JP2004051717A - Biomass gasifier - Google Patents

Biomass gasifier Download PDF

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JP2004051717A
JP2004051717A JP2002208963A JP2002208963A JP2004051717A JP 2004051717 A JP2004051717 A JP 2004051717A JP 2002208963 A JP2002208963 A JP 2002208963A JP 2002208963 A JP2002208963 A JP 2002208963A JP 2004051717 A JP2004051717 A JP 2004051717A
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biomass
gasification
space
reaction
gasifier
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Inventor
Toshimitsu Ichinose
Yoshinori Kobayashi
Nobuaki Murakami
Masayasu Sakai
Toshiyuki Takegawa
Kimiyo Tokuda
一ノ瀬 利光
坂井 正康
小林 由則
徳田 君代
村上 信明
竹川 敏之
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Mitsubishi Heavy Ind Ltd
Nagasaki Institute Of Applied Science
三菱重工業株式会社
学校法人長崎総合科学大学
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Priority to JP2002208963A priority Critical patent/JP2004051717A/en
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a biomass gasifier, which may be a small-scale one, that produces a highly calorific clean fuel gas suited for a power generation gas engine in high yields from biomass resources.
SOLUTION: In the biomass gasifier wherein steam is fed into crushed biomass to cause a gasification reaction in a gasification space, the gasification space is isolated from external heating by a partition, and the gasification reaction of the steam with the biomass is caused by an endothermic reaction without actively feeding oxygen into the gasification space. The partition has a gasification space in its inside, the inner side space for gasification by the external heating has a tubular structure, and the gasification space has a spouted bed structure in which the fed biomass powder is fluidized with the fed steam.
COPYRIGHT: (C)2004,JPO

Description

【0001】 [0001]
【発明の属する技術の分野】 TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
本発明はバイオマスの有効利用に関し、詳しくは、バイオマスからクリーンな高カロリガスを生成させる装置に関する。 The present invention relates to effective utilization of biomass, more particularly, to a device for generating clean high-calorie gas from biomass. 更には、従来のバイオマスエネルギ利用形態では得られないシステム発電効率の高い、給電システムもしくは熱電併給システムのガスエンジンと組み合わせて用いる、バイオマスのガス化装置に関する。 Furthermore, high conventional biomass energy utilization is not system power generation efficiency obtained in the form is used in combination with a gas engine of the power supply system or cogeneration systems, and the gasifier biomass.
【0002】 [0002]
【従来の技術】 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
従来のバイオマスエネルギ利用装置システムのうち、電気エネルギもしくは熱電両エネルギに変換して行う利用システムでは、バイオマスをボイラ用燃料として直接燃焼して、高圧蒸気を生成させ、発電用タービンを回転させる方式が執られている。 Among conventional biomass energy utilization system, in use the system to perform is converted into electrical energy or thermoelectric both energy, biomass burning directly as a fuel for boilers, the method of rotating to generate high pressure steam, a power generating turbine It has been taken. 従って、少なくとも5000〜10000kWと設備規模が大きくなるので、バイオマス資源の大量集約的発生もしくは大量収集が必要である。 Therefore, since at least 5000~10000kW and equipment scale is large, there is a need for large amounts intensive development or a large amount collection of biomass resources. 加えて、多額な投下資本を必要とする。 In addition, it requires a large amount of invested capital. なによりも、その発電効率が5000kW規模の場合で10%台に留まっているため、小規模で効率の高いバイオマス資源の利用装置システムが望まれている。 Above all, the power generation efficiency because the remains of 10 percent in the case of 5000kW scale utilization system of small, efficient biomass resources is desired.
【0003】 [0003]
一方、ガスエンジン使用の発電では小規模でも高い発電効率が得られるので、我が国のようにバイオマス資源が分散的に発生する社会および自然環境ではバイオマスのガス化装置技術の必要性が高い。 On the other hand, since the high power generation efficiency is small can be obtained in the power generation of the gas engine used, it is highly necessary for the gasifier technology biomass social and natural environment biomass as Japan occurs in a distributed manner.
【0004】 [0004]
バイオマスのガス化装置技術については、従来より固定床、流動床型のガス化炉で、酸素もしくは空気を主たるガス化剤として、吸熱反応であるガス化の空間と燃焼による発熱空間を共通の空間に設定した、いわゆる内燃式のものが研究開発されてきたが、タール、煤が副生し、ガスエンジン用として品質が適合しない。 The gasifier technology biomass fixed conventionally bed gasification furnace of the fluidized bed type, oxygen or as the main gasifying agent air, common space heating space by space and combustion gasification is an endothermic reaction is set to, but so-called internal combustion have been researched and developed, tar, no soot sub, quality does not fit for the gas engine. 加えて、空気を用いる場合には、生成ガス中に窒素が残留して、単位生成ガスの発熱量を低下させる。 In addition, in the case of using air, nitrogen in the product gas remains, decreasing the heating value of the unit product gas. 酸素を用いる場合には、空気分離工程が別に必要で、運転に要するエネルギ及び設備投資がエネルギ効率低下要因及びコストプッシュ要因となる。 When using oxygen, the air separation process is a separately required, the energy and capital investment required for the operation becomes lowered factors and cost push factors energy efficiency.
【0005】 [0005]
他に、臨界圧熱水によるガス化装置の研究が行われているが、超高温高圧装置上の問題を含み、実用化の域に達していない。 Alternatively, although the study of a gasifier according to the critical hot water is taking place, including the problem of the ultra-high-temperature high-pressure device, it does not reach the range of practical use.
【0006】 [0006]
【発明が解決しようとする課題】 [Problems that the Invention is to Solve
本発明はかかる従来の問題点に鑑みてなされたもので、バイオマス資源から発電用ガスエンジンに適合する、高カロリで、クリーンな燃料ガスを、高収率で取得する、小規模でも可能なバイオマスのガス化装置を提供することを目的とする。 The present invention has been made in view of such conventional problems, meet the power generation gas engine from biomass resources, high calorie, a clean fuel gas, to obtain a high yield, small even possible biomass and an object thereof is to provide a gasifier. 加えて、バイオマス資源の総合的エネルギ転換効率を高め、第三の新エネルギとしての利用普及に寄与せんとするものである。 In addition, increasing the overall energy conversion efficiency of the biomass resources, is to St. contribute to use the spread of a third new energy.
【0007】 [0007]
【課題を解決するための手段】 In order to solve the problems]
本発明のバイオマスのガス化装置は、粉砕したバイオマスに、水蒸気を供給してガス化反応を生じせしめるガス化空間と該ガス化空間が隔壁を介して外部加熱と分離されており、該にガス化空間に積極的に酸素を供給することなく吸熱反応により水蒸気とバイオマスのガス化反応を生じせしめるバイオマスのガス化装置において、前記隔壁が内部にガス化空間を有し、外部加熱による内周側のガス化空間が管状体構造に形成され、前記ガス化空間が、供給するバイオマス粉体を、供給する水蒸気で流動化させる噴流床構造である事を特徴とする。 Gasifier biomass of the present invention, the pulverized biomass, by supplying steam gasification space and said gasification space allowed to rise to the gasification reaction are separated from the external heating through the septum, gas to the of the gasifier biomass allowed to rise to gasification reaction of water vapor and biomass by endothermic reaction without positively supplying oxygen to the space, the partition wall has a gasification space therein, the inner circumferential side by the external heating gasification space is formed in the tubular structure, the gasification space, the biomass powder is supplied, characterized in that it is entrained structure fluidizing steam supply.
【0008】 [0008]
バイオマスの分解に必要な熱を、ガス化空間には化学的に影響を及ぼさない反応管壁からの輻射により、別途用意した熱源で供給することに加えて、ガス化剤自身の水蒸気を流動媒体として使用し、酸化反応などによる局部過熱を避け、均一な噴流状のガス化雰囲気を作る事により、速やかで、副反応のないガス化が可能な構造とする。 The heat required for the degradation of biomass, by radiation from the reaction tube wall which does not adversely chemically affect the gasification space, in addition to supplying heat source which is separately prepared, the fluidizing steam gasifying agent itself use as to avoid local overheating due to oxidation, by creating a uniform jet shaped gasification atmosphere, and quick, no side reactions gasification is a structure as possible. 別途用意する熱源は、バイオマスを燃焼して熱ガスを発生する、熱ガス発生炉を配置して供給することが好ましい。 A heat source for a separate generates hot gas by burning biomass, it is preferably supplied by placing the hot gas generating furnace. この熱源用バイオマスはガス分解用の原料より低品位のバイオマスを使用することもできる。 The biomass heat source can also be used low-grade biomass from the raw material for the decomposition gas.
【0009】 [0009]
更に本発明のバイオマスのガス化装置は、粉砕したバイオマスに、水蒸気を供給してガス化反応を生じせしめるガス化空間と該ガス化空間が隔壁を介して外部加熱と分離されており、該にガス化空間に積極的に酸素を供給することなく吸熱反応により水蒸気とバイオマスのガス化反応を生じせしめるバイオマスのガス化装置において、前記隔壁が内部にガス化空間を有し、外部加熱による内周側のガス化空間が管状体構造に形成され、前記ガス化空間内で、水蒸気とバイオマスが向流若しくは水蒸気流れ方向と交差する方向に両者の流れ方向を設定するとともに、該接触域に絞り若しくは膨脹域(ディフューザ)が存在することを特徴とする。 Further gasifier biomass of the present invention, the pulverized biomass, water vapor and gasification space and said gasification space allowed to rise to the gasification reaction is supplied is separated from the external heating through the partition wall, to the in gasifier biomass allowed to rise to gasification reaction of water vapor and biomass by endothermic reaction without supplying actively oxygen to the gasification space, the partition wall has a gasification space therein, the inner circumference by external heating gasification space side is formed into a tubular structure, in the gasification space, along with steam and biomass to set the flow direction of both in a direction crossing the countercurrent or steam flow direction, stop to the contact area or expansion zone (diffuser) is characterized by the presence. これにより、バイオマスが蒸気中に拡散し浮遊状態で、速やかにガス化する体制がつくられる。 Thus, biomass is diffused in the vapor floating state, and quickly made is structure to gasification.
【0010】 [0010]
更に本発明のバイオマスのガス化装置は、粉砕したバイオマスに、水蒸気を供給してガス化反応を生じせしめるガス化空間と該ガス化空間が隔壁を介して外部加熱と分離されており、該にガス化空間に積極的に酸素を供給することなく吸熱反応により水蒸気とバイオマスのガス化反応を生じせしめるバイオマスのガス化装置において、高温ガスが流出入する加熱空間に、複数の自由端開口が外部に位置している曲管を送入し、加熱空間に曝されている曲管内で反応水蒸発部と水蒸気とバイオマスのガス化反応を行うガス化部が位置していることを特徴とする。 Further gasifier biomass of the present invention, the pulverized biomass, water vapor and gasification space and said gasification space allowed to rise to the gasification reaction is supplied is separated from the external heating through the partition wall, to the in gasifier biomass allowed to rise to gasification reaction of water vapor and biomass by endothermic reaction without supplying actively oxygen to the gasification space, the heating space where the hot gas flows in and out, a plurality of free end opening outside forced in a curved pipe which is located, the gasification unit to perform gasification reaction of the reaction water vaporization part and steam and biomass songs tube exposed to the heated space and being located.
【0011】 [0011]
更に本発明のバイオマスのガス化装置は、前記曲管内のガス化部通過直後の曲管をバイオマス供給側より分岐して、該分岐管を下向きから上向きに向けて曲管とするとともに、前記上向き自由端に燃料ガス出口部、一方下向きから上向きの底部変向部に、灰ドレンを設けたことを特徴とする。 Further gasifier biomass of the present invention, the bent tube immediately after gasification section passage of the song pipe branched from the biomass supply side, with a curved pipe toward upward the branch pipe from downward, the upward the fuel gas outlet at the free end, whereas the upward bottom deflection section the downwardly, characterized in that a gray drain. 即ち本発明のガス化反応では、タール・煤のような遊離炭素は生成せず、唯一の固形不純物は無機物由来の灰である。 That is, in the gasification reaction of the present invention, free carbon, such as tar, soot does not generate, the only solid impurities are ash from inorganic. 蓄積する該不純物を集積して、除去する構造としてある。 By integrating accumulating the impurities, it is a structure to be removed.
【0012】 [0012]
更に本発明のバイオマスのガス化装置は、前記曲管が多管状に加熱空間に挿入されるとともに、該多管部の反応水側の自由端に前記多管部同士を連結するヘッダを設け、該ヘッダに充てんした反応水により実質的シールを行うことを特徴とする。 Further gasifier biomass of the present invention, together with the curved pipe is inserted into the heating space in the multi-tubular, it provided a header for connecting the multi-tube portions at the free end of the reaction the water side of the multi tube portion, and performing a substantially sealed by the reaction water was filled in the header. 多管状にガス化空間を設けることにより、ガス化空間をコンパクトに増強することができる。 By providing the gasifying space multi tubular, it can be enhanced compact gasification space.
【0013】 [0013]
更に本発明のバイオマスのガス化装置は、前記曲管が多管状に加熱空間に挿入されるとともに、該多管部のバイオマス側の自由端に前記多管部同士を連結するヘッダを設け、該ヘッダに充てんしたバイオマスにより実質的シールを行うことを特徴とする。 Further gasifier biomass of the present invention, together with the curved pipe is inserted into the heating space in the multi-tubular, provided a header for connecting the multi-tube portions at the free end of biomass side of the multi tube portion, said and performing a substantially sealed by biomass filled in the header.
【0014】 [0014]
更に本発明のバイオマスのガス化装置は、前記バイオマスを3mm以下、好ましくは1mm以下の微粒状にする粉砕手段を備え、微粒状にする粉砕手段は例えば、破砕機とインパクトミルを組み合わせた手段でよく、微粉砕困難なバイオマスは、適時に篩別して、ガス化空間加熱用の熱ガスを発生させる燃料として利用すればよい。 Further gasifier biomass of the present invention, the biomass 3mm or less, preferably with a grinding means for the following particulate 1 mm, breaking means, for example, it means combining crusher and impact mill to particulate good, finely pulverized difficult biomass, and sieved in a timely manner, it may be utilized as a fuel for generating hot gases for heating the gasification space.
【0015】 [0015]
【発明の実施の形態】 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
以下に本発明の実施の形態について図面を参照して詳しく説明する。 Will be described in detail with reference to the drawings, embodiments of the present invention are described below. 但し本実施の形態に記載される製品の寸法、形状、材質、その相対配置等は特に特定的な記載がない限りは本発明の範囲をそれのみに限定する主旨ではなく、単なる説明例に過ぎない。 However the dimensions of the products described in the present embodiment, shape, material, rather than the spirit of the scope of the present invention unless their relative positions and so forth to limit thereto, merely illustrative examples Absent.
【0016】 [0016]
(実施例1) 図1は本発明の浮遊・外熱式高カロリガスを生成するガス化反応設備を中心とするバイオエネルギ利用システムのフロー図である。 (Example 1) FIG. 1 is a flow diagram of a bio-energy utilization system around the gasification reaction equipment to generate a floating-outside thermal high-calorie gas of the present invention. ガス化反応設備101は後述する反応管306(図2、3参照)を備え、該反応管306は反応水115及びバイオマス微粉112を受け入れ、外部からバイオマス燃焼高温ガス114により加熱できるよう構成されている。 Gasification reaction equipment 101 includes a reaction tube 306 to be described later (see FIGS. 2 and 3), the reaction tube 306 accepts reaction water 115 and biomass fines 112, is configured to be heated by biomass combustion hot gas 114 from the outside there. 粉砕設備102はバイオマス原料111を受け入れて平均粒径3mm以下、好ましくは1mm以下の微粉を生成可能な性能を有し、平均粒径3mm以下の微粉112と平均粒径3mmを超える粗粉113とを分別して、排出可能な構造を有している。 Milling equipment 102 had a mean particle diameter of less than 3mm accept biomass material 111 preferably has a possible performance produces the following fines 1 mm, and an average particle size less than 3mm fines 112 and coarse powder 113 above the average particle diameter 3mm and fractionated, and a drainable structure. 本実施例では破砕機とインパクトミルを組み合わせて用いた。 It was used in combination crusher and impact mill in this embodiment. 熱ガス発生炉103はバイオマス粗粉113を受け入れて空気などの支燃剤によりバイオマス粗粉113を燃焼して高温のバイオマス燃焼高温ガス114を生成する。 Hot gas generating furnace 103 combusts the biomass coarse powder 113 by oxidant such as air accept biomass coarse powder 113 to produce hot biomass combustion hot gas 114. 脱水装置104は内部に冷却伝熱面を持ち、塔内に導入されたガス中の水分及び硫黄化合物など高沸点物を凝縮して除去可能な構造を有す。 Dewatering device 104 has a cooling heat transfer surface therein, to condense moisture and sulfur compounds such as high boiler in the gas introduced into the column having a structure capable of removal. ガスタンク105は水封式のタンクで、生成ガス116を貯留可能な構造になっている。 Gas tank 105 in tank water seal type, which is a product gas 116 capable of storing structure. ガスエンジン106は本例における生成ガス116を燃焼して、発電機を運転可能な能力を有している。 Gas engine 106 combusts the produced gas 116 in this example has an operable capacity of the generator.
【0017】 [0017]
図1において、バイオマス原料111は粉砕設備102に供給され平均粒径3mm以下の微粉112と平均粒径3mmを超える粗粉113に分けられ、粗粉113は熱ガス発生炉103に送られ、微粉112はガス化反応設備101中の反応管306中に反応水115とともに導入される。 In Figure 1, the biomass feedstock 111 is divided into coarse powder 113 above the average particle size 3mm is supplied to the grinding facility 102 and an average particle size less than 3mm fine 112, coarse 113 is sent to the hot gas generator furnace 103, fine 112 is introduced along with the reaction water 115 into the reaction tube 306 in the gasification reaction equipment 101. 熱ガス発生炉103ではバイオマス粗粉113を燃焼温度900〜1200℃で燃焼させ、発生するバイオマス燃焼高温ガス114でガス化反応設備101中の反応管306を外部から加熱し、管内の温度を800℃以上に保つ。 In hot gas generating furnace 103 is combusted biomass meal 113 in the combustion temperature of 900 to 1200 ° C., the reaction tube 306 in the gasification reaction equipment 101 is heated from the outside by biomass combustion hot gas 114 to generate the temperature of the tube 800 ℃ kept above. 反応管306内に導入された微粉112は導入反応水115によって発生した水蒸気気流中に浮遊し、ほぼ瞬時(0.2秒以下)にガス化する。 Fines 112 introduced into the reaction tube 306 float steam air stream generated by the introduction reaction water 115, gasified almost instantly (less than 0.2 seconds). 含水生成ガス108を脱水装置104に導入し、水分と硫黄分(H S)、塩素分(HCl)を除去した後、生成ガス116とし、ガスタンク105に貯留する。 The water-containing product gas 108 is introduced into the dehydrator 104, water and sulfur content (H 2 S), after removal of the chlorine (HCl), and product gas 116, it is stored in the gas tank 105. 生成ガス116は約20MJ/m のカロリを有し、ガスエンジン用燃料として適合する。 Product gas 116 has a calories of about 20 MJ / m 3, adapted as a fuel for a gas engine. 本システムでバイオマス処理量1トン/日(50〜100kg/h)を処理して、30kWの発電機により電気エネルギに変換したときの、総合エネルギ効率は20%以上とすることができた。 Processing the biomass processing of 1 ton / day (50 to 100 / h) in the present system, when converted into electrical energy by the generator of 30 kW, overall energy efficiency could be 20% or more.
【0018】 [0018]
(実施例2) 図2は本発明のガス化反応設備101と1次ガス化部302詳細の一例の概要図である。 (Embodiment 2) FIG. 2 is an example schematic diagram of the gasification reaction equipment 101 with detailed primary gasification unit 302 of the present invention. 図2において、ガス化反応設備101は、加熱チャンバ307内部に反応管306を有し、加熱チャンバ307はバイオマス燃焼高温ガス114の導入口と、排出口を備えている。 2, the gasification reaction equipment 101 includes a reaction tube 306 inside the heating chamber 307, heating chamber 307 includes an inlet biomass combustion hot gases 114, an outlet. 反応管はU字、逆U字、U字の管を連結した曲管であり、右側より第一垂直部、第二垂直部、第三垂直部、第四垂直部がある。 The reaction tube is a U, inverted U, a bent tube which is connected a tube of the U-shaped, first vertical section from the right side, the second vertical portion, the third vertical portion, there is a fourth vertical portion. その右端の第一垂直部上部より反応水115を導入出来る開口端が、中途第二垂直部上部よりバイオマス微粉112が導入出来る開口端が、中途第二垂直部、第三垂直部とを連結するU字管底部よりガス化によって発生する灰117を取り出す開口端が、左端第四垂直部よりガス化反応で生成した含水生成ガス118を取り出す開口端が、夫々設けてある。 Open end can be introduced the water of reaction 115 than the first vertical upper part of its right end, an open end which can be introduced is pending second vertical biomass fines 112 from top, for connecting middle second vertical portion, and a third vertical portion open end to take out the ashes 117 generated by the gasification than U-shaped tube bottom, open end to take out the water generated gas 118 produced in the gasification reaction, from left to right the fourth vertical portion, are provided respectively.
【0019】 [0019]
ガス化反応設備101は不図示の熱ガス発生炉で生成した、バイオマス燃焼高温ガス114を前記加熱チャンバ307の導入口より導入して、反応管306を外部より加熱し、その内温を800℃以上の適切な温度に維持するよう、バイオマス燃焼高温ガス114(外部加熱ガス)の温度及び流量を調節する。 Gasification reaction equipment 101 generated by the hot gas generator furnace (not shown), the biomass burning hot gas 114 is introduced from the inlet of the heating chamber 307, the reaction tube 306 is heated from the outside, of which the temperature 800 ° C. to maintain a more suitable temperature to adjust the temperature and flow rate of the biomass burning hot gas 114 (external heating gas). 反応水115は第一垂直部の反応水蒸発部301において外部加熱ガスで加熱され水蒸気となり、第二垂直部の1次ガス化部302で上部より導入された、バイオマス微粉112を浮遊させながらガス化させる。 Reaction water 115 becomes steam is heated by external heating gas in the reaction water vaporization portion 301 of the first vertical portion, the primary gasification unit 302 of the second vertical portion is introduced from above, while floating biomass fines 112 Gas to reduction. この時、水蒸気/バイオマスのモル比が0.4以上となるように反応水115、微粉112の投入量を加減する。 At this time, the reaction water 115 such that the molar ratio of steam / biomass is 0.4 or more, adjusting the input amount of fines 112. ガス化した生成ガスはついで、第三垂直部及び第四垂直部で構成される2次ガス化部303に流れて、少量の副生したタール・煤を分解する。 Gasified product gas then flows into the secondary gasification section 303 composed of a third vertical portion and a fourth vertical portion decomposes the small amount of by-produced tar-soot. この部分で固形有機物及び炭素は全て分解して、ガス体となり、固体は無機物からなる灰分のみとなり、前記灰取り出し開口端より、灰117を取り出す。 All decomposes at solid organic matter and carbon this portion becomes a body of gas, the solid is only the ash made of an inorganic substance, from the ash extraction opening end, take out the ashes 117. 生成ガス118は未だ水分と少量のH SとHClを含んだ状態で前記左端第四垂直部開口端より取り出す。 Product gas 118 is taken out from the left fourth vertical opening end in yet a state containing water and a small amount of H 2 S and HCl.
【0020】 [0020]
1次ガス化部302の詳細は図示の如く、反応管306の下部付近が、中央に開口部308を持つコニカル(逆円錐台)型整流板307が設けられ、該開口部308から高温蒸気が吹き込まれ、反応管306上部から投入されたバイオマス微粉112を浮遊させた状態でガス化する。 Details of the primary gasification section 302 as shown, the lower vicinity of the reaction tube 306, a central conical with an opening 308 (inverted truncated cone) rectifier plate 307 is provided, high temperature steam from the opening portion 308 blown, gasified in a suspended state biomass fines 112 inserted from the upper reaction tube 306. 1次ガス化即ち本発明の目的とするガス化は1次ガス化領域304で行われ、この領域を過ぎた第三垂直部の上部は2次ガス化領域305として機能し、前記で説明した2次ガス化部303と同様な役割を果たす。 The primary gasification i.e. gasification, which is an object of the present invention is carried out in the primary gasification region 304, the upper portion of the third vertical portion past this region acts as a secondary gasification region 305, described in the role similar to secondary gasification unit 303.
【0021】 [0021]
(実施例3) 図3は本発明のガス化反応設備と1次ガス化部詳細の他の例の概要図である。 (Embodiment 3) FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of another example of a detailed gasification reaction equipment and the primary gasification unit of the present invention. ガス化反応設備の全体構成は実施例2と同様である。 Overall configuration of the gasification reaction equipment is the same as in Example 2. 1次ガス化部401詳細の構成が図示のようになっている。 Configuration Details primary gasification section 401 is in as shown. 即ち、図3右側の1次ガス化部401詳細において、反応管306中には分散管402が挿入されている。 That is, in FIG. 3 the right of the primary gasification unit 401 information, the dispersion pipe 402 is inserted into the reaction tube 306. 分散管402は微粉送入管より、底部逆コニカルの底面円周に向けて延在する曲面で構成される、内部中空の一端が逆コニカルで閉鎖された、筒体であり、該底部逆コニカルの底面円周に向けて延在する曲面上に複数の噴出口405を有している。 The dispersion pipe 402 from fines inlet tube, and a curved surface extending toward the bottom circumference of the bottom reverse conical, hollow end is closed in the reverse conical, a tubular body, said bottom inverse conical and a plurality of ejection ports 405 on the curved surface extending toward the bottom circumference of the.
【0022】 [0022]
前記反応管306に、該分散管402を挿入すると、分散管402の逆コニカル底面円周部付近と、反応管306内壁との間の距離が最も狭小となり、反応管306下部より蒸気など気体を流通させたとき、スロート部403となり、ここから上部に行くに従い、漸次管内壁と分散管402外壁との距離は拡大していくので、ディフューザ部404となる。 In the reaction tube 306, insertion of the dispersion pipe 402, and near the opposite conical bottom circumference of the dispersion pipe 402, the distance between the reaction tube 306 inner wall becomes narrowest, the gas and reaction tube 306 steam from the bottom when allowed to flow, next to the throat portion 403, as it goes from here to the top, since the gradual distance between the inner wall and the dispersion pipe 402 outer wall to expand, the diffuser portion 404. 従って、前記複数の噴出口405はこのスロート部403付近に設けることが好ましい。 Accordingly, the plurality of ejection ports 405 are preferably provided in the vicinity of the throat portion 403.
【0023】 [0023]
かくして、分散管402の微粉送入管よりバイオマス微粉112を送入すると、反応水115の蒸発によって生成した高温蒸気が下部より流れ込み、スロート部403で高速となって、ベンチュリー効果により分散管402内部の微粉112を吸い出してディフューザ部404に分散させる。 Thus, when fed biomass fines 112 from fines inlet tube of the dispersion pipe 402, high-temperature vapor produced by evaporation of the reaction water 115 flows from the bottom, with a high speed at the throat portion 403, the internal dispersion tube 402 by the Venturi effect dispersed in the diffuser portion 404 sucked out of the fines 112. 該分散浮遊した微粉112はほとんど瞬時にガス化する。 Fines 112 the dispersion floating is almost gasified instantaneously.
【0024】 [0024]
(実施例4) 図4は本発明の多管式ガス化部を有するガス化反応設備101の概要図である。 (Example 4) FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a gasification reaction equipment 101 having a multi-tubular gasification section of the present invention. 図において、多管式反応管501は実施例2もしくは3の曲管が図右側のA−A'矢視図に示されるように垂直方向に5列並列に、加熱チャンバ307内に配置されており、バイオマス微粉投入口、灰取り出し口、反応水送入口、生成ガス(未脱水)取り出し口はそれぞれヘッダ502、503、504、505で5列が連結されている。 In the figure, in five rows parallel to the vertical direction as a multi-tubular reactor tube 501 bends in Example 2 or 3 is shown in A-A 'arrow view of FIG right, it is arranged in the heating chamber 307 cage, biomass fines inlet, the ash outlet, reaction water inlet port, the product gas (not dehydrated) each outlet header 502, 503, 504, and 505 5 columns are connected. これにより、処理空間容量が増加し、コンパクトに能力の増強が可能である。 Thus, the processing space capacity is increased, it is possible to compact the enhanced ability.
【0025】 [0025]
(実施例5) 図5は本発明の浮遊・外熱式高カロリガスを生成するガス化反応の温度条件とガス組成及び発熱量との関係を示すグラフである。 (Example 5) FIG. 5 is a graph showing the relationship between the temperature and gas composition and heating value of the gasification reaction to produce a floating-outside thermal high-calorie gas of the present invention. 図2に示す装置を用い本発明の浮遊・外熱式高カロリガス化の試験を、水蒸気/バイオマス重量比を2に固定して、各種温度で行い、生成ガスの組成を分析し、生成ガスの発熱量を測定して、反応のマテリアルバランスを求めた。 The test of the floating-outside thermal high-calorie gas of the present invention using the apparatus shown in FIG. 2, to fix the steam / biomass weight ratio to 2, carried out at various temperatures, to analyze the composition of the product gas, the product gas the calorific value was measured to determine the material balance of the reaction. その結果生成ガスは棒グラフに示すガス組成を与え、その発熱量を測定すると、折れ線グラフの熱量であった。 When The resulting gas gives the gas composition shown in the bar graph, measuring the calorific value was heat line graph.
【0026】 [0026]
上記で得られた反応のマテリアルバランスよりガス化反応の経験式を求めると、 When determining the empirical formula of the gasification reaction from material balance of the reaction obtained above,
1.30.9 +0.4H C 1.3 H 2 O 0.9 + 0.4H 2 O
→0.8H +0.7CO+0.3CH +0.3CO +39.7kcal/mol → 0.8H 2 + 0.7CO + 0.3CH 4 + 0.3CO 2 + 39.7kcal / mol
であることがわかった。 It was found is.
【0027】 [0027]
【発明の効果】 【Effect of the invention】
以上詳しく説明したように、本発明によりタール、煤など遊離炭素の発生を伴わない、廃棄物は若干の灰分のみの、クリーンなH 、CO、及びCH などの炭化水素を主成分とする浮遊・外熱式高カロリガス(例えば20MJ/NM )が得られ、ガスエンジン発電と組合すことにより、総合エネルギ効率の高いシステムとすることができる。 As described above in detail, the present invention without tar, the occurrence of free carbon soot, the waste of only slight ash, as a main component hydrocarbons, such as clean H 2, CO, and CH 4 floating and outer thermal high-calorie gas (e.g. 20 MJ / NM 3) is obtained by combining a gas engine generator, it can have high overall energy efficiency system.
【図面の簡単な説明】 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
【図1】本発明の浮遊・外熱式高カロリガスを生成するガス化反応設備を中心とする、バイオエネルギ利用システムのフロー図送手段のフロー図【図2】本発明のガス化反応設備と1次ガス化部詳細の一例の概要図【図3】本発明のガス化反応設備と1次ガス化部詳細の他の例の概要図【図4】本発明のガス化反応設備と多管式ガス化部の概要図【図5】本発明の浮遊・外熱式高カロリガスを生成するガス化反応の温度条件とガス組成及び発熱量との関係を示すグラフである。 Around the gasification reaction equipment to generate a floating-outside thermal high-calorie gas of the present invention; FIG, the gasification reaction equipment of a flow diagram of means feed flow diagram of bio-energy utilization system [2] The present invention schematic diagram of the primary gasification section an example of a detailed [3] gasification facilities and multitubular Overview Figure 4 shows the invention in another example of the detailed gasification reaction equipment and the primary gasification unit of the present invention is a graph showing the relationship between the schematic diagram FIG. 5 temperature and gas composition and heating value of the gasification reaction to produce a floating-outside thermal high-calorie gas of the present invention of formula gasification unit.
【符号の説明】 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS
101…ガス化反応設備102…粉砕設備103…熱ガス発生炉104…脱水装置105…ガスタンク106…ガスエンジン111…バイオマス原料112…微粉113…粗分114…バイオマス燃焼高温ガス115…反応水116…生成ガス211…蒸気又は蒸気+少量空気301…反応水蒸発部302…1次ガス化部303…2次ガス化部304…1次ガス化域305…2次ガス化域306…反応管307…加熱チャンバ401…1次ガス化部402…分散管403…スロート部404…ディフューザ部501…多管式反応管502…ヘッダ503…ヘッダ504…ヘッダ505…ヘッダ 101 ... gasification facility 102 ... crushing equipment 103 ... hot gas generating furnace 104 ... dehydrator 105 ... gas tank 106 ... gas engine 111 ... biomass material 112 ... fine 113 ... crude fraction 114 ... biomass burning hot gas 115 ... reaction water 116 ... product gas 211 ... minor vapor or steam + air 301 ... reaction water vaporization portion 302 ... the primary gasification section 303 ... secondary gasification unit 304 ... primary gasification zone 305 ... secondary gasification zone 306 ... reaction tube 307 ... heating chamber 401 ... primary gasification unit 402 ... dispersion pipe 403 ... throat portion 404 ... diffuser portion 501 ... multitubular reactor tube 502 ... header 503 ... header 504 ... header 505 ... header

Claims (6)

  1. 粉砕したバイオマスに、水蒸気を供給してガス化反応を生じせしめるガス化空間と該ガス化空間が隔壁を介して外部加熱と分離されており、該にガス化空間に積極的に酸素を供給することなく吸熱反応により水蒸気とバイオマスのガス化反応を生じせしめるバイオマスのガス化装置において、前記隔壁が内部にガス化空間を有し、外部加熱による内周側のガス化空間が管状体構造に形成され、前記ガス化空間が、供給するバイオマス粉体を、供給する水蒸気で流動化させる噴流床構造である事を特徴とするバイオマスのガス化装置。 The pulverized biomass, water vapor and gasification space and said gasification space allowed to rise to the gasification reaction is supplied is separated from the external heating through the partition wall, and supplies the aggressive oxygen to the gasification space the formed in the gasifier of biomass allowed to rise to gasification reaction of steam and biomass, wherein the partition wall has a gasification space therein, the inner peripheral side of the gasification space tubular structure by the external heating by the endothermic reaction without is, the gasification space, the biomass powder is supplied, the gasifier of biomass, characterized in that a spouted bed structure for fluidized in steam supply.
  2. 粉砕したバイオマスに、水蒸気を供給してガス化反応を生じせしめるガス化空間と該ガス化空間が隔壁を介して外部加熱と分離されており、該にガス化空間に積極的に酸素を供給することなく吸熱反応により水蒸気とバイオマスのガス化反応を生じせしめるバイオマスのガス化装置において、前記隔壁が内部にガス化空間を有し、外部加熱による内周側のガス化空間が管状体構造に形成され、前記ガス化空間内で、水蒸気とバイオマスが向流若しくは水蒸気流れ方向と交差する方向に両者の流れ方向を設定するとともに、該接触域に絞り若しくは膨脹域(ディフューザ)が存在することを特徴とするバイオマスのガス化装置。 The pulverized biomass, water vapor and gasification space and said gasification space allowed to rise to the gasification reaction is supplied is separated from the external heating through the partition wall, and supplies the aggressive oxygen to the gasification space the formed in the gasifier of biomass allowed to rise to gasification reaction of steam and biomass, wherein the partition wall has a gasification space therein, the inner peripheral side of the gasification space tubular structure by the external heating by the endothermic reaction without is, in the gasification space, characterized with steam and biomass is set both in the flow direction in a direction intersecting the countercurrent or steam flow direction, the aperture on the contact area or the expansion zone (diffuser) is present gasifier of biomass to be.
  3. 粉砕したバイオマスに、水蒸気を供給してガス化反応を生じせしめるガス化空間と該ガス化空間が隔壁を介して外部加熱と分離されており、該にガス化空間に積極的に酸素を供給することなく吸熱反応により水蒸気とバイオマスのガス化反応を生じせしめるバイオマスのガス化装置において、高温ガスが流出入する加熱空間に、複数の自由端開口が外部に位置している曲管を挿入し、加熱空間に曝されている曲管内で反応水蒸発部と水蒸気とバイオマスのガス化反応を行うガス化部が位置していることを特徴とするバイオマスのガス化装置。 The pulverized biomass, water vapor and gasification space and said gasification space allowed to rise to the gasification reaction is supplied is separated from the external heating through the partition wall, and supplies the aggressive oxygen to the gasification space the in gasifier biomass allowed to rise to gasification reaction of water vapor and biomass by endothermic reaction without, the heating space where the hot gas flows in and out, insert the bent tube in which a plurality of free end opening is located outside, gasifier biomass, characterized in that the gasification section for performing the gasification reaction of the reaction water vaporization part and steam and biomass songs tube exposed to the heating space is located.
  4. 前記曲管内の二次ガス化部通過直後の曲管をバイオマス供給側より分岐して、該分岐管を下向きから上向きに向けて曲管するとともに、前記上向き自由端に燃料ガス出口部、一方下向きから上向きの底部変向部に、灰ドレンを設けたことを特徴とする請求項3記載のバイオマスのガス化装置。 The bend right after the secondary gasification unit passage of the song pipe branched from the biomass supply side, as well as curved pipe toward upward the branch pipe from downward, the upward fuel gas outlet at the free end, whereas the downward upwards of the bottom deflection section from the gasifier of biomass according to claim 3, characterized in that a gray drain.
  5. 前記曲管が多管状に加熱空間に挿入されるとともに、該多管部の反応水側の自由端に前記多管部同士を連結するヘッダを設け、該ヘッダに充てんした反応水により実質的シールを行うことを特徴とする請求項3若しくは4記載のバイオマスのガス化装置。 Substantially seal said curved pipe along with being inserted into the heating space multi tubular, the header connecting the multitubular portions at the free end of the reaction the water side of the multi-tube unit provided by the reaction water being filled in the header gasifier biomass according to claim 3 or 4, wherein the performing.
  6. 前記曲管が多管状に加熱空間に挿入されるとともに、該多管部のバイオマス側の自由端に前記多管部同士を連結するヘッダを設け、該ヘッダに充てんしたバイオマスにより実質的シールを行うことを特徴とする請求項3若しくは4記載のバイオマスのガス化装置。 Together with the curved pipe is inserted into the heating space in the multi-tubular, it provided a header for connecting the multi-tube portions at the free end of biomass side of the multi tube unit, thus substantially sealed by the biomass that is filled in the header biomass gasification device according to claim 3 or 4, wherein the.
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