JP2004150310A - Exhaust device of internal combustion engine - Google Patents

Exhaust device of internal combustion engine Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2004150310A
JP2004150310A JP2002314553A JP2002314553A JP2004150310A JP 2004150310 A JP2004150310 A JP 2004150310A JP 2002314553 A JP2002314553 A JP 2002314553A JP 2002314553 A JP2002314553 A JP 2002314553A JP 2004150310 A JP2004150310 A JP 2004150310A
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Prior art keywords
exhaust
exhaust gas
outlet
portion
pipe
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JP2002314553A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP4024127B2 (en
Inventor
Hidekazu Ishikawa
Yuichiro Morikawa
雄一郎 森川
英一 石川
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Honda Motor Co Ltd
本田技研工業株式会社
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Abstract

An exhaust device provided with an exhaust purification device in the middle of an exhaust pipe aims to increase the engine output and improve the purification performance of the exhaust purification device.
An exhaust device (E) for an internal combustion engine includes an exhaust purification device (3) provided between a first exhaust pipe (1) and a second exhaust pipe (2) and having a catalyst unit (30) disposed in an exhaust muffler (4). . The exhaust gas purification device 3 has an outlet portion 34 that forms an outlet passage 36 through which the purified exhaust gas flows. The outlet portion 34 has a tapered tube 39 forming a convergent portion, and a leak hole 7 through which a part of the exhaust gas flowing through the outlet portion 34 flows out is provided in an upstream side portion 39c of the tapered tube 39.
[Selection diagram] Fig. 1

Description

[0001]
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to an exhaust device for an internal combustion engine including an exhaust purification device and an exhaust muffler provided in the middle of an exhaust pipe.
[0002]
[Prior art]
As an exhaust device provided with an exhaust purification device for purifying exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine in the middle of an exhaust pipe, there is one disclosed in, for example, Patent Document 1. In this exhaust device, a main catalyst and a sub-catalyst for purifying exhaust gas are provided in the exhaust pipe. Each catalyst is accommodated in an accommodating portion having a diameter larger than the diameter of the exhaust pipe positioned on the upstream side and the downstream side, respectively. Therefore, the upstream part of the storage part is formed in a divergent part where the flow area increases toward the downstream of the exhaust gas, and the downstream part of the storage part decreases the flow area toward the downstream of the exhaust gas. Formed in the convergent portion.
[0003]
Further, as an exhaust device provided with a hole through which exhaust gas flows out of the exhaust pipe, for example, those disclosed in Patent Documents 2 and 3 are known. In the muffler disclosed in Patent Document 2, the rear part of the exhaust pipe inserted into the first expansion chamber is fitted to a diffuser pipe held in the first expansion chamber of the muffler, and the exhaust pipe is opened to the first expansion chamber. Adjustment holes are provided. The adjustment hole corrects a valley of output when a high output is obtained in a specific rotation range using the exhaust pulsation wave.
[0004]
Furthermore, in the exhaust silencer disclosed in Patent Document 3, a through pipe connecting the exhaust inlet and the exhaust outlet is connected to the exhaust pipe connected to the exhaust inlet of the silencer. The through pipe includes a tapered portion located in the front sound deadening chamber and a straight pipe portion extending from the tapered portion to the exhaust outlet. The tapered section is provided with a large number of through-holes communicating with the front silencing chamber, and the straight pipe section is alternately opened and closed with a valve hole communicating with the intermediate silencing chamber and this valve hole and the straight pipe section. Switching valve is provided. Then, when the switching valve shuts off the straight pipe section, the exhaust gas from the exhaust pipe flows out to the front silencer through a number of through holes, further passes through the rear silencer, then the middle silencer, and the exhaust outlet. Reach Further, when the switching valve partially opens the straight pipe portion, a part of exhaust gas flows out from a number of through holes, sequentially passes through the front silencer, the rear silencer, and the middle silencer to the exhaust outlet. And the remaining exhaust gas reaches the exhaust outlet only through the through pipe.
[0005]
[Patent Document 1]
JP-A-2000-204931
[Patent Document 2]
Japanese Patent No. 2737079
[Patent Document 3]
JP-A-2-81911
[0006]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
By utilizing the exhaust pulsation based on the reflected pressure wave generated in the exhaust pipe forming the exhaust passage, it is often possible to increase the engine output by increasing the exhaust efficiency or preventing or suppressing fresh air from flowing through. Are known. In that case, it is necessary to appropriately set the position in the exhaust passage where the reflected pressure wave is generated in the exhaust pipe so that the generated reflected pressure wave reaches the exhaust port of the exhaust port at an appropriate time.
[0007]
By the way, when an exhaust gas purification device is provided in the middle of an exhaust pipe, it is necessary to secure an exhaust gas passage in a purification element of the exhaust gas purification device (for example, the catalyst of Patent Document 1). As in the prior art, the exhaust gas purification device has a divergent section in which a negative reflected pressure wave is generated and a convergent section in which a positive reflected pressure wave is generated. And, in general, the negative reflected pressure wave contributes to the improvement of the exhaust efficiency by promoting the outflow of the exhaust gas, while the positive reflected pressure wave suppresses the outflow of the exhaust gas, If the location of the occurrence site in the exhaust passage is properly set, the blow-by of fresh air is suppressed, but otherwise, the exhaust efficiency tends to decrease.
[0008]
Therefore, in an exhaust device including an exhaust purification device having a purification element, in order to increase exhaust efficiency and eventually engine output using exhaust pulsation, a divergent portion and a convergent portion, which are portions where reflected pressure waves are generated, particularly In addition, it is necessary to appropriately set the position of the convergent portion in the exhaust passage that generates a positive reflected pressure wave that lowers the exhaust efficiency.
[0009]
However, the installation location of the exhaust gas purification device is considered in consideration of the layout on the vehicle body, for example, as close as possible to the exhaust port where the temperature of the exhaust gas is kept high so that the catalyst reaches the activation temperature early, It is often set from the viewpoint of ensuring good purification performance, for example, where it is easy to maintain the activation temperature of the catalyst. For this reason, the convergence portion where the positive reflected pressure wave is generated is rarely provided at a position where the blow-by of fresh air is suppressed and the engine output is increased. In many cases, the emission was hindered, the exhaust efficiency was reduced, and the engine output was reduced.
[0010]
Further, the pressure (back pressure) immediately downstream of the purification element increases due to the positive reflected pressure wave generated by the convergent portion, and the flow velocity of the exhaust gas in the purification element decreases, and the distribution of the flow velocity becomes uneven. As a result, the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device was reduced.
[0011]
Further, in the prior arts of Patent Documents 2 and 3, holes are provided in a tapered portion of an exhaust pipe or a through pipe connected to the exhaust pipe. However, none of the prior arts has an exhaust purification device. No holes are provided in connection with the purification device.
[0012]
The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and the invention according to Claims 1 to 7 is directed to an internal combustion engine including an exhaust device provided with an exhaust purification device in the middle of an exhaust pipe. It is an object of the present invention to increase output and improve purification performance of an exhaust purification device. The invention according to claims 2, 5, and 6 aims at further increasing the engine output and further improving the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device. An object of the present invention is to reduce exhaust noise generated by exhaust gas flowing out of a passage and to protect an exhaust purification device and a downstream exhaust pipe. An object of the present invention is to further increase the engine output and to further reduce the exhaust noise generated by the exhaust gas flowing out of the leak passage. And
[0013]
Means for Solving the Problems and Effects of the Invention
The invention according to claim 1 includes an exhaust muffler, an exhaust pipe provided between an exhaust port of the internal combustion engine and a silencing space of the exhaust muffler, and an exhaust purification device provided in the middle of the exhaust pipe. The exhaust pipe has an upstream exhaust pipe and a downstream exhaust pipe disposed upstream and downstream of the exhaust purification device, respectively. The exhaust purification device includes a purification element and exhaust gas flowing into the purification element. In an exhaust system for an internal combustion engine having an inlet portion forming an inlet passage to form and an outlet portion forming an outlet passage through which purified exhaust gas flows out of the purification element, the outlet portion flows downstream of the exhaust gas. An internal combustion engine having a convergent portion having a reduced road area, and an outlet portion or an upstream end portion of the downstream exhaust pipe provided with one or more leak passages through which a part of exhaust gas flows out; An exhaust system of the function.
[0014]
As a result, part of the exhaust gas flowing through the outlet portion or the upstream end portion of the downstream exhaust pipe flows out through the leak passage, and the pressure of the exhaust gas downstream of the purification element decreases, and at the same time, A negative reflected pressure wave is generated in the portion, and the negative reflected pressure wave generated in the convergent portion or a portion close to the convergent portion attenuates the positive reflected pressure wave generated in the convergent portion. Therefore, the positive reflected pressure wave is prevented from obstructing the flow of the exhaust gas, and the back pressure in the exhaust gas purification device is reduced, so that the decrease in the flow rate of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device is suppressed.
[0015]
As a result, according to the first aspect of the invention, the following effects can be obtained. That is, the exhaust gas purification device provided between the upstream exhaust pipe and the downstream exhaust pipe has a convergent portion at the outlet thereof, and the exhaust portion is provided at the upstream end portion of the outlet or the downstream exhaust pipe. Provision of one or more leak passages for discharging part of the gas reduces the pressure of the exhaust gas downstream of the purification element of the exhaust purification device and attenuates the positive reflected pressure wave generated in the convergent section Therefore, in an internal combustion engine including an exhaust device in which an exhaust purification device is provided in the middle of an exhaust pipe, the exhaust efficiency is improved and the engine output is increased. In addition, since the decrease in the flow rate of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device due to the positive reflected pressure wave is suppressed, the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device is improved.
[0016]
According to a second aspect of the present invention, in the exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to the first aspect, the leak passage is provided at an upstream portion of the convergent portion or at the outlet portion upstream of the upstream portion. It is.
[0017]
Accordingly, the leak passage is located at a position where a strong positive reflected pressure wave is generated due to a large change in the flow path area or at a position close to the position, or at an upstream side of the convergent portion or upstream thereof. , The positive reflected pressure wave is effectively attenuated. When a plurality of leak passages are provided at positions relatively close to the purification element, the distribution of the flow velocity in the exhaust purification device can be made uniform.
[0018]
As a result, according to the second aspect of the invention, in addition to the effects of the first aspect of the invention, the following effects can be obtained. That is, since the leak passage is provided at the upstream side portion of the convergent portion of the exhaust gas purification device or at the outlet portion upstream of the upstream side portion, the reflected pressure wave generated at the convergent portion is effectively attenuated. Therefore, the exhaust efficiency is further improved, the engine output is further increased, the decrease in the flow velocity of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device due to the reflected pressure wave is further suppressed, and the distribution of the flow velocity is further reduced by the plurality of leak passages. It is also possible to make the exhaust gas uniform and the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device is improved.
[0019]
According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the exhaust system for an internal combustion engine according to the first or second aspect, the exhaust gas purification device and the downstream exhaust pipe are arranged in the sound deadening space.
[0020]
As a result, the exhaust gas flowing out of the leak passage flows into the silencing space and is silenced, and the exhaust muffler serves as a protection member for the exhaust purification device and the downstream exhaust pipe.
As a result, according to the invention described in claim 3, in addition to the effects of the invention described in the cited claims, the following effects are exerted. That is, since the exhaust purification device and the downstream exhaust pipe are arranged in the silencing space, exhaust noise generated by exhaust gas flowing out of the leak passage is reduced. In addition, with a simple structure, it is possible to reliably prevent a driver or an obstacle from coming into contact with the exhaust gas purifying device or the downstream exhaust pipe without increasing the number of parts by separately providing a protective member.
[0021]
According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to the third aspect, the sound deadening space includes a plurality of sound deadening chambers defined by partition walls, and an outlet of the leak passage and an outlet of the exhaust pipe are provided. It is open to the same muffling room.
Thus, a muffler for reducing exhaust noise generated by exhaust gas flowing out of the exhaust pipe and a muffler for reducing exhaust noise generated by exhaust gas flowing from the leak passage are shared.
[0022]
As a result, according to the invention described in claim 4, in addition to the effect of the invention described in claim 3, the following effect is exerted. That is, in a plurality of muffler chambers constituting the muffler space of the exhaust muffler, the outlet of the leak passage and the outlet of the exhaust pipe are opened to the same muffler chamber, so that the exhaust noise caused by the exhaust gas flowing out of the exhaust pipe and the leak passage respectively. Since the muffler for reducing noise is shared, it is possible to avoid an increase in the size of the exhaust muffler and complication of the internal structure thereof, thereby reducing the cost of the exhaust device.
[0023]
According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, in the exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to the third aspect, the sound deadening space includes a plurality of sound deadening chambers defined by partition walls, and an outlet of the leak passage and an outlet of the exhaust pipe. And open to the above-mentioned muffling room.
[0024]
As a result, the exhaust gas from the leak passage has a higher pressure due to the exhaust gas flowing out of the exhaust pipe and has a lower pressure than the silencer chamber in which a large exhaust pulsation exists, and the exhaust pulsation is further reduced. Since it flows into a small sound deadening chamber, the positive reflected pressure wave at the convergent portion is effectively attenuated. Therefore, the obstruction of the flow of the exhaust gas caused by the positive reflected pressure wave is further suppressed, and the back pressure in the exhaust gas purification device is further reduced, so that the decrease in the flow velocity of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device is further suppressed. You.
[0025]
As a result, according to the fifth aspect of the invention, the following effect is achieved in addition to the effect of the third aspect of the invention. In other words, in a plurality of silencing chambers constituting the silencing space of the exhaust muffler, the outlet of the leak passage and the outlet of the exhaust pipe are opened to different silencing chambers, whereby the reflected pressure wave generated in the convergent portion is further attenuated. Therefore, the exhaust efficiency is further improved, and the engine output is further increased. In addition, a decrease in the flow rate of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device due to the positive reflected pressure wave is further suppressed, and the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device is further improved.
[0026]
According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, in the exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to the fifth aspect, the muffler chamber whose outlet of the leak passage is open is a muffler chamber located most downstream among the plurality of muffler chambers. It is.
[0027]
As a result, the exhaust gas from the leak passage flows into the muffler chamber having the lowest pressure and the smallest exhaust pulsation among the plurality of mufflers formed in the exhaust muffler. Waves are more damped. Therefore, the obstruction of the flow of the exhaust gas due to the positive reflected pressure wave is further suppressed, and the back pressure in the exhaust gas purification device is further reduced, so that the decrease in the flow rate of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device is further suppressed. .
[0028]
As a result, according to the sixth aspect of the present invention, in the plurality of muffling chambers constituting the muffler space of the exhaust muffler, the outlet of the leak passage is opened to the muffler chamber located at the most downstream of the muffler chambers. Thus, the effect of the invention described in claim 5 is more effectively achieved.
[0029]
The invention according to claim 7 is the exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 3 to 6, wherein the outlet portion or the upstream end portion covers the outlet of the leak passage. Is attached.
[0030]
As a result, the exhaust pulsation in the sound deadening chamber acting on the outlet of the leak passage is attenuated by the sound absorbing member, so that the exhaust gas flowing out of the leak passage easily flows into the sound deadening chamber, and the pressure of the exhaust gas downstream of the purification element is reduced. In addition to the effective reduction, the negative reflected pressure wave generated in the leak passage effectively attenuates the positive reflected pressure wave generated in the convergent portion. Therefore, the positive reflected pressure wave is prevented from obstructing the flow of the exhaust gas, and the back pressure in the exhaust gas purification device is reduced, so that the decrease in the flow rate of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device is suppressed. In addition, since the exhaust gas flowing out of the leak passage flows into the sound deadening chamber after passing through the sound absorbing member, the exhaust noise generated by the exhaust gas is reduced when the exhaust gas passes through the sound absorbing member, and thereafter, is reduced. It is further reduced by expanding with.
[0031]
As a result, according to the invention described in claim 7, in addition to the effects of the invention described in the cited claims, the following effects are exerted. That is, a sound absorbing member that covers the outlet of the leak passage is attached to the outlet portion or the upstream end portion of the downstream exhaust pipe, so that the pressure of the exhaust gas downstream of the purification element is effectively reduced. Since the positive reflected pressure wave generated in the gent portion is effectively attenuated, the exhaust efficiency is improved, the engine output is increased, and the decrease in the flow velocity of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device due to the reflected pressure wave is suppressed. Therefore, the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device is improved, and the exhaust noise generated by the exhaust gas flowing out from the leak passage is further reduced.
[0032]
In this specification, “upstream” and “downstream” mean “upstream” and “downstream” with respect to the flow of exhaust gas, respectively, and “flow” means the flow of exhaust gas.
[0033]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
An embodiment of the present invention will be described below with reference to FIGS.
Referring to FIG. 1 showing a first embodiment of the present invention, an exhaust system E to which the present invention is applied is an exhaust system for a single cylinder four-cycle internal combustion engine (not shown) mounted on a motorcycle or a small vehicle. It is. An exhaust device E for purifying exhaust gas, which is a combustion gas discharged from a combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine having a piston that reciprocates in a cylinder, and discharging the exhaust gas to the atmosphere is arranged in order from upstream to downstream of the exhaust gas. An introduction pipe (not shown) connected to an exhaust port of the internal combustion engine, a first exhaust pipe 1 serving as an upstream exhaust pipe connected to the introduction pipe, and an exhaust purification device connected to the first exhaust pipe 1 3, a second exhaust pipe 2 that is a downstream exhaust pipe connected to the exhaust purification device 3, an exhaust muffler 4 in which a silencing space S in which the second exhaust pipe 2 is opened, and an opening to the silencing space S. A tail pipe 6 having an inlet 6a and an outlet 6b open to the atmosphere.
[0034]
Therefore, the exhaust pipe P including the first exhaust pipe 1 and the second exhaust pipe 2 provided with the exhaust purification device 3 interposed therebetween and the introduction pipe is provided between the exhaust port and the silencing space S. . The exhaust gas purification device 3 is provided in the exhaust pipe P at a position as close to the exhaust port as possible so that exhaust gas having a relatively high temperature flows into the exhaust gas purification device 3 in consideration of the layout of the vehicle body. Can be
[0035]
The exhaust muffler 4 includes an outer wall 40 and a partition for partitioning a sound deadening space S formed inside the outer wall 40 into a plurality of sound deadening chambers. In the first embodiment, a plurality of first and second partition walls 41 and 42 are provided. And. The first and second partition walls 41 and 42 divide the sound deadening space S into three first, second, and third sound deadening chambers 45, 46, and 47 that form expansion chambers.
[0036]
Specifically, the outer wall 40 has a cylindrical central portion 40a in this embodiment, a first end portion 40b at one end side in the longitudinal direction of the central portion 40a, and a cylindrical central portion 40a in the longitudinal direction of the central portion 40a. And a second end 40c at the other end. An inner wall 40d which forms a double wall structure in cooperation with the central portion 40a is provided inside the central portion 40a, and a sound absorbing material 40e made of, for example, glass wool is filled between the central portion 40a and the inner wall 40d. .
[0037]
Then, the first sound deadening chamber 45 is formed by the central portion 40a, the first partition 41, and the second partition 42, and the second and third sound deadening chambers 46, 47 are formed with the first sound deadening chamber 45 interposed therebetween. That is, the second silencing chamber 46 is formed by one end of the central portion 40a, the first end 40b, and the first partition 41, and the third silencing chamber 47 is formed by the other end of the central portion 40a, the second end 40c. It is formed by the second partition 42.
[0038]
The first to third silence chambers 45 to 47 located sequentially from the upstream to the downstream of the flow of the exhaust gas in the silencing space S are communication pipes for communicating adjacent silence chambers along the flow. Includes first and second communication pipes 49 and 50 as a plurality of communication pipes. The first communication pipe 49 is disposed so as to penetrate the first partition wall 41 and has an inlet 49a opening to the first silencing chamber 45 and an outlet 49b opening to the second silencing chamber 46. The second communication pipe 50 is disposed so as to penetrate the first partition 41, the first muffler chamber 45, and the second partition 42, and is opened to the second muffler chamber 46, and to the third muffler chamber 47. Outlet 50b.
[0039]
The first exhaust pipe 1 connected to the introduction pipe outside the exhaust muffler 4 is disposed so as to penetrate the first end portion 40b, the second silencing chamber 46, and the first partition 41, and is disposed inside the first silencing chamber 45. To the inlet 33 of the exhaust gas purification device 3. On the other hand, the second exhaust pipe 2 connected to the outlet portion 34 of the exhaust gas purification device 3 in the first noise reduction chamber 45 penetrates the second partition 42 and has a U-shaped curved pipe in the third noise reduction chamber 47. The first sound deadening chamber 45 extends to the vicinity of the first partition 41 by passing through the second partition 42 again. The outlet 2 b of the second exhaust pipe 2 is located close to the first partition 41 and opens to the first silencing chamber 45 in opposition to the first partition 41. Further, the tail pipe 6 has an inlet 6a disposed through the second end 40c and opening to the third muffler chamber 47 located at the most downstream position in the flow of the exhaust gas.
[0040]
Therefore, the entire second exhaust pipe 2 is disposed in the first and third noise reduction chambers 45 and 47, and the entire exhaust purification device 3 is a first noise reduction chamber in which the outlet 2 b of the second exhaust pipe 2 is open. 45. The exhaust gas purification apparatus 3 is a substance that purifies exhaust gas by detoxifying harmful components in the exhaust gas, in this embodiment, NOx (nitrogen oxide), HC (hydrocarbon) and CO (carbon monoxide) in the exhaust gas. And a casing 31 for accommodating the catalyst unit 30. The catalyst unit 30 is composed of a monolithic carrier carrying a three-way catalyst for purifying the catalyst. Therefore, the catalyst unit 30 constitutes a purification element that purifies the exhaust gas.
[0041]
As described above, the exhaust purification device 3 having the three-way catalyst is disposed in the exhaust muffler 4 in the middle of the first and second exhaust pipes 1 and 2 constituting the exhaust pipe P, so that the catalyst is The time required to reach the activation temperature can be reduced, and the exhaust gas purification device 3 is kept warm in the exhaust muffler 4.
[0042]
The casing 31 has a holding part 32 for holding the catalyst part 30 and an inlet forming an inlet passage 35 located upstream of an inlet end 30 a of the catalyst part 30 for guiding the exhaust gas from the exhaust port to the catalyst part 30. A part 33 and an outlet part 34 that forms an outlet passage 36 located downstream from the outlet end of the catalyst part 30 for guiding the exhaust gas purified by the catalyst part 30 to the inlet of the second exhaust pipe 2. You.
[0043]
The holding portion 32 is constituted by a part of a cylindrical main pipe 37 having an inner diameter larger than that of the first and second exhaust pipes 1 and 2 and forming a substantially constant flow passage area along the flow. The inlet section 33 is composed of a tapered pipe 38 which is connected to the main pipe 37 and forms a divergent section whose flow path area increases downstream, and an upstream end 37a which is a part of the main pipe 37. The outlet portion 34 includes a tapered tube 39 which is connected to the main tube 37 and forms a convergent portion whose flow path area decreases toward the downstream side, and a downstream end portion 37b which is a part of the main tube 37.
[0044]
In the tapered tube 39, a leak hole 7 forming a leak passage for allowing a part of the exhaust gas passing through the outlet passage 36 to flow out to the first muffler chamber 45 is formed so as to have an outlet opening to the first muffler chamber 45. You. The plurality of, here six, leak holes 7 are formed in the tapered tube 39 from a portion located near the inlet end 39a of the tapered tube 39, that is, a portion closer to the inlet end 39a than the outlet end 39b of the tapered tube 39. The upstream side portion 39c is formed at substantially equal intervals in the circumferential direction, preferably near the inlet end 39a. Therefore, in the tapered tube 39, the leak hole 7 is formed in the downstream side portion 39d including a portion closer to the outlet end 39b than the inlet end 39a and a portion intermediate between the inlet end 39a and the outlet end 39b. Not formed.
[0045]
Then, in the first noise reduction chamber 45, the leak hole 7 is located close to the second partition 42. Therefore, the leak hole 7 is located in the vicinity of the first partition 41 and opens from the outlet 2b of the second exhaust pipe 2 facing the first partition 41 in the first sound deadening chamber 45 in the longitudinal direction. Located away.
[0046]
Next, the operation and effects of the first embodiment configured as described above will be described.
When the internal combustion engine is operated, the exhaust gas flowing out of the exhaust port flows into the exhaust gas purification device 3 through the introduction pipe and the first exhaust pipe 1, and the exhaust gas purified by the exhaust gas purification device 3 , And flows into the first silencing chamber 45 through the second exhaust pipe 2. The exhaust gas that has been decompressed and silenced by expanding in the first silencing chamber 45 flows into the second silencing chamber 46 through the first communication passage 49, and further from the second silencing chamber 46 to the second communication. It flows into the third silencing chamber 47 through the pipe 50.
[0047]
At this time, the exhaust gas is sequentially decompressed and silenced by expanding in the second silencing chamber 46 and the third silencing chamber 47, respectively. The exhaust gas sufficiently silenced in this way is discharged from the third silence chamber 47 to the outside air through the tail pipe 6. Therefore, the magnitude of the pressure and the magnitude of the exhaust pulsation in the first to third muffling chambers 45 to 47 are greater in the muffler chamber located downstream, that is, in the first muffling chamber 45, the second muffling chamber 46, and the third muffling chamber. It becomes smaller in the order of the chamber 47.
[0048]
When the internal combustion engine is operated from a cold state, the exhaust purification device 3 including the catalyst unit 30 is provided between the first exhaust pipe 1 and the second exhaust pipe 2 at a position relatively close to the exhaust port. Thereby, the catalyst of the exhaust gas purification device 3 can be heated to reach the activation temperature at an early stage with relatively high temperature exhaust gas. In addition, since the exhaust gas purification device 3 is disposed in the exhaust muffler 4, , It is easy to maintain the activation temperature of the catalyst, and good purification performance can be secured.
[0049]
A leak hole 7 through which a part of the purified exhaust gas in the tapered pipe 39 flows out is provided near the upstream side 39c, preferably near the inlet end 39a, of the tapered pipe 39 constituting the convergent portion of the exhaust gas purification device 3. As a result, a part of the exhaust gas flows out of the outlet passage 36 through the leak hole 7, the pressure of the exhaust gas downstream of the catalyst part 30 decreases, and the negative reflection occurs in the leak hole 7. A pressure wave is generated, and the leak hole 7 is located upstream of the tapered tube 39 at a position close to the inlet end 39a where a strong positive reflected pressure wave is generated due to a large change in the flow path area. Since it is located on the side 39c, preferably near the inlet end 39a, the positive reflected pressure wave generated in the tapered tube 39 is effectively attenuated. The closer the leak hole 7 is to the inlet end 39a, the more effective it is in attenuating the positive reflected pressure wave.
[0050]
As described above, since the pressure of the exhaust gas downstream of the catalyst unit 30 decreases and the positive reflected pressure wave generated in the tapered pipe 39 attenuates, the exhaust gas purification device 3 provided in the exhaust pipe P is provided. In the internal combustion engine including the device E, the exhaust efficiency is improved, and the engine output is increased. In addition, since the decrease in the flow velocity of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device 3 due to the positive reflected pressure wave is suppressed, the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device 3 is improved. Further, since the six leak holes 7 are formed at substantially equal intervals in the circumferential direction, the distribution of the flow velocity is made uniform, and also in this regard, the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device 3 is improved.
[0051]
In addition, since the leak hole 7 is disposed in the first silencing chamber 45 so as to be separated from the outlet 2b of the second exhaust pipe 2 in the longitudinal direction, the outflow of exhaust gas from the leak hole 7 is prevented by the outlet 2b. As much as possible is prevented from being hindered by the high pressure waves of the exhaust gas flowing out of the exhaust gas.
[0052]
Since the exhaust gas purification device 3 is disposed in the first noise reduction chamber 45 constituting the noise reduction space S, the exhaust gas from the leak hole 7 flows into the first noise reduction chamber 45 and is decompressed. Since the pressure is reduced in the third noise reduction chambers 46 and 47 and the noise is reduced, the exhaust noise generated by the exhaust gas flowing out from the leak hole 7 is reduced. In addition, since the exhaust muffler 4 serves as a protection member for the exhaust gas purification device 3 and the second exhaust pipe 2, the exhaust gas purification device 3 has a simple structure, so that a driver or an obstacle becomes hot due to reaction heat. (2) Contact with the exhaust pipe 2 can be reliably prevented without increasing the number of components such as separately providing a protective member.
[0053]
Further, in the first to third muffling chambers 45 to 47 constituting the muffling space S of the exhaust muffler 4, both the outlet of the leak hole 7 and the outlet 2 b of the second exhaust pipe 2 open to the first muffling chamber 45. Since the muffler for reducing the exhaust noise caused by the exhaust gas flowing out of the second exhaust pipe 2 and the leak hole 7 is shared, it is possible to avoid an increase in the size of the exhaust muffler 4 and a complicated internal structure thereof. As a result, the cost of the exhaust device E can be reduced.
[0054]
The leak hole 7 is formed in the upstream side portion 39c of the tapered tube 39 and is not formed in the downstream side portion 39d, so that the strength of the tapered tube 39 is prevented from lowering.
Further, since the second exhaust pipe 2 extends to the first silence chamber 45 through the third silence chamber 47, an exhaust inertia effect at the time of low speed rotation of the internal combustion engine utilizing the exhaust pipe P having a long passage length. Therefore, the required engine output can be ensured even at low speed rotation.
[0055]
Next, second and third embodiments of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. The second and third embodiments are different from the first embodiment mainly in the sound deadening chamber to which the exhaust gas flowing out through the leak hole 7 flows out, and the other structures have basically the same configuration. . Therefore, description of the same part will be omitted or simplified, and different points will be mainly described. Note that the same reference numerals are used for the same or corresponding members as the members of the first embodiment.
[0056]
Referring to FIG. 2 showing the second embodiment, the outlet portion 34 including the tapered pipe 39 is disposed in the third silencing chamber, and the leak hole 7 has the minimum exhaust pulsation among the silencing chambers constituting the silencing space S. Open to the third sound deadening chamber 47. Therefore, the exhaust gas purification device 3 is disposed so as to penetrate the second partition 42 and to straddle the first silencing chamber 45 and the third silencing chamber 47.
[0057]
According to the second embodiment, the same operations and effects as those of the first embodiment can be obtained, and the following operations and effects can be obtained. That is, in the first to third muffling chambers 45 to 47 constituting the muffling space S of the exhaust muffler 4, the outlet of the leak hole 7 is a muffling chamber different from the first muffling chamber 45, and By opening the third muffler chamber 47 located at the most downstream position among the mufflers 45 to 47, the exhaust gas from the leak hole 7 is at a high pressure due to the exhaust gas flowing out of the second exhaust pipe 2. And flows out to a third silencing chamber 47 which is a different silencing chamber from the first silencing chamber 45 where large exhaust pulsation exists. The third muffler chamber 47 has the lowest pressure among the first to third muffler chambers 45 to 47 formed in the exhaust muffler 4 and has the smallest exhaust pulsation. The positive reflected pressure wave is further attenuated. As a result, the obstruction of the flow of the exhaust gas caused by the positive reflected pressure wave is further suppressed, so that the exhaust efficiency is further improved and the engine output is further increased. In addition, a decrease in the flow rate of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device 3 due to the positive reflected pressure wave is further suppressed, and the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device 3 is further improved.
[0058]
Next, referring to FIG. 3 showing the third embodiment, the exhaust muffler 4 is provided with a third partition 43 between the first and second partitions 41 and 42, and the third partition 43 provides a first muffler chamber. A fourth sound deadening chamber 48 as an independent expansion chamber is formed between the sound deadening chamber 45 and the third sound deadening chamber 47 without communicating with the sound deadening chambers. The fourth silencing chamber 48 communicates with the outside air through one or a plurality of discharge pipes 44. Therefore, the pressure of the fourth muffler chamber 48 is lower than that of the third muffler chamber 47, and the exhaust pulsation in the fourth muffler chamber 48 is extremely smaller than the exhaust pulsation in the third muffler chamber 47, or hardly exists. .
[0059]
Then, the outlet 34 including the tapered tube 39 is disposed in the fourth sound deadening chamber 48 constituting the sound deadening space S, and the leak hole 7 opens to the fourth sound deadening chamber 48. Therefore, the exhaust gas purification device 3 is disposed so as to penetrate the third partition 43 and straddle the first silencing chamber 45 and the fourth silencing chamber 48.
[0060]
According to the third embodiment, the same operations and effects as those of the first embodiment can be obtained, and the following effects can be obtained. That is, since the fourth muffler chamber 48 has a lower pressure than the third muffler chamber 47, is close to the outside air pressure, and has very little or almost no exhaust pulsation, the positive reflected pressure wave in the tapered pipe 39 causes the second embodiment. More attenuated than in the example. As a result, the effect of the second embodiment is improved from the viewpoint of the increase in engine output due to the improvement of the exhaust efficiency and the improvement of the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device 3 by suppressing the decrease in the flow velocity of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device 3. Excellent effects are also achieved.
[0061]
Next, a fourth embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIGS. Here, the description of the same parts as those in the first embodiment will be omitted or simplified, and different points will be mainly described. Note that the same reference numerals are used for the same or corresponding members as the members of the first embodiment.
[0062]
Referring to FIGS. 4 and 5, the exhaust device E includes a first exhaust pipe 1 connected to the introduction pipe connected to the exhaust port of the internal combustion engine, an exhaust purification device 3, and a second exhaust pipe 2. An exhaust muffler 4 in which a silencing space S opened by the second exhaust pipe 2 is formed, and a tail pipe 6 having an inlet 6a opening to the silencing space S and an outlet 6b opening to the atmosphere.
[0063]
The exhaust muffler 4 includes first and second partitions 41 and 42 that are a plurality of partitions. The silencing space S is partitioned into three first, second, and third silencing chambers 45 to 47 by the first and second partition walls 41 and 42. The central portion 40 a of the casing 40, the first partition 41, and the second partition 42 form a third muffler chamber 47 located at the most downstream position in the flow of the exhaust gas. First and second silencing chambers 45 and 46 are formed. That is, the first silencing chamber 45 is formed by one end of the central portion 40a, the first end 40b, and the first partition 41, and the second silencing chamber 46 is formed by the other end of the central portion 40a, the second end 40c. It is formed by the second partition 42.
[0064]
The first to third silence chambers 45 to 47 located sequentially from the upstream to the downstream of the flow of the exhaust gas in the silencing space S are first and second communication paths that connect adjacent silence chambers along the flow. Tubes 49 and 50 are provided. The first communication pipe 49 is disposed so as to penetrate the first partition 41, the third noise reduction chamber 45, and the second partition 42, and is opened to the first noise reduction chamber 45, and is opened to the second noise reduction chamber 46. Outlet 49b. The second communication pipe 50 is disposed so as to penetrate the second partition 42 and has an inlet 50 a that opens to the second sound deadening chamber 46 and an outlet 50 b that opens to the third sound deadening chamber 47.
[0065]
The first exhaust pipe 1 connected to the introduction pipe outside the exhaust muffler 4 is disposed so as to penetrate the first end 40b, and is connected to the inlet 33 of the exhaust gas purification device 3 in the first noise reduction chamber 45. Is done. On the other hand, the second exhaust pipe 2 connected to the outlet portion 34 of the exhaust gas purification device 3 in the third noise reduction chamber 47 penetrates the second partition 42 and has a U-shaped curved pipe in the second noise reduction chamber 46. It extends to form a part, is disposed again through the second partition 42, through the third silencing chamber 47 and the first partition 41, and the outlet 2 b opens to the first silencing chamber 45. The tail pipe 6 is disposed so as to penetrate the second end 40 c and the second partition 42, and has an inlet 6 a that opens to the third sound deadening chamber 47.
[0066]
The exhaust gas purifying device 3 that is the same as the exhaust gas purifying device 3 of the first embodiment penetrates the first partition wall 41 and is disposed so as to straddle the first sound deadening room 45 and the third sound deadening room 47. Then, a holding portion 32 that holds the catalyst portion 30, an inlet portion 33 that forms an inlet passage 35 located upstream of the inlet end 30 a of the catalyst portion 30, and a downstream portion that is located downstream of the outlet end 30 b of the catalyst portion 30. In the casing 31 including the outlet portion 34 forming the outlet passage 36, the inlet portion 33 having the tapered tube 39 and a part of the holding portion 32 are disposed in the first noise reduction chamber 45 and have the tapered tube 39. The outlet part 34 and the remaining part of the holding part 32 are arranged in the third noise reduction chamber 47.
[0067]
In the second exhaust pipe 2, a part of the exhaust gas passing through the outlet passage 36 is third-muffled to the upstream end portion 20 located immediately downstream of the outlet portion 34 and arranged in the third muffling chamber 47. A large number of leak holes 8 flowing out to the chamber 47 are formed with an outlet opening to the third sound deadening chamber 47. The upstream end portion 20 is composed of a part of a straight pipe portion that forms a substantially constant flow passage area, and has, on its outer periphery, a sound absorbing material formed in a cylindrical shape that covers the outlets of all the leak holes 8. For example, a sound absorbing member 9 made of a porous material such as glass wool is fixedly mounted.
[0068]
Further, the upstream end portion 20 is provided in the second exhaust pipe 2 from a position slightly downstream of the inlet end 2a connected to the tapered pipe 39 within a predetermined range along the flow of the exhaust gas. The predetermined range is appropriately set at a position close to the tapered tube 39 where a positive reflected pressure wave is generated from the viewpoint of increasing the engine output due to the leak hole 8.
[0069]
Since the leak holes 8 are covered with the sound absorbing member 9, the diameter of each of the leak holes 8 is set so as to secure a required amount of exhaust gas flowing out of the leak holes 8 in the first to third embodiments. 7, and the number of leak holes 8 is also increased as compared with the number of leak holes 7.
[0070]
Next, the operation and effects of the fourth embodiment configured as described above will be described.
The exhaust gas flowing out of the exhaust port passes through the introduction pipe and the first exhaust pipe 1 and flows into the exhaust purification device 3, and the exhaust gas purified by the exhaust purification device 3 passes through the second exhaust pipe 2. And flows into the first silencing chamber 45. The exhaust gas that has been decompressed and silenced by expanding in the first silencing chamber 45 flows into the second silencing chamber 46 through the first communication passage 49, and further from the second silencing chamber 46 to the second communication. It flows into the third silencing chamber 47 through the pipe 50. The exhaust gas muffled through the first to third silence chambers 45 to 47 is discharged from the third silence chamber 47 to the outside air through the tail pipe 6.
[0071]
Further, since the exhaust gas purification device 3 is kept warm in the exhaust muffler 4 as in the first embodiment, it is easy to maintain the activation temperature of the catalyst, and good purification performance can be secured. .
[0072]
Since the sound absorbing member 9 that covers the outlet of the leak hole 8 is attached to the upstream end portion 20 of the second exhaust pipe 2, the exhaust gas immediately after flowing out from the outlet 34 of the exhaust gas purification device 3 is removed. In the upstream end portion 20, the portion flows from the many leak holes 8 through the sound absorbing members 9 to the third sound deadening chamber 47 in which the exhaust pulsation is minimized among the sound deadening chambers constituting the sound deadening space S. As described above, a part of the exhaust gas immediately after flowing out of the exhaust gas purification device 3 flows into the third noise reduction chamber 47 in which the exhaust pulsation is minimized, so that the pressure of the exhaust gas downstream of the catalyst unit 30 is reduced. Is significantly reduced, and a negative reflected pressure wave is generated in the leak hole portion, and the positive reflected pressure wave generated in the tapered tube 39 is attenuated by the negative reflected pressure wave. Therefore, the same effect as that of the second embodiment is obtained, and the following effect is also obtained.
[0073]
That is, the exhaust pulsation in the third silencing chamber 47 acting on the outlet of the leak hole 8 is attenuated by the sound absorbing member 9, so that the exhaust gas flowing out of the leak hole 8 easily flows into the third silencing chamber 47, and the catalyst portion Since the pressure of the exhaust gas downstream of 30 is effectively reduced, and the positive reflected pressure wave generated in the tapered tube 39 is effectively attenuated by the negative reflected pressure wave generated in the leak hole 8. In addition, since the exhaust efficiency is improved and the engine output is increased, and the decrease in the flow rate of the exhaust gas in the exhaust gas purification device 3 due to the positive reflected pressure wave is suppressed, the purification performance of the exhaust gas purification device 3 is improved.
[0074]
Further, the exhaust gas flowing out of the leak hole 8 flows out into the third silencing chamber 47 after passing through the sound absorbing member 9, so that the exhaust sound generated by the exhaust gas is generated when the exhaust gas passes through the sound absorbing member 9. In addition to the reduction, the noise is further reduced by expanding in the third noise reduction chamber 47, so that the exhaust noise generated by the exhaust gas flowing out from the leak hole 8 is further reduced.
[0075]
Further, since the second exhaust pipe 2 extends to the first muffle chamber 45 through the second muffle chamber 46 and the third muffle chamber 47, the second exhaust pipe 2 utilizes the exhaust pipe P having a long passage length, and Since the exhaust inertia effect at the time of low-speed rotation is obtained, the required engine output can be ensured even at low-speed rotation.
[0076]
Hereinafter, an embodiment in which a part of the configuration of the above-described embodiment is changed will be described with respect to the changed configuration.
In the first to third embodiments, the leak hole 7 is located near the inlet end 39a at the downstream end 37b downstream of the outlet end 30b of the catalyst section 30 and upstream of the upstream side portion 39c. It may be formed. Further, the leak holes 7 do not need to be equidistant in the circumferential direction, and may be formed at positions shifted from each other in the flow direction. Further, the number of the leak holes 7 may be plural or one other than 6, and the size of the leak holes 7 may be set to an optimum value from the viewpoint of the engine output and the exhaust purification performance, similarly to the number thereof. Is set.
Furthermore, the leak hole 7 may be formed in the downstream side portion 39d although the function of attenuating the positive reflected pressure wave is slightly reduced as compared with the first embodiment.
[0077]
In the first to third embodiments, the leak passage is formed by the tapered pipe 39 or the hole formed at the downstream end 37b of the main pipe 37. However, the leak passage may be formed by a small-diameter pipe. It is possible to change the muffler chamber in which the outlet of the leak passage opens without changing the muffler chamber in which the tapered tube 39 of the device 3 is disposed. In addition, the convergent portion may be formed of a pipe whose flow path area changes discontinuously.
[0078]
In the first to third embodiments, a sound absorbing member similar to the sound absorbing member 9 may be mounted on the outer periphery of the tapered tube 39 so as to cover the leak hole 7 provided in the tapered tube 39. In this case, similarly to the leak holes 8, the hole diameter of each leak hole 7 is made larger than that of the leak holes 7 of the first to third embodiments in order to secure a required amount of outflow of exhaust gas. The number of leak holes 7 is also increased.
[0079]
In the first to third embodiments, when the catalyst unit 30 has reached the downstream end 37b of the main pipe 37 and the holding unit 32 includes the downstream end 37b, the outlet 34 is It does not include the portion 37b and is constituted only by the tapered tube 39. The catalyst unit 30 is formed of a carrier that supports a three-way catalyst, but may be a carrier that supports an oxidation catalyst or a reduction catalyst, and further removes other harmful components in the exhaust gas to remove the exhaust gas. May be constituted by a member for purifying the water.
[0080]
The internal combustion engine may be a multi-cylinder engine, in which case the exhaust pipe P may be connected to the exhaust port via an exhaust manifold.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of an exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to a first embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view of a main part of an exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to a second embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a vertical sectional view of a main part of an exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to a third embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of an exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along line VV in FIG. 4;
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... 1st exhaust pipe, 2 ... 2nd exhaust pipe, 3 ... Exhaust purification device, 4 ... Exhaust muffler, 6 ... Tail pipe, 7, 8 ... Leak hole, 9 ... Sound absorbing member, 20 ... Upstream end side part, 30 ... catalyst part, 31 ... casing, 32 ... holding part, 33 ... inlet part, 34 ... outlet part, 35 ... inlet path, 36 ... outlet path, 37 ... main pipe, 38, 39 ... taper pipe, 39c ... upstream side part, 40 ... outer wall, 41, 42, 43 ... partition wall, 44 ... discharge pipe, 45-48 ... sound deadening chamber, 49, 50 ... communication pipe, E ... exhaust device, S ... sound deadening space, P ... exhaust pipe.

Claims (7)

  1. An exhaust muffler, an exhaust pipe provided between an exhaust port of the internal combustion engine and a muffling space of the exhaust muffler, and an exhaust purification device provided in the middle of the exhaust pipe. An upstream exhaust pipe and a downstream exhaust pipe disposed upstream and downstream of the purifying device, respectively, wherein the exhaust purifying device has an inlet portion forming an inlet passage through which a purifying element and exhaust gas flow into the purifying element; And an exhaust portion of the internal combustion engine having an outlet portion that forms an outlet path through which the purified exhaust gas flows out of the purification element.
    The outlet portion has a convergent portion in which the flow path area decreases toward the downstream of the exhaust gas, and the outlet portion or the upstream end portion of the downstream exhaust pipe has a single outlet for discharging a part of the exhaust gas. Or, an exhaust device for an internal combustion engine, wherein a plurality of leak passages are provided.
  2. 2. The exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to claim 1, wherein the leak passage is provided in an upstream portion of the convergent portion or the outlet portion upstream of the upstream portion. 3.
  3. The exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the exhaust purification device and the downstream exhaust pipe are disposed in the silencing space.
  4. 4. The internal combustion engine according to claim 3, wherein the silencing space includes a plurality of silencing chambers partitioned by partition walls, and an outlet of the leak passage and an outlet of the exhaust pipe open to the same silencing chamber. 5. Exhaust system.
  5. 4. The internal combustion engine according to claim 3, wherein the muffling space includes a plurality of muffling chambers partitioned by partition walls, and opens to the muffling chamber in which an outlet of the leak passage and an outlet of the exhaust pipe are different. 5. Engine exhaust system.
  6. The exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to claim 5, wherein the muffler chamber whose outlet of the leak passage is open is a muffler chamber located at the most downstream of the plurality of muffler chambers.
  7. The exhaust device for an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 3 to 6, wherein a sound absorbing member that covers an outlet of the leak passage is attached to the outlet portion or the upstream end portion.
JP2002314553A 2002-10-29 2002-10-29 Exhaust device for internal combustion engine Expired - Fee Related JP4024127B2 (en)

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JP2002314553A JP4024127B2 (en) 2002-10-29 2002-10-29 Exhaust device for internal combustion engine
ITTO20030835 ITTO20030835A1 (en) 2002-10-29 2003-10-23 An exhaust device for an internal combustion engine.
CNB2003101043294A CN1294345C (en) 2002-10-29 2003-10-24 Exhauster of I.C. engine

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JP2007231784A (en) * 2006-02-28 2007-09-13 Honda Motor Co Ltd Exhaust device for vehicle
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WO2008107151A1 (en) 2007-03-03 2008-09-12 Eberspächer Unna GmbH & Co. KG Exhaust gas aftertreatment device of a motor vehicle
US7526915B2 (en) 2005-08-05 2009-05-05 Yamaha Hatsudoki Kabushiki Kaisha Single cylinder engine with ternary catalyst in exhaust passage and vehicle provided with same
WO2009151136A1 (en) * 2008-06-13 2009-12-17 ヤマハ発動機株式会社 Engine, vehicle, boat, and engine secondary air supply method
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CN1294345C (en) 2007-01-10
JP4024127B2 (en) 2007-12-19
ITTO20030835A1 (en) 2004-04-30
CN1499051A (en) 2004-05-26

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