電圧との差電圧である
    ことを特徴する請求項6記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法。
    The maximum voltage drop width is a difference voltage between the open circuit voltage when the battery is fully charged and the voltage at which the discharge end voltage of the battery drops by the full resistance pure resistance generated by the discharge of the maximum current. 7. The method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to claim 6, wherein:
  8. 前記推定した電圧降下は、前記高率放電時に推定した当該バッテリの純抵抗による推定純抵抗電圧降下、バッテリの充電状態に応じて変化する最大の純抵抗変化分による純抵抗増加電圧降下、及び前記2電流によってそれぞれ発生する分極による最大の電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下を含む
    ことを特徴する請求項5乃至7の何れかに記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法。
    The estimated voltage drop is an estimated pure resistance voltage drop due to the pure resistance of the battery estimated during the high-rate discharge, a pure resistance increase voltage drop due to a maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery, and 8. The method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to claim 5, further comprising a saturation polarization voltage drop which is a maximum voltage drop due to polarization generated by each of the two currents.
  9. 前記2電流の一方が前記高率放電時の最大電流であり、他方が予め定めた小電流であり、
    前記推定した電圧降下は、前記高率放電時に推定した当該バッテリの純抵抗による推定純抵抗電圧降下、バッテリの充電状態に応じて変化する最大の純抵抗変化分による純抵抗増加電圧降下、及び前記2電流によってそれぞれ発生する分極による最大の電圧降下である飽和分極電圧降下を含み、
    前記2電流のうちの最大電流での飽和分極電圧降下は、高率放電時の放電電流と該放電電流に対応するバッテリ端子電圧とを周期的に測定して得たデータ対に基づいて作成した電流−電圧特性の近似曲線式から純抵抗電圧降下分を除いた分極電圧降下のみの電流−分極特性の近似曲線式を得、該電流−分極特性の近似曲線式を用いて求めた電流に対する最大の電圧降下として推定され、 The saturation polarization voltage drop at the maximum current of the two currents was created based on a data pair obtained by periodically measuring the discharge current at the time of high rate discharge and the battery terminal voltage corresponding to the discharge current. Obtain an approximate curve equation for the current-polarization characteristic of only the polarization voltage drop excluding the pure resistance voltage drop from the approximate curve equation for the current-voltage characteristic, and obtain the maximum for the current obtained using the approximate curve equation for the current-polarization characteristic. Estimated as a voltage drop in
    前記小電流での飽和分極電圧降下は、前記分極による最大の電圧降下を当該分極電圧を発生させる電流によって除算して電流に依存しない一定値を求め、該求めた一定値に前記小電流を乗じて求めた電圧降下として推定されることを特徴とする請求項1又は2記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法。 The saturated polarization voltage drop at the small current is obtained by dividing the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization by the current that generates the polarization voltage to obtain a current-independent constant value, and multiplying the obtained constant value by the small current. The method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the voltage drop is estimated as the voltage drop obtained. One of the two currents is a maximum current during the high-rate discharge, the other is a predetermined small current, One of the two currents is a maximum current during the high-rate discharge, the other is a predetermined small current,
    The estimated voltage drop is an estimated pure resistance voltage drop due to the pure resistance of the battery estimated during the high-rate discharge, a pure resistance increase voltage drop due to a maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery, and 2 includes a saturation polarization voltage drop, which is the maximum voltage drop due to polarization caused by each of the two currents, The estimated voltage drop is an estimated pure resistance voltage drop due to the pure resistance of the battery estimated during the high-rate discharge, a pure resistance increase voltage drop due to a maximum pure resistance change that changes according to the state of charge of the battery, and 2 includes a saturation voltage drop, which is the maximum voltage drop due to polarization caused by each of the two currents,
    The saturation polarization voltage drop at the maximum current of the two currents was created based on a data pair obtained by periodically measuring the discharge current during high-rate discharge and the battery terminal voltage corresponding to the discharge current. An approximate curve expression of the current-polarization characteristic of only the polarization voltage drop obtained by removing the pure resistance voltage drop from the approximate curve expression of the current-voltage characteristic is obtained, and the maximum for the current obtained using the approximate curve expression of the current-polarization characteristic is obtained. Is estimated as The saturation polarization voltage drop at the maximum current of the two currents was created based on a data pair obtained by periodically measuring the discharge current during high-rate discharge and the battery terminal voltage corresponding to the discharge current. An approximate curve expression of the current -polarization characteristic of only the polarization voltage drop obtained by removing the pure resistance voltage drop from the approximate curve expression of the current-voltage characteristic is obtained, and the maximum for the current obtained using the approximate curve expression of the current-polarization characteristic is obtained. Is estimated as
    The saturation polarization voltage drop at the small current is obtained by dividing the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization by the current generating the polarization voltage to obtain a constant value independent of the current, and multiplying the obtained constant value by the small current. 3. The method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to claim 1, wherein the voltage drop is estimated as the voltage drop obtained in the step (a). The saturation voltage drop at the small current is obtained by dividing the maximum voltage drop due to the polarization by the current generating the polarization voltage to obtain a constant value independent of the current, and multiplying the obtained constant value by the small current. 3 The method for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery according to claim 1, wherein the voltage drop is estimated as the voltage drop obtained in the step (a).
  10. 非劣化バッテリの放電可能容量に対する劣化後の放電可能容量の割合を示す劣化度を予め求めておき、
    該劣化度を前記推定した放電可能容量に乗じて放電可能容量を修正するようにしたことを特徴する請求項1乃至9の何れかに記載のバッテリの放電可能容量推定方法。 The method for estimating the dischargeable capacity of a battery according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the degree of deterioration is multiplied by the estimated dischargeable capacity to correct the dischargeable capacity. Deterioration degree indicating the ratio of the dischargeable capacity after deterioration to the dischargeable capacity of the non-deteriorated battery is obtained in advance, Deterioration degree indicating the ratio of the dischargeable capacity after deterioration to the dischargeable capacity of the non-deteriorated battery is obtained in advance,
    The method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the degree of deterioration is multiplied by the estimated dischargeable capacity to correct the dischargeable capacity. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, which the degree of deterioration is multiplied by the estimated dischargeable capacity to correct the dischargeable capacity.
  11. バッテリの放電可能な容量を推定する装置であって、
    バッテリの高率放電時に得られる放電電流とバッテリ端子電圧とのデータ対に基づいて、電流を持続的に放電することができる当該バッテリの放電可能容量を推定する放電可能容量推定手段と、 Dischargeable capacity estimating means for estimating the dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the current based on the data pair of the discharge current obtained at the time of high rate discharge of the battery and the battery terminal voltage.
    電流と該電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す予め用意した一般式と、前記放電可能容量推定手段により推定した電流と放電可能容量との関係とに基づいて、当該バッテリに適用される、電流と該電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量の関係を示す関係式を決定する関係式決定手段と、 Based on a general formula prepared in advance showing the relationship between the current and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current, and the relationship between the current estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimation means and the dischargeable capacity. A relational expression determining means for determining a relational expression applicable to a battery, which indicates a relationship between a current and a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current, and
    該関係式決定手段によって決定した関係式を用いて任意の大きさの電流を持続的に放電することができる放電可能容量を推定するようにしたことを特徴するバッテリの放電可能容量推定装置。 A battery dischargeable capacity estimation device, characterized in that the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated using the relational expression determined by the relational expression determining means. An apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, An apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery,
    Dischargeable capacity estimating means for estimating a dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously discharging the current, based on a data pair of a discharge current and a battery terminal voltage obtained at a high rate discharge of the battery, Dischargeable capacity estimating means for estimating a dischargeable capacity of the battery capable of continuously relating the current, based on a data pair of a discharge current and a battery terminal voltage obtained at a high rate discharge of the battery,
    Based on a general formula prepared in advance showing the relationship between the current and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current, and the relationship between the current and the dischargeable capacity estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimation means, A relational expression determining means for determining a relational expression indicating a relation between a current and a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging the current, applied to the battery, Based on a general formula prepared in advance showing the relationship between the current and the dischargeable capacity capable of continuously flowing the current, and the relationship between the current and the dischargeable capacity estimated by the dischargeable capacity estimation means, A relational expression determining means for determining a relational expression indicating a relation between a current and a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously utilizing the current, applied to the battery,
    An apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, wherein a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously discharging a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated using the relational expression determined by the relational expression determining means. An apparatus for estimating a dischargeable capacity of a battery, wherein a dischargeable capacity capable of continuously communicating a current of an arbitrary magnitude is estimated using the relational expression determined by the relational expression determining means.
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CN103176132A (en) * 2011-12-22 2013-06-26 联芯科技有限公司 Estimation method and terminal device of electricity quantity of battery
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JP2006172783A (en) * 2004-12-14 2006-06-29 Auto Network Gijutsu Kenkyusho:Kk Battery state management device
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KR20170057648A (en) * 2015-11-17 2017-05-25 주식회사 엘지화학 Apparatus and method for designing of specification of energy storage system
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