JP2004261714A - Liquid for promoting odorless fermentation and decomposition of organic substance and method for manufacturing compost from organic substance under odor control using it - Google Patents

Liquid for promoting odorless fermentation and decomposition of organic substance and method for manufacturing compost from organic substance under odor control using it Download PDF

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JP2004261714A
JP2004261714A JP2003054718A JP2003054718A JP2004261714A JP 2004261714 A JP2004261714 A JP 2004261714A JP 2003054718 A JP2003054718 A JP 2003054718A JP 2003054718 A JP2003054718 A JP 2003054718A JP 2004261714 A JP2004261714 A JP 2004261714A
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fermentation
liquid
odor
parts
compost
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JP4887543B2 (en
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Kiyoshi Kitagawa
清 北川
Fumio Yamauchi
文男 山内
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Kiyoshi Kitagawa
清 北川
Fumio Yamauchi
文男 山内
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/20Fertilizers of biological origin, e.g. guano or fertilizers made from animal corpses
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/20Sludge processing
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/50Reuse, recycling or recovery technologies
    • Y02W30/78Recycling of wood or furniture waste

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a liquid for promoting odorless fermentation and decomposition of an organic substance that swiftly decomposes an organic substance such as seafood debris, stock excreta, foodstuff debris, garbage, meat debris and sludge while preventing and controlling malodor thereof, and a method for manufacturing compost from the organic substance under odor control using the liquid. <P>SOLUTION: The liquid for promoting odorless fermentation and decomposition of an organic substance is produced by hot-sterilizing at 70-80°C a nutriment liquid prepared by adding molasses and rice bran to water heated to 30-40°C, adding lactic acid bacteria separated from cereal as a primary and spawn containing yeast after cooling to perform fermentation, and adjusting pH to 3.0-4.0. The method comprises mixing the above produced liquid with the organic substance, adjusting water content for a raw material for odorless compost, leaving stacked for 24-48 hours, subjecting to anaerobic fermentation at 35-50°C under odor control leading to a histolysis state, subsequently starting aerobic fermentation by air blow and stirring and continuing aerobic fermentation for about two weeks while overturning the stack of the organic substance once a day. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2004,JPO&NCIPI

Description

【0001】
【産業上の利用分野】
本発明は、農業から排出される植物残渣や水産業から排出される魚介類残渣、畜産業から排出される家畜排泄物、食品工場や飲食業や家庭等から排出される食品残渣や生ごみ、屠殺場等から排出する畜産性残渣、下水道終末処理場から排出される汚泥などの多様で複雑な成分を含む有機質物の発する悪臭を防止・抑制しながら迅速に分解させる有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液とそれを用いた有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法に関する。
【0002】
特に、本発明の特徴は、従来困難とされてきた臭気を可及的に抑制しながら有機質物を嫌気性発酵するとともに好気性発酵をなし、短期間に効率良く分解促進することのできる環境保全型の新たな有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を開発し、それを用いたコンポスト製造方法を提供せんとするものである。
【0003】
【従来の技術】
20世紀の大量生産、大量消費、大量廃棄型社会は、深刻な地球環境問題、健康問題、農業問題を引き起こした。その反省にたって21世紀は、地球環境を永続的に護る循環型社会でなければならない。そこで我国でも、近年、廃棄物とされてきた有機質物を微生物の発酵処理によって無害化したり、農地や土壌へ有機肥料として利用するために堆肥化したり、家畜の餌として飼料化するなど、再利用する技術の開発が盛んに行われるようになった。しかし、これまでの分解促進技術は、有機質物を急速に発酵分解するための微生物や菌類を開発したり、対象有機質物の分解に適合した微生物や菌類の組み合わせを開発したり、発酵作用を促進させるための温度や空気などの発酵条件を調整できる発酵施設を開発するなどが研究目標の主流であった。
【0004】
しかるに、このように成分が多様で複雑な有機質物を菌類などの微生物の活動によってのみ発酵処理する方式には、熟成するまでに一定以上の時間がかかるうえ、発酵過程で悪臭が発生することが避けられず、近隣社会から環境問題としてクレームが起ることがしばしばであった。
【0005】
このため、近年、有機質物を微生物により発酵分解処理する等、有機性廃棄物の処理やリサイクルに際しても、充分環境問題を考慮したやり方が今まで以上に強く要請されるようになった。その場合に求められる大きな環境問題は、第1が、環境・衛生に悪影響を与える有機質物の分解処理の迅速化であり、第2が、その過程で発生する悪臭防止対策である。
【0006】
即ち、前記環境問題の第1は、これまでの有機質物の発酵分解処理に要する期間が長すぎることである。有機質物を菌類などの微生物の分解活動により発酵処理しようとすると、どの位の時間でどの程度まで発酵分解するかは微生物次第であり、人間が関与できるのは、強力な発酵分解能力をもった菌類を見出すか、それらの微生物が活動し易い環境条件を整備するしかできない。したがって、有機質物原料と発酵菌類を発酵槽内に入れて、空気と温度条件を最善と思えるものに整えても一次発酵に10日〜12日間、2次発酵に7日〜14日間ほどかかるのが一般的である。即ち、有機質物原料を分解処理して熟成有機肥料にするには、急いでも20日〜25日程かかるのが普通である。そこで、どのようにすればそれより短期間に有機質物を発酵処理することができるかが各方面の研究目標にされているのである。
【0007】
また前記環境問題の第2は、微生物による発酵方式を採用した場合に、その発酵が嫌気性発酵であれば、強い悪臭が発生するし、発酵が好気性発酵の場合でも発酵開始から完全な好気性発酵に移行するまでの初期の一定期間は、悪臭の発生を防ぐことができないとされている。このため、どのようにすれば有機質物原料の分解処理過程において発生する悪臭を回収し、脱臭又は消臭するかが、環境保全の立場から重要な課題となっている。
【0008】
そこで本発明者らは、多様で複雑な有機質物の分解処理を微生物による発酵処理にだけまかせるのではなく、悪臭の発生を抑制しながら発酵・分解処理を促進する資材を開発し、これを利用することにより、今まで以上に短期間に効率良く発酵・分解することと、当該発酵・分解処理過程における悪臭を可及的に抑えることの二大目標を同時に実現できるとの確信のもとで鋭意研究に努めることにした。
【0009】
【発明が解決しようとする課題】
本発明者は、上記のように、有機質物を迅速・確実に発酵・分解することと、当該発酵・分解処理過程における悪臭を可及的に抑えることの当該二大目標を同時に実現できる有機質物の分解処理の方法を開発するに当たって、まず農業から排出される植物残渣や水産業から排出される魚介類残渣、畜産業から排出される家畜排泄物、食品工場や飲食業や家庭等から排出される食品残渣や生ごみ、屠殺場等から排出する畜産性残渣、下水道終末処理場から排出される汚泥などの多様で複雑な成分を含む有機質物の廃棄物が発する悪臭の主成分を研究した。
【0010】
その結果、臭いをもつ化学物質(臭気物質)は、世の中に数十万種類もあり、大部分の化学物質が何らかの臭いを持っていることが解った。しかも、普段、我々が鼻で感じる臭気は、殆どの場合何十何百という臭気成分によって構成された複合臭である。また、臭気には、人間にとって好ましい臭いと、好ましくない臭いとがある。そのため、臭気対策にあたっては、その構成する臭気成分の種類と特性を理解したうえで、人間にとって好ましくない悪臭だけを消臭したり、脱臭したり、抑制するなどの対応策を講ずる必要がある。調べてみると、現在、悪臭防止法で特定悪臭物質に指定されているのは、アンモニア、塩化水素、トリメチルアミンなど22種類である。それらのうち、有機質物の廃棄物が発する悪臭の主成分は、大別すると次の4種であることなどが判明した。
【0011】
1)アンモニア、トリメチルアミン等の含窒素化合物。
2)硫化水素、メチルメルカプタン、硫化メチル、二硫化メチル等の含硫黄化合物。
3)アセトアルデヒド、プロピオンアルデヒド等のアルデヒド類。
4)ノルマル酪酸、ノルマル吉草酸、イソ吉草酸などの脂肪酸類。
【0012】
これらの特定悪臭物質の規制にあたっては、臭気強度2.5〜3.5に対応する各物質の濃度の範囲内で、その地域の実情に合わせて規制値を定めているのが現状である。少なくともこの値はクリアしなければならない。
【0013】
本発明をするに当たっては、これら臭気成分の種類や特性や基準を充分考慮して行うこととするが、その基本的姿勢としては、これらの有機質物原料が発する多様な悪臭が空気中に揮発拡散した後で、そのすべての悪臭を回収したり、脱臭したり、消臭するには、大掛かりな装置と高度な技術力が必要であり、そのための経費も莫大なものとなる。そこで、本発明では、『臭いは源から絶つのが効果的である』との発想により、前記悪臭の主成分を化学的、生物学的に消失させる資材の開発とそれを利用したコンポスト製造方法を開発することにした。
【0014】
本発明者は、上記発想の有機質物の発酵分解促進資材には、第1に、有機質物の微生物による発酵分解作用を助け促進させるための微生物の存在と、微生物の栄養源が豊富にあってその微生物を増殖させる能力や微生物を活性化して発酵促進効果を相乗的に増幅する能力があること、第2に、有機質物の微生物による発酵分解に際して、有機酸を生成して酸性溶液となるようにして、アンモニアやアミン類などのアルカリ性悪臭を中和、吸着し、瞬時に消臭すること、第3に、溶解力のある水やアルコールなどを含む溶液にして含硫化合物の臭気やアルデヒド類および脂肪酸類の臭気を溶解して消臭する特性があること等が必須要件であるとの技術的知見を見出した。
【0015】
また、発明者らは、実験の結果、上記のような要件を満足した発酵分解促進資材を用いて、臭気の発生を抑制しながら低温で嫌気性発酵を所定の時間おこなうと、その後、好気性発酵に切り替えた場合ても、悪臭成分は既に完全に中和、吸着、溶解しているため、悪臭の発生がなく発酵分解できるとの技術的知見を見出した。
【0016】
本発明者らは、上記知見に基づき有機質物の発酵分解促進材を開発し、従来困難とされていた、多様で複雑な有機質物を分解・腐熟化する処理を可及的に短期間で行うことと、当該分解処理過程における悪臭を可及的に防止・抑制しながら行うことを、同時に実現することができる環境保全型の有機質物コンポストの製造方法を研究開発しているのである。
【0017】
本発明者らが、まず開発したのが、酵素分解処理と微生物分解処理を組み合わせ、その相乗効果により迅速な発酵・分解処理を実現する方法の発明である。それが、特願2002−021333号「有機質物をコンポストに製造する方法」である。
【0018】
当該先行発明は、麹から生成する酵素を使用して有機質物の発酵分解促進資材を利用した点が特徴である。この先行発明に係る酵素を主成分とする有機質物の発酵分解促進資材は、まず麹菌が働いて酵素を生成し、その酵素が有機質物の構成成分の一部を短時間に分解した状態にするとともに、糖化して微生物の栄養源を生成し、これらが引き続き行われる微生物による発酵分解作用を助け促進させ、多量の乳酸その他の有機酸を生成する。このようにしてできる酵素発酵液は、当該生成された乳酸その他の有機酸によって酸性溶液となっているので、アンモニアやアミン類などのアルカリ性臭気を中和、吸着して瞬時に消臭することができる。また、当該酵素発酵液は、当該発酵によって溶解力のある水分を含んでいるだけでなく糖分からアルコール成分も生成されているので、含硫化合物の臭気やアルデヒド類および脂肪酸類の臭気についても溶解して消臭する特性がある。このように、酵素を主成分とする有機質物の発酵分解促進資材は、主要な悪臭成分とされている、アンモニア、アミン類、含硫化合物、アルデヒド類及び脂肪酸類などの臭気を化学的反応により抑制することができるので、これを用いれば、目標としていた有機質物から悪臭を防止しながら迅速にコンポストを製造する方法を実現することが出来ることとなった。
【0019】
然るに、当該酵素を主体とする発酵分解促進資材の必須成分である麹は保存がきかないので、使用時に合わせてその都度製造しなければならず、また麹を使用した際、多少味噌様の独特の臭いがする。この臭いは、必ずしも悪臭ではないが、あまり好ましくない気になる臭いとして、抑制されることが望ましい。しかも当該酵素やその発酵液は、時間の経過や環境変化によって、作用や機能を変質したり失活したりし易く、その作用と機能を維持しながら安定的に保持するのは難しい。当該酵素を主体とする発酵分解促進資材の製造には、高価な麹を原料とするうえ、酵素を生成させ糖化と発酵の二段階が必要となるので、出来た発酵分解促進資材は高価なものとなる。これに対して、コンポスト化や堆肥化の原料となる有機質物は、多くの場合廃棄物で安価であるため、高価な酵素を使用し、発酵分解促進資材を常時その機能を維持しながら用意しておくのは大変で、ランニングコストの負担が増大するという弱点がある。
【0020】
そこで、本発明者らは、この先行発明である酵素を主成分とする発酵分解促進資材の弱点を克服し、酵素を使用しなくても、悪臭成分の発生を強力に抑制しながら、有機質物を発酵分解することのできる改良された無臭発酵分解促進液を開発することにした。これが本発明の目的である。
【0021】
本発明に係る改良された無臭発酵分解促進液は、主原料として糖蜜を使用することとし、これに水と米糠とを加え、加熱殺菌したうえ、乳酸菌や酵母を含む種菌を加えて発酵させて酸性に調製した点が特徴である。
【0022】
先行発明と本発明との改良点や相違点を挙げると、次の通りである。主原料の糖蜜は、安価であり、麹を原料とする酵素の約1/5ですむ。また、麹は保存がきかないのに対して、糖蜜は保存が効く。さらに、酵素を主体とする発酵分解促進材の製造には、糖化と発酵という二段階過程が必要であるため、約1週間から10日間かかるうえ、その製造には熟練が必要であるのに対して、糖蜜を主体とする無臭発酵分解促進液の製造には、糖化過程が必要ないので、その製造期間は2〜3日で充分である。つまり本発明は、製造期間が1/2〜1/3で済むし、製造に際して熟練を要せずその製造方法が簡単である。
【0023】
更に、糖蜜を主体とする無臭発酵分解促進液の製造には、糖蜜からスタートするので、発酵が均一に進むと共に、悪臭の主成分であるアンモニアを中和して、無臭にする乳酸などの有機酸の生成が早い。しかも、酵素を主体とする発酵分解促進材の最終発酵液がpH4.0±0.5であるのに対して、糖蜜を主体とする無臭発酵分解促進液は、pH3.5±0.5まで低下し、有機酸の生成量が多いので、それだけ消臭力が強い。即ち、本発明に係る糖蜜を主体とする無臭発酵分解促進液を利用したコンポストの製造方法の消臭力は、酵素を使用した発酵分解促進材を利用した場合より強く、麹を使用した際に生じる味噌くさい臭いも除くことが出来る。本発明に係る糖蜜を主体とする無臭発酵分解促進液は、酵素を使用した発酵分解促進材より、上記のような多くの点を改良したものである。
【0024】
即ち、当該無臭発酵分解促進液は、有機質物を発酵分解させる微生物を多量に含み、その微生物の栄養源が豊富にあるうえ、発酵によって、乳酸や酢酸やクエン酸などの有機酸を多く含んだ酸性溶液になっているとともに、アルコールも微量ながら生成されているので、消臭する作用や機能が強化されている。更に、当該無臭発酵分解促進液を有機質物と混合すると、悪臭を抑えながら嫌気性発酵も好気性発酵をも進めることができる。しかも、その原材料は、水と、糖蜜と、米糠と、種菌という比較的安価で、容易に入手可能なものばかりであるので、調製が簡単で、短期間に製造できるなどの特徴がある。
【0025】
従って、本発明は、上記技術的知見に基づいて、多様で複雑な有機質物の分解し腐熟化する処理を可及的に短期間で行うことと、当該分解処理過程における悪臭を可及的に防止・抑制しながら行うことを、同時に且つ効率的に実現することができる環境保全型の有機質物をコンポストに製造する方法を提供せんとするものである。
【0026】
【課題を解決するための手段】
特許を受けようとする第1発明は、30〜40℃に加温した水に糖蜜と、米糠とを加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌とを加えて発酵させpH3.0〜4.0に調製したことを特徴とする有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液である。
【0027】
特許を受けようとする第2発明は、30〜40℃に加温した水100部に糖蜜1〜3部と、米糠1〜3部とを加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌0.1〜0.5部とを加えて発酵させてpH3.0〜4.0に調製したことを特徴とする有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液である。
【0028】
当該、第1発明と、第2発明に係る無臭発酵分解促進液の特性を調べると、有機質物を発酵分解させる微生物を多量に含み、その微生物の栄養源が豊富にあって、微生物の増殖と活動を活性化して発酵促進効果を相乗的に増幅する機能がある。しかも、発酵によって、乳酸や酢酸やクエン酸などの有機酸を生成しており、そのpHがpH3.0〜4.0と酸性溶液になっているので、悪臭発生の主成分であるアンモニアやアミン類を中和、吸着して消臭する作用や機能がある。同時に、溶解力のある水やアルコールも生成され含まれているので、含硫化合物やアルデヒド類や脂肪酸類を溶解消臭する作用や機能がある。尚、養分調製液は、前もって70〜80℃に加熱殺菌しているので、酵素は失活しており、雑菌も殺菌されているので、その後に加える種菌の繁殖とその微生物がもたらす作用や効果を確実に、且つ効率的に実現することができる。
【0029】
特に、当該無臭発酵分解促進液は、pHが強く、有機質物と混合すると瞬間的に消臭するうえ、中和や吸着や溶解が完全になされるので、消臭効果が強力で確実である。そのため、当該無臭発酵分解促進液を混合して、コンポスト原料全体に行き渡るように良く混ぜ合わせ、温度が上がらないようにして所定時間堆積静置することにより、充分に無臭発酵分解促進液をなじませながら嫌気性発酵をさせてみると、従来困難と思われてきた悪臭を発生することなく嫌気性発酵をすることが出来た。しかも、その後、当該コンポスト原料に通気・攪拌をすることにより、好気性発酵を進めた場合にも、最初から最後まで悪臭を発生させることなく、熟成状態のコンポストを製造することが出来る。
【0030】
このように、本発明に係る無臭発酵分解促進液を利用すると、無臭状態のまま嫌気性発酵と好気性発酵の両発酵を進めることができる点に大きな特徴がある。更に、高価で不安定な酵素ではなく、原材料が水と、糖蜜と、米糠と、種菌という比較的安価で、容易に入手可能なものばかりであるので、当該無臭発酵分解促進液の調製が簡単で管理、運用が容易である。
【0031】
特許を受けようとする第3発明は、まず、30〜40℃に加温した水に糖蜜と、米糠とを加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌とを加えて混合し、発酵させてpH3.0〜4.0に調製してなる有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を用意しておく。次に、固液混合有機質物に前記無臭発酵分解促進液と、米糠と、もどしコンポストと、必要に応じて籾殻とを加えて、ほぼ均一に攪拌混合して、水分含量が50〜70%になるよう調製した無臭化処理コンポスト原料となす。その上で、当該無臭化処理コンポスト原料を、ほぼ24〜48時間堆積静置して、35〜50℃で嫌気性発酵させて悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態となした後、これに通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵を開始させ、毎日数回切り返ししながら約2週間好気性発酵させることにより有機質物を分解熟成するようにしたことを特徴とする有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法である。
【0032】
特許を受けようとする第4発明は、先ず、30〜40℃に加温した水100部に糖蜜1〜3部と、米糠1〜3部とを加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌0.1〜0.5部を加えて発酵させてpH3.0〜4.0に調製してなる有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を用意しておく。そして、固液混合有機質物100部に前記無臭発酵分解促進液1.0〜1.5部と、米糠0.1〜0.4部と、もどしコンポスト10〜50部と、必要に応じて籾殻0.04〜0.2部とを攪拌機に入れ、ほぼ均一となるように15〜60分間に攪拌混合して、水分含量が50〜70%となるように調製した無臭化処理コンポスト原料となす。その上で、当該無臭化処理コンポスト原料をほぼ24〜48時間堆積静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵させ悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態となした後、これに通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵を開始させ、毎日数回攪拌しながら約2週間、主に好気性発酵させることにより有機質物を分解熟成するようにしたことを特徴とする有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法である。
【0033】
当該第3発明、第4発明は、前記無臭発酵分解促進液を用いた有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法である。コンポスト原料となる固液混合有機質物に前記無臭発酵分解促進液を加えると、原料が発していた臭気は直ちに消臭される。しかし、含まれている微生物が増殖するのを促進するための栄養源として米糠を加えるとともに、簡単に発酵を開始するように、もどしコンポストと必要に応じて籾殻とを加えることにより水分含量を調製してコンポスト原料を無臭化するとともに発酵しやすい状態に前処理した。その上で、当該無臭化処理コンポスト原料を温度があまり高温にならないようにしながら所定時間堆積した状態で静置して、嫌気性発酵をさせる。すると悪臭を発生させることなく嫌気性発酵して、原料である有機質物の組織を脆化状態にした。その結果、好気性発酵をする微生物が簡単に組織内に入り込み、急速に分解し易い状態になった。このように中間処理したコンポスト原料に通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵を開始させ、毎日数回攪拌しながら約2週間、悪臭が発生しないまま高温となって好気性発酵して、有機質物が分解して、完熟したコンポストになった。本発明は、このように無臭発酵分解促進液を用いることにより、終始悪臭を防止しながら嫌気性発酵と好機性発酵の両方を行い短期間に効率良く有機質物をコンポストにする方法である。
【0034】
特許を受けようとする第5発明は、先ず、30〜40℃に加温した水に糖蜜と、米糠とを加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌とを加えて発酵させてpH3.0〜4.0に調製してなる有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を用意しておく。次に、固液混合有機質物を必要に応じて藁や籾殻などの補助材を混合したうえ、プレス機にかけて、固体部分と液体部分に分離する。そして、分離した固体部分に無臭発酵分解促進液を混合攪拌して、その水分含量を40〜60%に調製したうえ、常温下でほぼ24〜48時間堆積静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵をして、内部に微生物を繁殖させた悪臭の無い発酵固体部分となす。その上で、先ず、分離した液体部分には、乳酸、酢酸、クエン酸、木酢などの有機酸又は硝酸、硫酸、塩酸などの鉱酸のいづれかを混合してpH6.0〜7.0となるように中和したうえ、この中和液体部分に前記無臭発酵分解促進液と必要に応じて糖蜜と米糠とを混合して、ほぼ24〜48時間静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵をさせ発泡するようにした悪臭の無い発酵液体部分となす。それから前記悪臭の無い発酵固体部分と悪臭の無い発酵液体部分に、もどしコンポストを混合して、水分含量が50〜70%となるように調製したうえ、これをほぼ2〜4日間堆積静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵させて悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態にした混合発酵原料となす。その後、当該悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態にした混合発酵原料に通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵させ、毎日数回切り返しをしながら主に好気性発酵させることにより有機質物を分解熟成するようにしたことを特徴とする有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法である。
【0035】
特許を受けようとする第6発明は、先ず、30〜40℃に加温した水100部に糖蜜1〜3部と、米糠1〜3部を加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌0.1〜0.5部を加えて混合し発酵させてpH3.0〜4.0に調製してなる有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を用意しておく。次に、固液混合有機質物に必要に応じて藁や籾殻などの補助材を混合したうえ、プレス機にかけて、固体部分と液体部分に分離する。その上で、分離した固体部分はもどしコンポストや籾殻などで、その水分含量を40〜60%に調製したうえ、常温下でほぼ24〜48時間堆積静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵をして、内部に微生物を繁殖させた悪臭の無い発酵固体部分となす。他方、分離した液体部分には、乳酸、酢酸、クエン酸、木酢などの有機酸又は硝酸、硫酸、塩酸などの鉱酸の酸類を混合してpH6.0〜7.0となるように中和したうえ、この中和液体部分100部に対して前記無臭発酵分解促進液2.5部と必要に応じて糖蜜(促進液に対し4〜6部)と米糠1〜3部の割合で混合して、ほぼ24〜48時間静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵をさせて発泡するようにした悪臭の無い発酵液体部分となす。それから前記悪臭の無い発酵固体部分100部と悪臭の無い発酵液体部分70〜90部に、もどしコンポスト180〜240部と、無臭発酵分解促進液5〜7部を混合して、水分含量が50〜70%に調製したうえ、これをほぼ2〜4日間堆積静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵させて悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態とした混合発酵原料となす。その後、当該悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態にした混合発酵原料に通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵をさせ、毎日数回切り返しをしながら、ほぼ7〜14日間主に好気性発酵させることにより有機質物を分解熟成するようにしたことを特徴とする有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法である。
【0036】
当該第5発明、第6発明についても、前記無臭発酵分解促進液を用いた有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法であるが、これらの発明は、固液混合有機質物を固体部分と液体部分に分離して、前記無臭発酵分解促進液を加えて嫌気性発酵をし悪臭の無い発酵固体部分と悪臭の無い発酵液体部分にする。その上で、悪臭の無い発酵固体部分と悪臭の無い発酵液体部分を混合して悪臭のない固液混合有機質物に戻した。その上で、もどしコンポストと、無臭発酵分解促進液を混合して水分含量が簡単に発酵し易いように調製する。その上で、これをほぼ2〜4日間堆積静置して、温度があまり高くならないようにしながら嫌気性発酵させて悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態の混合発酵原料とする。このように、コンポスト原料である有機質物を固液分離して、短時間に確実な無臭化処理を行い、それから悪臭のない固液混合有機質物に戻して発酵し易いように調製した点が第3発明、第4発明とは相違する特徴である。
【0037】
このように、コンポスト原料を固液分離して無臭発酵分解促進液を加えて前処理し、嫌気性発酵と好気性発酵をする方法であれば、コンポスト原料の水分が多く好機発酵が困難な場合でも、悪臭を防止しながら確実に発酵分解してコンポストを製造する事が出来るのである。
【0038】
【実施例】
以下、本発明を実施例に基づいて詳細に説明する。
図1は、本発明に係る有機質物に係る無臭発酵分解促進液の要件を示す説明図であり、図2は、第3発明、第4発明の有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法の構成と作業工程を示す説明図であり、図3は、第5発明、第6発明に係る有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法の構成と作業工程を示す説明図である。
【0039】
本発明者は、まず、無臭発酵分解促進液の実施例1として用意し、それを用いて一括処理方式の有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法(その1)を実施例2として実験を行い、更に、固液分離処理方式の有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法(その2)を実施例3として実験し、その際の悪臭発生状況を測定し、この製造方法の悪臭防止又は脱臭効果を確認した。
【0040】
<実施例1> 無臭発酵分解促進液の製造
水分1000リットルを30〜40℃に加温し、糖蜜20kg(10〜30kg)、米糠30kg(10〜30kg)を加えて養分調製液とする。尚、この養分調製液には、必要に応じて油粕を0.5〜1%加えても良い。当該養分調製液を75℃(70〜80℃)に加熱殺菌させる。これにより雑菌を排除し、酵素を失活させる。この養分調製液を40℃前後に冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌3リットル(1〜5リットル)を加えて、これを恒温機に入れて発酵させた。そして、当該発酵培養液のpH変化を観測したところ、表1の通りとなった。
【0041】
【0042】
表1に示す通り、前記発酵培養液は、スタートとともに急速なpHの低下が起こることが解った。スタート時は、pH6.1(pH6.0〜6.5)程度であったのが、1日経過すると、pH4前後まで低下し、2日目にはpH3.5付近となり、5日以降はpH3.2まで低下した。これは、主に乳酸菌による乳酸の生成経過であるとみられる。発酵培養液のpHが3.5付近に低下した時点で、有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液として完成し、使用可能である。尚、このような実験を、何度か行ったが、その都度、ほぼ同様の結果を得られた。
【0043】
<実施例2> 有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法(その1)
先ず、原料となる有機質物として、豚糞・尿40:牛糞60の混合比率にした蓄糞1000kgを用意した。これは、アンモニア、硫化水素、メチルメルカプタンなどを主体とした強烈で刺激的な悪臭が発生している。
【0044】
次に、無臭発酵分解促進液として、前記実施例1で製造した発酵培養液でpH3.5のものを用意した。
【0045】
攪拌機に、蓄糞1000kgに前記無臭発酵分解促進液を水で2〜4倍に希釈した液12リットル(10〜15リットル)を混入し、更に米糠2kg(1〜3kg)と、もどしコンポスト200kg(100〜500kg)と、籾殻0.2〜1.0とを入れ、これらがほぼ均一となるように45分間(20〜60分間)攪拌混合した。出てきた畜糞混合物は、その水分含量が65%となっているが、主な臭いであるアンモニア臭は、1ppm(1〜3ppm)と著しく軽減していて無臭化処理コンポスト原料となっている。この程度のアンモニア臭は、ほとんど臭いを感ぜず、当該コンポスト原料を手にとり、鼻に近づけて少し感ずる程度である。
【0046】
それから、当該無臭化処理コンポスト原料をほぼ48時間堆積静置して37〜38℃で主に嫌気性発酵させ悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態にした。このとき温度が上限50℃を超えないようにする。これ以上の温度に上昇すると、好気性発酵になって、アンモニアなどの臭気の発生を抑えられない。
【0047】
3日目以降、当該無臭化処理コンポスト原料を発酵槽に投入し、通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵を開始させる。毎日1回攪拌しながら約2週間、好気性発酵させることにより有機質物を分解熟成してコンポストになる。この際のコンポスト原料の品温は、60〜80℃まで上昇しながら好気性発酵する。この際のアンモニア臭は、5〜10ppm程度の発生が見られるが、この程度のアンモニア臭気は、少し離れれば悪臭としてはほとんど感じられない程度に極めて抑制された状態である。
【0048】
(実施例3)固液分離処理方式の有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法(その2)
先ず、原料となる有機質物として、尿を含む豚糞・尿40:牛糞40:鶏糞20の混合比率にした蓄糞1000kgを用意した。
【0049】
次に、無臭発酵分解促進液として、前記実施例1で製造した発酵培養液でpH3.5のものを用意した。
【0050】
固液混合有機質物である蓄糞を必要に応じて藁や籾殻などの補助材を混合したうえ、スクリュープレス機にかけて、固体部分と液体部分に分離する。補助材を加えることにより絞りやすくなることと、発酵時に腐食成分が増えて発酵しやすくなるからである。
【0051】
分離した固体部分はもどしコンポストや籾殻などで、その水分含量が40〜60%になるように調製する。夏季には約24時間、冬季には約48時間ほど堆積静置しておく。すると固体部分原料は35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵して、その内部に、白色の微生物が一面に繁殖しているのが見られた。分離した固体部分が当初発していたアンモニア臭を中心とした強い悪臭が、無臭発酵分解促進液を混合攪拌するとたちまち軽減して、刺激的な悪臭が感じられない状態の発酵固体部分となった。
【0052】
他方、分離した液体部分は、pH8.0付近であるが、乳酸、酢酸、クエン酸、木酢などの有機酸又は硝酸、硫酸、塩酸などの鉱酸の酸類を混合してpH6.0〜7.0となるように中和する。固液分離した直後から時間とともに急速にpHが上昇するので、20分程度以内に中和するのが望ましい。こうして出来た中和液体部分10リットルに対して前記無臭発酵分解促進液0.3リットルと必要に応じて糖蜜15ミリリットルと米糠0.2kgの割合で混合して、夏季には約24時間、冬季には約48時間ほど時間静置して置く。すると35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵して、発泡する。当該発泡が激しい場合は、ときどき静かに攪拌して、当該泡をけすのが望ましい。前記中和だけでも悪臭は大幅に軽減するが、1日発酵させると更に臭いが消えて、アンモニア以外の臭いもほとんど感じられない状態となる。このようにして悪臭の無い発酵液体部分となる。
【0053】
それから前記悪臭の無い発酵固体部分100kgと悪臭の無い発酵液体部分80リットルと、もどしコンポスト220リットルと、無臭発酵分解促進液6リットルとを混合して、水分含量が約60%に調製したうえ、これを冬季2日、夏季4日間堆積静置する。すると混合原料の品温が35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵して、悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態となる混合発酵原料となる。
【0054】
その後、当該悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態にした混合発酵原料を発酵槽に投入して、通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵を開始させる。スクープ式攪拌機で毎日1回切り返しをしながら、ほぼ7〜14日間60〜80℃の高温になりながら主に好気性発酵させることにより有機質物を分解熟成する。好気性発酵の初期から一切悪臭が発生することなく、熟成したコンポストができる。
【0055】
当該実施例では、有機質物原料がどのような固液割合であっても、その固液分離して処理することにより、無臭化処理工程も嫌気性発酵工程も好機性発酵工程も確実に無臭化することができる画期的なコンポストの製造方法である。
【0056】
叙上のように、実施例に基づいて本発明について考察してみると、無臭発酵分解促進液は、乳酸菌を主体とし酵母菌を含有する種菌と栄養成分を混合して発酵させ、乳酸とアルコールを含む強酸性溶液となっているものである。従って、本発明に係る有機質物をコンポストにする方法の特徴を要約すると、原料となる有機質物に無臭発酵分解促進液を加えることにより、強酸性雰囲気中での乳酸菌と酵母を先導とした嫌気性発酵をした後、好機性発酵をする堆肥化処理法であるといえる。
【0057】
しかも、本発明は、有機質物を無臭発酵分解促進液で無臭化処理した前処理時点から、嫌気性発酵、好気性発酵をしている間、終始悪臭を防止しながら、迅速にコンポストを製造する方法であることが、特徴である。
【0058】
本発明者は、実施例について、そのコンポストの熟成度を小松菜の発芽率により測定した。その方法は、資料10gを200ミリリットルの三角フラスコにとり、沸騰水100ミリリットルを加えて、1時間放置後、ガーゼ2枚で濾過した。その濾液10ミリリットルを、あらかじめ濾紙2枚を敷いてあるシャーレに分注し、その上から小松菜30粒を撒いた。シャーレに蓋をして、室温下で静置し、3〜6日後に発芽率を測定した。その結果は、表3の通りである。
【0059】
【0060】
この結果からみると、コンポスト製造開始から8日程度で、ほぼ熟成したと見られる。この値は、これまで発表されている一般的堆肥における発芽率が、約5ケ月(150日)で、100%近くなるという結果と比較しても、1/10以下の日数で、熟成されていることになる。
【0061】
以上のように、本発明は、有機質物原料を分解処理して熟成コンポスト(有機肥料)に製造するのに、約12〜16日あれば充分である。これは従来の熟成コンポスト(有機肥料)の製造法では、急いでも20日〜25日程かかるのと比較すると、大幅にその処理期間が短縮されており、迅速なコンポスト化処理法である。
【0062】
そこで次に、本発明に係る無臭発酵分解促進液を用いた堆肥化処理法が、悪臭を防止できる理由について考察する。基本的には、無臭発酵分解促進液を加えることにより、悪臭の原因となる成分の発生を可及的に阻止する方法あって、発生した悪臭を回収し、脱臭するものではない。
【0063】
無臭発酵分解促進液の特徴は、水と糖蜜と米糠とからなる栄養成分液に、乳酸菌と酵母とからなる種菌を使用して発酵させた発酵液である。当該発酵液中にはエタノール、有機酸として乳酸や酢酸を主な成分とし含むpH3.5±0.5前後の酸性溶液である。これが本発明に係るコンポストを製造する方法において、従来より迅速化と無臭化を改善する効果をもたらす大きな原因になっている。
【0064】
無臭化のメカニズムを考察すると、まず、悪臭の成分のうちでも多量にあるアンモニアやアミン類は、弱アルカリ性であるのに対し、加える無臭発酵分解促進液は、酸性溶液なので、中和され臭気が消えるのである。又、悪臭成分である硫化水素や、メチルメルカプタンなどの含硫化合物や、アセトアルデヒドなどのアルデヒド類は、発酵分解促進資材に含まれるアルコールなどによって溶解力のある溶液が含まれているので、臭気がこれらに可溶化して消臭するのである。更に、悪臭成分であるノルマル酪酸、ノルマル吉草酸、イソ吉草酸などの脂肪酸類は、水に溶解し易いので可溶化して消臭する。その他、もどしコンポストや籾殻など原料に加えるの補助材に悪臭成分が吸着されて、悪臭の発生を抑える効果も重なっている。更に、有機質物原料に無臭発酵分解促進液を混入すると、有機質物原料中に含まれる悪臭成分のアンモニアは、無臭発酵分解促進液に含まれる有機酸が反応してアンモニウム塩となり、一次的にアンモニアの揮発が抑制されるのである。
【0065】
【0066】
当該アンモニウム塩は、好気性状態を維持すると後で含まれている微生物の窒素源として、菌体内に直ちに取り込まれ、菌体成分(蛋白質)の合成に利用される。すなわち、無臭発酵分解促進液は、微生物及びその生産する菌体外酵素(糖化酵素、蛋白質分解酵素等)を含有し、有機質物原料の分解を促進し、微生物の増殖を速めると同時に、微生物が増殖するために有機酸アンモニウム塩を窒素源として速やかに利用するため、脱臭効果を発揮するのである。
【0067】
従来法では、原料中に含まれる微生物の濃度が低いため、微生物の濃度が低いため、微生物の増殖を待つ必要があり、初期に発生したアンモニア等は揮発し悪臭となるが、無臭運発酵分解促進液は、種菌により充分発酵されているので、アンモニアは有機酸塩となり、揮発しにくくなり、糖蜜が栄養源となって微生物が高密度で増殖された状態になっている。そのため、当該アンモニウム塩が微生物の窒素源として速やかに利用され乳酸や酢酸のアンモニウム塩となる。このため、アンモニアの揮発を防止し、臭気発生を抑制するとともに、窒素源の有効活用を図ることができます。その作用を反応式で表現すると、次おようになります。尚、生物細胞をC2H7NO2と表した例を示します。
【0068】
【0069】
更に、一般に、嫌気性発酵をすると、悪臭が発生し易いとされてきたが、強酸性条件下では、乳酸菌と酵母による嫌気性発酵が行われても臭気が発生しないことが判明した。蓋し、悪臭成分の中和と溶解によって臭気が抑制されるだけでなく、乳酸菌と酵母以外の微生物は、強酸性下では、死滅するかほとんど作用しないので臭気は発生しないのである。
【0070】
次に、このようにして製造され、出来上がったコンポストの成分を分析すると、次の表2の通りであった。尚、このコンポストの分析値と農林水産省(1982年)が発表した「堆きゅう肥等有機質資材の品質」の値の要点と比較した。
【0071】
実施例2、実施例3で試験した原料が畜糞であるところから、農林水産省(1982年)が発表した牛糞、豚糞を原料とした堆きゅう肥の値と比較することとした。
【0072】
(分析値の評価)
実施例2、実施例3にて製造したコンポストの成分の分析値は、全体的に、農林水産省が発表した標準値と近似している。原料が共通していることが原因であると思われる。尚、実施例2、実施例3における重金属の値は、いずれも規制値以下なので、ここでは省略する。
【0073】
【0074】
<脱臭試験の方法)>
次に、本発明に係る実施例2、実施例3の有機質物をコンポストにする方法において、定期的に臭い成分を測定した。当該臭い成分の測定、分析、脱臭効果の評価は、第三者の環境計量事業資格者に依頼した。尚、臭いの測定方法は、悪臭防止法工程方法による。悪臭防止法公定方法による臭気濃度測定結果にもとずき、脱臭効果を考察すると、次のようになる。
【0075】
<A.有機質物原料投入時の臭気>
有機質物原料である家畜糞尿に養分補助材と水分調整材用の補助資材とを加えて複合有機質物原料にした直後は、原料の臭いがそのまま揮発発散するので、強烈な臭いがある。その際の悪臭の主な成分は、図4に示す通り、アンモニアや硫化水素やメチルメルカプタン硫化メチル等である。これをいかに早く脱臭するかが、環境保護を重視する分解促進処理技術においては、重要な技術課題である
【0076】
<B.無臭発酵分解促進液を投入してから2時間後の臭気>
有機質物原料に無臭発酵分解促進液と養分補助材や水分調整材などを加えてコンベアで混合しながら攪拌槽に投入し、これを低温に温度調整しながら、2時間攪拌して複合有機質物原料全体が均一になるよう混合調製して、無臭化処理する。すると、図5に示したように臭気が大幅に抑制された。悪臭の主成分のうちでも多量にあるアンモニアやアミン類は弱アルカリ性であるのに対し、発酵分解促進資材は酸性溶液になっているので、これに中和され臭気が消え、又、含硫化合物やアルデヒド類は、無臭発酵分解促進液に含まれるアルコールなどによって溶解力のある溶液によって臭気が可溶化して脱臭したのである。
【0077】
<C.発酵分解促進資材投入後24時間の臭気>
均一に混合調製され無臭化処理された複合有機質物原料を取り出し堆積静置して、低温に温度管理をしながら24時間嫌気性発酵をさせるが、この嫌気性発酵の過程においても、その後においても臭気は、図6に示すように消えた状態になっている。
【0078】
<D.発酵槽内の攪拌前/攪拌後の臭気>
当該嫌気性発酵をおこなった後、当該無臭の複合有機質物原料を発酵槽内に投入し、温風送風機を作動して発酵槽の底部から温風を吹き入れながら発酵させるようにした。その直後で攪拌前の臭気を計測したのが図7である。そして、当該複合有機質物原料を発酵槽内で攪拌し好気性発酵を開始した直後の臭気を計測したのが図11である。当該複合有機質物原料の全体に急速な好気性発酵が安定して起こり、温度が上昇するが、そうなると、もう全く悪臭が発せられることがない。
【0079】
<E.発酵槽建家内中央部の臭気>
発酵槽を設置した建家内のほぼ中央部における臭気を計測した結果が、図8である。この計測時には発酵槽内で盛んに好気性発酵が行われている状態であったが、検出できる臭気は殆ど発生していない。
【0080】
<F.敷地境界における臭気>
発酵槽を設置した建家の建ててある敷地境界の風下における臭気を計測した結果が図9であり、同敷地境界のコンポスト出口側における臭気を計測した結果が図10である。既に風下でもコンポスト出口側でも、臭気が検知することができないほど無臭状態である(図11)。
【0081】
【効果】
本発明は、有機質物に無臭発酵分解促進液を混合して、原料の無臭化処理をなし、その無臭化処理済み有機質物に補助材を加えて水分含量の調製したうえ、温度を低温に調整しながら攪拌混合して、無臭状態のまま嫌気性発酵をなし、その後、攪拌を行いながら温風を吹き入れて微生物を活性化し、これによって効率的に好気性発酵をさせる方法である。このように本発明は、無臭発酵分解促進液を用いて嫌気性発酵処理と好気性発酵分解処理を順次行い、その両処理方式の相乗効果によって、悪臭を防止しながらより短期間に熟成状態となるようにした有機質物をコンポストにする方法である。
【0082】
当該有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液は、乳酸を主体とする強い酸性溶液であり、栄養源を生成し、これらが引き続き行われる微生物による発酵分解作用を助け促進させる効果がある。しかも、無臭発酵分解促進液は、強酸性環境下で乳酸菌と酵母菌を主体として嫌気性発酵をする。これによって、悪臭を防止しながら原料を組織脆化状態にする。その後、通気・攪拌を行うと、好気性発酵することにより、有機質物を悪臭防止しながら分解熟成することが出来る効果がある。こうして出来たコンポストは、作物の生育がよい堆肥となる。この堆肥を土に戻す事によって健全な土壌を造ることができ、このような健全な土で育った作物は、丈夫で病虫害にも強く、美味しさや、栄養分も多く、人々の健康に貢献することができる。
【0083】
また、当該有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を有機質物原料と混合すれば、前記有機質物の悪臭を発する主成分を迅速に且つ継続的に消失させることができる効果がある。
【0084】
即ち、当該有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液は、微生物の好む栄養源を自ら次々と生成するとともに、微生物の増殖と活動を活性化して発酵促進効果を相乗的に増幅する。従って、当該有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を利用して、その保有する能力を上手に発現するようにすれば、迅速な有機質物の分解熟成をなし、悪臭を防止しながら短期間にコンポストを製造できるのである。
【図面の簡単な説明】
図1は、本発明に係る有機質物に係る無臭発酵分解促進液の要件を示す説明図であり、図2は、第3発明、第4発明の有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法の構成と作業工程を示す説明図であり、図3は、第5発明、第6発明に係る有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法の構成と作業工程を示す説明図である。
【図1】本発明に係る有機質物に係る無臭発酵分解促進液の要件を示す説明図である。
【図2】第3発明、第4発明の有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法の構成と作業工程を示す説明図である。
【図3】図3は、第5発明、第6発明に係る有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法の構成と作業工程を示す説明図である。
【図4】第2実施例に係るコンポスト製造方法において、有機質物原料投入時の臭気を計測した計測した結果を示す表である。
【図5】第2実施例に係るコンポスト製造方法において、発酵分解促進資材投入後2時間の臭気を計測した結果を示す表である。
【図6】第2実施例に係るコンポスト製造方法において、発酵分解促進資材投入後24時間の臭気を計測した結果を示す表である。
【図7】第2実施例に係るコンポスト製造方法において、発酵槽内の攪拌前の臭気を計測した結果を示す表である。
【図8】第2実施例に係るコンポスト製造方法において、発酵槽内の攪拌後の臭気を計測した結果を示す表である。
【図9】第2実施例に係るコンポスト製造方法において、発酵槽建家内中央部の臭気を計測した結果を示す表である。
【図10】第2実施例に係るコンポスト製造方法において、敷地境界の風下における臭気を計測した結果を示す表である。
【図11】第2実施例に係るコンポスト製造方法において、敷地境界のコンポスト出口側における臭気を計測した結果を示す表である。
[0001]
[Industrial applications]
The present invention relates to plant residues discharged from agriculture, seafood residues discharged from the fisheries industry, livestock excreta discharged from the livestock industry, food residues discharged from food factories, the food and beverage industry, households, etc. Odorless fermentation decomposition solution for organic substances that rapidly decomposes while preventing / suppressing the odor generated by organic substances containing various and complex components such as livestock residues discharged from sewage plants and sludge discharged from sewage treatment plants And a method for composting organic substances using the same while preventing odors.
[0002]
In particular, a feature of the present invention is that an anaerobic fermentation of an organic substance and an aerobic fermentation can be performed while suppressing an odor which has been regarded as difficult in the past as much as possible. It is an object of the present invention to develop a new type of odorless fermentation decomposition accelerator for organic matter and to provide a compost production method using the same.
[0003]
[Prior art]
The 20th century mass production, mass consumption and mass disposal society has caused serious global environmental, health and agricultural problems. To reflect on this, the 21st century must be a recycling-oriented society that protects the global environment permanently. Therefore, in Japan, in recent years, organic substances that have been regarded as waste have been detoxified by fermentation treatment of microorganisms, composted for use as organic fertilizer on agricultural land and soil, and used as feed for livestock, etc. The development of the technology to do so has been active. However, conventional decomposition promotion technologies have developed microorganisms and fungi for rapidly fermenting and decomposing organic substances, developing combinations of microorganisms and fungi suitable for the decomposition of target organic substances, and promoting fermentation. The main research goal was to develop a fermentation facility that could adjust the fermentation conditions, such as temperature and air, to achieve this.
[0004]
However, the method of fermenting such complex organic matter with various components only by the activity of microorganisms such as fungi requires a certain amount of time before ripening and may generate odor in the fermentation process. Inevitably, complaints often came from neighboring communities as environmental issues.
[0005]
For this reason, in recent years, there has been a stronger demand than ever before for methods of treating and recycling organic waste, such as fermentation and decomposition treatment of organic matter with microorganisms, in consideration of environmental issues. The major environmental problems required in such a case are firstly the speeding up of decomposition treatment of organic substances which have a bad influence on the environment and sanitation, and secondly are measures to prevent odors generated in the process.
[0006]
That is, the first of the environmental problems is that the period required for the conventional fermentation decomposition treatment of organic matter is too long. When trying to ferment organic substances by the decomposing activity of microorganisms such as fungi, how much time and how much fermentation is degraded depends on the microorganisms, and human involvement has strong fermentative decomposition ability. The only option is to find fungi or to maintain environmental conditions in which these microorganisms can easily work. Therefore, it takes about 10 to 12 days for the primary fermentation and about 7 to 14 days for the secondary fermentation even if the organic material and the fermenting fungi are put into the fermentation tank and the air and temperature conditions are adjusted to the optimum. Is common. That is, it usually takes about 20 to 25 days to decompose the organic material material into an aged organic fertilizer. Therefore, how to ferment organic matter in a shorter period of time is a research goal in various fields.
[0007]
The second environmental problem is that when a fermentation method using microorganisms is employed, if the fermentation is anaerobic fermentation, a strong malodor is generated, and even if the fermentation is aerobic fermentation, complete fermentation from the start of fermentation. It is said that it is not possible to prevent the generation of offensive odors for a certain initial period before shifting to temperament fermentation. For this reason, it is an important issue from the viewpoint of environmental protection how to recover and deodorize or deodorize odors generated in the process of decomposing organic material raw materials.
[0008]
Therefore, the present inventors have developed a material that promotes fermentation / decomposition while suppressing the generation of offensive odors, rather than relying only on fermentation by microorganisms to decompose various and complex organic substances. With the conviction that by doing so, it is possible to simultaneously achieve the two main goals of fermenting and decomposing efficiently and in a shorter time than ever before, and minimizing the odor in the fermentation and decomposition process as much as possible. I decided to work hard.
[0009]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
As described above, the inventor of the present invention is able to simultaneously and simultaneously achieve the two main goals of fermenting and decomposing organic substances quickly and reliably and suppressing malodor in the fermentation and decomposition process as much as possible. In developing a method for decomposing food, first, plant residues from agriculture, fish and shellfish residues from the fisheries industry, livestock excreta from the livestock industry, emissions from food factories, restaurants and households, etc. The main components of the odor emitted by organic waste containing various and complex components such as food residues, garbage, livestock residues discharged from slaughterhouses, and sludge discharged from wastewater treatment plants are studied.
[0010]
As a result, there were hundreds of thousands of odorous chemical substances (odorous substances) in the world, and it was found that most of the chemical substances had some odor. Moreover, the odor that we usually sense in our nose is almost always a complex odor composed of tens or hundreds of odor components. In addition, there are odors that are favorable for humans and unpleasant odors. Therefore, when taking measures against odors, it is necessary to understand the types and characteristics of the odor components that compose the odors, and to take measures such as deodorizing, deodorizing, and suppressing only bad odors that are undesirable for humans. According to an investigation, 22 types such as ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and trimethylamine are currently designated as specific malodorous substances by the Odor Control Law. Among them, it was found that the main components of the offensive odor emitted by organic wastes were roughly classified into the following four types.
[0011]
1) Nitrogen-containing compounds such as ammonia and trimethylamine.
2) Sulfur-containing compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, methyl sulfide, and methyl disulfide.
3) Aldehydes such as acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde.
4) Fatty acids such as normal butyric acid, normal valeric acid and isovaleric acid.
[0012]
In the regulation of these specific malodorous substances, at present, the regulation value is determined according to the actual situation in the region within the range of the concentration of each substance corresponding to the odor intensity of 2.5 to 3.5. At least this value must be cleared.
[0013]
In carrying out the present invention, the types, characteristics and standards of these odor components are sufficiently taken into consideration, but the basic stance is that various odors generated by these organic materials are volatilized and diffused into the air. After that, to collect, deodorize, and deodorize all the bad odors, large-scale equipment and advanced technical skills are required, and the cost for them is enormous. Therefore, in the present invention, based on the idea that "smelling is effective from the source", the development of a material for chemically and biologically eliminating the main component of the odor and a method for producing compost using the same Decided to develop.
[0014]
The present inventor has conceived that, in the material for promoting fermentation decomposition of organic matter based on the above idea, firstly, the existence of microorganisms for helping and promoting the fermentation decomposition action of organic matter by microorganisms and the richness of nutrient sources of microorganisms The ability to multiply the microorganisms and activate the microorganisms to amplify the fermentation-promoting effect synergistically. Secondly, when the microorganisms are fermented and decomposed by the microorganisms, organic acids are generated to form an acidic solution. To neutralize and adsorb alkaline odors such as ammonia and amines and instantly deodorize them. Thirdly, to form a solution containing soluble water and alcohol, etc. It was also found that the essential requirement is that the odor of fatty acids is dissolved and deodorized.
[0015]
Further, as a result of the experiment, the present inventors conducted an anaerobic fermentation at a low temperature for a predetermined time while suppressing the generation of odor by using a fermentation decomposition accelerating material satisfying the above requirements, and thereafter, aerobic Even when the fermentation was switched to fermentation, a technical finding was found that the malodorous components had already been completely neutralized, adsorbed, and dissolved, so that there was no generation of malodor and the fermentation could be decomposed.
[0016]
The present inventors have developed a fermentation decomposition accelerator for organic matter based on the above findings, and perform a process of decomposing and maturing various and complex organic matter, which has been considered difficult in the shortest possible time. We are researching and developing a method of manufacturing an environmentally friendly organic compost that can simultaneously realize that the odor is prevented and suppressed as much as possible in the decomposition process.
[0017]
The present inventors first developed an invention of a method of combining enzymatic decomposition treatment and microbial decomposition treatment, and realizing rapid fermentation and decomposition treatment by a synergistic effect thereof. That is Japanese Patent Application No. 2002-021333, "Method for Producing Organic Material into Compost".
[0018]
The prior invention is characterized in that an enzyme produced from koji is used to promote fermentation and decomposition of organic matter. The material for accelerating fermentation decomposition of an organic substance containing an enzyme as a main component according to the prior invention is first produced by the action of koji mold, and the enzyme decomposes a part of the constituents of the organic substance in a short time. At the same time, they are saccharified to produce microbial nutrients, which aid and promote the subsequent microbial fermentation and degrading action, producing large amounts of lactic acid and other organic acids. Since the enzymatic fermented solution thus formed is an acidic solution due to the generated lactic acid and other organic acids, it can neutralize and adsorb alkaline odors such as ammonia and amines to instantly deodorize. it can. In addition, since the enzyme fermentation solution contains not only soluble water but also an alcohol component from sugars by the fermentation, it dissolves odors of sulfur-containing compounds and aldehydes and fatty acids. It has the property of deodorizing. As described above, the fermentation decomposition promoting material for organic matter containing an enzyme as a main component is obtained by chemically reacting odors such as ammonia, amines, sulfur-containing compounds, aldehydes, and fatty acids, which are considered to be main odor components. Since this can be suppressed, it is possible to realize a method for quickly producing compost while preventing bad smell from the target organic substance by using this.
[0019]
However, koji, which is an essential component of the fermentation decomposition promoting material mainly containing the enzyme, cannot be stored, so it must be produced each time it is used, and when koji is used, a unique miso-like It smells. This odor is not necessarily a bad odor, but is desirably suppressed as a less desirable odor. In addition, the enzyme and its fermented solution are apt to deteriorate or deactivate the function and function thereof with the passage of time and environmental changes, and it is difficult to stably maintain the function and function while maintaining the function and function. The production of fermentation degradation promoting materials mainly using the enzyme requires expensive koji as a raw material, and requires two stages of saccharification and fermentation by producing enzymes. It becomes. On the other hand, organic materials used as raw materials for composting and composting are often waste and inexpensive, so expensive enzymes are used, and materials for promoting fermentation decomposition are always prepared while maintaining their functions. It is difficult to keep in mind, and has the disadvantage of increasing the burden of running costs.
[0020]
Accordingly, the present inventors have overcome the weakness of the fermentation decomposition promoting material containing an enzyme as a main component of the prior invention, and without using an enzyme, while strongly suppressing the generation of offensive odor components, It has been decided to develop an improved odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid which can be fermented and decomposed. This is the purpose of the present invention.
[0021]
The improved odorless fermentation decomposition accelerating solution according to the present invention uses molasses as a main raw material, to which water and rice bran are added, heat-sterilized, and fermented by adding inoculum including lactic acid bacteria and yeast. It is characterized by being prepared acidic.
[0022]
Improvements and differences between the prior invention and the present invention are as follows. Molasses, the main raw material, is inexpensive and requires about 1/5 of the enzyme made from koji. In addition, molasses cannot be preserved, whereas molasses can be preserved. In addition, the production of a fermentation degradation accelerator mainly composed of enzymes requires a two-step process of saccharification and fermentation, which takes about one week to 10 days, and the production requires skill. Since the saccharification process is not required for producing an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid mainly composed of molasses, a production period of 2 to 3 days is sufficient. That is, according to the present invention, the production period can be reduced to 1/2 to 1/3, and the production method requires no skill and the production method is simple.
[0023]
Furthermore, since the production of odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid mainly composed of molasses starts from molasses, fermentation proceeds uniformly, and organic compounds such as lactic acid, which neutralizes ammonia, which is a main component of malodor, to make it odorless. Fast acid generation. Moreover, the final fermentation liquid of the fermentation decomposition promoting material mainly composed of enzymes has a pH of 4.0 ± 0.5, whereas the odorless fermentation decomposition liquid mainly composed of molasses has a pH of up to 3.5 ± 0.5. As the amount of organic acid decreases, the deodorizing power is high. That is, the deodorizing power of the method for producing compost using the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid mainly composed of molasses according to the present invention is stronger than when using the fermentation decomposition promoting material using enzymes, and when using koji. The resulting miso smell can also be removed. The odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid mainly composed of molasses according to the present invention is one in which many points as described above are improved as compared with a fermentation decomposition promoting material using an enzyme.
[0024]
That is, the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid contains a large amount of microorganisms capable of fermenting and decomposing organic substances, has abundant nutrient sources, and contains many organic acids such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and citric acid by fermentation. Since it is an acidic solution and a small amount of alcohol is generated, its deodorizing function and function are enhanced. Furthermore, when the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid is mixed with an organic substance, anaerobic fermentation and aerobic fermentation can be advanced while suppressing malodor. Moreover, the raw materials are relatively inexpensive and easily available, such as water, molasses, rice bran, and inoculum, so that they are easy to prepare and can be manufactured in a short time.
[0025]
Therefore, the present invention, based on the above technical knowledge, to perform the treatment to decompose and ripen various and complex organic matter in as short a time as possible, and to minimize the odor in the decomposition treatment process It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for producing environmentally friendly organic matter in compost, which can simultaneously and efficiently perform the prevention and suppression.
[0026]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
The first invention to be patented is that a nutrient preparation obtained by adding molasses and rice bran to water heated to 30 to 40 ° C. is sterilized by heating to 70 to 80 ° C., cooled, and then separated from cereals. It is an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for organic matter, characterized in that lactic acid bacteria are mainly added and a seed bacterium including yeast is added and fermented to adjust the pH to 3.0 to 4.0.
[0027]
A second invention which is to be patented is a sterilized nutrient solution obtained by adding 1 to 3 parts of molasses and 1 to 3 parts of rice bran to 100 parts of water heated to 30 to 40 ° C. at 70 to 80 ° C. After cooling, 0.1 to 0.5 parts of a lactic acid bacterium isolated from cereals as a main component and a yeast-containing inoculum are added, and the mixture is fermented to adjust the pH to 3.0 to 4.0. It is an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid.
[0028]
The characteristics of the odorless fermentation degradation accelerating solution according to the first invention and the second invention are examined, and the microorganism contains a large amount of microorganisms capable of fermenting and decomposing organic substances, has abundant nutrient sources, and has an advantage in the growth of microorganisms. It has the function of activating the activity and amplifying the fermentation promoting effect synergistically. In addition, fermentation produces organic acids such as lactic acid, acetic acid and citric acid, and the pH of the solution is an acidic solution of pH 3.0 to 4.0. It has the function and function of neutralizing and adsorbing odors and deodorizing. At the same time, since water and alcohol having a dissolving power are also generated and contained, they have the function and function of dissolving and deodorizing sulfur-containing compounds, aldehydes and fatty acids. In addition, since the nutrient preparation solution has been sterilized by heating to 70 to 80 ° C. in advance, the enzyme has been inactivated, and various germs have been sterilized. Can be realized reliably and efficiently.
[0029]
In particular, the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid has a strong pH, and when mixed with an organic substance, is instantaneously deodorized, and is completely neutralized, adsorbed, and dissolved, so that the deodorizing effect is strong and reliable. Therefore, the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid is mixed and mixed well so as to spread over the entire compost raw material, and the mixture is allowed to stand for a predetermined time so that the temperature does not rise, so that the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid is sufficiently mixed. When the anaerobic fermentation was performed, the anaerobic fermentation could be performed without generating the offensive odor which has been considered difficult. Moreover, after that, by aeration and stirring of the compost material, even when aerobic fermentation is advanced, it is possible to produce an aged compost without generating a bad smell from the beginning to the end.
[0030]
As described above, when the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid according to the present invention is used, there is a great feature in that both anaerobic fermentation and aerobic fermentation can be performed without odor. Furthermore, since the raw materials are water, molasses, rice bran, and inoculum, which are relatively inexpensive and easily available, rather than expensive and unstable enzymes, the preparation of the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting solution is simple. It is easy to manage and operate.
[0031]
The third invention to be patented is that a nutrient preparation obtained by adding molasses and rice bran to water heated to 30 to 40 ° C. is heat-sterilized to 70 to 80 ° C., cooled, and then cooled from cereals. A separated lactic acid bacterium and a seed bacterium containing yeast are added and mixed, and the mixture is fermented to prepare an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for organic substances which is adjusted to pH 3.0 to 4.0. Next, the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid, rice bran, reconstituted compost, and rice husk, if necessary, are added to the solid-liquid mixed organic matter, and the mixture is stirred and mixed almost uniformly to reduce the water content to 50 to 70%. It is made into a deodorized compost material prepared as follows. After that, the deodorized compost material is allowed to stand for about 24 to 48 hours, and is allowed to undergo anaerobic fermentation at 35 to 50 ° C. to form a tissue embrittlement state while preventing bad smell.・ Aerobic fermentation is started by stirring, and aerobic fermentation is performed for about 2 weeks while turning over several times every day to decompose and mature organic substances. How to
[0032]
A fourth invention which is to be patented is to prepare a nutrient solution obtained by adding 1 to 3 parts of molasses and 1 to 3 parts of rice bran to 100 parts of water heated to 30 to 40 ° C. After heat sterilization and cooling, 0.1 to 0.5 parts of a seed bacterium containing yeast mainly containing lactic acid bacteria isolated from cereals is added and fermented to adjust the pH to 3.0 to 4.0. Prepare a fermentation decomposition promoting solution. Then, in 100 parts of the solid-liquid mixed organic matter, 1.0 to 1.5 parts of the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid, 0.1 to 0.4 parts of rice bran, 10 to 50 parts of reconstituted compost, and rice husk as necessary. 0.04 to 0.2 part is placed in a stirrer and stirred and mixed for approximately 15 to 60 minutes so as to be substantially uniform to form a deodorizing treated compost raw material prepared to have a water content of 50 to 70%. . After that, the deodorized compost material is deposited and allowed to stand for approximately 24 to 48 hours, and is anaerobically fermented mainly at 35 to 50 ° C. to form a tissue embrittlement state while preventing bad smell. The aerobic fermentation is started by stirring, and the organic matter is decomposed and matured mainly by aerobic fermentation for about 2 weeks while stirring several times a day, while preventing the organic matter from being offensive odor. It is a method of composting.
[0033]
The third and fourth inventions are methods for composting organic substances using the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid while preventing odors. When the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid is added to the solid-liquid mixed organic substance as the compost raw material, the odor generated by the raw material is immediately deodorized. However, the rice bran is added as a nutrient to promote the growth of the microorganisms contained, and the moisture content is adjusted by adding return compost and, if necessary, rice husk so as to start fermentation easily. Then, the compost raw material was deodorized and pretreated to a state in which it was easily fermented. Then, the odorless decomposed compost material is allowed to stand still in a state where it is accumulated for a predetermined time while keeping the temperature from becoming too high, thereby causing anaerobic fermentation. Then, anaerobic fermentation was carried out without generating a bad odor, and the structure of the organic matter as a raw material was made embrittled. As a result, the microorganisms that undergo aerobic fermentation easily entered the tissue, and became rapidly degradable. The aerobic fermentation is started by aerating and stirring the compost raw material that has been subjected to the intermediate treatment in this way, and agitated several times a day for about 2 weeks without causing a bad odor, the temperature becomes aerobic and the aerobic fermentation is carried out. Decomposed into ripe compost. The present invention is a method for efficiently composting organic matter in a short period of time by performing both anaerobic fermentation and opportunistic fermentation while preventing malodor from beginning to end by using such an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid.
[0034]
The fifth invention for which a patent is sought is that a nutrient preparation obtained by adding molasses and rice bran to water heated to 30 to 40 ° C. is sterilized by heating to 70 to 80 ° C., cooled, and then cooled from cereals. An odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for organic matter, which is prepared by adding a seed bacterium containing yeast mainly to the separated lactic acid bacteria and adjusting the pH to 3.0 to 4.0, is prepared. Next, the solid-liquid mixed organic matter is mixed with auxiliary materials such as straw and rice husks as necessary, and then separated into a solid portion and a liquid portion by a press machine. Then, an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid is mixed and stirred with the separated solid portion to adjust the water content to 40 to 60%, and then left to stand at room temperature for approximately 24 to 48 hours and then left at 35 to 50 ° C. Anaerobic fermentation to produce fermented solid parts without odors in which microorganisms are propagated. Then, first, the separated liquid portion is mixed with any one of an organic acid such as lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, and wood vinegar or a mineral acid such as nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid to have a pH of 6.0 to 7.0. After neutralization as above, this neutralized liquid portion is mixed with the above-mentioned odorless fermentation decomposition promoting solution, and, if necessary, molasses and rice bran, and allowed to stand for approximately 24 to 48 hours, and is mainly anaerobic at 35 to 50 ° C. It forms a fermentation liquid part without odor, which is made to undergo fermentation and foam. Then, the returning compost was mixed with the fermented solid part without foul odor and the fermentation liquid part without foul odor to prepare a water content of 50 to 70%, and this was left to stand for about 2 to 4 days. At 35 to 50 ° C. to form a mixed fermentation raw material in which the tissue is embrittled while mainly preventing odor by anaerobic fermentation. Thereafter, the mixed fermentation raw material in which the tissue is embrittled while preventing the odor is aerated and stirred to perform aerobic fermentation, and the organic matter is decomposed and aged by mainly performing aerobic fermentation while turning over several times a day. This is a method for composting organic substances while preventing odors.
[0035]
In the sixth invention to be patented, first, a nutrient preparation obtained by adding 1 to 3 parts of molasses and 1 to 3 parts of rice bran to 100 parts of water heated to 30 to 40 ° C. is heated to 70 to 80 ° C. After sterilization and cooling, 0.1 to 0.5 parts of a seed bacterium containing yeast mainly containing lactic acid bacteria isolated from cereals are added, mixed, and fermented to adjust the pH to 3.0 to 4.0. Prepare an odorless fermentation decomposition accelerator. Next, the solid-liquid mixed organic matter is mixed with auxiliary materials such as straw and rice husks as necessary, and then separated into a solid part and a liquid part by a press machine. Then, the separated solid part is returned to compost or rice husk, etc., and its moisture content is adjusted to 40 to 60%, and then left to stand at room temperature for approximately 24 to 48 hours, and is mainly anaerobic at 35 to 50 ° C. The fermentation is performed by fermentation to form a fermentation-free solid part in which microorganisms are propagated. On the other hand, the separated liquid portion is mixed with an organic acid such as lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, and wood vinegar or a mineral acid such as nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid to neutralize the mixture to pH 6.0 to 7.0. Then, 2.5 parts of the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid and 100 mol of molasses (4 to 6 parts based on the promoting liquid) and 1 to 3 parts of rice bran were mixed with 100 parts of the neutralized liquid part as needed. The fermented liquid is allowed to stand for approximately 24 to 48 hours at 35 to 50 [deg.] C. to form a fermentation liquid portion having no odor, which is mainly subjected to anaerobic fermentation to foam. Then, 100 to 240 parts of the fermentation solid part without foul odor and 70 to 90 parts of fermentation liquid without foul odor, 180 to 240 parts of reconstituted compost and 5 to 7 parts of odorless fermentation decomposition accelerating liquid were mixed, and the water content was 50 to 50 parts. After the mixture is adjusted to 70%, the mixture is allowed to stand for about 2 to 4 days, and is subjected to anaerobic fermentation mainly at 35 to 50 ° C. to form a mixed fermentation raw material which is in a tissue embrittlement state while preventing malodor. Thereafter, aerobic fermentation is performed by aerating and agitating the mixed fermented raw material in a tissue embrittled state while preventing the bad odor, and is mainly aerobic fermented for approximately 7 to 14 days while turning over several times a day. Wherein the organic matter is decomposed and aged, thereby composting the organic matter while preventing malodor.
[0036]
The fifth and sixth inventions also relate to a method of composting an organic substance using the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid while preventing an odor thereof, but these inventions disclose a solid-liquid mixed organic substance as a solid portion and a liquid. Separated into parts, the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid is added to perform anaerobic fermentation to obtain a fermentation solid part having no odor and a fermentation liquid part having no odor. Then, the fermented solid part without odor and the fermented liquid part without odor were mixed to return to a solid-liquid mixed organic substance without odor. Then, the reconstituted compost and the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid are mixed to prepare a water content that is easily fermented. Then, the mixture is allowed to stand for about 2 to 4 days, and is subjected to anaerobic fermentation while keeping the temperature from becoming too high, thereby obtaining a mixed fermentation raw material in a tissue embrittlement state while preventing odor. As described above, the organic material which is a compost raw material is solid-liquid separated, subjected to a reliable deodorization treatment in a short time, and then returned to a solid-liquid mixed organic material having no bad smell, and prepared so as to be easily fermented. This is a feature different from the third invention and the fourth invention.
[0037]
Thus, if the compost raw material is solid-liquid separated, pre-treated by adding an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid, and subjected to anaerobic fermentation and aerobic fermentation, when the compost raw material has a large amount of moisture and the opportunity fermentation is difficult However, compost can be produced by fermentation and decomposition while preventing bad smell.
[0038]
【Example】
Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail based on examples.
FIG. 1 is an explanatory view showing the requirements of an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting solution for an organic substance according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing a method for composting the organic substance according to the third and fourth aspects of the present invention while preventing the odor. FIG. 3 is an explanatory view showing the structure and operation steps, and FIG. 3 is an explanatory view showing the structure and operation steps of a method for composting organic substances according to the fifth and sixth aspects of the present invention while preventing an odor.
[0039]
The present inventor first prepared an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid as Example 1 and conducted an experiment as Example 2 using a batch processing method of composting while preventing organic substances from being offensive odor (No. 1). Further, a method (part 2) of composting while preventing organic substances of solid-liquid separation treatment system while preventing offensive odors was conducted as an experiment, and the state of occurrence of offensive odors at that time was measured. The deodorizing effect was confirmed.
[0040]
<Example 1> Production of odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid
1000 liters of water is heated to 30 to 40 ° C, and 20 kg (10 to 30 kg) of molasses and 30 kg (10 to 30 kg) of rice bran are added to prepare a nutrient preparation. In addition, you may add 0.5-1% of oil lees to this nutrient preparation liquid as needed. The nutrient preparation is sterilized by heating to 75 ° C (70 to 80 ° C). This eliminates germs and inactivates the enzyme. After cooling this nutrient preparation to about 40 ° C., 3 liters (1 to 5 liters) of seeds mainly containing lactic acid bacteria isolated from cereals and containing yeast were added, and the mixture was placed in a thermostat to ferment. Then, when the pH change of the fermentation culture solution was observed, it was as shown in Table 1.
[0041]
[0042]
As shown in Table 1, it was found that the pH of the fermentation broth rapidly decreased upon start. At the start, the pH was about 6.1 (pH 6.0 to 6.5), but after one day, it dropped to around pH 4, and on the second day it became around pH 3.5. .2. This seems to be mainly the process of lactic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. When the pH of the fermentation culture drops to around 3.5, it is completed as an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for organic substances and can be used. In addition, although such an experiment was performed several times, almost the same result was obtained each time.
[0043]
<Example 2> Method for composting organic substances while preventing bad smell (part 1)
First, 1000 kg of feces stored in a mixing ratio of pig dung / urine 40: cow dung 60 was prepared as an organic substance as a raw material. This produces an intense and irritating odor mainly composed of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and the like.
[0044]
Next, as the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid, a fermentation culture liquid having a pH of 3.5 produced in Example 1 was prepared.
[0045]
Into a stirrer, 12 liters (10 to 15 liters) of the above-mentioned odorless fermentation decomposition promoting solution diluted 2 to 4 times with water to 1000 kg of feces storage are mixed, and further 2 kg (1 to 3 kg) of rice bran and 200 kg of reconstituted compost ( 100-500 kg) and rice hulls 0.2-1.0 were added and stirred and mixed for 45 minutes (20-60 minutes) so that they became almost uniform. The resulting animal dung mixture has a water content of 65%, but the main odor, ammonia odor, is significantly reduced to 1 ppm (1 to 3 ppm), and is a deodorizing treated compost raw material. This level of ammonia odor hardly perceives the odor, and is a level in which the compost raw material is picked up and approached to the nose and is slightly perceived.
[0046]
Then, the deodorized compost material was deposited and allowed to stand for approximately 48 hours, and was mainly anaerobic fermented at 37 to 38 ° C. to make the tissue embrittled while preventing malodor. At this time, the temperature should not exceed the upper limit of 50 ° C. If the temperature rises above this, aerobic fermentation occurs and the generation of odors such as ammonia cannot be suppressed.
[0047]
After the third day, the deodorized compost material is put into a fermenter, and aeration and stirring are performed to start aerobic fermentation. Organic matter is decomposed and aged by composting by aerobic fermentation for about 2 weeks while stirring once a day. At this time, the temperature of the compost raw material rises to 60 to 80 ° C, and aerobic fermentation is performed. At this time, about 5 to 10 ppm of ammonia odor is generated, but this level of ammonia odor is extremely suppressed to such a degree that it is hardly perceived as a bad odor if it is separated a little.
[0048]
(Embodiment 3) A method of composting a solid-liquid separation type organic substance while preventing bad smell (part 2)
First, as an organic substance as a raw material, 1000 kg of feces stored in a mixture ratio of pig dung / urine 40 containing urine: cow dung 40: chicken dung 20 was prepared.
[0049]
Next, as the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid, a fermentation culture liquid having a pH of 3.5 produced in Example 1 was prepared.
[0050]
The feces storage, which is a solid-liquid mixed organic matter, is mixed with auxiliary materials such as straw and rice husks as needed, and then separated into a solid part and a liquid part by a screw press. This is because the addition of the auxiliary material facilitates squeezing and increases the amount of corrosive components during fermentation to facilitate fermentation.
[0051]
The separated solid portion is prepared by returning compost, rice husk, or the like so that the water content thereof becomes 40 to 60%. Leave it for about 24 hours in summer and about 48 hours in winter. As a result, the solid partial raw material was mainly subjected to anaerobic fermentation at 35 to 50 ° C., and it was found that white microorganisms were proliferating all over the inside. The strong odor centering on the ammonia odor generated by the separated solid portion at the beginning was immediately reduced by mixing and stirring the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid, and the fermented solid portion was in a state where no irritating odor was felt.
[0052]
On the other hand, the separated liquid portion is around pH 8.0, but is mixed with an organic acid such as lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, and wood vinegar or a mineral acid such as nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid to have a pH of 6.0 to 7.0. Neutralize to 0. Since the pH rapidly rises with time immediately after the solid-liquid separation, it is desirable to neutralize the solution within about 20 minutes. 10 liters of the neutralized liquid thus obtained is mixed with 0.3 liter of the above-mentioned odorless fermentation decomposition promoting solution and, if necessary, 15 ml of molasses and 0.2 kg of rice bran, for about 24 hours in summer and in winter For about 48 hours. Then, anaerobic fermentation mainly occurs at 35 to 50 ° C, and foams. When the foaming is intense, it is desirable to occasionally gently stir to remove the foam. The odor is greatly reduced by the neutralization alone, but after one day fermentation, the odor further disappears, and a odor other than ammonia is hardly felt. In this way, a fermented liquid part free of odor is obtained.
[0053]
Then, 100 kg of the fermentation solid part without odor and 80 liters of fermentation liquid part without odor, 220 liters of returning compost, and 6 liters of odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid were mixed to adjust the water content to about 60%. This is left standing for two days in winter and four days in summer. Then, the mixed raw material is mainly subjected to anaerobic fermentation at a temperature of 35 to 50 ° C., and becomes a mixed fermented raw material that is in a tissue embrittlement state while preventing malodor.
[0054]
Thereafter, the mixed fermentation raw material in a tissue embrittled state while preventing the bad odor is put into a fermenter, and aeration and stirring are performed to start aerobic fermentation. The organic matter is decomposed and matured mainly by aerobic fermentation at a high temperature of 60 to 80 ° C. for about 7 to 14 days while turning back once a day with a scoop stirrer. Aged compost can be produced without any odor from the beginning of aerobic fermentation.
[0055]
In this example, regardless of the solid-liquid ratio of the organic matter raw material, the solid-liquid separation and treatment were performed to ensure that the odorless treatment step, the anaerobic fermentation step, and the opportunistic fermentation step were odorless. This is an innovative compost manufacturing method that can be used.
[0056]
As described above, when considering the present invention based on the examples, the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid is fermented by mixing a nutrient with a seed bacterium mainly containing lactic acid bacteria and a yeast, and lactic acid and alcohol. It is a strongly acidic solution containing Therefore, the characteristics of the method for composting an organic substance according to the present invention can be summarized as follows. By adding an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid to an organic substance as a raw material, an anaerobic reaction led by lactic acid bacteria and yeast in a strongly acidic atmosphere. It can be said that this is a composting treatment method in which fermentation is carried out and then fermentation is carried out.
[0057]
Moreover, the present invention quickly produces compost while preventing odor from beginning to end, during anaerobic fermentation and aerobic fermentation, from the point of pretreatment in which organic substances are deodorized with an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid. A feature is that it is a method.
[0058]
The present inventor measured the maturity of the compost in Examples by the germination rate of Komatsuna. In this method, 10 g of a sample was placed in a 200 ml Erlenmeyer flask, 100 ml of boiling water was added, the mixture was allowed to stand for 1 hour, and then filtered with two pieces of gauze. 10 ml of the filtrate was dispensed into a petri dish on which two filter papers had been spread in advance, and 30 komatsuna were scattered from above. The petri dish was covered and left at room temperature, and the germination rate was measured after 3 to 6 days. Table 3 shows the results.
[0059]
[0060]
From these results, it can be seen that the compost was almost matured in about eight days from the start of compost production. This value indicates that the germination rate of the general compost published so far is about 100% in about 5 months (150 days). Will be.
[0061]
As described above, the present invention requires about 12 to 16 days to decompose an organic material and produce an aged compost (organic fertilizer). This is a rapid composting method in which the conventional aging compost (organic fertilizer) production method has a greatly shortened treatment period as compared with the case where it takes about 20 to 25 days at the earliest.
[0062]
Therefore, next, the reason why the composting treatment method using the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid according to the present invention can prevent malodor is considered. Basically, there is a method of adding a odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid to minimize the generation of components causing malodor as much as possible, but it does not collect the generated malodor and deodorize it.
[0063]
The characteristic of the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid is a fermentation liquid obtained by fermenting a nutrient component liquid composed of water, molasses and rice bran using a seed bacterium composed of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. The fermentation solution is an acidic solution having a pH of about 3.5 ± 0.5 containing ethanol and lactic acid and acetic acid as main components as organic acids. This is a major factor in the method for producing compost according to the present invention, which has an effect of improving speed and deodorization as compared with the conventional method.
[0064]
Considering the mechanism of deodorization, first of all, ammonia and amines, which are abundant among malodorous components, are weakly alkaline, whereas the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting solution to be added is an acidic solution, so it is neutralized and the odor is reduced. It will disappear. In addition, odorous components such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur-containing compounds such as methyl mercaptan, and aldehydes such as acetaldehyde contain a solution that is soluble due to alcohol contained in the fermentation decomposition promoting material. They are solubilized and deodorized. Further, fatty acids such as normal butyric acid, normal valeric acid, and isovaleric acid, which are malodorous components, are easily dissolved in water, so that they are solubilized and deodorized. In addition, odor components are adsorbed by auxiliary materials added to the raw materials such as reconstituted compost and rice husk, and the effect of suppressing the generation of odors is also superimposed. Further, when the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid is mixed into the organic substance raw material, the ammonia, which is a malodorous component contained in the organic substance raw material, reacts with the organic acid contained in the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid to form an ammonium salt, and the ammonia is primarily reacted with ammonia. The volatilization of is suppressed.
[0065]
[0066]
When the ammonium salt is maintained in an aerobic state, it is immediately taken into the cells as a nitrogen source for microorganisms contained later, and is used for the synthesis of cell components (proteins). That is, the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid contains microorganisms and extracellular enzymes (saccharifying enzymes, proteolytic enzymes, etc.) produced by the microorganisms, accelerates the decomposition of organic material, accelerates the growth of microorganisms, and Since the organic acid ammonium salt is quickly used as a nitrogen source to proliferate, it exhibits a deodorizing effect.
[0067]
In the conventional method, the concentration of microorganisms in the raw material is low, so the concentration of microorganisms is low, so it is necessary to wait for the growth of microorganisms. Since the accelerating solution has been sufficiently fermented by the inoculum, ammonia is converted into an organic acid salt and hardly volatilizes, and molasses serves as a nutrient source, and microorganisms are grown at a high density. Therefore, the ammonium salt is promptly used as a nitrogen source of the microorganism and becomes an ammonium salt of lactic acid or acetic acid. As a result, ammonia volatilization can be prevented, odor generation can be suppressed, and nitrogen sources can be used effectively. The effect can be expressed as a reaction equation as follows. In addition, the example which expressed a biological cell as C2H7NO2 is shown.
[0068]
[0069]
Further, in general, it has been considered that an anaerobic fermentation easily produces an odor. However, it has been found that, under strongly acidic conditions, no odor is generated even if the anaerobic fermentation by lactic acid bacteria and yeast is performed. Not only is the odor suppressed by neutralizing and dissolving the malodorous components, but also microorganisms other than lactic acid bacteria and yeast are killed or have little effect under strong acidity, so that no odor is generated.
[0070]
Next, the components of the compost thus manufactured and completed were analyzed, and the results are as shown in Table 2 below. In addition, the analysis value of this compost was compared with the point of the value of "quality of organic materials such as compost" published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (1982).
[0071]
Since the raw material tested in Examples 2 and 3 was livestock dung, it was compared with the values of compost from cow dung and pig dung released by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (1982).
[0072]
(Evaluation of analysis value)
The analytical values of the components of the compost produced in Examples 2 and 3 were generally close to the standard values published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. This is probably due to the common raw materials. It should be noted that the values of the heavy metals in the second and third embodiments are not more than the regulation values, and thus are omitted here.
[0073]
[0074]
<Deodorization test method>
Next, in the method of converting organic matter into compost of Examples 2 and 3 according to the present invention, odor components were measured periodically. Measurement, analysis, and evaluation of the deodorizing effect of the odorous component were performed by a third-party qualified environmental measurement business. The method of measuring the odor is based on the odor prevention method. Considering the deodorizing effect based on the odor concentration measurement result by the official method of the Offensive Odor Control Law, the following results are obtained.
[0075]
<A. Odor when Injecting Organic Materials>
Immediately after adding a nutrient auxiliary material and an auxiliary material for a moisture adjusting material to livestock manure, which is an organic raw material, to produce a composite organic raw material, the odor of the raw material is volatilized and radiated as it is, so that there is a strong odor. The main components of the offensive odor at that time are, as shown in FIG. 4, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan methyl sulfide and the like. How to deodorize this quickly is an important technical issue in decomposition promotion processing technology that emphasizes environmental protection.
[0076]
<B. Odor 2 hours after adding odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid>
Add the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid, nutrient aids, moisture regulators, etc. to the organic raw materials, mix them on a conveyor, and put them into a stirring tank. It is mixed and prepared so that the whole becomes uniform and deodorized. Then, the odor was significantly suppressed as shown in FIG. Among the main components of the offensive odor, ammonia and amines, which are present in large amounts, are weakly alkaline, whereas the fermentation decomposition promoting material is an acidic solution, which neutralizes it and eliminates the odor, and also contains sulfur-containing compounds. Aldehydes and aldehydes were deodorized by solubilizing the odor with a solution having a solubility by alcohol contained in the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid.
[0077]
<C. Odor of 24 hours after feeding fermentation decomposition promoting material>
The composite organic material that has been uniformly mixed and prepared and deodorized is taken out, left to stand, and subjected to anaerobic fermentation for 24 hours while controlling the temperature at a low temperature. The odor has disappeared as shown in FIG.
[0078]
<D. Odor before / after stirring in fermentation tank>
After the anaerobic fermentation was performed, the odorless composite organic material was charged into the fermenter, and the fermentation was performed by operating a hot air blower and blowing hot air from the bottom of the fermenter. Immediately after that, the odor before stirring was measured, as shown in FIG. FIG. 11 shows the results of measuring the odor immediately after starting the aerobic fermentation by stirring the composite organic material in the fermenter. Rapid aerobic fermentation occurs stably throughout the composite organic material and the temperature rises, so that no more foul odors are emitted.
[0079]
<E. Odor in the center of the fermenter building>
FIG. 8 shows the result of measurement of the odor at almost the center of the building where the fermenter was installed. At the time of this measurement, aerobic fermentation was actively performed in the fermentation tank, but almost no detectable odor was generated.
[0080]
<F. Odor at the site boundary>
FIG. 9 shows the result of measuring the odor on the leeward of the site of the building where the fermenter is installed, and FIG. 10 shows the result of measuring the odor on the compost exit side of the site. The odor is already odorless on both the downwind side and the compost outlet side, so that no odor can be detected (FIG. 11).
[0081]
【effect】
The present invention mixes an organic substance with an odorless fermentation decomposition accelerating liquid, deodorizes raw materials, adjusts the water content by adding an auxiliary material to the deodorized organic substance, and adjusts the temperature to a low temperature. This is a method in which anaerobic fermentation is performed in an odorless state while stirring and mixing, and then, while stirring, warm air is blown in to activate microorganisms, thereby efficiently performing aerobic fermentation. As described above, the present invention sequentially performs anaerobic fermentation treatment and aerobic fermentation decomposition treatment using an odorless fermentation decomposition promotion liquid, and by a synergistic effect of both treatment systems, the aging state can be shortened while preventing malodor. This is a method of composting the organic matter that has been made.
[0082]
The odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for the organic substance is a strong acidic solution mainly composed of lactic acid, has an effect of generating a nutrient source, and promoting and promoting the fermentation decomposition action of the microorganism which is subsequently performed. Moreover, the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid performs anaerobic fermentation mainly of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in a strongly acidic environment. Thereby, the raw material is brought into a structure embrittlement state while preventing a bad odor. Thereafter, when aeration and agitation are performed, an aerobic fermentation is performed, whereby there is an effect that the organic matter can be decomposed and aged while preventing bad smell. The resulting compost is a compost with good crop growth. By returning this compost to soil, healthy soil can be created, and the crops grown on such healthy soil are durable, resistant to disease and pests, have good taste and nutrients, and contribute to people's health. Can be.
[0083]
Further, when the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for the organic substance is mixed with the organic substance raw material, there is an effect that the main component of the organic substance that emits a bad smell can be quickly and continuously eliminated.
[0084]
That is, the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for the organic substance generates nutrient sources preferred by the microorganisms one after another, activates the growth and activity of the microorganisms, and amplifies the fermentation promoting effect synergistically. Therefore, if the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for the organic substance is used to express the ability of the organic substance well, the decomposition and ripening of the organic substance can be quickly performed, and the compost can be formed in a short time while preventing the malodor. It can be manufactured.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is an explanatory view showing the requirements of an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting solution for an organic substance according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a diagram showing a method for composting the organic substance according to the third and fourth aspects of the present invention while preventing the odor. FIG. 3 is an explanatory view showing the structure and operation steps, and FIG. 3 is an explanatory view showing the structure and operation steps of a method for composting organic substances according to the fifth and sixth aspects of the present invention while preventing an odor.
FIG. 1 is an explanatory diagram showing the requirements of an odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for an organic substance according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an explanatory view showing the structure and operation steps of a method for composting organic substances according to the third and fourth aspects of the present invention while preventing odors.
[FIG. 3] FIG. 3 is an explanatory view showing the structure and operation steps of a method for composting an organic substance while preventing an odor according to the fifth and sixth inventions.
FIG. 4 is a table showing measurement results obtained by measuring an odor at the time of introducing an organic material raw material in the compost production method according to the second example.
FIG. 5 is a table showing the results of measuring the odor for 2 hours after feeding the fermentation decomposition promoting material in the compost production method according to the second example.
FIG. 6 is a table showing the results of measuring the odor for 24 hours after feeding the fermentation decomposition promoting material in the compost production method according to the second example.
FIG. 7 is a table showing the results of measuring the odor before stirring in the fermenter in the method for producing compost according to the second example.
FIG. 8 is a table showing the results of measuring the odor after stirring in the fermenter in the method for producing compost according to the second example.
FIG. 9 is a table showing the results of measuring the odor in the central part of the fermenter building in the method for producing compost according to the second embodiment.
FIG. 10 is a table showing the results of measuring the odor downstream of the site boundary in the compost manufacturing method according to the second example.
FIG. 11 is a table showing the results of measuring the odor on the compost outlet side of the site boundary in the compost manufacturing method according to the second embodiment.

Claims (6)

  1. 30〜40℃に加温した水に糖蜜と、米糠とを加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌とを加えて発酵させpH3.0〜4.0に調製したことを特徴とする有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液。A nutrient preparation obtained by adding molasses and rice bran to water heated to 30 to 40 ° C. is heat-sterilized to 70 to 80 ° C., and after cooling, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from cereals is used as a main component and yeast-containing inoculum is added. An odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for organic matter, wherein the liquid is fermented to adjust the pH to 3.0 to 4.0.
  2. 30〜40℃に加温した水100部に糖蜜1〜3部と、米糠1〜3部とを加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌0.1〜0.5部とを加えて発酵させてpH3.0〜4.0に調製したことを特徴とする有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液。A lactic acid bacterium isolated from cereals after heating and sterilizing a nutrient preparation obtained by adding molasses 1 to 3 parts and rice bran 1 to 3 parts to water 100 heated to 30 to 40 ° C. and cooling to 70 to 80 ° C. An odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for organic matter, characterized in that pH is adjusted to 3.0 to 4.0 by adding 0.1 to 0.5 part of a seed bacterium including yeast as a main component and fermenting the mixture.
  3. 30〜40℃に加温した水に糖蜜と、米糠とを加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌とを加えて混合し発酵させてpH3.0〜4.0に調製してなる有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を用意しておき、
    固液混合有機質物に前記無臭発酵分解促進液と、米糠と、もどしコンポストと、必要に応じて籾殻とを加えて、ほぼ均一に攪拌混合して、水分含量が50〜70%になるよう調製した無臭化処理コンポスト原料となし、
    当該無臭化処理コンポスト原料を、ほぼ24〜48時間堆積静置して、35〜50℃で嫌気性発酵させて悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態となした後、
    これに通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵を開始させ、毎日1回切り返ししながら約2週間好気性発酵させることにより有機質物を分解熟成するようにしたことを特徴とする有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法。
    A nutrient preparation obtained by adding molasses and rice bran to water heated to 30 to 40 ° C. is sterilized by heating to 70 to 80 ° C., and after cooling, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from cereals is mainly added and a seed bacterium including yeast is added. Odorless fermentation decomposition accelerating solution of organic matter prepared by mixing and fermenting to adjust the pH to 3.0 to 4.0,
    Add the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid, rice bran, reconstituted compost, and rice husk as needed to the solid-liquid mixed organic matter, and stir and mix almost uniformly to adjust the water content to 50 to 70%. Deodorized compost raw material and none
    The deodorizing treated compost material is left to stand for approximately 24 to 48 hours, and is subjected to anaerobic fermentation at 35 to 50 ° C. to form a tissue embrittlement state while preventing odor.
    The aerobic fermentation is started by aeration and stirring, and the aerobic fermentation is performed for about 2 weeks while turning over once every day to decompose and mature the organic matter. How to compost while.
  4. 30〜40℃に加温した水100部に糖蜜1〜3部と、米糠1〜3部とを加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌0.1〜0.5部を加えて発酵させてpH3.0〜4.0に調製してなる有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を用意しておき、
    固液混合有機質物100部に前記無臭発酵分解促進液1.0〜1.5部と、米糠0.1〜0.4部と、もどしコンポスト10〜50部と、必要に応じて籾殻0.04〜0.2部とを攪拌機に入れ、ほぼ均一となるように15〜60分間に攪拌混合して、水分含量が50〜70%となるように調製した無臭化処理コンポスト原料となし、
    当該無臭化処理コンポスト原料をほぼ24〜48時間堆積静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵させ悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態となした後、
    これに通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵を開始させ、毎日1回攪拌しながら約2週間、主に好気性発酵させることにより有機質物を分解熟成するようにしたことを特徴とする有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法。
    A lactic acid bacterium isolated from cereals after heat-sterilizing a nutrient preparation obtained by adding molasses 1 to 3 parts and rice bran 1 to 3 parts to water 100 parts heated to 30 to 40 ° C and cooling to 70 to 80 ° C. A odorless fermentation decomposition accelerating solution for organic matter prepared by adding 0.1 to 0.5 part of a seed bacterium including yeast and fermenting the mixture to adjust the pH to 3.0 to 4.0 is prepared,
    To 100 parts of the solid-liquid mixed organic matter, 1.0 to 1.5 parts of the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid, 0.1 to 0.4 parts of rice bran, 10 to 50 parts of reconstituted compost, and, if necessary, 0.1% of rice husk. 04 to 0.2 part of the compost raw material was placed in a stirrer and mixed with stirring for 15 to 60 minutes so as to be substantially uniform, so that the deodorized treated compost raw material was adjusted to have a water content of 50 to 70%.
    After leaving the deodorized treatment compost raw material for about 24 to 48 hours and leaving it to stand, it is mainly anaerobic fermented at 35 to 50 ° C. to prevent the odor and to make the tissue embrittled,
    An aerobic fermentation is started by aeration and stirring, and the organic matter is decomposed and matured mainly by aerobic fermentation for about 2 weeks while stirring once a day. A method of composting while preventing odors.
  5. 30〜40℃に加温した水に糖蜜と、米糠とを加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌とを加えて発酵させてpH3.0〜4.0に調製してなる有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を用意しておき、
    固液混合有機質物を必要に応じて藁や籾殻などの補助材を混合したうえ、プレス機にかけて、固体部分と液体部分に分離し、
    分離した固体部分に無臭発酵分解促進液を混合攪拌して、その水分含量を40〜60%に調製したうえ、常温下でほぼ24〜48時間堆積静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵をして、内部に微生物を繁殖させた悪臭の無い発酵固体部分となし、
    分離した液体部分には、乳酸、酢酸、クエン酸、木酢などの有機酸又は硝酸、硫酸、塩酸などの鉱酸のいづれかを混合してpH6.0〜7.0となるように中和したうえ、この中和液体部分に前記無臭発酵分解促進液と必要に応じて糖蜜と米糠とを混合して、ほぼ24〜48時間静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵をさせ発泡するようにした悪臭の無い発酵液体部分となし、
    それから前記悪臭の無い発酵固体部分と悪臭の無い発酵液体部分に、もどしコンポストを混合して、水分含量が50〜70%となるように調製したうえ、これをほぼ2〜4日間堆積静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵させて悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態にした混合発酵原料となし、
    その後、当該悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態にした混合発酵原料に通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵させ、毎日1回切り返しをしながら主に好気性発酵させることにより有機質物を分解熟成するようにしたことを特徴とする有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法。
    A nutrient preparation obtained by adding molasses and rice bran to water heated to 30 to 40 ° C. is sterilized by heating to 70 to 80 ° C., and after cooling, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from cereals is mainly added and a seed bacterium including yeast is added. Odorless fermentation decomposition accelerating solution of organic matter prepared by adjusting to pH 3.0-4.0 by fermentation
    After mixing the solid-liquid mixed organic matter with auxiliary materials such as straw and rice husk as necessary, it is applied to a press machine to separate it into a solid part and a liquid part,
    An odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid is mixed and stirred with the separated solid part to adjust its water content to 40 to 60%, and then left to stand at room temperature for about 24 to 48 hours, and is mainly anaerobic at 35 to 50 ° C. Fermented fermentation, fermented solid parts without odors that propagated microorganisms inside,
    The separated liquid portion is mixed with any one of an organic acid such as lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, and wood vinegar, or a mineral acid such as nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid, and neutralized to pH 6.0 to 7.0. The neutralized liquid portion is mixed with the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting solution and, if necessary, molasses and rice bran, and is allowed to stand for approximately 24 to 48 hours to mainly perform anaerobic fermentation at 35 to 50 ° C to foam. No fermentation liquid part without foul odor and none
    Then, the returning compost was mixed with the fermented solid part without foul odor and the fermentation liquid part without foul odor to prepare a water content of 50 to 70%, and this was left to stand for about 2 to 4 days. With a mixed fermentation raw material which is mainly anaerobic fermented at 35 to 50 ° C to prevent odor and to make the tissue embrittled,
    Thereafter, aerobic fermentation is performed by aerating / stirring the mixed fermented raw material in a tissue embrittled state while preventing the odor, and organic matter is decomposed and aged by mainly performing aerobic fermentation while turning over once a day. A method for composting organic substances while preventing odors.
  6. 30〜40℃に加温した水100部に糖蜜1〜3部と、米糠1〜3部を加えた養分調製液を70〜80℃に加熱殺菌し、冷却した後、穀類から分離した乳酸菌を主体として酵母を含む種菌0.1〜0.5部を加えて混合し発酵させてpH3.0〜4.0に調製してなる有機質物の無臭発酵分解促進液を用意しておき、
    固液混合有機質物に必要に応じて藁や籾殻などの補助材を混合したうえ、プレス機にかけて、固体部分と液体部分に分離し、
    分離した固体部分をもどしコンポストや籾殻なので水分含量を40〜60%に調製したうえ、常温下でほぼ24〜48時間堆積静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵をして、内部に微生物を繁殖させた悪臭の無い発酵固体部分となし
    他方、分離した液体部分には、乳酸、酢酸、クエン酸、木酢などの有機酸又は硝酸、硫酸、塩酸などの鉱酸の酸類を混合してpH6.0〜7.0となるように中和したうえ、この中和液体部分10部に対して前記無臭発酵分解促進液2〜5部と必要に応じて糖蜜促進液に対し4〜6部と米糠1〜3部の割合で混合して、ほぼ24〜48時間静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵をさせて発泡するようにした悪臭の無い発酵液体部分となし、
    それから前記悪臭の無い発酵固体部分100部と悪臭の無い発酵液体部分70〜90部に、もどしコンポスト180〜240部と、無臭発酵分解促進液5〜7部を混合して、水分含量が50〜70%に調製したうえ、これをほぼ2〜4日間堆積静置して35〜50℃で主に嫌気性発酵させて悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態とした混合発酵原料となし、
    その後、当該悪臭を防止しながら組織脆化状態にした混合発酵原料に通気・攪拌を行って好気性発酵をさせ、毎日1回切り返しをしながら、ほぼ7〜14日間主に好気性発酵させることにより有機質物を分解熟成するようにしたことを特徴とする有機質物を悪臭防止しながらコンポストにする方法。
    A nutrient preparation obtained by adding molasses 1 to 3 parts and rice bran 1 to 3 parts to water 100 parts heated to 30 to 40 ° C. is sterilized by heating to 70 to 80 ° C., cooled, and then lactic acid bacteria separated from cereals. An odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid for organic matter prepared by adding 0.1 to 0.5 part of a seed bacterium containing yeast as a main component, mixing and fermenting to adjust the pH to 3.0 to 4.0, is prepared,
    After mixing the solid-liquid mixed organic matter with auxiliary materials such as straw and rice husks as necessary, the mixture is separated into a solid part and a liquid part by a press machine,
    Return the separated solid part to compost and rice husk so that the water content is adjusted to 40-60%, and it is left to stand at room temperature for about 24-48 hours and left for anaerobic fermentation mainly at 35-50 ° C. The fermented solid part has no odor, and the separated liquid part is mixed with organic acids such as lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid and wood vinegar or mineral acids such as nitric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. And neutralized so as to have a pH of 6.0 to 7.0, and 2 to 5 parts of the odorless fermentation decomposition promoting liquid with respect to 10 parts of the neutralized liquid part and 4 to 6 parts with respect to the molasses promoting liquid as required. Part and rice bran mixed in a ratio of 1 to 3 parts, and left undisturbed for approximately 24 to 48 hours at 35 to 50 ° C. to produce mainly an anaerobic fermentation and a fermentation liquid part having no odor to foam.
    Then, 100 to 240 parts of the fermentation solid part without foul odor and 70 to 90 parts of fermentation liquid without foul odor, 180 to 240 parts of reconstituted compost and 5 to 7 parts of odorless fermentation decomposition accelerating liquid were mixed, and the water content was 50 to 50 parts. After being prepared to 70%, this is left as a mixed fermentation raw material which is left standing for about 2 to 4 days and is mainly subjected to anaerobic fermentation at 35 to 50 ° C. to prevent malodor and to be in a tissue embrittlement state,
    Thereafter, aerobic fermentation is performed by aerating / stirring the mixed fermented raw material in a tissue embrittled state while preventing the bad odor, and the aerobic fermentation is mainly performed for about 7 to 14 days while turning over once a day. A method of composting organic substances while preventing odors by decomposing and aging the organic substances.
JP2003054718A 2003-02-28 2003-02-28 A method for producing organic matter in compost while preventing malodors using an odorless fermentation decomposition solution for organic matter. Expired - Fee Related JP4887543B2 (en)

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JP2006230332A (en) * 2005-02-28 2006-09-07 Kyushu Institute Of Technology New microorganism and method for treating organic sludge therewith
JP4654437B2 (en) * 2005-02-28 2011-03-23 国立大学法人九州工業大学 Novel microorganism and method for treating organic sludge using the same
JP2008246326A (en) * 2007-03-29 2008-10-16 Kubota Corp Deodorizing method and deodorizer for organic sludge
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CN102897983A (en) * 2012-10-15 2013-01-30 湖北集萃化工科技有限公司 Method for comprehensively utilizing residual sludge
JP2015039697A (en) * 2013-08-20 2015-03-02 彬令 大木 Odorless fermentative decomposition treatment system for biomass (organic matter)
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CN105084685A (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-11-25 广西大学 Degradation and harmless treatment method for residual antibiotics in livestock excrement
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