JP2004267057A - Seasoning having meat property-improving effect - Google Patents

Seasoning having meat property-improving effect Download PDF

Info

Publication number
JP2004267057A
JP2004267057A JP2003060007A JP2003060007A JP2004267057A JP 2004267057 A JP2004267057 A JP 2004267057A JP 2003060007 A JP2003060007 A JP 2003060007A JP 2003060007 A JP2003060007 A JP 2003060007A JP 2004267057 A JP2004267057 A JP 2004267057A
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
seasoning
meat
soy sauce
weight
koji
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP2003060007A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Takafumi Miyake
崇文 三宅
Kumiko Date
久美子 伊達
Hiroko Matsumoto
裕子 松本
Yukinobu Kimura
幸信 木村
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
YAMAMORI KK
Original Assignee
YAMAMORI KK
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by YAMAMORI KK filed Critical YAMAMORI KK
Priority to JP2003060007A priority Critical patent/JP2004267057A/en
Publication of JP2004267057A publication Critical patent/JP2004267057A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a seasoning which has a meat quality-improving effect and can give soft meat not hardened even when thermally treated, richly containing the gravy and not having an animal smell, and to provide a seasoning which has a meat quality-improving effect and can give fish meat having a soft and juicy texture without deteriorating the fresh touch even when thermally treated. <P>SOLUTION: This seasoning is obtained by controlling the charging temperature of unrefined malted grain at a low temperature to prevent the concentration of color, the production of a maturing smell and the deactivation of an enzyme and further by separating the solid content from the liquid at a period (0.5 to 2.0 months after charged) for extinction or biostaticity of microorganisms such as Aspergillus oryzae due to salinity in a high enzyme activity-maintaining state. Herein, the low temperature means 4 to 30°C, and it is desirable that the brewing is carried out at 10 to 25°C. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2004,JPO&NCIPI

Description

【0001】
【発明の属する技術分野】
本発明は、食肉軟化、肉質改善効果を有する調味料に関するものである
【0002】
【従来の技術】
これまでの食肉の軟化方法としては、粉末のパパイン、ブロメラインなど蛋白分解酵素を調理前に肉にまぶす方法が古くから知られているが、粉末の特性上、まぶした時に均一になりにくいという問題点がある。このような点から、粉末の蛋白分解酵素を水に溶かし、液体として食肉に作用させる方法もあるが、表面が分解されすぎる、異臭が発生するなど、食肉として好ましくないものに仕上がってしまう(例えば、特許文献1参照。)。
【0003】
また麹から抽出した同様の効果が期待できる酵素剤は、精製する設備や技術が必要であり、初期投資費用や価格が高いなど食品への使用は限られる。さらに酵素剤を食品に使用する場合、食品添加物の表示義務が生じ、より天然に近い食品が求められる近年では用途が限定されてしまう。
【0004】
肉のpHを変えることで肉の保水性を向上させて肉質を改善するリン酸塩(例えば、特許文献2参照。)、炭酸塩(例えば特許文献3参照。)をはじめとした改質剤が存在するが、処理されたものをそのまま加工食品に使用した場合、アルカリ臭が残るなど風味が悪くなってしまう。そのため水洗いをするなどの作業が必要となる。さらにこれらは食品添加物として表示の義務があり、近年食品への化学物質使用が嫌われている中では用途が限定されてしまう。
【0005】
穀類麹を使用する代表としてしょうゆが挙げられる。一般的にしょうゆは、しょうゆ固有の香り、風味があるものが高品質であると評価されており、醤油製造者は十分発酵、熟成を行い、目的の香り、風味を得るために力を注いできた。したがって本発明のように低温で醸造を行い、醗酵がそれほど行われていない短期間で固液分離することは、しょうゆとしての品質の観点からこれまで行われてこなかった。
【0006】
食肉を生(なま)醤油で接触処理して軟化・調味する報告(特許文献1参照。)、また生(なま)醤油を加えることによる食肉軟化効果をもつ焼肉用調味料の報告(特許文献4参照)などがあるが、これらは十分に醗酵・熟成を終えたしょうゆの中に僅かに残存する酵素に期待を寄せているのみで、積極的な利用とは言い難い。実際、4ヶ月以上醸造されたしょうゆ中の肉を軟らかくする酵素活性は、1ヶ月醸造の約1/3程度しか残存していないことが確認されている。またしょうゆの特徴的な香味や色がついてしまうため、その用途は極端に限定されてしまう。
【0007】
またしょうゆもろみを使用して肉質を軟化させる製造法の報告(特許文献5参照。)があるが、固形物を含むため、浸漬後洗浄などの固形物除去操作が必要となる。また熟成したもろみの場合は、色、香り、風味が強いため用途が限られる。
【0008】
しょうゆの日本農林規格に記載されているように、しろしょうゆは極力発酵させずに低温で熟成させ、短期間で搾っている。この点については本発明と類似するが、しろしょうゆの製法は色をうすく仕上げることを目的としており、麹原料の蛋白含量が少ない。このため肉質軟化効果のある蛋白分解酵素の活性は低く、肉質改善効果は期待できない。
【0009】
米等の澱粉原料を主に麹原料としている酒やみりんも同様に肉質軟化効果のある蛋白分解酵素の活性は低く、肉質改善効果は期待できない。
【0010】
【特許文献1】
特開昭61−271964号公報
【特許文献2】
特開昭58−23767号公報
【特許文献3】
特開2000−116340号公報
【特許文献4】
特開昭60−256359号公報
【特許文献5】
特開昭50−160496号公報
【0011】
【発明が解決しようとする課題】
本発明は以上のような課題を解決することを目的としてなされたものであって、色沢が淡く、独特の香りや風味を持たない、汎用性に富む天然調味料であるという特徴を有する肉質改善効果の高い調味料を提供しようとするものである。
【0012】
【課題を解決するための手段】
そこで本発明者らは上述の目的を達成するために鋭意検討した結果、色沢が淡く、独特の香りや風味のない、天然醸造物である肉質改善効果の高い調味料を発明するに至った。
【0013】
すなわち本発明では穀類麹のもろみの仕込み品温を低温に抑えることにより、色の濃化、熟成香の発現及び酵素の失活を防ぎ、さらに酵素活性が高いまま、麹菌などの微生物が塩分によって死滅または静菌する時期(仕込み0.5〜2.0ヶ月)に固液分離することによりこの調味料が得られる。ここでいう低温は4℃〜30℃を指すが、好ましくは10〜25℃で醸造を行うことが望ましい。
【0014】
本発明においてもろみとは、小麦、大豆、小麦グルテンなどの原料を加熱などによって蛋白質変性加工を施し、麹菌が生育しやすい環境にて製麹を行い、その出来あがった麹と食塩水を混ぜて仕込まれたものを指す。蛋白質変性加工とは原料を水に浸漬させ、蒸煮する方法やエクストルーダーにて110℃以上の温度で押し出し成型する方法等を行って蛋白質を十分に変性させることである。製麹はしょうゆの製麹の常法などを使用すれば良い。例えば含水させた原料にアスペルギルス属などの麹菌を接種し、25℃〜40℃で2〜4日製麹させる方法が挙げられる。ここでいう穀類麹は、麹に使用する蛋白原料が少ないことに比例して、肉質軟化効果のある蛋白分解酵素活性が低くなるため、全窒素量が3.0重量%以上になるように調整された原料を使用した穀類麹を用いる。例えば通常のこいくちしょうゆの場合、麹原料の大豆と小麦がほぼ等量で使用されるため全窒素量が4.0〜5.0重量%であるが、米等の澱粉原料を主に麹原料としている酒、みりん、しろしょうゆのような類は、麹原料の全窒素量が3.0重量%を満たさないため該当しない。
【0015】
ここでいう食塩水は、7〜24%(w/v)の食塩水を用いる。低温で仕込むため、食塩水は予め冷却することが望ましい。−5℃以下であると初期もろみの温度を4℃程度にすることができる。また初期もろみ中の微生物の繁殖を抑えるため、仕込み後2週間程度は15℃以下で醸造することが望ましい。
【0016】
もろみを25℃にて醸造を行った場合の酵素力価の経時的変化を表1に示す。蛋白分解酵素活性は、ミルクカゼインを基質にpH5.5で反応を行い、生成する非蛋白性物質をFolin呈色法で測定した。
【0017】
【表1】
【0018】
このように仕込んでから2ヶ月までの酵素活性が高いため、肉を軟らかくする酵素活性が高いできるだけ早い時期に固液分離することが望ましい。したがって25℃にて、2ヶ月を超える醸造を行うことは、肉質軟化効果をもつ蛋白分解酵素の活性が下がり、本発明調味料の効果が期待できない。また醤油様の独特の色、香り、風味が感じられるため、本発明調味料が目的とする汎用性の点からも外れる。
【0019】
また低温で醸造を行うため分解が進まず、固液分離の時期によっては調味料の低温保管中において未分解物が沈殿として現れる場合がある。沈殿物は肉質改善効果に影響を及ぼさないが、これを嫌う場合は15〜25℃で1ヶ月程度の醸造を行うことが望ましい。醸造期間による沈殿物の有無を表2に示す。沈殿の確認は、こいくちしょうゆのもろみを7日間10℃、その後7日間毎に5℃ずつ温度を上げ、最終25℃なるよう醸造を行い、所定の期間毎にもろみをろ布で固液分離、珪藻土ろ過を行い、4℃静置にて行った。
【0020】
【表2】
【0021】
ここでいう固液分離は通常しょうゆで行われている方法で構わず、固液分離できるものであればなんでもよい。例えばろ布を使用した圧搾や遠心分離機を使用した固液分離などが挙げられる。固液分離して得られた調味液は、酵素失活を防ぐため、加熱殺菌を行わない。加熱殺菌を行わないため乳酸菌、酵母などが多く存在するが、菌の増殖を防ぐため冷蔵、冷凍で保存することが望ましい。又はアルコールを3%(w/v)以上添加、pH5.0以下に調整することで常温でも静菌させることができる。さらにはアルコール3〜5%(w/v)添加かつpH4.8〜5.0に調整することが酵素活性に影響がないため望ましい。また珪藻土によるろ過や微小膜を用いたろ過をすることで酵素活性を減少させることなく菌の減少、除菌を行うことができる。さらに用途を広げるため、膜ろ過、樹脂などを使って脱色、脱塩や濃縮を行い、より色や塩味を感じさせない調味料、少量で効果がある調味料をつくることができる。
【0022】
ここで得られた調味液で畜肉を処理することにより軟らかい食感の肉に仕上げることができる。ここでいう畜肉は、牛、豚、鶏、馬、羊、鴨、アヒルなどである。さらには老廃家畜肉、廃鶏肉あるいはスジ肉などの硬い肉質のものに用いると食べやすくなり好ましい。
【0023】
またここで得られた調味液で魚肉を処理することにより加熱処理を行ってもしっとりした肉質に仕上げることができる。ここでいう魚は、まぐろ、かつお、たら、たい、さわら、さけなどである。さらには加熱調理を行うとぱさぱさする食感になる脂の少ない魚に用いると嗜好性が増し好ましくなる。
【0024】
本発明では、調味料の濃度は、各々の使用目的によって任意に設定することができるが、通常肉重量に対して5〜20重量%程度使用すれば良い。また調味液は3〜20倍程度に希釈して使用することが望ましい。このようにすると、調味液中の酵素が有効に作用し、また肉に塩味などが過度に浸透することがなく、加熱しても軟らかい畜肉やジューシーな魚肉を得ることができる。また処理条件はこれらの肉を0〜40℃で10分〜72時間、好ましくは4〜15℃で10分〜24時間前述濃度の調味液中に浸漬することが望ましい。
【0025】
これらの通り、本発明の調味料で処理された畜肉は加熱をしても軟らかく、肉汁に富む好ましい食感になるため、様々な肉加工食品に用いることができる。例えば、揚げ物、焼き肉、角煮、野菜煮、釜飯、カレー、シチュー、ハヤシなどに使用することができる。また処理した畜肉を加工し冷凍食品、チルド食品、レトルト食品など数多くの調理食品に利用することができる。
【0026】
また本発明の調味料で処理された魚肉は、加熱してもフレッシュ感を損なわず、ソフトでジューシーな好ましい食感になるため、様々な魚加工品に用いることができる。例えば、揚げ物、焼き物、煮物、西京漬け、味噌漬け、しょうゆ漬け、溜り漬け、粕漬けなどに使用することができる。また処理をした魚肉を加工し冷凍食品、チルド食品、レトルト食品など数多くの調理食品に使用することができる。
【0027】
【発明の実施の形態】
次に本発明について実施例を挙げて具体的に説明するが、本発明の範囲をこれら実施例によって限定するものではない。
【0028】
【実施例1】
脱脂加工大豆4.9kg、小麦4.9kgを麹原料(全窒素量5重量%)とし、しょうゆ麹の常法に従い麹を作製した。その麹10kg(水分約28重量%を含む)に17.5リットルの−5℃に冷却された23.2 %(w/v)食塩水を加えたものをもろみとした。仕込みから7日間は10℃にて醸造を行い、その後7日間毎に5℃ずつ醸造温度を上げ、最終25℃にて14日間醸造した。醸造されたもろみは、しょうゆのろ過に使用しているろ布にて固液分離を行った。得られた液は珪藻土ろ過を行い、アルコールをろ液の3%(w/v)を加え、さらに乳酸にてpH5.0に調整して調味料を得た。ここで得られた調味液は全窒素量1.26%(w/v)、塩分17.0%(w/v)、日本農林規格の色番は49番であった。以後ここで得られた調味料を使用して破断試験、調理評価をおこなった。
【0029】
【実施例2】
均一な肉加工品での本発明調味液の効果を確認するため、鶏胸肉のミンチを使用したハンバーグにて破断強度を測定した。鶏胸肉500gをフードプロセッサーにかけミンチを作製した。ここで得られたミンチ肉100gに10mlの本調味液を混合して厚さ1.5cm、直径7cmの型に入れ成形した。成形されたハンバーグは4℃、30分静置後、電子レンジ(500W)で4分加熱しハンバーグ調理品を得た。比較としてミンチ肉100gに10mlの17 %(w/v)食塩水または生(なま)醤油(こいくちしょうゆ5ヶ月醸造品、T−N1.88%(w/v)、塩分17.0%(w/v))を加えて同様に成形、加熱を行い、調理品を得た。得られたハンバーグ調理品を縦2cm横2cm厚さ1cmに切り、測定用サンプルとした。測定はクリープメーター(山電製 RE−3305S)で行った。
【0030】
【表3】
【0031】
表3に示すように均一の肉であるモデル系の試験においても歯での噛みきり易さは食塩水漬け込み品、生(なま)醤油漬け込み品より物理的な測定において明らかに優れていることがわかった。
【0032】
【実施例3】
鶏胸肉(約200g)に対し10重量%の本発明調味液と40重量%の水を混合した液に漬け込み、4℃、24時間静置した。静置後ざるにてよく水気をきり、電子レンジ(500W)で5分加熱して鶏胸肉調理品を得た。比較として鶏胸肉に対し同様の塩分濃度の食塩水または生(なま)醤油(こいくちしょうゆ5ヶ月醸造品、T−N1.88%(w/v)、塩分17.0%(w/v))に同時間漬け込み、同様の操作で調理品を得た。得られた肉を縦2cm横2cm厚さ1cmに切り、測定用サンプルとした。測定はクリープメーター(山電製 RE−3305S)で行った。
【0033】
【表4】
【0034】
表4に示すように本発明調味液を使用した鶏胸肉の噛みきり易さは食塩水漬け込み品や生(なま)醤油漬け込み品より物理的な測定において明らかに優れていることがわかった。
【0035】
【実施例4】
半解凍した鶏胸肉を縦4cm横4cm厚さ3cm程度の大きさに切り分け、肉重量に対し10重量%の本発明調味液と40重量%の水を混合した液に漬け込み、パウチに入れて冷凍した。後日、冷蔵庫にて16〜24時間かけて解凍し、肉の水分をざるでよく切った後、調味液(醤油、砂糖、みりんなど)に30分程度漬け込んだ。その後、小麦粉または片栗粉をつけ、160〜170℃の油で揚げて鶏の唐揚げを得た。比較として、半解凍した鶏胸肉を同サイズに切り分け、肉重量に対して1.0重量%の重炭酸ナトリウムと49重量%の水を混合した液に漬け込み、パウチに入れて冷凍および解凍を行った。解凍した鶏胸肉を水で洗浄し、ざるで水分をよく切った後、調味液(醤油、砂糖、みりんなど)に30分程度漬け込み、同様の調理法にて唐揚げを得た。出来あがった唐揚げについて官能評価を行い、20名の訓練されたパネラーを用いて2点嗜好法で好ましい方を、2点識別法では軟らかいと感じる方を選ばせた。
【0036】
【表5】
【0037】
表5によると本発明調味料を使用した唐揚げは、肉の自然な風味を有し、かつ好ましい食感を有しており、明らかに重炭酸ナトリウムを使った唐揚げより優れていた。
【0038】
【実施例5】
半解凍した鶏胸肉を縦4cm横4cm厚さ3cm程度の大きさに切り分け、肉重量に対し10重量%の本発明調味液と40重量%の水を混合した液に漬け込み、パウチに入れて冷凍した。後日、冷蔵庫にて16〜24時間かけて解凍し、肉の水分をざるでよく切った後、調味液(しょうゆ、砂糖、みりんなど)に30分程度漬け込んだ。その後、小麦粉または片栗粉をつけ、160〜170℃の油で揚げて鶏の唐揚げを得た。比較として、半解凍した鶏胸肉を同サイズに切り分け、肉重量に対して10重量%の生(なま)醤油(こいくちしょうゆ5ヶ月醸造 T−N1.88%(w/v)、塩分17.0%(w/v))と40重量%の水を混合した液に漬け込み、パウチに入れて冷凍および解凍を行った。解凍した鶏胸肉の水分をざるでよく切った後、調味液(醤油、砂糖、みりんなど)に30分程度漬け込み、同様の調理法にて唐揚げを得た。出来あがった唐揚げについて官能評価を行い、20名の訓練されたパネラーを用いて2点嗜好法で好ましい方を、2点識別法では軟らかいと感じる方を選ばせた。
【0039】
【表6】
【0040】
表6によると本発明調味料を使用した唐揚げは、軟らかさ、ジューシーさを有しており、生(なま)醤油を使用した唐揚げより明らかに優れていた。
【0041】
【実施例6】
生の焼肉用カルビ肉(アメリカ産)に、その肉に対して10重量%の本発明調味液と40重量%の焼肉のたれを混合した。混合された肉と液をパウチに入れ、真空にした後冷凍した。後日冷凍されたパウチを冷蔵庫にて16〜24時間の解凍を行った。解凍された肉は網で焼き、味付き焼肉を得た。比較として焼き肉用カルビ肉に肉重量に対して40重量%の焼肉のたれ、本発明調味料と同じ量でかつ同じ塩分濃度の水溶液を混合し、同様にパウチに入れ冷凍した。後日同様に冷蔵庫にて解凍し、網で焼き、味付き焼肉を得た。
【0042】
【実施例7】
半解凍された鶏胸肉を大きさ縦10mm横10mm厚さ10mmに切り分け、肉重量に対して6重量%の本発明調味液と24重量%の水を混合した液に漬け込み、冷蔵庫にて12〜16時間静置した。静置後、液を切り、釜飯の具材に使用した。にんじん、ごぼう、筍などの野菜と酒、みりん、砂糖、塩、調味料などと一緒にパウチに充填し、121℃、20分加圧加熱殺菌を行った。殺菌後、釜飯の素として所定の手順によって炊飯器にて炊飯し釜飯を得た。比較として本発明調味料を使用した場合と同じ量でかつ同じ塩分濃度の食塩水に同条件で肉を漬け込み、同様の操作にて釜飯を得た。
【0043】
【実施例8】
冷凍されたさわら(70g/一枚)に対して10重量%の本発明調味液と90重量%の味噌調味液(西京味噌、みりん、酒を混合したもの)を混合した。そこで得られた調味液に、冷凍されたさわらを4℃、24時間漬け込んで、さわら西京漬けを得た。そのさわら西京漬けの味噌などをペーパータオルなどで良く拭き取り、家庭用コンロの魚焼き機にて焼いた。比較としてさわらに対して10重量%のしょうゆと90重量%味噌調味液を混ぜた液に4℃、24時間漬け込み、同様に調理を行った。
【0044】
【実施例9】
かじきまぐろの切り身(100g/一切れ)に対して10重量%の本発明調味液と90重量%の水を混合した液にかじきまぐろの切り身を4℃、30分間漬け込んだ。漬け込み後ざるなどで液をよくきり、塩、胡椒をした。フライパンにて強火でこんがり色つくまで焼き、醤油を少量かけてかじきまぐろのステーキを得た。比較としてかじきまぐろの切り身に本発明調味液を使用した場合と同じ量、同塩分濃度の水溶液に同条件で漬け込み、同様に調理を行った。
本発明の効果を確認するために、実施例による製品と比較例による製品についてその品質を官能評価によって比較した。官能評価は20名の訓練されたパネラーを用いて2点嗜好法で好ましい方を2点識別法では軟らかいと感じる方またはジューシーと感じる方を選ばせた。この結果を表7、8に示す。
【0045】
【表7】
【表8】
【0046】
この結果、本発明の調味料を用いた料理は、いずれの場合も統計的に有意に好まれ、また軟らかさを有意に認識していることが確認された。
【0047】
【発明の効果】
以上の物理的測定、官能試験から明らかな通り、本発明調味料は肉、魚を好ましい肉質に改善することができる極めて優れた効果を有している。また天然食品が嗜好される近年において醸造調味料である本発明調味料は安全でかつ安心して使用することができる。さらに色や風味がほとんどつかず、希釈して漬け込むだけの簡単な操作で肉質を改善することができるため、汎用性に富む非常に優れた調味料である。
[0001]
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
TECHNICAL FIELD [0002] The present invention relates to a seasoning having an effect of softening meat and improving meat quality.
[Prior art]
As a conventional method of softening meat, it has long been known to sprinkle meat with proteolytic enzymes such as powdered papain and bromelain before cooking.However, due to the characteristics of the powder, it is difficult to make it uniform when sprinkled. There are points. From such a point, there is also a method of dissolving powdery protease in water and allowing it to act on meat as a liquid. However, the surface is excessively decomposed, an unpleasant odor is generated, and the meat becomes unpreferable as meat (for example, And Patent Document 1.).
[0003]
Enzymes extracted from koji, which can be expected to have the same effect, require equipment and techniques for purification, and their use in foods is limited due to high initial investment costs and high prices. Furthermore, when an enzyme agent is used for food, labeling of food additives is required, and in recent years, foods that are more natural are required.
[0004]
Modifiers such as phosphates (for example, see Patent Document 2) and carbonates (for example, see Patent Document 3), which improve the water retention of meat by changing the pH of the meat to improve meat quality, are available. Although it exists, if the processed food is used as it is in a processed food, the flavor will be poor such as an alkaline odor. Therefore, work such as washing with water is required. Furthermore, these are required to be labeled as food additives, and their use is limited in recent years while the use of chemical substances in foods is hated.
[0005]
Soy sauce is a representative example of using cereal koji. In general, soy sauce is evaluated as having high quality if it has the unique flavor and flavor of soy sauce, and soy sauce manufacturers can ferment and ripen enough to focus on obtaining the desired aroma and flavor. Was. Therefore, brewing at a low temperature as in the present invention and solid-liquid separation in a short period in which fermentation is not performed so far have not been performed so far from the viewpoint of soy sauce quality.
[0006]
Report on softening and seasoning of meat by contact treatment with raw (sea) soy sauce (see Patent Document 1), and report on seasoning for grilled meat having meat softening effect by adding raw (sea) soy sauce (patent) However, these are only expected to have a small amount of enzyme remaining in soy sauce that has been sufficiently fermented and matured, and cannot be said to be actively used. In fact, it has been confirmed that only about 1/3 of the enzyme activity for softening meat in soy sauce brewed for four months or more remains about one-third of brewed for one month. In addition, the characteristic flavor and color of soy sauce are added, so that its use is extremely limited.
[0007]
There is also a report on a production method for softening meat using soy sauce moromi (see Patent Document 5). However, since it contains solid matter, a solid matter removing operation such as washing after immersion is required. Aged moromi has a limited use because of its strong color, aroma and flavor.
[0008]
As described in the Japanese Agriculture and Forestry Standard for soy sauce, soy sauce is aged at a low temperature without fermentation as much as possible and squeezed in a short period of time. Although this point is similar to the present invention, the method of producing soy sauce is to finish the color slightly, and the koji raw material has a low protein content. For this reason, the activity of the proteolytic enzyme having the meat softening effect is low, and the meat quality improving effect cannot be expected.
[0009]
Similarly, sake and mirin, which are mainly made of koji as a raw material of starch such as rice, have a low activity of a proteolytic enzyme having a softening effect on meat and cannot be expected to have an effect of improving meat quality.
[0010]
[Patent Document 1]
JP-A-61-271964 [Patent Document 2]
JP-A-58-23767 [Patent Document 3]
JP 2000-116340 A [Patent Document 4]
JP-A-60-256359 [Patent Document 5]
JP-A-50-160496
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
The present invention has been made for the purpose of solving the above problems, and has a characteristic of being a versatile natural seasoning that is light in color, does not have a unique scent or flavor, and is versatile. It is intended to provide a seasoning having a high improvement effect.
[0012]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
Thus, the present inventors have conducted intensive studies to achieve the above-mentioned object, and as a result, have come to invent a seasoning that is light in color, does not have a unique aroma or flavor, and has a high meat quality improving effect as a natural brew. .
[0013]
That is, in the present invention, by controlling the temperature of the mash of cereal koji mash to a low temperature, the concentration of color, the development of aged aroma and the inactivation of enzymes are prevented. This seasoning can be obtained by solid-liquid separation at the time of death or bacteriostasis (preparation 0.5 to 2.0 months). Here, the low temperature refers to 4 ° C. to 30 ° C., but it is preferable that the brewing be performed at 10 ° C. to 25 ° C.
[0014]
In the present invention, the moromi is a protein such as wheat, soybean, wheat gluten, which is subjected to a protein denaturing process by heating or the like, koji making is carried out in an environment where koji mold is easy to grow, and the resulting koji and a saline solution are mixed. Refers to what has been prepared. The protein denaturation process is to sufficiently denature the protein by immersing the raw material in water and steaming or extruding the raw material at a temperature of 110 ° C. or more with an extruder. As for the koji making, the usual method of soy sauce koji making may be used. For example, there is a method in which a koji mold such as Aspergillus is inoculated to a hydrated raw material and the koji is produced at 25 ° C. to 40 ° C. for 2 to 4 days. The cereal koji used here is adjusted so that the total nitrogen content is at least 3.0% by weight because the activity of the protease that has a meat softening effect decreases in proportion to the small amount of the protein material used in the koji. A cereal koji using the obtained raw material is used. For example, in the case of ordinary soy sauce, the total amount of nitrogen is 4.0 to 5.0% by weight because soybean and wheat as koji raw materials are used in approximately equal amounts. Materials such as sake, mirin, and white soy sauce as raw materials are not applicable because the total nitrogen content of the koji raw material does not satisfy 3.0% by weight.
[0015]
The saline used here is a 7 to 24% (w / v) saline. It is desirable to cool the saline solution in advance so that it is charged at a low temperature. When the temperature is lower than -5 ° C, the temperature of the initial mash can be reduced to about 4 ° C. In addition, in order to suppress the propagation of microorganisms in the initial mash, it is desirable to brew at 15 ° C. or less for about two weeks after preparation.
[0016]
Table 1 shows the time course of the enzyme titer when mash was brewed at 25 ° C. The proteolytic enzyme activity was determined by performing a reaction at pH 5.5 using milk casein as a substrate and producing a non-proteinaceous substance by the Folin coloration method.
[0017]
[Table 1]
[0018]
Since the enzyme activity is high up to two months after the preparation, the solid-liquid separation is desirably carried out as early as possible with the high enzyme activity for softening the meat. Therefore, brewing at 25 ° C. for more than 2 months lowers the activity of the proteolytic enzyme having a meat softening effect, and cannot expect the effect of the seasoning of the present invention. In addition, since the unique color, aroma and flavor of soy sauce are felt, the seasoning of the present invention is also out of the versatility aimed at.
[0019]
Further, since the brewing is performed at a low temperature, the decomposition does not proceed, and depending on the time of solid-liquid separation, undecomposed products may appear as precipitates during storage of the seasoning at a low temperature. The sediment does not affect the meat quality improving effect, but if you dislike it, it is desirable to brew at 15 to 25 ° C for about one month. Table 2 shows the presence or absence of precipitates depending on the brewing period. To confirm the sedimentation, mash the Kokichi soy sauce moromi at 10 ° C for 7 days, then raise the temperature by 5 ° C every 7 days, brew to a final temperature of 25 ° C, and solid-liquid separate the mash every predetermined period using a filter cloth. After that, diatomaceous earth filtration was performed, and the sample was allowed to stand at 4 ° C.
[0020]
[Table 2]
[0021]
The solid-liquid separation referred to here may be a method usually performed with soy sauce, and may be any method that can perform solid-liquid separation. For example, squeezing using a filter cloth or solid-liquid separation using a centrifugal separator may be mentioned. The seasoning liquid obtained by solid-liquid separation is not heat-sterilized to prevent enzyme deactivation. Although heat sterilization is not performed, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, and the like are present in large numbers. However, it is desirable to store them in a refrigerator or a refrigerator in order to prevent bacterial growth. Alternatively, by adding alcohol at 3% (w / v) or more and adjusting the pH to 5.0 or less, the bacteria can be bacteriostatic even at room temperature. Further, it is desirable to add 3 to 5% (w / v) of alcohol and adjust the pH to 4.8 to 5.0 since the enzyme activity is not affected. In addition, by filtration using diatomaceous earth or filtration using a micromembrane, it is possible to reduce bacteria and eliminate bacteria without reducing enzyme activity. In order to further expand the use, it is possible to produce a seasoning that does not feel more color or salty taste and a seasoning that is effective in a small amount by performing decoloration, desalting and concentration using a membrane filtration, a resin or the like.
[0022]
By treating the meat with the seasoning liquid obtained here, it is possible to finish the meat with a soft texture. The meat here refers to cows, pigs, chickens, horses, sheep, duck, ducks, and the like. Further, it is preferable to use it for hard meat such as aged livestock meat, waste chicken meat, or streaks because it is easy to eat.
[0023]
Further, by treating the fish meat with the seasoning liquid obtained here, it is possible to finish the meat to a moist quality even by performing a heat treatment. The fish mentioned here are tuna, bonito, tara, tai, straw, salmon, etc. Further, it is preferable to use it for fish with less fat, which gives a crisp texture when cooked by heating.
[0024]
In the present invention, the concentration of the seasoning can be arbitrarily set depending on the purpose of use, but it is usually sufficient to use about 5 to 20% by weight based on the weight of meat. The seasoning liquid is desirably used after being diluted about 3 to 20 times. In this case, the enzyme in the seasoning liquid works effectively, and the meat does not excessively infiltrate with salty taste and the like, so that soft animal meat or juicy fish meat can be obtained even when heated. Regarding the processing conditions, it is desirable to immerse these meats in the seasoning liquid having the above-mentioned concentration at 0 to 40 ° C for 10 minutes to 72 hours, preferably at 4 to 15 ° C for 10 minutes to 24 hours.
[0025]
As described above, animal meat treated with the seasoning of the present invention is soft and has a favorable texture rich in meat juice even when heated, and thus can be used for various processed meat foods. For example, it can be used for fried foods, grilled meat, boiled vegetables, boiled vegetables, pot rice, curry, stew, and coconut. In addition, processed meat can be processed and used for many prepared foods such as frozen foods, chilled foods, and retort foods.
[0026]
The fish meat treated with the seasoning of the present invention does not impair the fresh feeling even when heated and has a soft and juicy favorable texture, so that it can be used for various processed fish products. For example, it can be used for fried food, grilled food, boiled food, pickled in Saikyo, pickled in miso, pickled in soy sauce, pickled in a pool, pickled in kasu, and the like. Further, the processed fish meat can be processed and used for many prepared foods such as frozen foods, chilled foods, and retort foods.
[0027]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
Next, the present invention will be specifically described with reference to examples, but the scope of the present invention is not limited by these examples.
[0028]
Embodiment 1
4.9 kg of defatted soybeans and 4.9 kg of wheat were used as koji raw materials (total nitrogen content: 5% by weight), and koji was prepared according to a conventional method of soy sauce koji. The mash was prepared by adding 17.5 liters of 23.2% (w / v) saline cooled to -5 ° C to 10 kg of the koji (containing about 28% by weight of water). Brewing was performed at 10 ° C. for 7 days from the preparation, and thereafter the brewing temperature was increased by 5 ° C. every 7 days, followed by brewing at a final temperature of 25 ° C. for 14 days. The brewed moromi was subjected to solid-liquid separation using the filter cloth used for soy sauce filtration. The obtained liquid was subjected to diatomaceous earth filtration, alcohol was added to 3% (w / v) of the filtrate, and the pH was adjusted to 5.0 with lactic acid to obtain a seasoning. The seasoning liquid obtained here had a total nitrogen content of 1.26% (w / v), a salt content of 17.0% (w / v), and a color number of Japanese Agricultural Standard No. 49. Thereafter, a breaking test and cooking evaluation were performed using the seasonings obtained here.
[0029]
Embodiment 2
In order to confirm the effect of the seasoning solution of the present invention on a uniform processed meat product, the breaking strength was measured with a hamburger using minced chicken breast. 500 g of chicken breast was placed in a food processor to produce mince. 10 g of the seasoning liquid was mixed with 100 g of the minced meat obtained here, and the mixture was molded into a mold having a thickness of 1.5 cm and a diameter of 7 cm. The molded hamburger was allowed to stand at 4 ° C. for 30 minutes and then heated in a microwave oven (500 W) for 4 minutes to obtain a hamburger dish. For comparison, 100 g of minced meat and 10 ml of 17% (w / v) saline or raw soy sauce (koikuchi soy sauce brewed for 5 months, T-N 1.88% (w / v), salt content 17.0%) were added to 100 g of minced meat. (W / v)), and the mixture was similarly shaped and heated to obtain a cooked product. The obtained hamburger-cooked product was cut into a length of 2 cm, a width of 2 cm, and a thickness of 1 cm to obtain a measurement sample. The measurement was performed with a creep meter (RE-3305S manufactured by Yamaden).
[0030]
[Table 3]
[0031]
As shown in Table 3, even in the test of the model system which is a uniform meat, the easiness of biting by teeth is clearly superior in physical measurement to the product immersed in saline solution and the product immersed in raw soy sauce. I understood.
[0032]
Embodiment 3
Chicken breast (about 200 g) was immersed in a mixture of 10% by weight of the seasoning liquid of the present invention and 40% by weight of water and allowed to stand at 4 ° C. for 24 hours. After standing still, drained well and heated in a microwave oven (500W) for 5 minutes to obtain a cooked chicken breast. For comparison, chicken breast had a salt solution of similar salt concentration or raw soy sauce (koikuchi soy sauce 5 month brewed product, T-N 1.88% (w / v), salt content 17.0% (w / In v)), the product was immersed in the same time, and a cooked product was obtained by the same operation. The obtained meat was cut into a length of 2 cm, a width of 2 cm, and a thickness of 1 cm to obtain a measurement sample. The measurement was performed with a creep meter (RE-3305S manufactured by Yamaden).
[0033]
[Table 4]
[0034]
As shown in Table 4, the easiness of biting chicken breast using the seasoning solution of the present invention was clearly superior to that of a product immersed in saline or a product immersed in raw (sea) soy sauce. .
[0035]
Embodiment 4
The half-thawed chicken breast is cut into a size of about 4 cm in length, 4 cm in width and about 3 cm in thickness, immersed in a mixture of 10% by weight of the seasoning liquid of the present invention and 40% by weight of water based on the weight of the meat, and put in a pouch. Frozen. At a later date, the meat was thawed in a refrigerator for 16 to 24 hours, and the meat was thoroughly cut with water and then immersed in a seasoning solution (soy sauce, sugar, mirin, etc.) for about 30 minutes. Thereafter, flour or potato starch was added and fried in oil at 160 to 170 ° C. to obtain fried chicken. As a comparison, half-thawed chicken breast was cut into the same size, immersed in a mixture of 1.0% by weight of sodium bicarbonate and 49% by weight of water based on the weight of the meat, put in a pouch, and frozen and thawed. went. The thawed chicken breast was washed with water, and the water was thoroughly removed with a sieve. Then, the chicken breast was immersed in a seasoning solution (soy sauce, sugar, mirin, etc.) for about 30 minutes, and fried chicken was obtained by the same cooking method. Sensory evaluation was performed on the finished fried chicken, and 20 trained panelists were used to select the preferred one in the two-point preference method and the one felt soft in the two-point identification method.
[0036]
[Table 5]
[0037]
According to Table 5, the fried chicken using the seasoning of the present invention had a natural flavor of meat and a favorable texture, and was clearly superior to the fried chicken using sodium bicarbonate.
[0038]
Embodiment 5
The half-thawed chicken breast is cut into a size of about 4 cm in length, 4 cm in width and about 3 cm in thickness, immersed in a mixture of 10% by weight of the seasoning liquid of the present invention and 40% by weight of water based on the weight of the meat, and put in a pouch. Frozen. At a later date, the meat was thawed in a refrigerator for 16 to 24 hours, and the meat was thoroughly cut with water, and then immersed in a seasoning solution (soy sauce, sugar, mirin, etc.) for about 30 minutes. Thereafter, flour or potato starch was added and fried in oil at 160 to 170 ° C. to obtain fried chicken. For comparison, half-thawed chicken breast was cut into the same size, and 10% by weight of raw soy sauce (Kokuchi soy sauce brewed for 5 months T-N 1.88% (w / v), salt content) The mixture was immersed in a mixture of 17.0% (w / v) and 40% by weight of water, placed in a pouch, and frozen and thawed. After the thawed chicken breast was well cut with water, it was immersed in a seasoning solution (soy sauce, sugar, mirin, etc.) for about 30 minutes, and fried in a similar manner. Sensory evaluation was performed on the finished fried chicken, and 20 trained panelists were used to select the preferred one in the two-point preference method and the one felt soft in the two-point identification method.
[0039]
[Table 6]
[0040]
According to Table 6, the fried chicken using the seasoning of the present invention was soft and juicy, and was clearly superior to the fried chicken using raw soy sauce.
[0041]
Embodiment 6
10% by weight of the seasoning liquid of the present invention and 40% by weight of a grilled meat sauce were mixed with raw grilled rib meat (produced in the United States). The mixed meat and liquid were placed in a pouch, evacuated and frozen. The pouch frozen at a later date was thawed in a refrigerator for 16 to 24 hours. The thawed meat was grilled with a net to obtain flavored grilled meat. For comparison, 40% by weight of the grilled beef meat based on the weight of the grilled meat was added to the grilled beef, and an aqueous solution having the same amount and the same salt concentration as the seasoning of the present invention was mixed, similarly put in a pouch and frozen. At a later date, it was similarly thawed in a refrigerator and baked with a net to obtain flavored grilled meat.
[0042]
Embodiment 7
The half-thawed chicken breast is cut into a size of 10 mm in length, 10 mm in width and 10 mm in thickness, immersed in a mixture of 6% by weight of the seasoning liquid of the present invention and 24% by weight of water based on the weight of the meat, and refrigerated in a refrigerator. Let stand for ~ 16 hours. After standing still, the liquid was drained and used as an ingredient for pot rice. Vegetables such as carrots, burdock and bamboo shoots, and sake, mirin, sugar, salt, seasonings, and the like were filled in a pouch, followed by pressurized heat sterilization at 121 ° C. for 20 minutes. After sterilization, the rice was cooked in a rice cooker according to a predetermined procedure to obtain the rice. For comparison, meat was immersed in a saline solution having the same amount and the same salt concentration as in the case of using the seasoning of the present invention under the same conditions, and a pot rice was obtained by the same operation.
[0043]
Embodiment 8
10% by weight of the seasoning liquid of the present invention and 90% by weight of a miso seasoning liquid (a mixture of Saikyo miso, mirin, and sake) were mixed with the frozen straw (70 g / sheet). Then, the frozen seasoning was immersed in the seasoning liquid obtained at 4 ° C. for 24 hours to obtain the sashimi pickled in Saikyo. The miso, pickled in Saikyo pickles, was thoroughly wiped off with a paper towel and baked on a home stove fish grill. As a comparison, the mixture was soaked in a mixture of soy sauce of 10% by weight and 90% by weight of miso seasoning liquid at 4 ° C. for 24 hours, and cooked in the same manner.
[0044]
Embodiment 9
The blackfish tuna (100 g / piece) was soaked in a mixture of 10% by weight of the seasoning liquid of the present invention and 90% by weight of water at 4 ° C. for 30 minutes. After the pickling, the solution was thoroughly removed, and salt and pepper were added. Bake in a frying pan over high heat until brown, and then add a small amount of soy sauce to obtain a stewed tuna steak. For comparison, the same amount and the same salt concentration as in the case of using the seasoning liquid of the present invention were used to dip the tuna fillet under the same conditions and cooked in the same manner.
In order to confirm the effects of the present invention, the quality of the product according to the example and the product according to the comparative example were compared by sensory evaluation. The sensory evaluation was conducted using 20 trained panelists, and the preferred one in the two-point preference method and the one in the two-point identification method that felt soft or juicy were selected. The results are shown in Tables 7 and 8.
[0045]
[Table 7]
[Table 8]
[0046]
As a result, it was confirmed that the dishes using the seasonings of the present invention were statistically significantly preferred in all cases, and that the foods significantly recognized the softness.
[0047]
【The invention's effect】
As is clear from the above physical measurements and sensory tests, the seasoning of the present invention has an extremely excellent effect of improving meat and fish to desirable meat quality. In addition, the seasoning of the present invention, which is a brewed seasoning in recent years in which natural foods are preferred, can be used safely and safely. Further, since the meat quality can be improved by a simple operation of diluting and immersing with little color or flavor, it is a very versatile and very excellent seasoning.

Claims (4)

全窒素量が3.0重量%以上になるように調整された原料を使用した穀類麹と食塩水を混ぜたもろみを低温で0.5〜2.0ヶ月間熟成させた後、固液分離を行うことを特徴とする肉質改善効果をもつ調味料A mash obtained by mixing cereal koji and a saline solution using a raw material adjusted to have a total nitrogen content of 3.0% by weight or more is aged at a low temperature for 0.5 to 2.0 months, and then solid-liquid separated. Seasoning with meat quality improving effect characterized by performing 穀類麹がしょうゆ麹である請求項1の調味料2. The seasoning according to claim 1, wherein the cereal koji is soy sauce koji. 請求項1、2の調味料を脱塩、濃縮、除菌などの2次加工を行った調味料A seasoning obtained by subjecting the seasoning of claim 1 or 2 to secondary processing such as desalting, concentration, and sterilization. 請求項1、2、3の調味料を使用したたれ、ソースなどの調味料A seasoning such as a sauce or sauce using the seasoning of claim 1, 2, or 3.
JP2003060007A 2003-03-06 2003-03-06 Seasoning having meat property-improving effect Pending JP2004267057A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2003060007A JP2004267057A (en) 2003-03-06 2003-03-06 Seasoning having meat property-improving effect

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2003060007A JP2004267057A (en) 2003-03-06 2003-03-06 Seasoning having meat property-improving effect

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2004267057A true JP2004267057A (en) 2004-09-30

Family

ID=33122677

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP2003060007A Pending JP2004267057A (en) 2003-03-06 2003-03-06 Seasoning having meat property-improving effect

Country Status (1)

Country Link
JP (1) JP2004267057A (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2012055178A (en) * 2010-09-06 2012-03-22 Yoshinori Yoshimura Method for improving venison quality
JP2014150730A (en) * 2013-02-05 2014-08-25 Kikkoman Corp Soy sauce koji-containing, heat sterilized seasoning liquid for meat for grilling
KR101440363B1 (en) 2012-12-27 2014-09-15 대상 주식회사 Manufacturing Method for Fermented Soy Sauce with Short Aging Pereod
US9622501B2 (en) 2012-09-07 2017-04-18 Hanamaruki Foods Inc. Liquid seasoning

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2012055178A (en) * 2010-09-06 2012-03-22 Yoshinori Yoshimura Method for improving venison quality
US9622501B2 (en) 2012-09-07 2017-04-18 Hanamaruki Foods Inc. Liquid seasoning
KR101440363B1 (en) 2012-12-27 2014-09-15 대상 주식회사 Manufacturing Method for Fermented Soy Sauce with Short Aging Pereod
JP2014150730A (en) * 2013-02-05 2014-08-25 Kikkoman Corp Soy sauce koji-containing, heat sterilized seasoning liquid for meat for grilling

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
KR101119227B1 (en) A beef jerky using environment-friendly beef cattle and it&#39;s method
US4772480A (en) Method of controllingly aging edible material
JP2005312439A (en) New food and method for producing the same
KR101921283B1 (en) Method for manufacturing seeweeds beef intestines and seeweeds beef intestines manufactured by the same
KR20180030059A (en) Novel fermented seasoning composition
KR101901155B1 (en) Method for manufacturing apple eel soup and apple eel soup manufactured thereby
KR101578795B1 (en) Manufacturing Methods for Ready to Heat and Ready to Cook Dried Abalone Seafood Porridge
KR101833492B1 (en) Manufacturing method for black cattle grilled short rib patties with abalone, cheese and black cattle grilled short rib patties with abalone, cheese manufactured by the same
KR101270672B1 (en) Development of chuncheon dakgalbi using the spent layer and old breeder chicken
JP2004267057A (en) Seasoning having meat property-improving effect
KR20110072906A (en) Dumpling with cuttlefish and method for making the same
JPH0564541A (en) Pickling base containing beancurd refuse, de-fatted soybean lees, bean jam lees, rice bran, de-fatted rice bran or wheat bran as ingredient, seasoning liquid and solid seasoning agent obtained therefrom and pickled vegetable, fish and shellfish or means produced using the same seasoning
KR100526424B1 (en) making method of ham comprising fermented soybeans
KR102222052B1 (en) Manufacturing method of abalone marinated in soy sauce and the abalone therefrom
JP5505863B2 (en) Method for producing seasoning food ingredients free from ammonia odor and seasoning food from fish containing urea
JP3503854B2 (en) Food and drink additives
RU2552027C1 (en) Structured fish sausage production method
KR100630477B1 (en) Korean stew called boodae jjigae and manufacturing process thereof
JP2007174916A (en) Meat processed product and method for producing the same
KR101867302B1 (en) Method for producing lamb skewer and lamb skewer produced by the same method
JP2008283880A (en) Fish soy and method for producing the same
KR100554670B1 (en) method for production of zangachi
AU2001276735B2 (en) Functional seasonings
JP3881147B2 (en) Fish sauce with improved flavor and flavor and method for producing the same
KR20170012624A (en) Oyster croquette, and manufacturing method thereof