JP2004207711A - Exposure device, exposure method, and device manufacturing method - Google Patents

Exposure device, exposure method, and device manufacturing method Download PDF

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JP2004207711A
JP2004207711A JP2003412585A JP2003412585A JP2004207711A JP 2004207711 A JP2004207711 A JP 2004207711A JP 2003412585 A JP2003412585 A JP 2003412585A JP 2003412585 A JP2003412585 A JP 2003412585A JP 2004207711 A JP2004207711 A JP 2004207711A
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liquid
substrate
exposure
optical system
projection optical
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JP4595320B2 (en )
JP2004207711A5 (en )
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Hiroyuki Nagasaka
Nobutaka Umagome
博之 長坂
伸貴 馬込
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Nikon Corp
株式会社ニコン
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70216Systems for imaging mask onto workpiece
    • G03F7/70341Immersion

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an exposure device which transfers a pattern at a proper accuracy controlling an environmental change, even if a liquid flows out to an outside of a substrate, when an exposure processing is applied by a liquid immersion method. <P>SOLUTION: The exposure device exposes the substrate P by filling at least a part of space between a projection lens system PL and the substrate P with the liquid 50, and by projecting an image of the pattern on the substrate P through the projection lens system PL. An optical element 60 and a lens-barrel PK, which are parts to contact to the liquid 50 when the substrate P moves, are applied by a surface treatment to adjust an affinity to the liquid 50. A proper liquid immersion state is maintained as a bubble generation in the liquid between the projection lens system, the substrate is prevented and the liquid is kept between the projection lens system and the substrate at all times. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2004,JPO&NCIPI

Description

本発明は、投影光学系と基板との間の少なくとも一部を液体で満たした状態で投影光学系によって投影したパターン像で露光する露光装置及び露光方法、並びにデバイス製造方法に関するものである。 The present invention relates to an exposure apparatus and an exposure method for exposing a pattern image projected by the projection optical system at least a portion between the projection optical system and the substrate in a state filled with liquid, and a device manufacturing method.

半導体デバイスや液晶表示デバイスは、マスク上に形成されたパターンを感光性の基板上に転写する、いわゆるフォトリソグラフィの手法により製造される。 Semiconductor devices and liquid crystal display devices, to transfer a pattern formed on a mask onto a photosensitive substrate, is manufactured by a so-called photolithography technique. このフォトリソグラフィ工程で使用される露光装置は、マスクを支持するマスクステージと基板を支持する基板ステージとを有し、マスクステージ及び基板ステージを逐次移動しながらマスクのパターンを投影光学系を介して基板に転写するものである。 An exposure apparatus used in this photolithographic process, and a substrate stage that supports the mask stage and the substrate supporting the mask, the pattern of the mask through a projection optical system while moving the mask stage and the substrate stage sequentially it is transferred onto the substrate. 近年、デバイスパターンのより一層の高集積化に対応するために投影光学系の更なる高解像度化が望まれている。 Recently for higher resolution of the projection optical system in order to cope with higher integration of the device pattern it is desired. 投影光学系の解像度は、使用する露光波長が短くなるほど、また投影光学系の開口数が大きいほど高くなる。 Resolution of the projection optical system, as the exposure wavelength used becomes shorter, also increases the larger the numerical aperture of the projection optical system. そのため、露光装置で使用される露光波長は年々短波長化しており、投影光学系の開口数も増大している。 Therefore, the exposure wavelength used in exposure apparatuses has shortened year by year wavelength has increased numerical aperture of projection optical systems. そして、現在主流の露光波長は、KrFエキシマレーザの248nmであるが、更に短波長のArFエキシマレーザの193nmも実用化されつつある。 The mainstream exposure wavelength currently is the 248nm from a KrF excimer laser, it is being further also commercialized 193nm of ArF excimer laser with a short wavelength. また、露光を行う際には、解像度と同様に焦点深度(DOF)も重要となる。 Further, when exposure is performed, similarly to the resolution depth of focus (DOF) is also important. 解像度R、及び焦点深度δはそれぞれ以下の式で表される。 The resolution R, and the depth of focus δ are represented by the following expressions.
R=k ・λ/NA … (1) R = k 1 · λ / NA ... (1)
δ=±k ・λ/NA … (2) δ = ± k 2 · λ / NA 2 ... (2)
ここで、λは露光波長、NAは投影光学系の開口数、k 、k はプロセス係数である。 Here, lambda is the exposure wavelength, NA is the numerical aperture of the projection optical system, k 1, k 2 represent the process coefficients. (1)式、(2)式より、解像度Rを高めるために、露光波長λを短くして、開口数NAを大きくすると、焦点深度δが狭くなることが分かる。 (1) and (2), in order to enhance the resolution R, then shorten the exposure wavelength lambda, and the numerical aperture NA is increased, it can be seen that the depth of focus δ becomes narrower.

焦点深度δが狭くなり過ぎると、投影光学系の像面に対して基板表面を合致させることが困難となり、露光動作時のフォーカスマージンが不足する恐れがある。 If the depth of focus δ is too narrowed, it is difficult to match the substrate surface with respect to the image plane of the projection optical system, the focus margin during the exposure operation may be insufficient. そこで、実質的に露光波長を短くして、且つ焦点深度を広くする方法として、例えば国際公開第99/49504号公報に開示されている液浸法が提案されている。 Therefore, by substantially shortening the exposure wavelength and a method of widening the depth of focus, for example, immersion method disclosed in International Publication No. 99/49504 it is proposed. この液浸法は、投影光学系の下面と基板表面との間を水や有機溶媒等の液体で満たし、液体中での露光光の波長が、空気中の1/n(nは液体の屈折率で通常1.2〜1.6程度)になることを利用して解像度を向上するとともに、焦点深度を約n倍に拡大するというものである。 This liquid immersion method fills the space between the lower and the substrate surface of the projection optical system with a liquid such as water or an organic solvent, the wavelength of the exposure light in the liquid, refraction 1 / n (n in the air in the liquid by utilizing the fact that becomes usually about 1.2 to 1.6) with improved resolution by a factor, it is that the depth of focus is magnified about n times.
国際公開第99/49504号パンフレット International Publication No. WO 99/49504

ところで、投影光学系と基板との間に液体を流しながら露光する場合や、投影光学系と基板との間に液体を満たした状態で投影光学系に対して基板を移動しながら露光する場合、投影光学系や基板に対して液体が剥離する可能性があり、基板に転写されるパターン像が劣化するといった不都合が生じる。 Incidentally, or when exposing with flowing liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate, if the exposure while moving the substrate relative to the state in the projection optical system satisfying the liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate, projection fluid may be peeled off with respect to the optical system and the substrate, inconvenience such pattern image is transferred to the substrate is deteriorated. あるいは、投影光学系と基板との間で液体を流しながら露光する場合にその液体の流れに乱流が生じた場合もパターン像が劣化する。 Alternatively, the pattern image is deteriorated even if the turbulence occurs in the flow of the liquid when exposed while flowing liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate.

本発明はこのような事情に鑑みてなされたものであって、投影光学系と基板との間に液体を満たして露光処理する際、液体を所望の状態に配置して精度良くパターンを転写できる露光装置及び露光方法、並びにデバイス製造方法を提供することを目的とする。 The present invention was made in view of such circumstances, when the exposure process meets the liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate, can be transferred accurately pattern by placing the liquid in a desired state an exposure apparatus and an exposure method, and an object of the invention to provide a device manufacturing method.

上記の課題を解決するため、本発明は実施の形態に示す図1〜図10に対応付けした以下の構成を採用している。 To solve the above problems, the present invention adopts the following constructions corresponding to Figs. 1 to 10 as illustrated in embodiments.

本発明の第1の態様に従えば、パターンの像を液体(50)を介して基板(P)上に転写して基板を露光する露光装置であって: According to a first aspect of the present invention, an image of a pattern An exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate transferred onto the substrate (P) through a liquid (50):
前記パターンの像を基板に投影する投影光学系(PL)を備え、 Comprising a projection optical system (PL) which projects the image of the pattern onto the substrate,
前記投影光学系(PL)の前記液体(50)と接触する部分(60、PK)は、液体(50)との親和性を調整するために表面処理されている露光装置(EX)が提供される。 Wherein the portion in contact with the liquid (50) of the projection optical system (PL) (60, PK), the liquid (50) exposure device which is surface-treated in order to adjust the affinity with the (EX) is provided that.

本発明の露光装置では、液体投影光学系の液体と接触する部分(以下、適宜、「液体接触部分」という)に、液体との親和性を調整するための表面処理が施されているので、投影光学系と基板との間に液体が所望の状態で維持される。 In the exposure apparatus of the present invention, the portion in contact with the liquid in the liquid projection optical system (hereinafter referred to as "liquid contact portion"), because the surface treatment for adjusting the affinity for the liquid is applied, the liquid is maintained in a desired state between the projection optical system and the substrate. 例えば、液体接触部分の液体との親和性が低ぎる場合、前記接触する部分と液体とが剥離したり、あるいは気泡が発生するなどの液浸露光に悪影響を及ぼす現象が生じる。 For example, affinity with the liquid in the liquid contact portion when the low too, adversely affects phenomenon immersion exposure, such as the portion and is peeled off the liquid in contact, or bubbles are generated is generated. 一方、液体接触部分の液体との親和性が高すぎる場合、液体が前記接触する部分に対して過剰に濡れ拡がって投影光学系と基板との間から流出する等の不都合が生じる場合がある。 On the other hand, if the affinity for the liquid of the liquid contact portion is too high, the inconvenience such that the liquid flows out from between the projection optical system and the substrate spreads excessively wet to the portion of the contact occurs. これに対して、本発明の露光装置では、投影光学系の液体接触部分の液体との親和性が調整されているために、露光中に基板が露光光に対して静止されている一括露光のみならず、露光中に基板が移動ステージにより移動される走査型露光装置であっても、液浸状態が確実に基板と投影光学系との間に維持される。 In contrast, in the exposure apparatus of the present invention, the affinity between the liquid in the liquid contact portion of the projection optical system is adjusted, only collective exposure substrate during exposure are stationary with respect to the exposure light Narazu substrate during exposure be a scanning exposure apparatus which is moved by the moving stage, the immersion state is maintained between the securely substrate and the projection optical system.

本発明の第2の態様に従えば、パターンの像を液体(50)を介して基板(P)上に転写して基板を露光する露光装置であって: According to a second aspect of the present invention, an image of a pattern An exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate transferred onto the substrate (P) through a liquid (50):
前記パターンの像を基板に投影する投影光学系(PL)を備え; Comprising a projection optical system (PL) which projects the image of the pattern onto the substrate;
前記投影光学系(PL)が、その先端の光学素子(60)表面を含む第1表面領域(AR1)と、第1表面領域(AR1)周辺の第2表面領域(AR2)とを有し、第1表面領域(AR1)の液体(50)に対する親和性が、第2表面領域(AR2)の液体(50)に対する親和性よりも高い露光装置(EX)が提供される。 Said projection optical system (PL) is has a first surface region including the optical element (60) surface of the tip (AR1), and a first surface region (AR1) a second surface region of the peripheral (AR2), affinity for the liquid (50) in the first surface region (AR1) is higher exposure apparatus than the affinity for liquid (50) in the second surface region (AR2) (EX) is provided.

本発明によれば、投影光学系の先端の光学素子を含む第1表面領域の液体に対する親和性を、その周辺の第2表面領域より高くすることで、第1表面領域により露光光の光路上では液体が安定して配置されるとともに、第2表面領域により液体が周囲に濡れ拡がらず外部に流出しない。 According to the present invention, the affinity for liquid of the first surface region including the optical element at the tip of the projection optical system, is made higher than the second surface region of the periphery thereof, the optical path of the exposure light by the first surface region in conjunction with the liquid is disposed in a stable, liquid does not flow out to the outside not spread wetting the surrounding by the second surface region. したがって、露光中に基板が露光光に対して静止されている一括露光のみならず、露光中に基板が露光光に対して移動される走査型露光であっても、液体を露光光の光路上に安定して配置することができる。 Accordingly, the substrate during exposure not only shot exposure is stationary with respect to the exposure light, also the substrate during exposure is a scanning exposure to be moved relative to the exposure light, the optical path of the exposure light liquid it can be stably disposed.

本発明の第3の態様に従えば、露光ビーム(EL)でパターンを照明し、パターンの像を液体(50)を介して基板(P)上に転写して基板を露光する露光装置であって:前記パターンの像を基板に投影する投影光学系(PL)と;投影光学系(PL)と基板(P)との間の少なくとも一部を液体(50)で満たす液浸装置(1、2)とを備え;液体(50)の厚さをd、投影光学系(PL)と基板(P)との間における液体(50)の流れの速度をv、液体(50)の密度をρ、液体(50)の粘性係数をμとして、条件式 (v・d・ρ)/μ≦2000 が満足される露光装置(EX)が提供される。 According to a third aspect of the present invention illuminates the pattern with the exposure beam (EL), there in an exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate transferred onto the substrate (P) through a liquid (50) an image of a pattern Te: the pattern image of the projection optical system for projecting on a substrate and (PL); immersion apparatus filled with a liquid (50) at least a portion between the projection optical system and (PL) and the substrate (P) (1, 2) and provided with; the thickness d of the liquid (50), the velocity of flow of the liquid (50) between the projection optical system and (PL) and the substrate (P) v, the density of the liquid (50) [rho as the viscosity of the liquid (50) mu, condition (v · d · ρ) / μ exposure apparatus ≦ 2000 is satisfied (EX) is provided.

本発明によれば、上記条件式を満足するように、投影光学系(PL)と基板(P)との間の少なくとも一部に液体が維持される条件を設定することにより、液体に乱流が生じない。 According to the present invention, so as to satisfy the above condition, at least by setting a condition that the liquid is maintained to some turbulence in the liquid between the projection optical system and (PL) and the substrate (P) It does not occur. したがって、液体の乱流に起因して基板に投影されるパターン像が劣化したりするといった不都合を抑えることができる。 Therefore, it is possible to suppress the inconvenience pattern image projected onto the substrate due to the turbulence of the liquid is deteriorated.

本発明の第4の態様に従えば、露光ビーム(EL)でマスク(M)のパターンを照明し、パターンの像を液体(50)を介して基板(P)上に転写して基板を露光する露光装置であって:前記パターンの像を基板に投影する投影光学系(PL)と;投影光学系(PL)と基板(P)との間の少なくとも一部を液体で満たすための液浸装置(1、2)とを備え;液体(50)が基板(P)の走査方向と平行に層流となって流れる露光装置(EX)が提供される。 According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, the exposure beam illuminates the pattern of the mask (M) in (EL), transferred and exposing the substrate on the substrate (P) an image of a pattern through a liquid (50) immersion for filling with a liquid at least a portion between the projection optical system and (PL) and the substrate (P); the pattern image of the projection optical system for projecting on a substrate and (PL): to an exposure apparatus device (1,2) and a; liquid (50) is an exposure apparatus to flow parallel to a laminar flow and the scanning direction of the substrate (P) (EX) is provided.

本発明によれば、液浸状態を種々の方法により制御することにより、露光中に液体が基板の走査方向と平行に層流となって流れるので、基板に投影されるパターン像の劣化を防止することができる。 According to the present invention, by controlling the immersed state by various methods, since the liquid during exposure to flow becomes a laminar flow parallel to the scanning direction of the substrate, the degradation of the pattern image projected onto the substrate prevention can do. また、液体に接する投影光学系やウエハあるいはウエハを保持する基板ステージ等に不要な振動を発生させることもない。 Nor to generate unwanted vibration to the substrate stage or the like which holds the projection optical system and the wafer or wafers in contact with the liquid. 例えば、液浸装置の液体供給(回収)量を制御したり、液浸装置の液体供給ノズルの構造を調整したり、あるいは露光時に基板を移動する場合にはその速度を調整することで、液体の流れを層流化することができる。 For example, to control the liquid supply (recovery) of an immersion device, to adjust the structure of the liquid supply nozzle of the immersion device, or when moving the substrate during exposure by adjusting its speed, liquid it can be laminar flow the flow.

本発明の第5の態様に従えば、露光ビーム(EL)でパターンを照明し、パターンの像を液体(50)を介して基板(P)上に転写して基板を露光する露光装置であって:前記パターンの像を基板に投影する投影光学系(PL)と;基板(P)上のみに液体(50)を供給する液浸装置(1、2)と;液浸装置(1、2)を制御する制御装置(CONT)とを備え;該制御装置(CONT)は、基板(P)の露光中に液体(50)の供給が停止されるように液浸装置(1、2)を制御する露光装置(EX)が提供される。 According to a fifth aspect of the present invention illuminates the pattern with the exposure beam (EL), there in an exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate transferred onto the substrate (P) through a liquid (50) an image of a pattern Te: the pattern image of the projection optical system for projecting on a substrate and (PL); immersion device for supplying liquid (50) only on the substrate (P) and (1,2); immersion apparatus (1, 2 ) and a control device for controlling the (CONT); control device (CONT) is an immersion apparatus as supply of the liquid (50) is stopped during the exposure of the substrate (P) with (1,2) control exposure apparatus (EX) is provided.

本発明によれば、液浸装置が基板の露光中に液体の供給を行わないように制御されることにより、基板上に塗布された感光剤を傷めることがなく、基板上に形成されるパターンの劣化を防止でき、また、投影光学系と基板との位置関係を安定して所望の状態に維持できる。 According to the present invention, by the immersion device is controlled so as not to supply the liquid during exposure of the substrate, without damaging the photosensitive agent applied on the substrate, it is formed on the substrate pattern It prevents the degradation, also a positional relationship between the projection optical system and the substrate can be maintained stably and a desired state.

本発明の第6の態様に従えば、投影光学系(PL)によるパターンの像を基板(P)上に投影して基板(P)を露光する露光方法において:露光前に、基板(P)の表面を、液体(50)との親和性を調整するために表面処理することと;投影光学系(PL)と基板(P)との間の少なくとも一部を液体(50)で満たすことと; According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, an image of the pattern by the projection optical system (PL) and projected onto the substrate (P) an exposure method for exposing a substrate (P): Before exposure, the substrate (P) the surface of the to surface treatment in order to adjust the affinity for the liquid (50); and that satisfy at least a portion between the projection optical system and (PL) and the substrate (P) with a liquid (50) ;
パターンの像を、液体(50)を介して基板(P)上に投影して基板(P)を露光することとを含む露光方法が提供される。 An image of a pattern exposure method comprising the method comprising exposing a substrate (P) by projecting onto the substrate (P) through a liquid (50) is provided.

本発明によれば、液浸露光が行われる前に、基板の表面に、液体との親和性に応じた表面処理を施すことで、基板上に液体を液浸露光に好適な状態で維持できる。 According to the present invention, before the liquid immersion exposure is performed, the surface of the substrate, by a surface treatment in accordance with the affinity for the liquid can maintain the liquid on the substrate in a state suitable for immersion exposure . 例えば、液体との親和性が低すぎる場合、基板の表面に対して液体が剥離したり、あるいは気泡が発生する等の不都合が生じる。 For example, if the affinity for the liquid is too low, or liquid peeling, or inconveniences such as generation of bubbles occurs with respect to the surface of the substrate. 一方、液体との親和性が高すぎる場合、液体が基板上で過剰に濡れ拡がるなどの不都合が生じる場合がある。 On the other hand, if the affinity for the liquid is too high, the liquid may occur inconveniences such as spreads excessively wet on the substrate. これに対して、本発明の露光方法のように、液体との親和性を考慮して、基板表面に適当な処理を施すことにより、基板上で液体を所望の状態に保持することができ、また基板上の液体の回収及び除去を適切に行うことができる。 In contrast, as in the exposure method of the present invention, in view of the affinity for the liquid, by applying an appropriate treatment to the substrate surface, it is possible to retain the liquid in a desired state on the substrate, also it is possible to appropriately perform the recovery and removal of the liquid on the substrate.

本発明によれば、液浸露光において、投影光学系と基板との間において、液体の剥離や気泡の発生、あるいは乱流の発生を抑え、液体を所望の状態で維持できるので、広い焦点深度の下でパターン転写を正確に行うことができる。 According to the present invention, in immersion exposure, between the projection optical system and the substrate, the occurrence of delamination or bubbles in the liquid, or to suppress the occurrence of turbulent flow, since the liquid can be maintained in a desired state, a wide depth of focus it is possible to perform accurate pattern transfer under. したがって、本発明はArFなどの短波長光源を用いる露光に極めて有用であり、所望の性能を有する高集積化デバイスを製造することができる。 Accordingly, the present invention is very useful for the exposure using short wavelength light source such as ArF, it is possible to manufacture a highly integrated device having the desired performance.

以下、本発明の露光装置及びデバイス製造方法について図面を参照しながら説明するが、本発明はこれに限定されない。 Will now be described with reference to the drawings exposure apparatus and device manufacturing method of the present invention, the present invention is not limited thereto. 図1は本発明の露光装置の一実施形態を示す概略構成図である。 Figure 1 is a schematic configuration diagram showing an embodiment of an exposure apparatus of the present invention.

図1において、露光装置EXは、マスクMを支持するマスクステージMSTと、基板Pを支持する基板ステージPSTと、マスクステージMSTに支持されているマスクMを露光光ELで照明する照明光学系ILと、露光光ELで照明されたマスクMのパターンの像を基板ステージPSTに支持されている基板Pに投影露光する投影光学系PLと、露光装置EX全体の動作を統括制御する制御装置CONTとを備えている。 1, the exposure apparatus EX includes a mask stage MST which supports a mask M, a substrate stage PST which supports a substrate P, an illumination optical system IL which illuminates the mask M supported by the mask stage MST with exposure light EL When the projection optical system PL which projects an image of a pattern of the mask M illuminated with the exposure light EL onto exposed on the substrate P that is supported by the substrate stage PST, and a control unit CONT which collectively controls the overall operation of the exposure apparatus EX It is equipped with a.

ここで、本実施形態では、露光装置EXとしてマスクMと基板Pとを走査方向における互いに異なる向き(逆方向)に同期移動しつつマスクMに形成されたパターンを基板Pに露光する走査型露光装置(所謂スキャニングステッパ)を使用する場合を例にして説明する。 In the present embodiment, mutually different orientations (reverse) to a scanning exposure for exposing a pattern formed on the mask M while synchronously moving the substrate P and the mask M and the substrate P in the scanning direction as the exposure apparatus EX when using apparatus (so-called scanning stepper) is described as an example. 以下の説明において、投影光学系PLの光軸AXと一致する方向をZ軸方向、Z軸方向に垂直な平面内でマスクMと基板Pとの同期移動方向(走査方向)をX軸方向、Z軸方向及びY軸方向に垂直な方向(非走査方向)をY軸方向とする。 In the following description, the optical axis AX as the Z-axis direction and a direction matching of the projection optical system PL, and the synchronous movement direction (scanning direction) of the X-axis direction between the mask M and the substrate P in the Z axis direction perpendicular to the plane, Z-axis direction and the Y-axis direction perpendicular to the direction (non-scanning direction) is the Y-axis direction. また、X軸、Y軸、及びZ軸まわり方向をそれぞれ、θX、θY、及びθZ方向とする。 Further, X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis directions, respectively, .theta.X, [theta] Y, and the θZ direction. なお、ここでいう「基板」は半導体ウエハ上にレジストを塗布したものを含み、「マスク」は基板上に縮小投影されるデバイスパターンを形成されたレチクルを含む。 The term "substrate" referred to herein includes those obtained by coating a resist on a semiconductor wafer, and the term "mask" includes a reticle formed with a device pattern that is reduction projected onto the substrate.

照明光学系ILは、マスクステージMSTに支持されているマスクMを露光光ELで照明するものであり、露光用光源、露光用光源から射出された光束の照度を均一化するオプティカルインテグレータ、オプティカルインテグレータからの露光光ELを集光するコンデンサレンズ、リレーレンズ系、露光光ELによるマスクM上の照明領域をスリット状に設定する可変視野絞り等を有している。 The illumination optical system IL is for illuminating the mask M supported by the mask stage MST with exposure light EL, the exposure light source, an optical integrator for uniforming the illuminance of a light flux emitted from the exposure light source, an optical integrator a condenser lens which collects the exposure light EL from the relay lens system, and the illumination area on the mask M illuminated with the exposure light EL and a variable field diaphragm which sets a slit shape. マスクM上の所定の照明領域は照明光学系ILにより均一な照度分布の露光光ELで照明される。 The predetermined illumination area on the mask M is illuminated with the exposure light EL having a uniform illuminance distribution by the illumination optical system IL. 照明光学系ILから射出される露光光ELとしては、例えば水銀ランプから射出される紫外域の輝線(g線、h線、i線)及びKrFエキシマレーザ光(波長248nm)等の遠紫外光(DUV光)や、ArFエキシマレーザ光(波長193nm)及びF レーザ光(波長157nm)等の真空紫外光(VUV光)などが用いられる。 As the exposure light EL emitted from the illumination optical system IL, for example, for example, emission lines in the ultraviolet region emitted from a mercury lamp (g-rays, h-rays, i-rays) and KrF excimer laser beam (wavelength 248 nm) far ultraviolet light, such as ( DUV light) and, ArF excimer laser light (wavelength 193 nm) and F 2 laser beam (wavelength 157 nm) vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV light) and the like. 本実施形態においては、ArFエキシマレーザ光を用いる。 In this embodiment, an ArF excimer laser beam.

マスクステージMSTは、マスクMを支持するものであって、投影光学系PLの光軸AXに垂直な平面内、すなわちXY平面内で2次元移動可能及びθZ方向に微小回転可能である。 The mask stage MST is for supporting the mask M, the plane perpendicular to the optical axis AX of the projection optical system PL, that is, finely rotatable in the two-dimensional movable and θZ directions in the XY plane. マスクステージMSTはリニアモータ等のマスクステージ駆動装置MSTDにより駆動される。 The mask stage MST is driven by mask stage driving unit MSTD such as a linear motor. マスクステージ駆動装置MSTDは制御装置CONTにより制御される。 The mask stage driving unit MSTD is controlled by the controller CONT. マスクステージMST上のマスクMの2次元方向の位置、及び回転角はレーザ干渉計によりリアルタイムで計測され、計測結果は制御装置CONTに出力される。 Dimensional position of the mask M on the mask stage MST, and the angle of rotation are measured in real time by the laser interferometer, the measurement results are output to the control unit CONT. 制御装置CONTはレーザ干渉計の計測結果に基づいてマスクステージ駆動装置MSTDを駆動することでマスクステージMSTに支持されているマスクMの位置決めを行う。 The control apparatus CONT performs positioning of the mask M supported on the mask stage MST by driving the mask stage drive apparatus MSTD based on the measurement results of the laser interferometer.

投影光学系PLは、マスクMのパターンを所定の投影倍率βで基板Pに投影露光するものであって、複数の光学素子(レンズ)で構成されており、これら光学素子は金属部材、例えばステンレス(SUS403)で形成された鏡筒PKで支持されている。 Projection optical system PL is for projection exposing the substrate P with the pattern of the mask M at a predetermined projection magnification beta, is composed of a plurality of optical elements (lenses), these optical elements are metallic member such as stainless (SUS 403) is supported in the formed barrel PK in. 本実施形態において、投影光学系PLは、投影倍率βが例えば1/4あるいは1/5の縮小系である。 In this embodiment, the projection optical system PL is a projection magnification β which is, for example, 1/4 or 1/5 of the reduction system. なお、投影光学系PLは等倍系及び拡大系のいずれでもよい。 The projection optical system PL may be either a unity magnification system or an enlargement system. また、本実施形態の投影光学系PLの基板P側の先端部7には、石英、フッ化カルシウム(蛍石)などのガラス部材から形成された平行平面板(光学素子)60が設けられている。 Further, the tip portion 7 of the substrate P side of the projection optical system PL of this embodiment, a quartz plane-parallel plate formed of glass material such as calcium fluoride (fluorite) (optical element) 60 is provided there. この光学素子60は鏡筒PKに対して着脱(交換)可能に設けられている。 The optical element 60 is provided detachably with respect to the barrel PK (exchange). 投影光学系PLの先端部7は、光学素子60と、これを保持する鏡筒(保持部材)PKの一部により構成されている。 Tip 7 of the projection optical system PL, the optical element 60 is constituted by a barrel (holding member) Some PK that holds it.

基板ステージPSTは、基板Pを支持するものであって、基板Pを基板ホルダを介して保持するZステージ51と、Zステージ51を支持するXYステージ52と、XYステージ52を支持するベース53とを備えている。 The substrate stage PST is for supporting the substrate P, a Z stage 51 which holds the substrate P via a substrate holder, an XY stage 52 which supports the Z stage 51, a base 53 which supports the XY stage 52 It is equipped with a. 基板ステージPSTはリニアモータ等の基板ステージ駆動装置PSTDにより駆動される。 The substrate stage PST is driven by a substrate stage-driving unit PSTD such as a linear motor. 基板ステージ駆動装置PSTDは制御装置CONTにより制御される。 The substrate stage-driving unit PSTD is controlled by the control unit CONT. Zステージ51を駆動することにより、Zステージ51に保持されている基板PのZ軸方向における位置(フォーカス位置)、及びθX、θY方向における位置が制御される。 By driving the Z stage 51, the position in the Z-axis direction of the substrate P held by the Z stage 51 (focus position), and .theta.X, located in the θY direction is controlled. また、XYステージ52を駆動することにより、基板PのXY方向における位置(投影光学系PLの像面と実質的に平行な方向の位置)が制御される。 Further, by driving the XY stage 52, the position in the XY direction of the substrate P (substantially parallel to the image plane position of the projection optical system PL) is controlled. すなわち、Zステージ51は、基板Pのフォーカス位置及び傾斜角を制御して基板Pの表面をオートフォーカス方式、及びオートレベリング方式で投影光学系PLの像面に合わせ込み、XYステージ52は基板PのX軸方向及びY軸方向における位置決めを行う。 That, Z stage 51, autofocusing the surface of the substrate P by controlling the focus position and inclination angle of the substrate P, and the auto-leveling system match an existing image plane of the projection optical system PL, XY stage 52 is the substrate P to position in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction. なお、ZステージとXYステージとを一体的に設けてよいことは言うまでもない。 It goes without saying that the Z stage and the XY stage may be integrally provided.

基板ステージPST(Zステージ51)上には、基板ステージPSTとともに投影光学系PLに対して移動する移動鏡54が設けられている。 On the substrate stage PST (Z stage 51), movable mirror 54 is provided to move relative to the projection optical system PL together with the substrate stage PST. また、移動鏡54に対向する位置にはレーザ干渉計55が設けられている。 A laser interferometer 55 is provided at a position opposed to the movement mirror 54. 基板ステージPST上の基板Pの2次元方向の位置、及び回転角はレーザ干渉計55によりリアルタイムで計測され、計測結果は制御装置CONTに出力される。 Dimensional position of the substrate P on the substrate stages PST, and the angle of rotation are measured in real time by the laser interferometer 55, the measurement results are output to the control unit CONT. 制御装置CONTはレーザ干渉計55の計測結果に基づいて基板ステージ駆動装置PSTDを駆動することで基板ステージPSTに支持されている基板Pの位置決めを行う。 Controller CONT performs positioning of substrate P supported by the substrate stage PST by driving the substrate stage drive apparatus PSTD based on the measurement results of the laser interferometer 55.

本実施形態では、露光波長を実質的に短くして解像度を向上するとともに、焦点深度を実質的に広くするために、液浸法を適用する。 In this embodiment, as well as improve the resolution of the exposure wavelength and substantially shorter, in order to widen the depth of focus substantially, applying the liquid immersion method. そのため、少なくともマスクMのパターンの像を基板P上に転写している間は、基板Pの表面と投影光学系PLの先端部7との間に所定の液体50が満たされる。 Therefore, while transferring the pattern image of at least the mask M onto the substrate P, a predetermined liquid 50 is filled between the surface of the substrate P and the tip portion 7 of the projection optical system PL. 上述したように、投影光学系PLの先端部7には光学素子60及び鏡筒PKの一部が配置されており、液体50は光学素子(ガラス部材)60と、鏡筒(金属部材)PKとに接触する。 As described above, the tip portion 7 of the projection optical system PL is arranged a part of the optical element 60 and the barrel PK, the liquid 50 is an optical element (glass member) 60, a lens barrel (metal member) PK in contact with the door. 本実施形態において、液体50には純水が用いられる。 In the present embodiment, pure water is used for the liquid 50. 純水は、ArFエキシマレーザ光のみならず、露光光ELを例えば水銀ランプから射出される紫外域の輝線(g線、h線、i線)及びKrFエキシマレーザ光(波長248nm)等の遠紫外光(DUV光)とした場合、この露光光ELを透過可能である。 Pure water is not ArF excimer laser beam only, the bright line of ultraviolet region emitted exposure light EL, for example, from a mercury lamp (g-rays, h-rays, i-rays) and KrF excimer laser beam deep ultraviolet (wavelength 248 nm), etc. If the light (DUV light), is permeable to the exposure light EL.

露光装置EXは、投影光学系PLの先端部7と基板Pとの間の空間56に所定の液体50を供給する液体供給装置(液浸装置、供給装置)1と、空間56の液体50を回収する液体回収装置(液浸装置、回収装置)2とを備えている。 The exposure apparatus EX, the liquid supply device (liquid immersion device, supply device) for supplying a predetermined liquid 50 to the space 56 between the tip portion 7 and the substrate P of the projection optical system PL and 1, the liquid 50 in the space 56 liquid recovery unit (immersion apparatus, collecting device) for recovering and a 2. 液体供給装置1は、投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間の少なくとも一部に、基板Pの走査方向と平行に液体50を流すものであって、液体50を収容するタンク、加圧ポンプなどを備えている。 The liquid supply apparatus 1, at least a portion between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P, be those flowing parallel to the liquid 50 and the scanning direction of the substrate P, a tank for accommodating the liquid 50, a pressurizing pump, etc. It is equipped with a. 液体供給装置1には供給管3の一端部が接続され、供給管3の他端部には供給ノズル4が接続されている。 One end of the supply pipe 3 is connected to the liquid supply apparatus 1, the supply nozzle 4 is connected to the other end of the supply pipe 3. 液体供給装置1は供給管3及び供給ノズル4を介して空間56に液体50を供給する。 The liquid supply apparatus 1 supplies the liquid 50 into the space 56 via the supply pipe 3 and the supply nozzles 4.

液体回収装置2は、吸引ポンプ、回収した液体50を収容するタンクなどを備えている。 Liquid recovery unit 2 is provided with such as a tank for accommodating the suction pump, recovered liquid 50. 液体回収装置2には回収管6の一端部が接続され、回収管6の他端部には回収ノズル5が接続されている。 The liquid recovery unit 2 one end of the recovery tube 6 is connected, recovery nozzles 5 are connected to the other end of the recovery tube 6. 液体回収装置2は回収ノズル5及び回収管6を介して空間56の液体50を回収する。 Liquid recovery unit 2 recovers the liquid 50 in the space 56 via the recovery nozzle 5 and the recovery pipe 6. 空間56に液体50を満たす際、制御装置CONTは液体供給装置1を駆動し、供給管3及び供給ノズル4を介して空間56に対して単位時間当たり所定量の液体50を供給するとともに、液体回収装置2を駆動し、回収ノズル5及び回収管6を介して単位時間当たり所定量の液体50を空間56より回収する。 When filled with liquid 50 in the space 56, together with the control unit CONT drives the liquid supply apparatus 1, supplies a predetermined amount of the liquid 50 per unit time with respect to space 56 via the supply pipe 3 and the supply nozzles 4, the liquid the recovery device 2 is driven, a predetermined amount of the liquid 50 per unit of time via the recovery nozzle 5 and the recovery pipe 6 is recovered from the space 56. これにより、投影光学系PLの先端面7と基板Pとの間の空間56に液体50が配置される。 Thus, the liquid 50 is arranged in the space 56 between the tip surface 7 and the substrate P of the projection optical system PL.

走査露光時には、先端面60Aの直下の矩形の投影領域にマスクMの一部のパターン像が投影され、投影光学系PLに対して、マスクMが−X方向(又は+X方向)に速度Vで移動するのに同期して、XYステージ52を介して基板Pが+X方向(又は−X方向)に速度β・V(βは投影倍率)で移動する。 During scanning exposure, the part of the pattern image is projected the mask M in a rectangular projection area directly below the tip surface 60A, with respect to the projection optical system PL, the mask M is -X direction (or + X direction) at a velocity V synchronously to move the substrate P via the XY stage 52 is the + X direction (or -X direction) velocity beta · V (beta is the projection magnification) moves. そして、1つのショット領域への露光終了後に、基板Pのステッピングによって次のショット領域が走査開始位置に移動し、以下、ステップ・アンド・スキャン方式で各ショット領域に対する露光処理が順次行われる。 Then, after the exposure for one shot area, the next shot area by the stepping of the substrate P is moved to the scanning start position, hereinafter, the exposure processing for each shot area is sequentially performed by the step-and-scan method. 本実施形態では、基板Pの移動方向と平行に基板の移動方向と同一方向に液体50を流すように設定されている。 In the present embodiment, it is set to pass the moving direction parallel to the liquid 50 in the moving direction and the same direction of the substrate of the substrate P.

図2は、投影光学系PLの先端部7と、液体50をX軸方向に供給する供給ノズル4(4A〜4C)と、液体50を回収する回収ノズル5(5A、5B)との位置関係を示す図である。 2, the tip 7 of the projection optical system PL, and supply for supplying the liquid 50 in the X-axis direction nozzles 4 and (4A-4C), the recovery nozzles 5 (5A, 5B) for recovering the liquid 50 and the positional relationship is a diagram illustrating a. 図2において、先端部7(光学素子60の先端面60A)の形状はY軸方向に細長い矩形状となっており、投影光学系PLの先端部7をX軸方向に挟むように、+X方向側に3つの供給ノズル4A〜4Cが配置され、−X方向側に2つの回収ノズル5A、5Bが配置されている。 2, the shape of the distal end portion 7 (the leading end face 60A of the optical element 60) has a rectangular shape elongated in the Y-axis direction, so as to sandwich the distal end portion 7 of the projection optical system PL in the X-axis direction, + X direction three supply nozzles 4A~4C on the side are arranged, two recovery nozzles 5A, 5B are disposed on the -X direction side. そして、供給ノズル4A〜4Cは供給管3を介して液体供給装置1に接続され、回収ノズル5A、5Bは回収管4を介して液体回収装置2に接続されている。 The supply nozzle 4A~4C are connected to the liquid supply apparatus 1 via the supply pipe 3, the recovery nozzles 5A, 5B are connected to the liquid recovery apparatus 2 via the recovery pipe 4. また、供給ノズル4A〜4Cと回収ノズル5A、5Bとを先端部7の中心に対して略180°回転した配置に、供給ノズル8A〜8Cと、回収ノズル9A、9Bとが配置されている。 The supply nozzle 4A~4C and the recovery nozzles 5A, and the arrangement rotated approximately 180 ° relative to the center of the distal end portion 7 5B, the supply nozzles 8A-8C, the recovery nozzles 9A, and the 9B are disposed. 供給ノズル4A〜4Cと回収ノズル9A、9BとはY軸方向に交互に配列され、供給ノズル8A〜8Cと回収ノズル5A、5BとはY軸方向に交互に配列され、供給ノズル8A〜8Cは供給管10を介して液体供給装置1に接続され、回収ノズル9A、9Bは回収管11を介して液体回収装置2に接続されている。 Supply nozzles 4A~4C and the recovery nozzles 9A, the 9B are alternately arranged in the Y-axis direction, the supply nozzles 8A~8C and the recovery nozzles 5A, the 5B are alternately arranged in the Y-axis direction, the supply nozzles 8A~8C are through the supply tube 10 is connected to the liquid supply unit 1, the recovery nozzles 9A, 9B are connected to the liquid recovery apparatus 2 via the recovery tube 11. ノズルからの液体の供給は、投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間に気体部分が生じないように行う必要がある。 Supply of the liquid from the nozzle, the gas part needs to be performed so as not to cause between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P.

また、図3に示すように、先端部7を挟んでY軸方向両側のそれぞれに供給ノズル31、32及び回収ノズル33、34を設けることもできる。 Further, as shown in FIG. 3, it is possible to provide a Y-axis direction on both sides of the supply nozzle 31 and the recovery nozzles 33 and 34 respectively across the tip 7. この供給ノズル及び回収ノズルにより、ステップ移動する際の基板Pの非走査方向(Y軸方向)への移動時においても、投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間に液体50を安定して供給することができる。 The supply nozzles and recovery nozzles, even when the movement in the non-scanning direction of the substrate P at the time of step movement (Y-axis direction), and supplies the liquid 50 stably between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P be able to.

なお、上述したノズルの形状は特に限定されるものでなく、例えば先端部7の長辺について2対のノズルで液体50の供給又は回収を行うようにしてもよい。 The shape of the nozzle described above is not particularly limited, for example, the long sides of the end portion 7 may perform the supply or recovery of the liquid 50 in the two pairs of nozzles. なお、この場合には、+X方向、又は−X方向のどちらの方向からも液体50の供給及び回収を行うことができるようにするため、供給ノズルと回収ノズルと上下に並べて配置してもよい。 In this case, + X direction, or to be able to supply and recovery of the liquid 50 from either direction of the -X direction, may be arranged vertically and supply nozzles and the recovery nozzles .

図4は、投影光学系PLの先端部7近傍の拡大図である。 Figure 4 is an enlarged view of the tip 7 vicinity of the projection optical system PL. 図4において、投影光学系PLの先端部7には、液体50との親和性に応じた表面処理が施されている。 4, the tip portion 7 of the projection optical system PL, a surface treatment according to the affinity for the liquid 50 is applied. 先端部7は、走査露光するために基板Pを走査方向(X軸方向)に移動するときに液体50と接触する部分であって、光学素子60の下面60A及び鏡筒PK下面の一部を含む投影光学系PLの下面7A、及びこの下面7Aに接続する鏡筒PKの一部の側面7Bを含む。 Tip 7 is a portion in contact with the liquid 50 when moving the substrate P in the scanning direction (X axis direction) in order to scanning exposure, a part of the lower surface 60A and the barrel PK lower surface of the optical element 60 the lower surface 7A of the projection optical system PL, including, and a part of the side surface 7B of the barrel PK which connects to the bottom surface 7A. 本実施形態において、液体50は水であるため、先端部7には水との親和性に応じた表面処理が施されている。 In the present embodiment, the liquid 50 is because it is water, surface treatment in accordance with the affinity for water is applied to the tip 7.

投影光学系PLの先端部7において、光学素子60の表面(下面)60A及び鏡筒PKの下面の一部の領域を含む第1表面領域AR1と、この第1表面領域AR1周辺であって鏡筒PKの下面の残りの領域及び鏡筒PKの側面を含む第2表面領域AR2とは、互いに異なる表面処理が施されている。 At the tip 7 of the projection optical system PL, and a first surface area AR1 including a partial area of ​​the lower surface of the surface (lower surface) 60A and the barrel PK of the optical element 60, a peripheral first surface area AR1 by the mirror the second surface area AR2 including the sides of the remaining area and the barrel PK of the lower surface of the cylinder PK, different surface treatment is applied to one another. 具体的には、第1表面領域AR1の液体(水)50に対する親和性が、第2表面領域AR2の液体(水)50に対する親和性より高くなるように、第1、第2表面領域AR1、AR2のそれぞれに対して表面処理が施されている。 Specifically, as affinity for liquid (water) 50 in the first surface region AR1 is higher than the affinity for liquid (water) 50 in the second surface region AR2, first, second surface region AR1, surface treatment is performed for each of AR2. ここでは、光学素子60を含む第1表面領域AR1に対しては親液性を付与する親液化処理(親水化処理)、第2表面領域AR2に対しては撥液性を付与する撥液化処理(撥水化処理)が施されている。 Here, lyophilic process for imparting a lyophilic property against the first surface area AR1 including the optical element 60 (hydrophilic treatment), the lyophobic treatment for imparting liquid repellency against the second surface area AR2 (water repellent treatment) is applied. 親液化処理とは液体に対する親和性を高くする処理であり、撥液化処理とは液体に対する親和性を低くする処理である。 The lyophilic process is a process to increase the affinity for the liquid, the liquid-repelling treatment is a process to lower the affinity for liquids.

表面処理は液体50の極性に応じて行われる。 Surface treatment is performed depending on the polarity of the liquid 50. 本実施形態において、液体50は極性の大きい水であるため、光学素子60を含む第1表面領域AR1に対する親水化処理として、例えばアルコールなど極性の大きい分子構造の物質で薄膜を形成することで、この第1表面領域AR1に対して親水性を付与する。 In the present embodiment, the liquid 50 is for a large water polar, by forming a hydrophilic treatment on the first surface area AR1 including the optical element 60, a thin film for example, with a substance of high polarity molecular structure such as alcohol, impart hydrophilicity to this first surface region AR1. あるいは、第1表面領域AR1の光学素子60の下面60A及び鏡筒PKに対して、例えば処理ガスとして酸素(O )を用いてプラズマ処理するO プラズマ処理を施すことによって表面に極性の強いO分子が多く集まるため親水性を付与することができる。 Alternatively, the lower surface 60A and the barrel PK of the optical element 60 of the first surface region AR1, more polar the surface by oxygen O 2 plasma treatment using a plasma treatment using a (O 2) applied as for example the process gas since O molecules gather more can impart hydrophilicity. このように、液体50として水を用いる場合には第1表面領域AR1にOH基など極性の大きい分子構造を持ったものを表面に配置させる処理が望ましい。 Thus, the process of arranging the one having a larger molecular structures of the polar such as OH group on the surface to the first surface area AR1 in the case of using water as the liquid 50 is desired. また、第1表面領域AR1は、ガラス部材である光学素子60と金属部材である鏡筒PKとを含んでいるため、親水化処理する場合、ガラス部材と金属部材とのそれぞれに異なる物質で薄膜を形成するなど、異なる表面処理を行うことができる。 The first surface area AR1, because it contains a lens barrel PK is an optical element 60 and the metal member is a glass member, the case of hydrophilic treatment, a thin film with different materials in each of the glass member and a metal member including forming a can perform different surface treatments. もちろん、第1表面領域AR1のガラス部材及び金属部材のそれぞれに対して同じ表面処理を施してもよい。 Of course, it is subjected to the same surface treatment on each of the glass member and the metal member of the first surface region AR1. また、薄膜を形成する場合には、塗布や蒸着などの手法を用いることができる。 In the case of forming a thin film can be used in a method such as coating or vapor deposition.

一方、鏡筒PK表面を含む第2表面領域AR2に対しては撥水化処理が施される。 On the other hand, water-repellent treatment is performed with respect to a second surface area AR2 containing barrel PK surface. 第2表面領域AR2に対する撥水化処理として、例えばフッ素を含む極性の小さい分子構造の物質で薄膜を形成することで、この第2表面領域AR2に対して撥水性を付与する。 As water repellent treatment on the second surface region AR2, such as fluorine by forming a thin film with polar small molecular structure material containing, for imparting water repellency with respect to the second surface region AR2. あるいは、処理ガスとして四フッ化炭素(CF )を用いてプラズマ処理するCF プラズマ処理を施すことによって撥水性を付与することができる。 Alternatively, it is possible to impart water repellency by applying CF 4 plasma treatment is plasma treatment using carbon tetrafluoride (CF 4) as the process gas. 第2表面領域AR2に対して薄膜を形成する場合においても、塗布や蒸着などの手法を用いることができる。 Even in the case of forming a thin film on the second surface region AR2, it is possible to use a method such as coating or vapor deposition.

また、本実施形態では、基板Pの表面にも、液体50との親和性に合わせて表面処理が施されている。 Further, in this embodiment, also to the surface of the substrate P, the surface treatment in accordance with the affinity for the liquid 50 is applied. ここでは、基板Pの表面に対して親水化処理が施されている。 Here, hydrophilic treatment is applied to the surface of the substrate P. 基板Pに対する親水化処理としては、上述したような例えばアルコールなど極性の大きい分子構造の物質で薄膜を形成することで基板Pの表面に対して親液性を付与する。 The hydrophilic treatment to the substrate P, and impart lyophilic property to the surface of the substrate P by forming a thin film of a material large molecular structures of the polar, for example alcohols, such as described above. なお、基板Pの表面をアルコールなどを塗布して表面処理した場合には、露光後であって次の感光材料の塗布の前工程、例えば、ディベロッパ/コーターに基板を搬送する前に、塗膜を洗浄するための洗浄工程を設けることが望ましい。 In the case where the surface of the substrate P and the surface treated by coating or the like alcohol, a post-exposure pre-process the application of the next photosensitive material, for example, before the substrate is transferred to the developer / coater coating it is preferable to provide a washing step for washing the.

そして、第1表面領域AR1の液体50に対する親和性を、第2表面領域AR2の液体50に対する親和性よりも高くすることによって、液体50が第1表面領域AR1内で安定して保持される。 Then, the affinity for the liquid 50 in the first surface region AR1, by higher than the affinity for the liquid 50 in the second surface region AR2, the liquid 50 is stably held in the first surface region AR1.

ここで、表面処理のための薄膜は、液体50に対して非溶解性の材料により形成される。 Here, a thin film for the surface treatment is formed by a non-soluble material to the liquid 50. また、光学素子60に形成される薄膜は、露光光ELの光路上に配置されるものであるため、露光光ELに対して透過性を有する材料で形成され、その膜厚も露光光ELを透過可能な程度に設定される。 Further, the thin film formed on the optical element 60, since they are disposed on the optical path of the exposure light EL, formed of a material having a transparent property against exposing light EL, the thickness also the exposure light EL It is set to the extent possible transmission.

次に、上述した露光装置EXを用いてマスクMのパターンを基板Pに露光する際の作用について説明する。 Next, the pattern of the mask M will be described the operation when exposing the substrate P by using the exposure apparatus EX described above.

マスクMがマスクステージMSTにロードされるとともに、基板Pが基板ステージPSTにロードされたら、制御装置CONTは液体供給装置1を駆動し、空間56に対する液体供給動作を開始する。 The mask M is loaded on the mask stage MST, When the substrate P is loaded on the substrate stages PST, the control unit CONT drives the liquid supply unit 1 to start the liquid supply operation to the space 56. 液体供給装置1は空間56に対して基板Pの移動方向に沿って液体50を供給する。 The liquid supply apparatus 1 supplies the liquid 50 along the moving direction of the substrate P with respect to space 56. 例えば、矢印Xa(図2参照)で示す走査方向(−X方向)に基板Pを移動させて走査露光を行う場合には、供給管3、供給ノズル4A〜4C、回収管4、及び回収ノズル5A、5Bを用いて、液体供給装置1及び液体回収装置2により液体50の供給及び回収が行われる。 For example, the arrows Xa when scanning exposure is performed by moving the substrate P in the scanning direction indicated by (see FIG. 2) (-X direction), the supply pipe 3, the supply nozzles 4A-4C, the recovery tube 4, and the recovery nozzles 5A, 5B with the supply and recovery of the liquid 50 is performed by the liquid supply unit 1 and the liquid recovery unit 2. すなわち、基板Pが−X方向に移動する際には、供給管3及び供給ノズル4(4A〜4C)を介して液体供給装置1から液体50が投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間に供給されるとともに、回収ノズル5(5A、5B)、及び回収管6を介して液体50が液体回収装置2に回収され、レンズ60と基板Pとの間を満たすように−X方向に液体50が流れる。 That is, when the substrate P moves in the -X direction, provided between the liquid supply apparatus 1 via the supply pipe 3 and the supply nozzles 4 (4A-4C) and the liquid 50 is the projection optical system PL and the substrate P together with the recovery nozzles 5 (5A, 5B), and the recovery pipe 6 liquid 50 through is recovered by the liquid recovery apparatus 2, the lens 60 and the liquid 50 in the -X direction to fill the space between the substrate P It flows. 一方、矢印Xbで示す走査方向(+X方向)に基板Pを移動させて走査露光を行う場合には、供給管10、供給ノズル8A〜8C、回収管11、及び回収ノズル9A、9Bを用いて、液体供給装置1及び液体回収装置2により液体50の供給及び回収が行われる。 On the other hand, when the scanning exposure is performed by moving the substrate P in the scanning direction (+ X direction) indicated by arrow Xb, using the supply tube 10, the supply nozzles 8A-8C, the recovery tube 11, and the recovery nozzles 9A, a 9B , supply and recovery of the liquid 50 is performed by the liquid supply unit 1 and the liquid recovery unit 2. すなわち、基板Pが+X方向に移動する際には、供給管10及び供給ノズル8(8A〜8C)を介して液体供給装置1から液体50が投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間に供給されるとともに、回収ノズル9(9A、9B)、及び回収管11を介して液体50が液体回収装置2に回収され、レンズ60と基板Pとの間を満たすように+X方向に液体50が流れる。 That is, when the substrate P moves in the + X direction, the liquid 50 is supplied between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P from the liquid supply apparatus 1 via the supply pipe 10 and the supply nozzles 8 (8A-8C) Rutotomoni, recovery nozzles 9 (9A, 9B), and the recovery pipe 11 the liquid 50 through the is recovered by the liquid recovery apparatus 2, the lens 60 and the liquid 50 in the + X direction so as to satisfy the between the substrate P flows. このように、制御装置CONTは、液体供給装置1及び液体回収装置2を用いて基板Pの移動方向に沿って液体50を流す。 Thus, the control unit CONT flow of liquid 50 along the moving direction of the substrate P by using the liquid supply unit 1 and the liquid recovery apparatus 2. この場合、例えば液体供給装置1から供給ノズル4を介して供給される液体50は基板Pの−X方向への移動に伴って空間56に引き込まれるようにして流れるので、液体供給装置1の供給エネルギーが小さくても液体50を空間56に容易に供給できる。 In this case, for example, the liquid 50 from the liquid supply unit 1 is supplied through the supply nozzle 4 flows so as to be drawn into the space 56 in accordance with the movement of the -X direction of the substrate P, the supply of the liquid supply unit 1 the liquid 50 even if the energy is small can be easily supplied to the space 56. そして、走査方向に応じて液体50を流す方向を切り替えることにより、+X方向、又は−X方向のどちらの方向に基板Pを走査する場合にも、レンズ60の先端面7と基板Pとの間を液体50で満たすことができ、高い解像度及び広い焦点深度を得ることができる。 Then, by switching the direction of flow of the liquid 50 in accordance with the scanning direction, + X direction, or between the even and the distal end surface 7 and the substrate P of the lens 60 if in either direction in the -X direction to scan the substrate P the can be filled with the liquid 50, it is possible to obtain high resolution and a wide depth of focus.

このとき、投影光学系PLや基板Pに表面処理が施されていない場合について考える。 In this case, consider the case where the surface treatment to the projection optical system PL and the substrate P is not performed. 図5は表面処理が施されていない状態での液体50の流れを示す模式図である。 Figure 5 is a schematic diagram showing the flow of the liquid 50 in a state in which surface processing has not been performed. ここでは、投影光学系PL表面や基板P表面は液体50に対して親和性が低いものとする。 Here, the projection optical system PL surface and the surface of the substrate P and has low affinity for the liquid 50.

図5(a)は基板ステージPSTが停止している状態を示す図である。 5 (a) is a diagram showing a state where the substrate stage PST is stopped. 液体50は供給ノズル4より供給され、回収ノズル5より回収される。 Liquid 50 is supplied from the supply nozzle 4, it is recovered from the recovery nozzles 5. このとき、液体50と基板Pとは親和性が低いため、接触角θは大きい。 At this time, due to low affinity between the liquid 50 and the substrate P, the contact angle θ is large. 図5(b)は基板Pが基板ステージPSTによりX軸方向に移動を開始した状態を示す図である。 5 (b) is a view showing a state in which the substrate P starts to move in the X-axis direction by the substrate stage PST. 液体50は移動する基板Pに引っ張られるようにして変形する。 Liquid 50 is deformed so as to be pulled by the substrate P moving. 液体50と基板Pとは親和性が低いため、液体50は基板Pの表面から離れやすい。 Due to low affinity between the liquid 50 and the substrate P, the liquid 50 is easily separated from the surface of the substrate P. 図5(c)は基板ステージPST上の基板Pの移動速度が更に上昇した状態を示す図である。 Figure 5 (c) is a diagram showing a state where the moving speed is increased further the substrate P on the substrate stage PST. 基板Pと液体50との間に剥離領域(気泡)H1が形成され、しかも光学素子60と液体50との間にも剥離領域H2が形成される。 Peeled area (bubble) H1 between the substrate P and the liquid 50 is formed, moreover peeling region H2 is formed between the optical element 60 and the liquid 50. この剥離領域H1、H2が露光光ELの光路上に形成されると、マスクMのパターンが基板Pに正確に転写されない。 When this peeled area H1, H2 is formed on the optical path of the exposure light EL, the pattern of the mask M is not accurately transferred to the substrate P.

図6は、図4を用いて説明したように投影光学系Pの先端部7及び基板P表面が表面処理されている状態での液体50の流れを示す模式図である。 Figure 6 is a schematic diagram showing the flow of the liquid 50 in a state where the top portion 7 and the surface of the substrate P of the projection optical system P as described with reference to FIG. 4 is surface-treated.

図6(a)は基板ステージPSTが停止している状態を示す図である。 6 (a) is a diagram showing a state where the substrate stage PST is stopped. 表面処理を施して液体50と基板Pとの親和性を高めたので、接触角θは小さい。 Since subjected to a surface treatment enhanced the affinity for the liquid 50 and the substrate P, the contact angle θ is small. 図6(b)は基板Pが基板ステージPSTによりX軸方向に移動を開始した状態を示す図である。 6 (b) is a diagram showing a state where the substrate P starts to move in the X-axis direction by the substrate stage PST. 液体50と基板Pとの親和性は高いので、基板Pが移動しても液体50は基板Pに過剰に引っ張られない。 Since affinity high between the liquid 50 and the substrate P, the liquid 50 be moved is not pulled over the substrate P. また、投影光学系PLの第1表面領域AR1の液体50に対する親和性も高いので、第1表面領域AR1と液体50とは剥離しない。 Further, since the high affinity for the liquid 50 in the first surface region AR1 of the projection optical system PL, not separate from the first surface area AR1 and the liquid 50. このとき、第1表面領域AR1の周辺は、液体50に対する親和性が低い第2表面領域AR2で囲まれているので、空間56の液体50は外部に流出することなく、空間56に安定して配置されている。 At this time, the periphery of the first surface area AR1, because affinity for the liquid 50 is enclosed in a lower second surface region AR2, the liquid 50 in the space 56 without flowing out, stable in the space 56 It is located. 図6(c)は基板ステージPST上の基板Pの移動速度が更に上昇した状態を示す図である。 FIG 6 (c) is a view showing a state where the moving speed is increased further the substrate P on the substrate stage PST. 基板Pの移動速度を上昇しても、投影光学系PL及び基板Pに対して表面処理が施されているので、液体50と投影光学系PL及び基板Pとの間で剥離は生じない。 Even if increasing the movement speed of the substrate P, the surface treatment is performed with respect to the projection optical system PL and the substrate P, the peeling between the liquid 50 and the projection optical system PL and the substrate P does not occur.

以上説明したように、液浸法に基づく露光処理において、液体50と接触する部分である投影光学系PLの先端部7や基板Pの表面に、液体50との親和性に応じた表面処理を施すことで、液体50の剥離や気泡の発生等といった不都合の発生を抑え、投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間に液体50を安定して配置できる。 As described above, in the exposure process based on the liquid immersion method, on the surface of the tip portion 7 and the substrate P of the projection optical system PL is a portion in contact with the liquid 50, the surface treatment in accordance with the affinity for the liquid 50 by applying, to suppress the occurrence of inconvenience such as generation of peeling or bubbles in the liquid 50 can be stably disposed a liquid 50 between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P. したがって、良好なパターン転写精度を維持できる。 Therefore, it is possible to maintain a good pattern transfer accuracy.

なお、液体50との親和性に応じた表面処理は、投影光学系PLの先端部7と基板P表面のどちから一方だけに施すようにしてもよい。 The surface treatment according to the affinity for the liquid 50 may be subjected to only one throat force the tip portion 7 and the surface of the substrate P of the projection optical system PL.
また、上記実施形態において、光学素子60の表面60A及び鏡筒(保持部材)PKの下面一部を第1表面領域AR1とし、この第1表面領域AR1に対して液体50に対する親和性が高くなるように表面処理が施されるように説明した。 In the above embodiment, a portion lower surface of the surface 60A and the barrel (holding member) PK of the optical element 60 and the first surface region AR1, affinity for liquid 50 is higher relative to the first surface region AR1 surface treatment as is described as applied. すなわち、親液化処理領域と撥液化処理領域との境界が鏡筒PK下面にあるように説明したが、この境界は光学素子60表面に設定されていてもよい。 That is, the boundary between the lyophilic area and the lyophobic process area has been described as in barrel PK underside, this boundary may be set to the optical element 60 surface. すなわち、光学素子60の一部の領域(少なくとも露光光が通過する領域)に親液化処理が施され、残りの領域に撥液化処理が施されるといった構成でもよい。 That is, the lyophilic process is performed on a partial region of the optical element 60 (a region in which at least exposure light passes), it may be configured such lyophobic treatment is performed on the remaining area. もちろん、親液化処理領域と撥液化処理領域との境界を、光学素子60と鏡筒PKとの境界に一致させてもよい。 Of course, the boundary between the lyophilic area and the lyophobic treatment area, may be matched with the boundary between the optical element 60 and the lens barrel PK. すなわち、親液化処理を光学素子60のみに対して行う構成でもよい。 That may be configured to perform lyophilic processing on only the optical element 60. 更には、上記境界は投影光学系PLの下面7Aに設定することに限らず、投影光学系PLの下面7A全部を親液化処理してもよい。 Furthermore, the boundary is not limited to be set to the lower surface 7A of the projection optical system PL, the lower surface 7A entire projection optical system PL may be lyophilic process.

更に、表面処理を行う際、親液性(撥液性)に分布を持たせることも可能である。 Furthermore, when performing the surface treatment, it is possible to provide a distribution lyophilic (liquid repellency). 換言すれば、表面処理する面上の複数の領域についての液体の接触角がそれぞれ異なる値となるように表面処理を行うことができる。 In other words, it is possible to perform surface treatment so that the contact angle of the liquid for a plurality of areas on the surface of the surface treatment becomes different values. あるいは、親液化領域と撥液化領域とを適宜分割して配置するようにしてもよい。 Alternatively, it may be arranged appropriately divided and a lyophilic region and a liquid repellency region.

また、表面処理のための薄膜は単層膜であってもよいし複数の層からなる膜であってもよい。 Further, to the thin film for surface treatment may be a single layer film or a film formed of a plurality of layers. また、その形成材料も、金属、金属化合物、及び有機物など、所望の性能を発揮できる材料であれば任意の材料を用いることができる。 Furthermore, the formation material is also a metal, a metal compound, and organic matter, it can be made of any material as long as the material can exhibit the desired performance.

また、光学素子60や基板Pの表面処理には薄膜形成やプラズマ処理等が有効であるが、金属部材である鏡筒PKの表面処理に関しては、例えばこの鏡筒PKの表面を粗面処理するなど物理的手法で液体に対する親和性を調整できる。 Although the surface treatment of the optical element 60 and the substrate P is effective film formation and plasma treatment or the like, with respect to the surface treatment of the barrel PK is a metal member, for example, roughening the surface of the barrel PK adjustable affinity for the liquid by physical methods, such as.

なお、上述の実施形態においては、投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間における液体の安定した保持を重視して基板P表面を親液化(親液処理)しているが、基板P表面からの液体の回収や除去を重視する場合には、基板P表面を撥液化(撥液処理)してもよい。 In the embodiment described above, although the focus to the surface of the substrate P and stable holding of the liquid between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P with lyophilic (lyophilic process), from the surface of the substrate P when emphasizing collection and removal of liquid, the surface of the substrate P may be lyophobic (liquid repellency treatment).
また上述の実施形態においては、液体50との親和性に応じた表面処理を、投影光学系PLの先端部7および基板Pの表面に施すようにしているが、投影光学系PLの先端部7と基板P表面の少なくとも一方との親和性に応じた液体を液体供給装置1から供給するようにしてもよい。 In the embodiment described above, the surface treatment in accordance with the affinity for the liquid 50, but as applied to the surface of the tip portion 7 and the substrate P of the projection optical system PL, the projection optical system PL tip 7 liquid according to the affinity with at least one surface of the substrate P and the may be supplied from the liquid supply device 1.

上述したように、本実施形態における液体50は純水により構成されている。 As described above, the liquid 50 in this embodiment is constituted by pure water. 純水は、半導体製造工場等で容易に大量に入手できるとともに、基板P上のフォトレジストや光学素子(レンズ)等に対する悪影響がない利点がある。 Pure water can be obtained in large quantities at a semiconductor manufacturing plant or the like, that it has no adverse effects on the photoresist and the optical element (lens) and the like on the substrate P. また、純水は環境に対する悪影響がないとともに、不純物の含有量が極めて低いため、基板Pの表面、及び投影光学系PLの先端面に設けられている光学素子の表面を洗浄する作用も期待できる。 Further, pure water has no adverse effects on the environment and contains very few impurities, the action of cleaning the surface of the optical element provided at the end face of the surface, and the projection optical system PL of the substrate P can be expected .

そして、波長が193nm程度の露光光ELに対する純水(水)の屈折率nはほぼ1.44〜1.47程度と言われており、露光光ELの光源としてArFエキシマレーザ光(波長193nm)を用いた場合、基板P上では1/n、すなわち131〜134nm程度に短波長化されて高い解像度が得られる。 Then, pure water wave with respect to the exposure light EL of about 193nm the refractive index of the (water) n is said to substantially 1.44 to 1.47 approximately, ArF excimer laser light as the light source of the exposure light EL (wavelength 193nm) when using, 1 / n, i.e. to reduce the wavelength is high resolution of about 131~134nm obtained on the substrate P. 更に、焦点深度は空気中に比べて約n倍、すなわち1.44〜1.47倍程度に拡大されるため、空気中で使用する場合と同程度の焦点深度が確保できればよい場合には、投影光学系PLの開口数をより増加させることができ、この点でも解像度が向上する。 Furthermore, approximately n times the depth of focus than in the air, namely to be expanded to about 1.44 to 1.47 times, when the depth of focus approximately the same as that when used in air may if secured, it is possible to increase the numerical aperture of the projection optical system PL, and resolution improves on this point.

本実施形態では、投影光学系PLの先端に光学素子60として平行平面板が取り付けられているが、投影光学系PLの先端に取り付ける光学素子としては、投影光学系PLの光学特性、例えば収差(球面収差、コマ収差等)の調整に用いる光学プレートであってもよしレンズであってもよい。 In the present embodiment, although the parallel flat plate is attached as the optical element 60 to the tip of the projection optical system PL, and as the optical element attached to the distal end of the projection optical system PL, and the optical characteristics of the projection optical system PL, for example, the aberration ( spherical aberration, may be also good lens an optical plate used to adjust the coma aberration, etc.). 一方、液体50と接触する光学素子を、レンズより安価な平行平面板とすることにより、露光装置EXの運搬、組立、調整時等において投影光学系PLの透過率、基板P上での露光光ELの照度、及び照度分布の均一性を低下させる物質(例えばシリコン系有機物等)がその平行平面板に付着しても、液体50を供給する直前にその平行平面板を交換するだけでよく、液体50と接触する光学素子をレンズとする場合に比べてその交換コストが低くなるという利点がある。 On the other hand, the optical element to make contact with the liquid 50, by an inexpensive plane parallel plate from the lens, transportation of the exposure apparatus EX, the assembly, the transmittance of the projection optical system PL in the adjustment or the like, the exposure light on the substrate P EL illumination, and be attached to the illuminance distribution of the agent that reduces the uniformity (e.g. silicon organic matter) is its plane parallel plate, it is sufficient to replace the parallel plane plate immediately before supplying the liquid 50, an advantage is obtained such that the exchange cost is lowered as compared with the case in which the optical element to make contact with the liquid 50 and lens. すなわち、露光光ELの照射によりレジストから発生する飛散粒子、または液体50中の不純物の付着などに起因して液体50に接触する光学素子の表面が汚れるため、その光学素子を定期的に交換する必要があるが、この光学素子を安価な平行平面板とすることにより、レンズに比べて交換部品のコストが低く、且つ交換に要する時間を短くすることができ、メンテナンスコスト(ランニングコスト)の上昇やスループットの低下を抑えることができる。 That is, since the surface of the optical element scattered particles generated from the resist by the irradiation of the exposure light EL or due like deposition of impurities in the liquid 50 in, contact with the liquid 50 is contaminated, periodically replace the optical element it is necessary, by the optical element is the cheap parallel plane plate, the cost of the exchange part is low as compared with the lens, and it is possible to shorten the time required for replacement, increases the maintenance cost (running cost) it is possible to suppress the reduction of and throughput.

また、液体50の流れによって生じる投影光学系PLの先端の光学素子と基板Pとの間の圧力が大きい場合には、その光学素子を交換可能とするのではなく、その圧力によって光学素子が動かないように堅固に固定してもよい。 Further, when the pressure between the substrate P and the optical element at the tip of the projection optical system PL caused by the flow of the liquid 50 is large, instead of the replaceable its optical element, the optical element is moved by the pressure it may be firmly fixed so as not.

なお、本実施形態の液体50は水であるが、水以外の液体であってもよい、例えば、露光光ELの光源がF レーザである場合、このF レーザ光は水を透過しないので、液体50としてはF レーザ光を透過可能な例えばフッ素系オイル(フッ素系の液体)や過フッ化ポリエーテル(PFPE)であってもよい。 The liquid 50 of the present embodiment is water, a liquid other than water may be, for example, when the light source of exposure light EL is an F 2 laser, the F 2 laser beam is not transmitted through water as the liquid 50 may be permeable such as a fluorine-containing oil F 2 laser beam (fluorine-based liquid) or perfluoropolyether (PFPE). この場合、投影光学系PLの液体50と接触する部分や基板P表面には、例えばフッ素を含む極性の小さい分子構造の物質で薄膜を形成することで親液化処理する。 In this case, the contact portions and the surface of the substrate P and the liquid 50 of the projection optical system PL, and lyophilic treatment by forming a thin film, for example having a molecular structure with small polarity including fluorine material. また、液体50としては、その他にも、露光光ELに対する透過性があってできるだけ屈折率が高く、投影光学系PLや基板P表面に塗布されているフォトレジストに対して安定なもの(例えばセダー油)を用いることも可能である。 Further, as the liquid 50, Besides, if there is transparent to the exposure light EL high as possible refractive index, stable ones (e.g. cedar the photo resist coated on the projection optical system PL and the substrate P surface oil) can also be used. この場合も表面処理は用いる液体50の極性に応じて行われる。 In this case, the surface treatment is performed depending on the polarity of the liquid 50 to be used.

次に、本発明の第2実施形態について図7を参照しながら説明する。 It will be described below with reference to FIG. 7, a second embodiment of the present invention.

本実施形態の露光装置EXでは、投影光学系PLの下面7Aと基板P表面との間における液体50の厚さ(ここでは、投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間隔)をd、投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間における液体50の流れの速度をv、液体50の密度をρ、液体50の粘性係数をμとした場合、条件式 (v・d・ρ)/μ≦2000 …(3) In the exposure apparatus EX of the present embodiment, the thickness of the liquid 50 between the lower surface 7A and the surface of the substrate P of the projection optical system PL (in this case, the distance between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P) of d, the projection optical system the rate of flow of the liquid 50 between the PL and the substrate P v, the density of the liquid 50 [rho, if the viscosity of the liquid 50 and the mu, condition (v · d · ρ) / μ ≦ 2000 ... ( 3)
を満足するように設定されている。 It is set so as to satisfy the. これにより、空間56において液体50は層流となって流れる。 Thus, the liquid 50 in the space 56 flows a laminar flow. なお、液体50中においては、その液体中の位置に応じて異なる複数の流れの速度vが存在することも考えられるが、その最大速度Vmaxが上記(3)式を満たせばよい。 In the liquid 50, it is considered that the velocity v of the different flows in accordance with the position of the liquid is present, the maximum velocity Vmax should satisfy equation (3) above.

上記条件式(3)を満足するように、制御装置CONTは、液体供給装置1による空間56に対する液体の単位時間当たりの供給量と、液体回収装置2による空間56の液体の単位時間当たりの回収量とのうち少なくともいずれか一方を調整する。 So as to satisfy the conditional expression (3), the control unit CONT, the supply amount per unit time of the liquid to the space 56 by the liquid supply apparatus 1, the recovery per unit of liquid hourly space 56 by the liquid recovery apparatus 2 adjusting at least one of the amount. これにより、空間56を流れる液体50の速度vが決定され、条件式(3)を満足することができる。 Accordingly, the velocity v of the liquid 50 flowing in the space 56 is determined, it is possible to satisfy the conditional expression (3). 条件式(3)を満足することで液体50は空間56を層流となって流れる。 Liquid 50 by satisfying conditional expression (3) flows becomes a space 56 a laminar flow.

あるいは、制御装置CONTは、基板ステージPSTを介して基板Pの走査方向への移動速度を調整することによっても、条件式(3)を満足することができる。 Alternatively, the controller CONT, by adjusting the moving speed of the scanning direction of the substrate P via the substrate stages PST, it is possible to satisfy the conditional expression (3). すなわち、空間56を流れる液体50の速度vは基板Pの移動速度で決定されることもある。 That is, the speed v of the liquid 50 flowing in the space 56 is also determined by the movement speed of the substrate P. すなわち、基板P上の液体50が基板Pの移動によって基板Pに引きずられるようにして流れる可能性もある。 That is, the liquid 50 on the substrate P is also possible to flow so as to be dragged by the substrate P by the movement of the substrate P. その場合は、基板Pの移動速度を調整することで条件式(3)を満足することができる。 In that case, it is possible to satisfy the conditional expression (3) by adjusting the movement speed of the substrate P. 例えば、基板Pと液体50とがほぼ同じ速度で投影光学系PLに対して流れる場合には、基板Pの移動速度を液体50の速度vとして、条件式(3)を満足するようにすればよい。 For example, if the flow with respect to the projection optical system PL and the substrate P and the liquid 50 is at approximately the same speed, the moving speed of the substrate P as the velocity v of the liquid 50, when so as to satisfy the conditional expression (3) good. この場合においても、液体50は空間56を層流となって流れる。 In this case, the liquid 50 flows is a space 56 between laminar flow. またその場合には、基板Pの露光中に、必ずしも液体供給装置1および液体回収装置2を動作させる必要がなく、基板Pの移動速度の調整のみで液体50の流れを層流化することができる。 Also in this case, during the exposure of the substrate P, it is not necessary to always operate the liquid supply unit 1 and the liquid recovery apparatus 2, to be laminar flow the flow of the liquid 50 only by adjusting the moving speed of the substrate P it can.

なお、上記条件式(3)を満足させるために、液体50の厚さ(すなわち投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間の距離)dを露光装置の設計値として予め設定し、これに基づいて速度vを決定してもよいし、速度vを設計値として予め設定し、これに基づいて厚さ(距離)dを決定するようにしてもよい。 In order to satisfy the conditional expression (3), the d (distance between the That projection optical system PL and the substrate P) thickness of the liquid 50 previously set as a design value of the exposure apparatus, based on this may be determined the velocity v, the preset speed v as a design value may be determined thickness (distance) d on the basis of this.

また、空間56において液体50が層流となって流れるようにするために、例えば図8(a)に示すように、液体供給装置1に接続する供給ノズル4の開口部にスリットを設けたり、図8(b)に示すように、供給ノズル4の開口部に多孔質体を設けることで液体50を整流し層流状態で流すことができる。 Further, in order to flow becomes liquid 50 is the laminar flow in the space 56, for example, as shown in FIG. 8 (a), or a slit in the opening of the supply nozzle 4 connected to the liquid supply apparatus 1, as shown in FIG. 8 (b), can flow liquid 50 in rectifying layer flow state by providing the porous body in the opening of the supply nozzle 4.

そして、液体50が層流となって流れることにより、圧力の変動による屈折率変化や振動といった不都合が抑制され、良好なパターン転写精度を維持できる。 By the liquid 50 flows becomes a laminar flow, inconvenience is suppressed such refractive index changes and vibrations due to fluctuations in pressure, can maintain a good pattern transfer accuracy. 更に、投影光学系PLのうち液体50と接触する部分や基板P表面に表面処理を施すとともに、露光装置EXを上記条件式(3)を満足するように設定して露光処理することで、空間56の液体50はパターン転写精度に影響を与えないより一層良好な状態に設定される。 Further, with the surface treatment to a portion or surface of the substrate P to make contact with the liquid 50 out of the projection optical system PL, and the exposure apparatus EX by exposure set so as to satisfy the conditional expression (3), the space liquid 50 56 is set to a better state than no effect on the pattern transfer accuracy.

上述の実施形態においては、投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間を局所的に液体で満たす露光装置を採用しているが、露光対象の基板を保持したステージを液槽の中で移動させる液浸露光装置や、ステージ上に所定深さの液体槽を形成しその中に基板を保持する液浸露光装置にも本発明を適用可能である。 In the embodiment described above adopts the exposure apparatus locally filled with the liquid between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P, the liquid that moves a stage holding a substrate to be exposed in a liquid bath immersion exposure apparatus, in liquid immersion exposure apparatus for holding a substrate therein to form a liquid bath in a predetermined depth on a stage is applicable to the present invention. 露光対象の基板を保持したステージを液槽の中で移動させる液浸露光装置の構造及び露光動作については、例えば特開平6−124873号公報に、ステージ上に所定深さの液体槽を形成しその中に基板を保持する液浸露光装置の構造及び露光動作については、例えば特開平10−303114号公報や米国特許第5,825,043号にそれぞれ開示されている。 The structure and the exposure operation of the liquid immersion exposure apparatus that moves a stage holding a substrate to be exposed in a liquid bath, for example, in JP-A-6-124873, to form a liquid bath in a predetermined depth on a stage the structure and the exposure operation of the liquid immersion exposure apparatus for holding a substrate therein, are disclosed respectively, for example, in Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication and US Patent No. 5,825,043 10-303114.

なお、上記実施形態においては、液体供給装置1及び液体回収装置2により前記基板Pの露光中にも液体50の供給及び回収を継続していたが、基板Pの露光中は液体供給装置1及び液体回収装置2による液体50の供給及び回収を停止するようにしてもよい。 In the above embodiment, but also in the exposure of the substrate P by the liquid supply unit 1 and the liquid recovery apparatus 2 has been continuing the supply and the recovery of the liquid 50, during exposure of the substrate P and the liquid supply device 1 the supply and the recovery of the liquid 50 by the liquid recovery apparatus 2 may be stopped. すなわち、基板Pの露光開始前に、投影光学系PLの先端部7と基板Pとの間に、投影光学系PLのワーキングディスタンス以下(0.5〜1.0mm程度)の厚さの液浸部分ができる程度に、あるいは、基板Pの全面に薄い液膜ができる程度に、少量の液体50を液体供給装置1により基板P上に供給し、その液体50を介して投影光学系PLの先端部7と基板Pとを密着する。 That is, before starting exposure of the substrate P, between the tip portion 7 and the substrate P of the projection optical system PL, and immersion of the thickness of less working distance of the projection optical system PL (about 0.5 to 1.0 mm) to the extent it is part, or, to the extent that it is thin liquid film on the entire surface of the substrate P, a small amount of the liquid 50 supplied onto the substrate P by the liquid supply apparatus 1, the tip of the projection optical system PL via the liquid 50 parts 7 and in close contact with the substrate P. 投影光学系PLの先端部7と基板Pとの間隔が数mm以下なので、基板Pの露光中に、液体供給装置1及び液体回収装置2による液体の供給及び回収を行わずに基板Pを移動しても、液体50の表面張力により投影光学系PLと基板Pとの間に液体を50を保持し続けることができる。 Moving the spacing between the tip portion 7 and the substrate P of the projection optical system PL is a less number mm, during exposure of the substrate P, and the substrate P without the supply and recovery of the liquid by the liquid supply apparatus 1 and the liquid recovery apparatus 2 also, the liquid between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P by the surface tension of the liquid 50 can be continuously maintained at 50. また、液体供給装置1からの液体供給によって基板P上のレジスト(感光膜)が傷むこともない。 The resist (photosensitive film) on the substrate P by the liquid supply from the liquid supply apparatus 1 nor spoil. この場合、基板Pの周縁に所定幅で液体50をはじくコーティング(液体が水の場合は撥水コート)を施しておくと、基板P上から液体50が流出するのを防ぐことができる。 In this case, (when the liquid is water repellent coat) coating to repel the liquid 50 in a predetermined width on the periphery of the substrate P can be prevented when previously performing, from the substrate P for the liquid 50 to flow out. なお、基板Pを移動する場合には、上述の条件式(3)を満たすようにして液体50に乱流を発生させないようにすることは言うまでもない。 In the case of moving the substrate P, it is needless to say that as the liquid 50 so as to satisfy conditional expressions (3) is not generated turbulence.

また、上述の実施形態では、基板ステージPST上で液体(50)の供給を行ったが、基板ステージPST上に基板Pが搬入される前に基板P上に液体を供給してもよい。 In the embodiment described above, were subjected to the supply of liquid (50) on the substrate stage PST, the liquid may be supplied onto the substrate P before the substrate P on the substrate stage PST is loaded. この場合、基板P上の一部もしくは全面に供給される液体の厚さを0.5〜1.0mm程度にすれば表面張力によって液体を基板P上に載せたまま基板ステージPSTへの搬入、基板ステージPSTからの搬出を行うことができる。 In this case, loading of the liquid by surface tension when the thickness of the liquid supplied to a portion or the entire surface of the substrate P in order 0.5~1.0mm to the substrate stage PST while placed on the substrate P, it is possible to perform the carry-out from the substrate stage PST. またこの場合も、基板Pの周縁に所定幅の撥液コーティングを施しておけば、基板P上での液体の保持力を高めることができる。 Also in this case, if subjected to a liquid-repellent coating of a predetermined width on the periphery of the substrate P, and to increase the retention force of the liquid on the substrate P. このように、基板P上に液体を保持したまま、基板ステージPSTへの基板Pの搬入及び基板ステージPSTからの基板Pの搬出を行うことによって、基板ステージPST上で液体の供給及び回収を行う機構を省くことができる。 Thus, while maintaining the liquid onto the substrate P, by performing the unloading of the substrate P from the carry-and the substrate stage PST of the substrate P to the substrate stage PST, for supplying and recovering the liquid on the substrate stage PST it is possible to omit the mechanism.

なお、上記実施形態では、投影光学系PLと基板P表面との間は液体50で満たされている構成であるが、例えば、図9に示すように、基板Pの表面に平行平面板からなるカバーガラス65を取り付けた状態で液体50を満たす構成であってもよい。 In the above embodiment, although the space between the projection optical system PL and the substrate P surface that is configured which is filled with a liquid 50, for example, as shown in FIG. 9, consisting of a plane-parallel plate on the surface of the substrate P in a state of mounting the cover glass 65 may be configured to satisfy the liquid 50. ここで、カバーガラス65は支持部材66を介してZステージ51上で支持されており、カバーガラス65、支持部材66、及びZステージ51で形成される空間57は略密閉空間である。 Here, the cover glass 65 is supported on the support member 66 via the Z stage 51, the cover glass 65, the support member 66 and the space 57 formed by the Z stage 51, is a substantially sealed space. そして、この空間57内部に液体50及び基板Pが配置されている。 Then, the liquid 50 and the substrate P is disposed within the space 57. カバーガラス65は露光光ELに対して透過性を有する材料により構成されている。 Cover glass 65 is made of a material permeable to the exposure light EL. そして、カバーガラス65の表面と投影光学系PLとの間の空間56'に対して、液体供給装置1及び液体回収装置2による液体50の供給及び回収が行われ、カバーガラス65の表面と投影光学系PLの先端部7とを間隔をdとした場合、空間56'において上記条件式(3)を満足するように設定されている。 Then, the space 56 'between the surface of the cover glass 65 and the projection optical system PL, the supply and recovery of the liquid supply apparatus 1 and the liquid 50 by the liquid recovery device 2 is performed, the surface of the cover glass 65 projection If the distance between the tip portion 7 of the optical system PL has a d, it is set so as to satisfy the conditional expression (3) in the space 56 '.

そして、このカバーガラス65の表面(上面)に対しても、液体50との親和性に応じた表面処理を施すことができる。 Even with respect to the surface (upper surface) of the cover glass 65 can be subjected to a surface treatment in accordance with the affinity for the liquid 50. カバーガラス65の表面は親液化処理されることが望ましいため、液体50が水である場合、カバーガラス65の表面には極性の大きい分子構造の物質で薄膜が形成される。 Since the surface of the cover glass 65 is desirable to be lyophilic, the liquid 50 may be water, the surface of the cover glass 65 thin film material of a large molecular structure of the polarity is formed.

なお、上記各実施形態の基板Pとしては、半導体デバイス製造用の半導体ウエハのみならず、ディスプレイデバイス用のガラス基板や、薄膜磁気ヘッド用のセラミックウエハ、あるいは露光装置で用いられるマスクまたはレチクルの原版(合成石英、シリコンウエハ)等が適用される。 Furthermore, the substrate P in each of the above embodiments, not only a semiconductor wafer for fabricating semiconductor devices but glass substrates for display devices, the original plate of a mask or reticle used in a ceramic wafer or an exposure apparatus, for a thin film magnetic head (synthetic quartz, silicon wafer) used by an exposure apparatus.

露光装置EXとしては、マスクMと基板Pとを同期移動してマスクMのパターンを走査露光するステップ・アンド・スキャン方式の走査型露光装置(スキャニングステッパ)の他に、マスクMと基板Pとを静止した状態でマスクMのパターンを一括露光し、基板Pを順次ステップ移動させるステップ・アンド・リピート方式の投影露光装置(ステッパ)にも適用することができる。 As for the exposure apparatus EX, in the other scanning exposure apparatus by a step-and-scan method by synchronously moving the mask M and the substrate P to scan expose the pattern of the mask M (scanning stepper), and the mask M and the substrate P the pattern of the mask M collectively exposed, can also be applied to a projection exposure apparatus by a step-and-repeat system for moving sequentially steps the substrate P (stepper) while stationary. また、本発明は基板P上で少なくとも2つのパターンを部分的に重ねて転写するステップ・アンド・スティッチ方式の露光装置にも適用できる。 The present invention is also applicable to an exposure apparatus of step-and-stitch method that partially overlaid and transferred at least two patterns on the substrate P.

また、本発明は、ツインステージ型の露光装置にも適用できる。 The present invention is also applicable to twin stage type exposure apparatus. ツインステージ型の露光装置の構造及び露光動作は、例えば特開平10−163099号及び特開平10−214783号(対応米国特許6,341,007号、6,400,441号、6,549,269号及び6,590,634号)、特表2000−505958号(対応米国特許5,969,441号)あるいは米国特許6,208,407号に開示されている。 The structure and the exposure operation of the twin-stage type exposure apparatus, for example, JP-A-10-163099 and JP-A-10-214783 (corresponding to U.S. Patent No. 6,341,007, No. 6,400,441, 6,549,269 and EP 6,590,634), JP-T-2000-505958 (disclosed in the corresponding U.S. Pat. No. 5,969,441) or U.S. Pat. No. 6,208,407.

露光装置EXの種類としては、基板Pに半導体素子パターンを露光する半導体素子製造用の露光装置に限られず、液晶表示素子製造用又はディスプレイ製造用の露光装置や、薄膜磁気ヘッド、撮像素子(CCD)あるいはレチクル又はマスクなどを製造するための露光装置などにも広く適用できる。 The type of the exposure apparatus EX, the present invention is not limited to semiconductor device fabrication exposure apparatuses that expose a semiconductor element pattern onto a substrate P, an exposure apparatus and a liquid crystal display device for manufacturing or for display manufacturing, thin film magnetic heads, imaging devices (CCD ) or it can be widely applied to an exposure apparatus for manufacturing such as a reticle or mask.

基板ステージPSTやマスクステージMSTにリニアモータを用いる場合は、エアベアリングを用いたエア浮上型およびローレンツ力またはリアクタンス力を用いた磁気浮上型のどちらを用いてもよい。 When using a linear motor for the substrate stage PST or the mask stage MST, either of the magnetic floating type may also be employed using the air floating type Lorentz force or reactance force using an air bearing. また、各ステージPST、MSTは、ガイドに沿って移動するタイプでもよく、ガイドを設けないガイドレスタイプであってもよい。 Further, each of the stages PST, MST may be a type that moves along a guide or may be the guideless type in which no guide is provided. ステージにリニアモータを用いた例は、米国特許5,623,853及び5,528,118に開示されている。 An example of the use of the linear motor in a stage is disclosed in U.S. Patent 5,623,853 and 5,528,118.

各ステージPST、MSTの駆動機構としては、二次元に磁石を配置した磁石ユニットと、二次元にコイルを配置した電機子ユニットとを対向させ電磁力により各ステージPST、MSTを駆動する平面モータを用いてもよい。 As each of the stages PST, MST driving mechanism, a magnet unit in which magnets are two-dimensional, each of the stages PST by an electromagnetic force is opposed to the armature unit in which to place the coils in a two-dimensional, MST is driven it may be used. この場合、磁石ユニットと電機子ユニットとのいずれか一方をステージPST、MSTに接続し、磁石ユニットと電機子ユニットとの他方をステージPST、MSTの移動面側に設ければよい。 In this case, either one stage PST of the magnet unit and the armature unit is connected MST, and may be provided and the other of the magnet unit and the armature unit stage PST, the moving surface side of the MST.

基板ステージPSTの移動により発生する反力は、投影光学系PLに伝わらないように、フレーム部材を用いて機械的に床(大地)に逃がしてもよい。 The reaction force generated by the movement of the substrate stage PST, so as not transmitted to the projection optical system PL, may be mechanically released to the floor (ground) using a frame member. この反力の処理方法は、例えば特開平8−166475号公報(米国特許5,528,118)に詳細に開示されている。 The method for handling the reaction force is disclosed in detail, for example, in JP-A 8-166475 Patent Publication (U.S. Patent 5,528,118).

マスクステージMSTの移動により発生する反力は、投影光学系PLに伝わらないように、フレーム部材を用いて機械的に床(大地)に逃がしてもよい。 Reaction force generated by the movement of the mask stage MST, so as not transmitted to the projection optical system PL, may be mechanically released to the floor (ground) using a frame member. この反力の処理方法は、例えば特開平8−330224号公報(米国特許第5,874,820号)に詳細に開示されている。 The method for handling the reaction force is disclosed in detail, for example, in JP-A 8-330224 Patent Publication (U.S. Pat. No. 5,874,820).

以上のように、本願実施形態の露光装置EXは、本願特許請求の範囲に挙げられた各構成要素を含む各種サブシステムを、所定の機械的精度、電気的精度、光学的精度を保つように、組み立てることで製造される。 As described above, the exposure apparatus EX of the present embodiment is manufactured by assembling various subsystems, including each constituent element recited in the claims of the present application so that the predetermined mechanical accuracy, the optical accuracy , it is manufactured by assembling. これら各種精度を確保するために、この組み立ての前後には、各種光学系については光学的精度を達成するための調整、各種機械系については機械的精度を達成するための調整、各種電気系については電気的精度を達成するための調整が行われる。 To ensure these respective precisions, performed before and after the assembling include the adjustment for achieving the optical accuracy for various optical systems, an adjustment to achieve mechanical accuracy for various mechanical systems, the various electrical systems adjustment for achieving the electrical accuracy is performed. 各種サブシステムから露光装置への組み立て工程は、各種サブシステム相互の、機械的接続、電気回路の配線接続、気圧回路の配管接続等が含まれる。 The steps of assembling the various subsystems into the exposure apparatus includes various subsystems, the mechanical interconnection, electrical circuit wiring connections, and the piping connection of the air pressure circuit. この各種サブシステムから露光装置への組み立て工程の前に、各サブシステム個々の組み立て工程があることはいうまでもない。 Before the process of assembling the exposure apparatus from the various subsystems, there are also the processes of assembling each individual subsystem. 各種サブシステムの露光装置への組み立て工程が終了したら、総合調整が行われ、露光装置全体としての各種精度が確保される。 After completion of the assembling the various subsystems into the exposure apparatus, overall adjustment is performed and various kinds of accuracy as the entire exposure apparatus are secured. なお、露光装置の製造は温度およびクリーン度等が管理されたクリーンルームで行うことが望ましい。 The manufacturing of the exposure apparatus is preferably performed in a clean room in which temperature and cleanliness are controlled.

半導体デバイス等のマイクロデバイスは、図10に示すように、マイクロデバイスの機能・性能設計を行うステップ201、この設計ステップに基づいたマスク(レチクル)を製作するステップ202、デバイスの基材である基板を製造するステップ203、前述した実施形態の露光装置EXによりマスクのパターンを基板に露光する露光処理ステップ204、デバイス組み立てステップ(ダイシング工程、ボンディング工程、パッケージ工程を含む)205、検査ステップ206等を経て製造される。 Microdevices such as semiconductor devices are manufactured, as shown in FIG. 10, a step 201 that performs microdevice function and performance design, a step 202 of manufacturing a mask (reticle) based on this design step, a base material for the device substrate a step 203 of producing the exposure process step 204 of exposing a pattern of a mask onto a substrate by the exposure apparatus EX of the embodiment described above, a device assembly step (dicing, bonding, including packaging step) 205, an inspection step 206, etc. It is produced through. なお、露光処理ステップ204において、露光前に、基板と液体との親水性を調整するために基板の表面処理を行うステップを含んでいる。 Incidentally, in the exposure process step 204, before the exposure includes the step of performing a surface treatment of the substrate in order to adjust the hydrophilicity of the substrate and the liquid.

本発明の露光装置の一実施形態を示す概略構成図である。 It is a schematic diagram showing an embodiment of an exposure apparatus of the present invention. 供給ノズル及び回収ノズルの配置例を示す図である。 Is a diagram showing an exemplary arrangement of supply nozzles and recovery nozzles. 供給ノズル及び回収ノズルの配置例を示す図である。 Is a diagram showing an exemplary arrangement of supply nozzles and recovery nozzles. 投影光学系及び基板が表面処理されている領域を説明するための模式図である。 A projection optical system and the substrate is a schematic diagram for explaining the area being treated surface. 表面処理が施されていない投影光学系と基板との間に液体が流れる様子を説明するための模式図である。 Surface treatment is a schematic diagram for explaining how the liquid flows between the not even a projection optical system and the substrate subjected. 表面処理が施された投影光学系と基板との間に液体が流れる様子を説明するための模式図である。 Surface treatment is a schematic diagram for explaining how the liquid flows between the projection optical system and the substrate which has been subjected. 本発明の他の実施形態を説明するための図である。 It is a diagram for explaining another embodiment of the present invention. 供給ノズルの他の実施例を示す図である。 It is a diagram showing another embodiment of a supply nozzle. 基板上に設けられたカバーガラスを示す図である。 It is a diagram showing a cover glass provided on the substrate. 半導体デバイスの製造工程の一例を示すフローチャート図である。 Is a flow chart showing an example of a manufacturing process of semiconductor devices.

符号の説明 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1…液体供給装置(液浸手段、供給手段)、2…液体回収装置(液浸手段、回収手段)、7…投影光学系先端部、50…液体、60…光学素子、65…カバーガラス、 1 ... liquid supply device (liquid immersion means, supply means), 2 ... liquid recovery apparatus (immersion means, recovery means), 7 ... projection optical system tip, 50 ... liquid, 60 ... optical element, 65 ... cover glass,
AR1…第1表面領域、 AR2…第2表面領域、EX…露光装置、P…基板、 AR1 ... first surface region, AR2 ... second surface region, EX ... exposure apparatus, P ... substrate,
PK…鏡筒(保持部材)、PL…投影光学系 PK ... barrel (holding member), PL ... projection optical system

Claims (35)

  1. パターンの像を液体を介して基板上に転写して基板を露光する露光装置であって: An image of a pattern An exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate by transferring onto a substrate through a liquid:
    前記パターンの像を基板に投影する投影光学系を備え; It includes a projection optical system for projecting an image of the pattern onto the substrate;
    前記投影光学系の前記液体と接触する部分は、液体との親和性を調整するために表面処理されている露光装置。 Portion contacting the liquid in the projection optical system, the surface being processed, which is an exposure device for adjusting the affinity for the liquid.
  2. 前記基板の露光は、前記基板を走査方向に移動しながら行われる請求項1に記載の露光装置。 Exposure of the substrate, the exposure apparatus according to claim 1 which is performed while moving the substrate in the scanning direction.
  3. 前記表面処理は、前記液体の極性に応じて行われる請求項1又は2に記載の露光装置。 The surface treatment apparatus according to claim 1 or 2 is performed depending on the polarity of the liquid.
  4. 前記液体は水であって、前記液体と接触する部分には、極性の大きい分子構造の物質で薄膜を形成することにより前記表面処理がされている請求項3に記載の露光装置。 The liquid is a water, the portion contacting the liquid, the exposure apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the surface treatment is by forming a thin film of a material large molecular structure of the polarity.
  5. 前記液体はフッ素系液体であって、前記液体と接触する部分には、極性の小さい分子構造の物質で薄膜を形成することにより前記表面処理がされている請求項3に記載の露光装置。 The liquid is a fluorinated liquid, the portion contacting the liquid, the exposure apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the surface treatment is by forming a thin film material of the less polar molecular structures.
  6. 前記投影光学系の液体と接触する部分は、前記投影光学系の先端の光学素子の表面と該光学素子を保持する保持部材の表面の少なくとも一部とを含み、前記光学素子表面と前記保持部材の表面の少なくとも一部とはいずれも前記液体に対する親和性が高くなるように表面処理されている請求項1〜5のいずれか一項記載の露光装置。 Portion in contact with the liquid of the projection optical system is at least partially and a, the holding member and the optical element surface of the surface of the holding member for holding the surface and optical elements of the optical element at the tip of the projection optical system at least a portion exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5 which is surface treated to either affinity is higher for the liquid surface of the.
  7. 前記投影光学系の液体と接触する部分のうちの少なくとも露光光が通過する部分は、前記液体との親和性が高くなるように表面処理されている請求項1に記載の露光装置。 Wherein at least part through which the exposure light passes out of the portion in contact with the liquid of the projection optical system, an exposure apparatus according to claim 1, affinity with the liquid is surface-treated so as to be higher.
  8. パターンの像を液体を介して基板上に転写して基板を露光する露光装置であって: An image of a pattern An exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate by transferring onto a substrate through a liquid:
    前記パターンの像を基板に投影する投影光学系を備え; It includes a projection optical system for projecting an image of the pattern onto the substrate;
    前記投影光学系が、その先端の光学素子表面を含む第1表面領域と、第1表面領域周辺の第2表面領域とを有し、 It said projection optical system has a first surface region including the optical element surface of the tip, and a second surface region near the first surface region,
    第1表面領域の液体に対する親和性が、第2表面領域の液体に対する親和性よりも高い露光装置。 Affinity for liquid of the first surface region is higher exposure apparatus than the affinity for liquid of the second surface region.
  9. 前記第1表面領域の前記液体に対する親和性を、前記第2表面領域の前記液体に対する親和性よりも高いことによって、前記液体が前記第1表面領域内に保持される請求項8に記載の露光装置。 An affinity for the liquid in the first surface region, by greater than the affinity for the liquid of the second surface region, the exposure of claim 8, wherein the liquid is held in the first surface region apparatus.
  10. 前記投影光学系と前記基板との間における前記液体の厚さをd、前記投影光学系と前記基板との間における前記液体の流れの速度をv、前記液体の密度をρ、前記液体の粘性係数をμとして、条件式 (v・d・ρ)/μ≦2000 The thickness d of the liquid between the substrate and the projection optical system, the speed of flow of the liquid between the substrate and the projection optical system v, the density of the liquid [rho, the viscosity of the liquid as the coefficient μ, the conditional expression (v · d · ρ) / μ ≦ 2000
    を満たすことを特徴とする請求項1〜9のいずれか一項記載の露光装置。 Exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that meet.
  11. 前記投影光学系と前記基板との間の少なくとも一部に、前記液体を流す液浸装置を備え、前記液体は層流として流れることを特徴とする請求項1〜9のいずれか一項記載の露光装置。 At least a portion between the substrate and the projection optical system, comprising an immersion device for flowing the liquid, the liquid of any one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that flow as laminar flows exposure apparatus.
  12. 露光ビームでパターンを照明し、パターンの像を液体を介して基板上に転写して基板を露光する露光装置であって: Illuminating the pattern with an exposure beam, an image of a pattern An exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate by transferring onto a substrate through a liquid:
    前記パターンの像を基板に投影する投影光学系と; A projection optical system for projecting an image of the pattern onto the substrate;
    前記投影光学系と基板との間の少なくとも一部を液体で満たす液浸装置とを備え; At least a portion between the projection optical system and the substrate and an immersion apparatus filled with the liquid;
    液体の厚さをd、投影光学系と基板との間における液体の流れの速度をv、液体の密度をρ、液体の粘性係数をμとして、条件式 (v・d・ρ)/μ≦2000 The thickness of the liquid d, the velocity of the flow of liquid between the projection optical system and the substrate v, the density of the liquid [rho, as the viscosity coefficient of the liquid mu, condition (v · d · ρ) / μ ≦ 2000
    が満足されている露光装置。 There exposure are satisfied device.
  13. 前記投影光学系と前記基板との間に前記液体を供給する供給装置と、前記投影光学系と前記基板との間の液体を回収する回収装置とを備え、前記供給装置による前記液体の供給量と前記回収装置による前記液体の回収量とは前記条件式を満たすように決定される請求項12に記載の露光装置。 Wherein a supply device for supplying a liquid, and a recovery apparatus for recovering the liquid between the substrate and the projection optical system, the supply amount of the liquid by the supply unit between the substrate and the projection optical system an apparatus according to claim 12 which is determined so as to satisfy the conditional expression and the recovery amount of the liquid by the recovery device and.
  14. 前記基板は走査方向に移動しながら走査露光され、前記走査露光中の前記基板の移動速度は前記条件式を満たすように決定される請求項13に記載の露光装置。 The substrate is scanned and exposed while moving in the scanning direction, the moving speed of the substrate during the scanning exposure exposure apparatus according to claim 13 which is determined so as to satisfy the conditional expression.
  15. 前記基板は走査方向に移動しながら走査露光され、前記走査露光中の前記基板の移動速度は前記条件式を満たすように決定される請求項12に記載の露光装置。 The substrate is scanned and exposed while moving in the scanning direction, the moving speed of the substrate during the scanning exposure exposure apparatus according to claim 12 which is determined so as to satisfy the conditional expression.
  16. 前記液体の流れる方向は前記走査方向と平行である請求項14又は15に記載の露光装置。 An apparatus according to claim 14 or 15 direction of flow of the liquid is parallel to the scanning direction.
  17. 前記投影光学系と前記基板との間は前記液体で満たされており、前記液体の厚さdは、前記投影光学系と前記基板との間隔である請求項12〜16のいずれか一項に記載の露光装置。 Between the substrate and the projection optical system is filled with the liquid, the thickness d of the liquid to any one of claims 12 to 16 wherein a distance between the projection optical system and said substrate the exposure apparatus according.
  18. 露光の際に、前記基板上にはカバーガラスが載置され、前記液体の厚さdは、前記投影光学系と前記カバーガラスとの間隔である請求項12〜16のいずれか一項記載の露光装置。 During exposure, the cover glass is placed on the substrate, the thickness d of the liquid of any one of claims 12 to 16 is the distance between the cover glass and the projection optical system exposure apparatus.
  19. 露光ビームでマスクのパターンを照明し、パターンの像を液体を介して基板上に転写して基板を露光する露光装置であって: Illuminating the pattern of the mask with an exposure beam, an image of a pattern An exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate by transferring onto a substrate through a liquid:
    前記パターンの像を基板に投影する投影光学系と; A projection optical system for projecting an image of the pattern onto the substrate;
    前記投影光学系と基板との間の少なくとも一部を液体で満たすための液浸装置と;を備え、 Comprising a; and the immersion device for filling with a liquid at least a portion between the projection optical system and the substrate
    前記液体が基板の走査方向と平行に層流となって流れる露光装置。 An exposure device which the liquid flows becomes a laminar flow parallel to the scanning direction of the substrate.
  20. 前記基板の露光中における前記基板の走査方向への移動速度が、前記液体が層流として流れるように決定される請求項19に記載の露光装置。 The moving speed of the scanning direction of the substrate during exposure of the substrate, the exposure apparatus of claim 19, wherein the liquid is determined so as to flow as a laminar flow.
  21. 前記液浸装置は、前記液体を供給する供給装置と前記液体を回収する回収装置とを有する請求項20に記載の露光装置。 The immersion apparatus, an exposure apparatus according to claim 20 and a collecting device for collecting the liquid supply device supplying the liquid.
  22. さらに、前記液体が層流として流れるように、供給装置による前記液体の供給量と前記回収装置による前記液体の回収量とを制御する制御装置を備える請求項21に記載の露光装置。 Further, as the liquid flows as a laminar flow, the exposure apparatus according to claim 21 comprising a control device for controlling the recovery amount of the liquid by the supply amount and the recovery device of the liquid by the supply device.
  23. 前記液浸装置が、前記液体を供給する供給装置と前記液体を回収する回収装置とを有し、さらに、露光装置は、前記液体が層流として流れるように、供給装置による前記液体の供給量と前記回収装置による前記液体の回収量とを制御する制御装置を備える請求項19に記載の露光装置。 Said immersion apparatus, and a recovery apparatus for recovering the liquid supply device supplying the liquid, further exposure apparatus, as the liquid flows as a laminar flow, the supply amount of the liquid by the supply device an apparatus according to claim 19, comprising a control device for controlling the recovery amount of the liquid by the recovery device and.
  24. 前記液体は水であることを特徴とする請求項12〜23のいずれか一項記載の露光装置。 It said liquid exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 12 to 23, characterized in that is water.
  25. 前記液体はフッ素系液体であることを特徴とする請求項12〜23のいずれか一項記載の露光装置。 Exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 12 to 23, wherein the liquid is a fluorinated liquid.
  26. 前記液浸装置が、前記液体を供給する供給装置と前記液体を回収する回収装置とを有し、供給装置がノズルにスリットまたは多孔質体が設けられたノズルを有する請求項19に記載の露光装置。 It said immersion apparatus, and a recovery apparatus for recovering the liquid supply device supplying the liquid, the exposure of claim 19 having a nozzle with a slit or a porous material supply device to the nozzle is provided apparatus.
  27. 露光ビームでパターンを照明し、パターンの像を液体を介して基板上に転写して基板を露光する露光装置であって: Illuminating the pattern with an exposure beam, an image of a pattern An exposure apparatus for exposing a substrate by transferring onto a substrate through a liquid:
    前記パターンの像を基板に投影する投影光学系と; A projection optical system for projecting an image of the pattern onto the substrate;
    基板上のみに液体を供給する液浸装置と; And the immersion device supplies the liquid only on the substrate;
    前記液浸装置を制御する制御装置とを備え; And a control device which controls the immersion device;
    該制御装置は、基板の露光中に液体の供給が停止されるように液浸装置を制御する露光装置。 The control device, an exposure device for controlling the immersion apparatus as the supply of the liquid during exposure of the substrate is stopped.
  28. 前記基板上に供給された液体の厚さは、前記投影光学系のワーキングディスタンスよりも薄く、表面張力によって前記基板上に保持される請求項27に記載の露光装置。 The thickness of the liquid supplied onto the substrate is thinner than the working distance of the projection optical system, an exposure apparatus according to claim 27, which is held on the substrate by surface tension.
  29. 請求項1〜28のいずれか一項記載の露光装置を用いてデバイスを製造することを特徴とするデバイス製造方法。 Device manufacturing method characterized by manufacturing a device using the exposure apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 28.
  30. 投影光学系によるパターンの像を基板上に投影して基板を露光する露光方法において: An image of a pattern by the projection optical system and projected onto the substrate in an exposure method for exposing a substrate:
    露光前に、基板の表面を、液体との親和性を調整するために表面処理することと; Before exposure, the surface of the substrate, and be surface treated in order to adjust the affinity for the liquid;
    投影光学系と基板との間の少なくとも一部を液体で満たすことと; At least a portion between the projection optical system and the substrate and be filled with the liquid;
    パターンの像を、液体を介して基板上に投影することとを含む露光方法。 The image of the pattern, the exposure method comprising a projecting onto a substrate through a liquid.
  31. 前記基板の露光は、前記基板を走査方向に移動しながら行われる請求項30に記載の露光方法。 Exposure of the substrate, the exposure method according to claim 30 which is performed while moving the substrate in the scanning direction.
  32. 前記表面処理は、前記液体の極性に応じて行われる請求項30又は31に記載の露光方法。 The surface treatment is exposure method according to claim 30 or 31 is performed depending on the polarity of the liquid.
  33. 前記液体は水であって、前記液体と接触する部分には、極性の大きい分子構造の物質で薄膜を形成する請求項32に記載の露光方法。 The liquid is a water, the portion contacting the liquid, the exposure method according to claim 32 for forming a thin film of a material large molecular structure of the polarity.
  34. 前記液体はフッ素系液体であって、前記液体と接触する部分には、極性の小さい分子構造の物質で薄膜を形成する請求項32に記載の露光方法。 The liquid is a fluorinated liquid, the portion contacting the liquid, the exposure method according to claim 32 for forming a thin film of a material of the less polar molecular structures.
  35. 請求項30〜34のいずれか一項に記載の露光方法を用いてデバイスを製造することを特徴とするデバイス製造方法。 Device manufacturing method characterized by manufacturing a device using the exposure method according to any one of claims 30 to 34.
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