JP2004042199A - Grinding method - Google Patents

Grinding method Download PDF

Info

Publication number
JP2004042199A
JP2004042199A JP2002203642A JP2002203642A JP2004042199A JP 2004042199 A JP2004042199 A JP 2004042199A JP 2002203642 A JP2002203642 A JP 2002203642A JP 2002203642 A JP2002203642 A JP 2002203642A JP 2004042199 A JP2004042199 A JP 2004042199A
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
grinding
grindstone
workpiece
predetermined
allowance
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
JP2002203642A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Other versions
JP3878519B2 (en
Inventor
Makoto Nonoyama
野々山 真
Keita Goto
後藤 慶太
Manabu Kuribayashi
栗林 学
Original Assignee
Toyoda Mach Works Ltd
豊田工機株式会社
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Toyoda Mach Works Ltd, 豊田工機株式会社 filed Critical Toyoda Mach Works Ltd
Priority to JP2002203642A priority Critical patent/JP3878519B2/en
Publication of JP2004042199A publication Critical patent/JP2004042199A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP3878519B2 publication Critical patent/JP3878519B2/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

Links

Images

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q15/00Automatic control or regulation of feed movement, cutting velocity or position of tool or work
    • B23Q15/007Automatic control or regulation of feed movement, cutting velocity or position of tool or work while the tool acts upon the workpiece
    • B23Q15/08Control or regulation of cutting velocity
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B17/00Special adaptations of machines or devices for grinding controlled by patterns, drawings, magnetic tapes or the like; Accessories therefor
    • B24B17/10Special adaptations of machines or devices for grinding controlled by patterns, drawings, magnetic tapes or the like; Accessories therefor involving electrical transmission means only, e.g. controlled by magnetic tape
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B27/00Other grinding machines or devices
    • B24B27/0076Other grinding machines or devices grinding machines comprising two or more grinding tools
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B5/00Machines or devices designed for grinding surfaces of revolution on work, including those which also grind adjacent plane surfaces; Accessories therefor
    • B24B5/36Single-purpose machines or devices
    • B24B5/42Single-purpose machines or devices for grinding crankshafts or crankpins
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/37Measurements
    • G05B2219/37367Grinding rate
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/30Nc systems
    • G05B2219/45Nc applications
    • G05B2219/45161Grinding machine

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a grinding method causing little a fluctuation in grinding accuracy even when simultaneously grinding a plurality of grinding object surfaces of a workpiece by a plurality of grinding wheels. <P>SOLUTION: This grinding method simultaneously grinds the plurality of grinding object surfaces of the workpiece by the plurality of grinding wheels T1 and T2 moved and driven respectively and individually, and finishes grinding work by the predetermined grinding wheel T1 among the plurality of grinding wheels T1 and T2 before grinding work by the other grinding wheel T2. The respective grinding works by the respective grinding wheels T1 and T2 may be set in the same work content. A grinding condition in the respective grinding works by the respective grinding wheels T1 and T2 may be changed according to a measuring result of the grinding object surfaces at grinding work. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2004,JPO

Description

【0001】
【発明の属する技術分野】
本発明は、研削方法に関し、詳しくは、夫々個別に移動駆動される複数の砥石によって工作物の複数の研削対象面を同時に研削する研削方法に関する。
【0002】
【従来の技術】
例えば円筒研削盤等の研削盤の中には、工作物に対して夫々個別に移動駆動される複数の砥石を備えたものがあり、このような研削盤を用いて、例えば図5に示すように、個々の砥石T1,T2によって工作物Wの複数の研削対象面K1,K2を同時に研削する場合がある。そして、このような研削を複数の工作物Wに対して行う場合、従来の研削方法では、工作物Wごとに、各砥石T1、T2による研削加工の終了順序が区々となっていた。これは、各砥石T1,T2の切れ味が異なる、同時に研削が行われる各研削対象面K1,K2の表面硬さの差異が工作物Wごとに異なる、研削前における各研削対象面K1,K2の寸法の差異が工作物Wごとに異なる等、種々の要因によるものである。
【0003】
特に、複数の砥石によって複数の研削対象面を、研削取代を同量として、同一寸法形状で同一仕上げの研削を行う場合、各砥石による研削加工の終了順序が区々になり易かった。
【0004】
また、加工中に加工面の寸法等を実際に測定し、この測定結果に基づいて加工状態を制御する、所謂「インプロセス制御」によって、各砥石による研削加工中に、研削送り速度等の研削条件を変更して研削加工を行う場合も、各砥石による研削加工の終了順序が区々になり易かった。例えば図6に示すように、粗研削、中間研削及び精研削等の複数の工程を有する研削加工を行う場合、各工程にて研削対象面の寸法が所定値に達したら次工程に移行するように、インプロセス制御によって研削加工を行うと、一方の砥石(実線)によるものと他方の砥石(破線、1点鎖線)によるものとで、各工程に要する加工時間に差異が生じる。よって、一方の砥石による研削加工に対して、他方の砥石による研削加工が遅れるか(破線)先行するか(1点鎖線)が区々となり、各砥石による研削加工の終了順序が区々になり易かった。なお、図6のグラフは、砥石と工作物との距離を縦軸とし、時間を横軸として、砥石の軌跡により研削加工の状況を表したものである。
【0005】
【発明が解決しようとする課題】
研削加工中には、砥石の押し付け力や研削抵抗によって、工作物に応力が加わり、工作物に撓みが生じるのであるが、工作物ごとに各砥石による研削加工の終了順序が異なると、各砥石による研削加工の終了間際での工作物の撓み方が一定とならない。例えば図6に示した研削加工において、他方の砥石による研削加工に着目すると、一方の砥石(実線)による研削加工に先んじて終了する場合(1点鎖線)では、一方の砥石による研削加工の応力負荷によって工作物が大きく撓んだ状態で、研削加工が終了する。これに対して、遅れて終了する場合(破線)では、一方の砥石による研削加工の応力負荷が解除された状態で、研削加工が終了する。このように、従来の研削方法では、各砥石による研削加工の終了間際での工作物の撓み方が一定とならず、これにより、研削対象面の真円度や真直度等の精度にばらつきが生じ易かった。
【0006】
本発明は、上記実状を鑑みてなされたものであり、複数の砥石によって工作物の複数の研削対象面を同時に研削する場合であっても、研削精度にばらつきが生じ難い研削方法を提供することを課題とする。
【0007】
【課題を解決するための手段】
請求項1に記載の研削方法は、夫々個別に移動駆動される複数の砥石によって工作物の複数の研削対象面を同時に研削する研削方法であって、前記複数の砥石のうち、予め定めた砥石による研削加工を、他の砥石による研削加工に先んじて終了させることを特徴とするものである。
【0008】
ここで、研削加工の終了とは、工作物に接触している砥石を離間させて、研削盤による研削加工工程を終了する時点を示すものではなく、砥石が工作物に接触していても、工作物の研削取代がなくなって実質的な研削が完了した時点、すなわち、工作物が所望の寸法に仕上げられた時点、を示すものである。
【0009】
また、予め定めた砥石による研削加工を他の砥石による研削加工に先んじて終了させる手段としては、特に限定するものではないが、後述する請求項4に記載の手段や請求項5に記載の手段の他、「予め定めた砥石の切れ味を、常時、他の砥石の切れ味よりも良好な状態とする」、「他の砥石による研削加工の研削取代を、予め定めた砥石による研削加工の研削取代よりも多くする」、「他の砥石による研削加工の研削送り速度を、予め定めた砥石による研削加工の研削送り速度よりも遅くする」等の種々の手段を例示することができる。
【0010】
本発明では、予め定めた砥石による研削加工が他の砥石による研削加工に先んじて終了されるため、予め定めた砥石による研削加工が終了する時点では、工作物は、常時、他の砥石による研削加工の応力負荷により撓んだ状態となる。一方、他の砥石による研削加工が終了する時点では、工作物は、常時、予め定めた砥石による研削加工の応力負荷が抜けた状態となる。よって、複数の工作物を研削するに際しては、各砥石による研削加工の終了間際での工作物の撓み方が定形的となり、研削精度のばらつきを抑制することが可能となる。
【0011】
請求項2に記載の研削方法は、請求項1に記載の研削方法において、前記各砥石による各研削加工を、同一の加工内容とすることを特徴とするものである。
【0012】
ここで、「同一の加工内容」とは、研削取代を同量として研削加工を行い、最終的に同一の寸法形状とすると共に、所定の表面粗さを確保する粗仕上げや上仕上げ等の仕上げ内容を同一とするものである。
【0013】
複数の砥石によって複数の研削対象面を同時に研削する場合、同一の加工内容であると、各砥石による研削加工の終了順序が区々となり易く、研削精度にばらつきが生じ易いのは、前述の通りである。これに対して、本発明では、研削加工を先に終了させる側の砥石を予め設定しているため、研削精度のばらつきを抑制することが可能であり、同一の加工内容の研削を行う際に、好適である。
【0014】
請求項3に記載の研削方法は、請求項1または請求項2に記載の研削方法において、前記各砥石による各研削加工における研削条件を、研削加工中の研削対象面の測定結果に応じて変更することを特徴とするものである。
【0015】
ここで、「研削条件」とは、「研削送り速度」、「砥石の周速度」、「円筒研削盤等によって工作物を回転させて研削を行う場合における工作物の回転速度」等の種々の条件であり、本発明では、少なくとも一つの条件を変更すればよい。また、「研削対象面の測定結果」とは、研削対象面の寸法や表面粗さ等、研削加工中の研削対象面の実際の状態を測定した結果である。
【0016】
複数の砥石によって複数の研削対象面を同時に研削する場合、インプロセス制御によって、研削加工中の研削対象面の測定結果に応じて研削条件を変更すると、各砥石による研削加工の終了順序が区々となり易く、研削精度にばらつきが生じ易いのは、前述の通りである。これに対して、本発明では、研削加工を先に終了させる側の砥石を予め設定しているため、研削精度のばらつきを抑制することが可能であり、インプロセス制御によって研削加工を行う際に、好適である。
【0017】
請求項4に記載の研削方法は、請求項1から請求項3までのいずれか一つに記載の研削方法において、前記各砥石による研削加工は、研削送り速度の異なる複数の工程を有するものであり、前記各工程のうち、研削送り速度の遅い工程において、前記他の砥石による研削加工の研削取代を、前記予め定めた砥石による研削加工の研削取代よりも多く設定することを特徴とするものである。
【0018】
予め定めた砥石による研削加工を先んじて終了させるためには、(1)「予め定めた砥石の切れ味を、常時、他の砥石の切れ味よりも良好な状態とする」、(2)「他の砥石による研削加工の研削取代を、予め定めた砥石による研削加工の研削取代よりも多くする」、(3)「他の砥石による研削加工の研削送り速度を、予め定めた砥石による研削加工の研削送り速度よりも遅くする」等の種々の手段がある。しかしながら、上記(1)の手段では、各砥石の切れ味に差異が生じた状態を、常時、維持しなけらばならず、砥石の管理が煩雑となる。また、上記(2)の手段では、研削加工全体において他の砥石側の研削取代を多くする分だけ、研削加工時間が大幅に長くなるばかりか、砥石寿命が短くなる。さらに、上記(3)の手段では、研削加工全体において他の砥石の切削送り速度を遅くする分だけ、他の砥石側の仕上げが無用に高品質となるばかりか、研削加工時間が大幅に長くなってしまう。
【0019】
これに対して本発明では、複数の工程のうち、研削送り速度の遅い一部の工程において、研削取代に差異を生じさせることで、予め定めた砥石側と他の砥石側とで、研削加工時間に差異を生じさせ、予め定めた砥石側の研削加工を先に終了させる。よって、各砥石の切れ味の差異を維持するための管理は不要である。また、研削加工全体での研削取代を多く設定したり、研削送り速度を無用に遅く設定する必要がなく、研削加工時間が大幅に長くなることはない。従って、簡便な手段によって、大きな不具合を来すことなく、予め定めた砥石側の研削加工を先に終了させることが可能となる。
【0020】
請求項5に記載の研削方法は、請求項1から請求項4までのいずれか一つに記載の研削方法において、前記他の砥石による研削加工を、前記予め定めた砥石による研削加工よりも所定時間遅らせて行うことを特徴とするものである。
【0021】
本発明では、予め定めた砥石側の研削加工と他の砥石側の研削加工とに、時間差を設け、これにより、予め定めた砥石側の研削加工を先に終了させる。よって、前述と同様に、簡便な手段によって、大きな不具合を来すことなく、予め定めた砥石側の研削加工を先に終了させることが可能となる。
【0022】
請求項6に記載の研削方法は、請求項1から請求項5までのいずれか一つに記載の研削方法において、前記予め定めた砥石を、研削加工終了後においても工作物の研削対象面に接触したままの状態で待機させ、前記他の砥石の研削加工終了後に、予め定めた砥石と他の砥石とを同時に工作物から遅い速度で離間させ、その後、速い速度で離間させることを特徴とするものである。
【0023】
本発明では、予め定めた砥石と他の砥石とを工作物から同時に離間させるため、各砥石により負荷された応力の抜け方が定形的となる。しかも、各砥石を工作物から急激に離間させるのではなく、第1段階として遅い速度で離間させるため、応力の抜け方が安定的となる。よって、より一層、研削精度のばらつきを抑制することが可能となる。
【0024】
なお、工作物から砥石を離間させる際の速度としては、例えば、最初の第1段階の遅い速度を、粗研削、中間研削、精研削等における研削送り速度程度とし、その後の第2段階の速い速度を、研削盤における通常の早送り速度とすればよい。
【0025】
【発明の実施の形態】
以下に、本発明の実施の形態を説明するのであるが、まず、本発明に係る研削方法に用いられる研削盤としての円筒研削盤について説明する。なお、本発明に係る研削方法は、円筒研削盤に限らず、個別に移動駆動される複数の砥石を備えたものであれば、他の種々の研削盤を用いて実施することもできる。
【0026】
図1に示すように、本例の円筒研削盤10は、基台部分を構成するベッド20と、このベッド20の上面の左右に個別に載置された二つの砥石台30a,30bと、ベッド20の上面に設けられ、工作物Wを支持するテーブル40とを備えている。ここで、ベッド20の上面には、工作物Wの軸方向であるZ軸方向(矢印Z)に夫々個別に摺動自在に、二つの支持台31a,31bが載置されており、上記各砥石台30a,30bは、各支持台31a,31bの上面に、工作物Wの径方向であるX軸方向(矢印X)に摺動自在に載置されている。
【0027】
各支持台31a,31bは、夫々、回転角度を的確に割り出すことができるサーボモータ等の駆動装置32a,32bによって、送りねじ機構等の駆動伝達機構33a,33bを介して、Z軸方向に個別に移動駆動される。一方、各砥石台30a,30bは、夫々、回転角度を的確に割り出すことができるサーボモータ等の駆動装置34a,34bによって、送りねじ機構等の駆動伝達機構35a,35bを介して、X軸方向に個別に移動駆動される。これにより、各砥石台30a,30bは、テーブル40に対して、Z軸方向及びX軸方向に、夫々個別に移動駆動される。また、各砥石台30a,30bは、夫々、装着された円盤状の砥石T1,T2を回転駆動するものであり、砥石T1,T2を回転駆動するモータ等の駆動装置36a,36bを備えている。
【0028】
テーブル40は、一端側に主軸台41と他端側に心押し台42とを備えている。そして、主軸台41は、回転角度を的確に割り出すことができるサーボモータ等の駆動装置44によって回転駆動される主軸43を備えている。工作物Wは、一端側が、主軸43に設けられたチャック45に把持され、他端側が、心押し台42に設けられたセンタ46に押圧されて、テーブル40上にて支持されると共に、主軸43の回転軸線を中心軸としてC軸周り(矢印C)に回転駆動される。
【0029】
ところで、本例では、工作物Wとして、クランクシャフトを採用しており、二つの砥石台30a,30bに装着された二つの砥石T1,T2によって、クランクジャーナルW1やクランクピンW2等の研削対象面を、2箇所同時に研削する。次に、本発明に係る研削方法を説明する。なお、本例では、各砥石T1,T2によって、研削対象面にプランカット研削を行っているが、トラバースカット研削等の他の研削を行うこともできる。
【0030】
工作物の研削対象面は、旋盤やフライス盤等による切削加工によって、適宜の研削取代を残した寸法に前加工されている。ここで、二つの砥石T1,T2によって同時に研削加工が施される各研削対象面は、前加工によって、同量の研削取代が残された状態となっており、本例の研削方法では、各研削対象面を、最終的に、同一形状、同一寸法及び同一表面粗さに仕上げる。
【0031】
図2に示すように、二つの砥石T1,T2による各研削加工は、粗研削、中間研削及び精研削の複数の工程を有している。なお、図2のグラフは、砥石T1,T2と工作物Wとの距離を縦軸とし、時間を横軸として、各砥石T1,T2の軌跡により研削加工の状況を表したものである。そして、本例の研削加工では、最終工程である精研削において、二つの砥石T1,T2のうち、予め定めた側である一方の砥石T1側の研削対象面が、他側である他方の砥石T2側の研削対象面よりも先んじて所定寸法に達し、これにより、実質的な研削加工が終了する。すなわち、予め定めた砥石T1による研削加工が、他の砥石T2による研削加工に先んじて終了する。
【0032】
ところで、各工程の研削は、同一の砥石T1,T2によってなされ、研削送り速度を適宜変更することで、所定の表面粗さを確保している。具体的に、粗研削では、速い研削送り速度で切り込みを行った後、送りを停止してスパークアウトさせ、粗研削における所定の寸法及び表面粗さを確保して、工程を終了する。中間研削では、粗研削よりも遅い研削送り速度にて切り込みを行った後、送りを停止してスパークアウトさせ、中間研削における所定の寸法及び表面粗さを確保して、工程を終了する。精研削では、中間研削よりもさらに遅い研削送り速度にて切り込みを行い、最終的に要望される寸法及び表面粗さを確保して工程を終了する。なお、精研削では、研削送り速度が十分に遅いため、研削送りにて、所定の寸法及び表粗さを確保することができる。よって、本例では、他方の砥石T2側でスパークアウトを省略しているが、他方の砥石T2側においても、スパークアウトさせて工程を終了することとしてもよい。
【0033】
また、研削加工は、インプロセス制御によって行われ、研削加工中に研削対象面の実際の寸法を測定し、この測定結果をフィードバックして砥石台30a,30bの移動駆動を制御することにより行われる。具体的には、各工程において、研削対象面の寸法が所定値に達すると、次工程へと移行するように砥石台30a,30bの移動駆動が制御される。なお、本例では、各砥石T1,T2による個々の研削加工において、次工程への移行が同時になされるように、各砥石T1,T2による各研削加工のインプロセス制御を同調させている。そして、複数の工程のうち、適宜の工程において、一方の砥石T1側と他方の砥石T2側との研削取代を異ならせ、これにより、一方の砥石T1による研削加工が、他方の砥石T2による研削加工に先んじて終了されるようにしている。これを、以下に詳細に説明する。
【0034】
粗研削の工程では、一方の砥石T1側よりも他方の砥石T2側の研削取代が少なく設定されており、他方の砥石T2側は、研削取代の残量が多い状態で、工程を終了する。よって、粗研削の工程では、他方の砥石T2側の研削対象面が先に所定寸法に達し、他方の砥石T2側の工程が先に終了する。そこで、この他方の砥石T2側を、一方の砥石T1側の粗研削が終了するまで、スパークアウトの状態のままで待機させる。そして、各砥石T1,T2による粗研削が終了すると、各砥石T1,T2による研削加工を、次工程の中間研削へと同時に移行させる。
【0035】
中間研削の工程では、各砥石T1,T2による研削の研削取代を同量に設定してもよい。しかしながら、本例では、中間研削終了後、すなわち最終工程の精研削前、における研削取代の残量が、一方の砥石T1側よりも他方の砥石T2側が多くなる範囲内で、一方の砥石T1側よりも他方の砥石T2側の研削取代を多く設定している。これにより、中間研削前における各研削対象面の研削取代の残量の差よりも、中間研削後における各研削対象面の研削取代の残量の差を少なくし、精研削において、他方の砥石T2側の研削取代が無用に多くなることを抑制している。
【0036】
中間研削の工程では、一方の砥石T1側よりも他方の砥石T2側の研削取代が多く設定されていることから、一方の砥石T1側の中間研削が先んじて終了する。よって、一方の砥石T1側を、他方の砥石T2側の中間研削が終了するまで、スパークアウトの状態のままで待機させる。そして、各砥石T1,T2による中間研削が終了すると、各砥石T1,T2による研削加工を、次工程の精研削へと同時に移行させる。
【0037】
精研削の工程では、研削対象面の研削取代の残量を全て除去して、所定の寸法及び表面粗さを確保するのであるが、一方の砥石T1側よりも他方の砥石T2側の研削取代の残量が多いことから、一方の砥石T1側では、他方の砥石T2側よりも先に、研削対象面が所定の寸法に達し、研削加工が実質的に終了する。ここで、精研削における一方の砥石T1側と他方の砥石T2側との研削取代の差は、一方の砥石T1側の精研削が他方の砥石T2側の精研削に先んじて確実に終了する量に設定されている。よって、複数の工作物Wについて研削加工を行っても、一方の砥石T1による研削加工は、常時、他方の砥石T2による研削加工に先んじて終了する。
【0038】
なお、各砥石T1,T2による精研削が終了次第、各砥石台30a,30bを個別に駆動して、早送りにより砥石台30a,30bを工作物Wから離れた後退端に移動させてもよいが、本例では、他方の砥石T2側の精研削が終了するまで、一方の砥石T1側を、スパークアウトの状態で待機させている。そして、各砥石T1,T2による精研削が終了すると、各砥石台30a,30bを同時に駆動して、後退端へと移動させている。これにより、各砥石T1,T2による各研削加工の開始時と完了時とにおいて、砥石台30a,30bの動きを同調させている。
【0039】
以上の例では、各砥石T1,T2による研削加工において、次工程への移行が同調して行われるため、各工程において、各砥石T1,T2による工作物Wへの応力負荷の状態が定常化する。よって、研削加工の終了間際ばかりでなく、研削加工の途中においても、工作物Wの撓み方が定形化する。よって、これにより、研削精度のばらつき度合いを小さくすることができる。また、各砥石T1,T2による研削加工において、次工程への移行が同調されるため、次工程への移行に応じて、研削条件として、工作物Wの回転速度を変更することもでき、これにより、各工程において、より適切な研削条件を設定することもできる。
【0040】
次に、本発明に係る研削方法の別の例を、図3に基づいて説明する。本例では、一方の砥石T1による研削加工と他方の砥石T2による研削加工とを、同調させることなく、個別にインプロセス制御している。具体的には、粗研削、中間研削及び精研削等の各工程について、各砥石T1,T2による個々の研削加工において、前工程が終了次第、次工程に移行するように制御している。
【0041】
本例においても、上述の例と同様に、粗研削の工程において、一方の砥石T1側の研削取代よりも他方の砥石T2側の研削取代を少なく設定している。そして、この粗研削よりも研削送り速度が遅く、研削に時間を要する中間研削や精研削にて、一方の砥石T1側の研削取代よりも他方の砥石T2側の研削取代を多く設定している。これにより、一方の砥石T1による研削加工は、常時、他方の砥石T2による研削加工よりも先に終了する。
【0042】
なお、精研削では研削取代を同量とする一方で、粗研削及び中間研削において研削取代を異ならせ、これにより、一方の砥石T1による研削加工を他方の砥石T2による研削加工に先んじて終了させるようにしてもよい。また、粗研削では研削取代を同量とする一方で、中間研削及び精研削において研削取代を異ならせ、これにより、一方の砥石T1による研削加工を他方の砥石T2による研削加工に先んじて終了させるようにしてもよい。
【0043】
次に、本発明に係る研削方法のさらに別の例を、図4に基づいて説明する。本例においても、一方の砥石T1による研削加工と他方の砥石T2による研削加工とを、同調させることなく、個別にインプロセス制御している。
【0044】
本例では、各砥石T1,T2による研削加工における粗研削、中間研削及び精研削の各工程において、一方の砥石T1側と他方の砥石T2側とで、研削取代を同量に設定しているのであるが、一方の砥石T1による研削加工に対して他方の砥石T2による研削加工を所定時間遅らせることで、一方の砥石T1による研削加工を他方の砥石T2による研削加工に先んじて終了させている。
【0045】
次に、本発明に係る研削方法のさらにまた別の例を、図5に基づいて説明する。なお、図5は、各砥石T1,T2による研削加工の終了部分を示すグラフであり、研削加工終了前の加工内容に関しては、上述の各例のものを適宜、採用すればよい。
【0046】
本例では、一方の砥石T1の研削加工が終了した時点(図示a点)では、一方の砥石T1を工作物から直ちに離間させず、工作物の研削対象面に接触した状態のまま待機させている。そして、他方の砥石T2の研削加工が終了した時点(図示b点)で、一方の砥石T1と他方の砥石T2とを、工作物から同時に離間させている。ここで、各砥石T1,T2を工作物から離間させる速度としては、第1段階(図示b点からc点まで)では、研削送り速度程度のゆっくりとした速度とし、その後の第2段階(図示c点以降)では、研削盤の通常の早送り速度としている。
【0047】
以上、本発明に係る研削方法の実施形態を例示したが、本発明はこれに限らず、本発明の要旨を逸脱しない範囲で、種々の変更が可能である。例えば、インプロセス制御に限らず、CNC制御等の数値制御によって研削加工を行ってもよい。また、一方の砥石側と他方の砥石側とで研削取代に差異を設けることによる手段と、一方の砥石側と他方の砥石側とで研削加工に時間差を設けることによる手段とを併用し、これにより、一方の砥石による研削加工を他方の砥石による研削加工に先んじて終了させるようにしてもよい。
【0048】
【発明の効果】
以上説明した本発明に係る研削方法によれば、次のような効果を得ることができる。
【0049】
請求項1に記載の発明によれば、予め定めた砥石による研削加工が他の砥石による研削加工に先んじて終了されるため、複数の工作物を研削するに際して、各砥石による研削加工の終了間際での工作物の撓み方を定形化することができ、研削精度のばらつきを生じ難くすることができる。
【0050】
請求項2に記載の発明によれば、研削精度にばらつきが生じ易い同一の加工内容の研削を行う場合に、良好に適用することができる。
【0051】
請求項3に記載の発明によれば、研削精度にばらつきが生じ易いインプロセス制御によって研削加工を行う場合に、良好に適用することができる。
【0052】
請求項4に記載の発明によれば、大きな不具合を来すことがない簡便な手段によって、予め定めた砥石側の研削加工を先に終了させることができる。
【0053】
請求項5に記載の発明によっても、大きな不具合を来すことがない簡便な手段によって、予め定めた砥石側の研削加工を先に終了させることができる。
【0054】
請求項6に記載の発明によれば、各砥石により負荷された応力の抜け方を定形的及び安定的とすることができるため、より一層、研削精度のばらつきを抑制することができる。
【図面の簡単な説明】
【図1】本発明に係る研削方法に用いられる円筒研削盤の一例を示す平面図である。
【図2】本発明に係る研削方法の一例を示すグラフである。
【図3】本発明に係る研削方法の別の例を示すグラフである。
【図4】本発明に係る研削方法のさらに別の例を示すグラフである。
【図5】本発明に係る研削方法のさらまた別の例を示すグラフである。
【図6】複数の砥石によって複数の研削対象面を同時に研削する状態を示す要部平面図である。
【図7】
従来の研削方法を示すグラフである。
【符号の説明】
T1 砥石(一方の砥石(予め定めた砥石))
T2 砥石(他方の砥石(他の砥石))
W  工作物
10 研削盤
20 ベッド
30 砥石台
31 支持台
40 テーブル
41 主軸台
42 心押し台
43 主軸
[0001]
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a grinding method, and more particularly, to a grinding method for simultaneously grinding a plurality of grinding target surfaces of a workpiece by a plurality of grindstones individually moved and driven.
[0002]
[Prior art]
For example, some grinders such as cylindrical grinders are provided with a plurality of grindstones which are individually moved and driven with respect to a workpiece. Using such a grinder, for example, as shown in FIG. In some cases, a plurality of grinding target surfaces K1 and K2 of the workpiece W are simultaneously ground by the individual grinding wheels T1 and T2. In the case where such grinding is performed on a plurality of workpieces W, in the conventional grinding method, the finishing order of the grinding by each of the grindstones T1 and T2 is different for each workpiece W. This is because the sharpness of each grindstone T1, T2 is different, the difference in surface hardness of each grinding target surface K1, K2 that is simultaneously ground is different for each workpiece W, and each grinding target surface K1, K2 before grinding is different. This is due to various factors, such as a difference in size between work pieces W.
[0003]
In particular, when grinding a plurality of surfaces to be ground with a plurality of grindstones with the same amount of grinding allowance and the same finish in the same size and shape, the order of finishing the grinding with each grindstone tends to be different.
[0004]
In addition, by actually measuring the dimensions and the like of the processing surface during processing, and controlling the processing state based on the measurement result, so-called “in-process control”, during the grinding processing by each grindstone, the grinding feed speed and the like are reduced. Also in the case of performing the grinding with changing the conditions, the finishing order of the grinding by each grindstone is likely to be different. For example, as shown in FIG. 6, when performing a grinding process having a plurality of steps such as rough grinding, intermediate grinding, and fine grinding, the process proceeds to the next step when the size of the surface to be ground reaches a predetermined value in each step. In addition, when grinding is performed by in-process control, there is a difference in the processing time required for each step between the grinding wheel using one grindstone (solid line) and the grinding wheel using the other grindstone (dashed line, dashed line). Therefore, the grinding process by one grindstone is delayed (broken line) or preceding (broken line) by the other grindstone, and the finish order of the grinding process by each grindstone varies. It was easy. In the graph of FIG. 6, the vertical axis represents the distance between the grindstone and the workpiece, and the horizontal axis represents time.
[0005]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
During the grinding process, stress is applied to the workpiece due to the pressing force and grinding resistance of the grinding wheel, and the workpiece is bent.However, if the finishing order of grinding by each grinding wheel differs for each workpiece, each grinding wheel The bending of the workpiece immediately before the end of the grinding process by the method is not constant. For example, in the grinding shown in FIG. 6, when focusing on the grinding with the other grindstone, if the grinding is completed prior to the grinding with the one grindstone (solid line) (dashed line), the stress of the grinding with the one grindstone is reduced. The grinding process ends in a state where the workpiece is largely bent by the load. On the other hand, when the processing is delayed (broken line), the grinding processing ends in a state where the stress load of the grinding processing by one of the grindstones is released. As described above, in the conventional grinding method, the manner in which the workpiece bends immediately before the end of the grinding process by each grinding wheel is not constant, and thus, the accuracy of the roundness or the straightness of the surface to be ground varies. It was easy to happen.
[0006]
The present invention has been made in view of the above-described circumstances, and provides a grinding method in which even if a plurality of grinding target surfaces of a workpiece are simultaneously ground by a plurality of grinding wheels, variations in grinding accuracy hardly occur. As an issue.
[0007]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
The grinding method according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of grindstones individually moved and driven simultaneously grind a plurality of surfaces to be ground of a workpiece, and a predetermined grindstone among the plurality of grindstones. Is terminated prior to grinding by another grindstone.
[0008]
Here, the end of the grinding process does not indicate a point in time at which the grinding wheel in contact with the workpiece is separated and the grinding process by the grinding machine is completed, and even if the grinding wheel is in contact with the workpiece, This indicates a point in time when the grinding allowance of the workpiece has disappeared and substantial grinding has been completed, that is, a point in time when the workpiece has been finished to a desired size.
[0009]
The means for terminating the grinding with a predetermined grindstone prior to the grinding with another grindstone is not particularly limited, but is a means described in claim 4 or a means described in claim 5 described later. In addition, `` Always keep the sharpness of a predetermined grindstone better than the sharpness of other grindstones '', `` The grinding allowance for grinding with another grindstone is the grinding allowance for grinding with a predetermined grindstone. And various means such as "making the grinding feed speed of the grinding by another grindstone slower than the grinding feed speed of the grinding by the predetermined grindstone".
[0010]
In the present invention, since the grinding with the predetermined grindstone is completed prior to the grinding with the other grindstone, at the time when the grinding with the predetermined grindstone is completed, the workpiece is always ground with the other grindstone. It becomes bent by the stress load of processing. On the other hand, at the point in time when the grinding with the other grindstone ends, the workpiece is always in a state where the stress load of the grinding with the predetermined grindstone is released. Therefore, when grinding a plurality of workpieces, the bending of the workpiece immediately before the end of the grinding process by each grindstone becomes standard, and it is possible to suppress a variation in grinding accuracy.
[0011]
A grinding method according to a second aspect is characterized in that, in the grinding method according to the first aspect, the respective grinding processes by the respective grinding wheels have the same processing content.
[0012]
Here, "same processing content" means finishing such as rough finishing or top finishing which performs grinding processing with the same amount of grinding allowance and finally has the same dimensions and shape and ensures a predetermined surface roughness. The contents are the same.
[0013]
When simultaneously grinding a plurality of grinding target surfaces with a plurality of grindstones, if the processing content is the same, the order of ending the grinding process by each grindstone tends to be different, and the variation in the grinding accuracy is likely to occur as described above. It is. On the other hand, in the present invention, since the grinding wheel on which the grinding process is terminated first is set in advance, it is possible to suppress the variation in the grinding accuracy, and when grinding the same machining content. Is preferred.
[0014]
A grinding method according to a third aspect is the grinding method according to the first or second aspect, wherein a grinding condition in each grinding process by each of the whetstones is changed according to a measurement result of a surface to be ground during the grinding process. It is characterized by doing.
[0015]
Here, the "grinding conditions" include various values such as "grinding feed speed", "circumferential speed of the grindstone", and "rotation speed of the workpiece when grinding by rotating the workpiece by a cylindrical grinder or the like". This is a condition, and in the present invention, at least one condition may be changed. The “measurement result of the surface to be ground” is a result of measuring the actual state of the surface to be ground during grinding, such as the dimensions and surface roughness of the surface to be ground.
[0016]
When grinding multiple grinding surfaces simultaneously with multiple grinding wheels, if the grinding conditions are changed according to the measurement results of the grinding surface during grinding by in-process control, the order of finishing grinding by each grinding wheel will vary. As described above, the grinding accuracy tends to vary, and the grinding accuracy tends to vary. On the other hand, in the present invention, since the grinding wheel on which the grinding process is terminated first is set in advance, it is possible to suppress the variation in the grinding accuracy, and when performing the grinding process by in-process control. Is preferred.
[0017]
A grinding method according to a fourth aspect is the grinding method according to any one of the first to third aspects, wherein the grinding by each of the grinding wheels includes a plurality of steps having different grinding feed rates. And wherein, in each of the steps, in a step having a low grinding feed speed, a grinding allowance of the grinding by the other grindstone is set to be larger than a grinding allowance of the grinding by the predetermined grindstone. It is.
[0018]
In order to finish the grinding with a predetermined grindstone ahead of time, (1) "the sharpness of the predetermined grindstone is always in a better state than the sharpness of the other grindstones", (2) "others" The grinding allowance of the grinding with the grinding wheel is made larger than the grinding allowance of the grinding with the predetermined grinding wheel. "(3)" The grinding feed speed of the grinding with the other grinding wheel is set to the predetermined grinding speed. There are various means such as "slower than the feed speed". However, in the above-mentioned means (1), it is necessary to always maintain a state in which the sharpness of each grindstone is different, and the management of the grindstone becomes complicated. In the means of the above (2), not only the grinding processing time is significantly increased but also the grinding wheel life is shortened by increasing the grinding allowance on the other grinding wheel side in the entire grinding processing. Further, in the means of the above (3), not only the finishing on the other grinding wheel side is unnecessarily high in quality but also the grinding processing time is significantly increased by the amount of reducing the cutting feed speed of the other grinding wheel in the entire grinding process. turn into.
[0019]
On the other hand, in the present invention, in a part of the plurality of processes, the grinding feed rate is low, and a difference is generated in the grinding allowance, so that a predetermined grinding wheel side and another grinding wheel side perform a grinding process. A difference is caused in the time, and the predetermined grinding process on the grinding wheel side is ended first. Therefore, management for maintaining the difference in sharpness of each grinding wheel is unnecessary. In addition, there is no need to set a large grinding allowance in the entire grinding process or to set the grinding feed speed unnecessarily low, so that the grinding time is not significantly increased. Therefore, it is possible to end the predetermined grinding process on the grindstone side first by a simple means without causing any serious trouble.
[0020]
A grinding method according to a fifth aspect is the grinding method according to any one of the first to fourth aspects, wherein the grinding with the other grindstone is more predetermined than the grinding with the predetermined grindstone. It is characterized in that it is performed with a time delay.
[0021]
In the present invention, a time difference is provided between a predetermined grinding wheel side grinding process and another grinding wheel side grinding process, whereby the predetermined grinding wheel side grinding process is terminated first. Therefore, similarly to the above, it is possible to end the predetermined grinding process on the grindstone side first without causing any serious trouble by simple means.
[0022]
A grinding method according to a sixth aspect is the grinding method according to any one of the first to fifth aspects, wherein the predetermined grindstone is applied to the surface to be ground of the workpiece even after the completion of the grinding. Stand by in a state of contact, after the grinding of the other whetstone, the predetermined whetstone and the other whetstone are simultaneously separated from the workpiece at a low speed, and then separated at a high speed. To do.
[0023]
In the present invention, since the predetermined grindstone and the other grindstone are simultaneously separated from the workpiece, the way of releasing the stress applied by each grindstone becomes standard. In addition, since each of the grinding wheels is not separated from the workpiece abruptly but is separated at a low speed as the first stage, the stress is released in a stable manner. Therefore, it is possible to further suppress the variation in the grinding accuracy.
[0024]
The speed at which the grindstone is separated from the workpiece is, for example, a slow speed in the first first stage is set to a grinding feed speed in rough grinding, intermediate grinding, fine grinding, or the like, and a high speed in the second stage thereafter. The speed may be a normal rapid traverse speed in the grinding machine.
[0025]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described. First, a cylindrical grinding machine as a grinding machine used in a grinding method according to the present invention will be described. The grinding method according to the present invention is not limited to the cylindrical grinding machine, and can be implemented using various other grinding machines as long as the grinding method includes a plurality of individually driven grindstones.
[0026]
As shown in FIG. 1, a cylindrical grinding machine 10 of the present embodiment includes a bed 20 constituting a base portion, two grindstone stands 30 a and 30 b individually placed on the left and right of the upper surface of the bed 20, and a bed. And a table 40 provided on the upper surface of the workpiece 20 and supporting the workpiece W. Here, on the upper surface of the bed 20, two support bases 31a and 31b are placed so as to be individually slidable in the Z-axis direction (arrow Z), which is the axial direction of the workpiece W, respectively. The grindstone stands 30a and 30b are slidably mounted on the upper surfaces of the support stands 31a and 31b in the X-axis direction (arrow X) which is the radial direction of the workpiece W.
[0027]
The support bases 31a and 31b are individually driven in the Z-axis direction by drive devices 32a and 32b such as servo motors that can accurately determine the rotation angle via drive transmission mechanisms 33a and 33b such as feed screw mechanisms. Is driven to move. On the other hand, the respective grinding wheel heads 30a and 30b are respectively driven in the X-axis direction by drive devices 34a and 34b such as servo motors that can accurately determine the rotation angle via drive transmission mechanisms 35a and 35b such as feed screw mechanisms. Are individually moved and driven. As a result, each of the wheel heads 30a and 30b is individually moved and driven with respect to the table 40 in the Z-axis direction and the X-axis direction. Each of the grindstone heads 30a and 30b drives the mounted disc-shaped grindstones T1 and T2, respectively, and includes driving devices 36a and 36b such as motors that rotationally drive the grindstones T1 and T2. .
[0028]
The table 40 includes a headstock 41 on one end and a tailstock 42 on the other end. The headstock 41 is provided with a spindle 43 that is rotationally driven by a drive device 44 such as a servomotor that can accurately determine the rotation angle. The workpiece W is held at one end by a chuck 45 provided on the spindle 43, and the other end is pressed by a center 46 provided on the tailstock 42 to be supported on the table 40 and to be supported on the spindle 40. It is rotationally driven around the C axis (arrow C) with the 43 rotation axis as the central axis.
[0029]
By the way, in this example, a crankshaft is employed as the workpiece W, and a grinding target surface such as the crank journal W1 or the crankpin W2 is formed by the two grinding wheels T1 and T2 mounted on the two grinding wheel stands 30a and 30b. Are simultaneously ground at two locations. Next, a grinding method according to the present invention will be described. In this example, the plan-cut grinding is performed on the surface to be ground by each of the grindstones T1 and T2. However, other grinding such as traverse cut grinding can be performed.
[0030]
The surface to be ground of the workpiece is pre-processed to a size leaving an appropriate grinding allowance by cutting with a lathe, a milling machine, or the like. Here, the respective surfaces to be ground simultaneously subjected to the grinding by the two grinding wheels T1 and T2 are in a state where the same amount of grinding allowance is left by the pre-processing, and in the grinding method of this example, The surface to be ground is finally finished to the same shape, the same dimensions and the same surface roughness.
[0031]
As shown in FIG. 2, each grinding process using two grindstones T1 and T2 has a plurality of steps of rough grinding, intermediate grinding and fine grinding. In addition, the graph of FIG. 2 shows the state of the grinding process by the trajectory of each of the grinding stones T1 and T2, with the distance between the grinding stones T1 and T2 and the workpiece W on the vertical axis and the time on the horizontal axis. In the grinding of the present example, in the fine grinding which is the final step, of the two grindstones T1 and T2, the surface to be ground on one grindstone T1 side which is a predetermined side is the other grindstone which is the other side. The predetermined dimension is reached before the surface to be ground on the T2 side, whereby the substantial grinding is completed. That is, the grinding with the predetermined grinding wheel T1 ends before the grinding with the other grinding stone T2.
[0032]
By the way, the grinding in each step is performed by the same grindstones T1 and T2, and a predetermined surface roughness is secured by appropriately changing the grinding feed speed. Specifically, in the rough grinding, after cutting is performed at a high grinding feed speed, the feed is stopped to spark out, a predetermined size and surface roughness in the rough grinding are secured, and the process is completed. In the intermediate grinding, after cutting is performed at a grinding feed speed lower than that of the coarse grinding, the feed is stopped to spark out, a predetermined size and surface roughness in the intermediate grinding are secured, and the process is completed. In the fine grinding, cutting is performed at a grinding feed speed that is even slower than the intermediate grinding, and finally the required dimensions and surface roughness are secured, and the process is completed. In the fine grinding, since the grinding feed speed is sufficiently low, predetermined dimensions and surface roughness can be secured by the grinding feed. Therefore, in this example, spark-out is omitted on the side of the other grinding wheel T2, but the process may be ended on the side of the other grinding stone T2 after spark-out.
[0033]
Grinding is performed by in-process control, in which the actual dimensions of the surface to be ground are measured during the grinding, and the measurement results are fed back to control the movement drive of the grindstone stands 30a and 30b. . Specifically, in each process, when the size of the surface to be ground reaches a predetermined value, the movement drive of the grinding wheel heads 30a and 30b is controlled so that the process proceeds to the next process. In this example, the in-process control of each grinding process by each of the grinding wheels T1 and T2 is synchronized so that the shift to the next step is performed simultaneously in each of the grinding processes by each of the grinding wheels T1 and T2. Then, in an appropriate step of the plurality of steps, the grinding allowance of one of the grinding wheels T1 and the other of the grinding wheels T2 is made different, whereby the grinding by the one of the grinding stones T1 is performed by the other of the grinding wheels T2. It is configured to be completed prior to processing. This will be described in detail below.
[0034]
In the rough grinding process, the grinding allowance on the other grinding wheel T2 side is set to be smaller than that on the one grinding wheel T1 side, and the other grinding stone T2 side ends the process with a large remaining grinding allowance. Therefore, in the rough grinding process, the surface to be ground on the other grinding wheel T2 reaches the predetermined dimension first, and the process on the other grinding wheel T2 ends first. Therefore, the other grindstone T2 is kept in a spark-out state until rough grinding on one grindstone T1 is completed. Then, when the rough grinding by each of the grindstones T1 and T2 is completed, the grinding by each of the grindstones T1 and T2 is simultaneously shifted to the intermediate grinding in the next step.
[0035]
In the process of the intermediate grinding, the grinding allowance of the grinding by each of the grinding wheels T1 and T2 may be set to the same amount. However, in this example, after the intermediate grinding is completed, that is, before the fine grinding in the final step, the remaining amount of the grinding allowance is within a range in which the other grindstone T2 side is larger than the one grindstone T1 side. The grinding allowance on the other grindstone T2 side is set to be larger than that. Thereby, the difference in the remaining amount of the grinding allowance of each surface to be ground after the intermediate grinding is made smaller than the difference in the remaining amount of the grinding allowance of each surface to be ground before the intermediate grinding. This prevents unnecessary removal of grinding on the side.
[0036]
In the intermediate grinding step, the grinding allowance on the other grinding wheel T2 side is set to be larger than that on the one grinding wheel T1 side, so that the intermediate grinding on the one grinding wheel T1 side ends earlier. Therefore, one of the grinding wheels T1 is kept in a spark-out state until the intermediate grinding of the other grinding stone T2 is completed. Then, when the intermediate grinding by each of the grinding wheels T1 and T2 is completed, the grinding process by each of the grinding wheels T1 and T2 is shifted to the next step of fine grinding.
[0037]
In the fine grinding process, a predetermined size and surface roughness are secured by removing all the remaining amount of the grinding allowance on the surface to be ground. However, the grinding allowance on one grinding wheel T1 side than on the other grinding stone T2 side is secured. Since the remaining amount is large, the surface to be ground reaches a predetermined size on one side of the grinding wheel T1 before the side of the other grinding wheel T2, and the grinding process is substantially completed. Here, the difference in the grinding allowance between the one grinding wheel T1 side and the other grinding stone T2 side in the fine grinding is the amount by which the fine grinding on the one grinding stone T1 side is surely completed prior to the fine grinding on the other grinding stone T2 side. Is set to Therefore, even if grinding is performed on a plurality of workpieces W, grinding with one grindstone T1 always ends before grinding with the other grindstone T2.
[0038]
Note that as soon as the fine grinding by each of the grinding wheels T1 and T2 is completed, each of the grinding wheel heads 30a and 30b may be individually driven to move the grinding wheel heads 30a and 30b to the retreat end separated from the workpiece W by rapid traverse. In this example, one of the grinding wheels T1 is kept in a spark-out state until the fine grinding of the other grinding wheel T2 is completed. When the fine grinding by each of the grinding wheels T1 and T2 is completed, each of the grinding wheel stands 30a and 30b is simultaneously driven to move to the retreat end. Thereby, the movements of the grinding wheel stands 30a, 30b are synchronized at the time of starting and at the time of completing each grinding process by each of the grinding wheels T1, T2.
[0039]
In the above example, the shift to the next step is performed synchronously in the grinding by each of the grindstones T1 and T2, so that the state of the stress load on the workpiece W by each of the grindstones T1 and T2 in each of the steps is stabilized. I do. Therefore, not only immediately before the end of the grinding but also during the grinding, the bending of the workpiece W is standardized. Therefore, this makes it possible to reduce the degree of variation in grinding accuracy. In addition, in the grinding by each of the grinding wheels T1 and T2, the shift to the next process is synchronized, so that the rotation speed of the workpiece W can be changed as a grinding condition according to the shift to the next process. Thereby, more appropriate grinding conditions can be set in each step.
[0040]
Next, another example of the grinding method according to the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. In this example, the in-process control of the grinding by one of the grinding wheels T1 and the grinding by the other of the grinding wheels T2 are individually performed without synchronization. Specifically, in each of the steps such as the rough grinding, the intermediate grinding, and the fine grinding, in the individual grinding processing by each of the grindstones T1 and T2, the control is performed so as to shift to the next step as soon as the previous step is completed.
[0041]
Also in this example, similarly to the above-described example, in the rough grinding process, the grinding allowance on the other grindstone T2 side is set smaller than the grinding allowance on the other grindstone T1 side. In the intermediate grinding or the fine grinding, in which the grinding feed speed is slower than the rough grinding and the grinding takes time, the grinding allowance on the other grinding wheel T2 side is set to be larger than the grinding allowance on the other grinding wheel T1 side. . As a result, the grinding by one grindstone T1 always ends before the grinding by the other grindstone T2.
[0042]
In the fine grinding, while the grinding allowance is set to the same amount, the grinding allowance is varied in the rough grinding and the intermediate grinding, whereby the grinding by one grinding wheel T1 is completed prior to the grinding by the other grinding wheel T2. You may do so. In addition, in the rough grinding, the grinding allowance is set to the same amount, while the grinding allowance is varied in the intermediate grinding and the fine grinding, whereby the grinding by one grinding wheel T1 is completed prior to the grinding by the other grinding stone T2. You may do so.
[0043]
Next, still another example of the grinding method according to the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. Also in this example, the in-process control is performed individually without synchronizing the grinding with the one grinding wheel T1 and the grinding with the other grinding stone T2.
[0044]
In this example, in each step of the rough grinding, the intermediate grinding, and the fine grinding in the grinding by the respective grindstones T1 and T2, the grinding allowance is set to be the same on the one grindstone T1 side and the other grindstone T2 side. However, by delaying the grinding by the other whetstone T2 for a predetermined time with respect to the grinding by the one whetstone T1, the grinding by one whetstone T1 is completed prior to the grinding by the other whetstone T2. .
[0045]
Next, still another example of the grinding method according to the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 5 is a graph showing the end portion of the grinding by each of the grindstones T1 and T2, and the processing contents before the end of the grinding may be appropriately adopted from the above-described examples.
[0046]
In this example, at the time when the grinding of one of the grindstones T1 is completed (point a in the drawing), the one of the grindstones T1 is not immediately separated from the workpiece, but is kept in a standby state in contact with the grinding target surface of the workpiece. I have. When the grinding of the other grindstone T2 is completed (point b in the drawing), the one grindstone T1 and the other grindstone T2 are simultaneously separated from the workpiece. Here, in the first stage (from point b to point c in the drawing), the speed at which each of the grindstones T1 and T2 is separated from the workpiece is set to a speed as slow as the grinding feed speed, and then in the second stage (shown in the drawing). After point c), the normal rapid traverse speed of the grinding machine is set.
[0047]
As described above, the embodiment of the grinding method according to the present invention has been exemplified. However, the present invention is not limited thereto, and various modifications can be made without departing from the gist of the present invention. For example, the grinding may be performed not only by the in-process control but also by numerical control such as CNC control. In addition, a means by providing a difference in the grinding allowance between one grindstone side and the other grindstone side, and a means by providing a time difference in grinding processing between the one grindstone side and the other grindstone side, and Thus, the grinding with one grindstone may be terminated prior to the grinding with the other grindstone.
[0048]
【The invention's effect】
According to the grinding method according to the present invention described above, the following effects can be obtained.
[0049]
According to the first aspect of the present invention, since the grinding with the predetermined grindstone is completed prior to the grinding with other grindstones, when grinding a plurality of workpieces, the grinding with each grindstone is completed. The bending of the workpiece at the time can be standardized, and the variation in grinding accuracy can be suppressed.
[0050]
According to the second aspect of the present invention, the present invention can be suitably applied to the case where the same processing content is liable to vary in grinding accuracy.
[0051]
According to the third aspect of the present invention, the present invention can be favorably applied to a case where grinding is performed by in-process control in which the grinding accuracy tends to vary.
[0052]
According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, the predetermined grinding process on the grinding wheel side can be ended first by simple means that does not cause a major problem.
[0053]
According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, the predetermined grinding process on the grinding wheel side can be terminated first by simple means that does not cause a major problem.
[0054]
According to the sixth aspect of the present invention, the way of releasing the stress applied by each grindstone can be made regular and stable, so that the variation in the grinding accuracy can be further suppressed.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a plan view showing an example of a cylindrical grinding machine used in a grinding method according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a graph showing an example of a grinding method according to the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a graph showing another example of the grinding method according to the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a graph showing still another example of the grinding method according to the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a graph showing still another example of the grinding method according to the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a main part plan view showing a state where a plurality of grinding target surfaces are simultaneously ground by a plurality of grinding wheels.
FIG. 7
It is a graph which shows the conventional grinding method.
[Explanation of symbols]
T1 whetstone (one whetstone (predetermined whetstone))
T2 whetstone (the other whetstone (other whetstone))
W Workpiece
10 Grinding machine
20 beds
30 Wheelhead
31 Support
40 tables
41 headstock
42 tailstock
43 spindle

Claims (6)

  1. 夫々個別に移動駆動される複数の砥石によって工作物の複数の研削対象面を同時に研削する研削方法であって、
    前記複数の砥石のうち、予め定めた砥石による研削加工を、他の砥石による研削加工に先んじて終了させることを特徴とする研削方法。
    A grinding method for simultaneously grinding a plurality of grinding target surfaces of a workpiece by a plurality of grinding wheels individually moved and driven,
    A grinding method, wherein a grinding process with a predetermined grindstone among the plurality of grindstones is completed prior to a grinding process with another grindstone.
  2. 前記各砥石による各研削加工を、同一の加工内容とすることを特徴とする請求項1に記載の研削方法。The grinding method according to claim 1, wherein the respective grinding processes by the respective whetstones have the same processing content.
  3. 前記各砥石による各研削加工における研削条件を、研削加工中の研削対象面の測定結果に応じて変更することを特徴とする請求項1または請求項2に記載の研削方法。The grinding method according to claim 1, wherein a grinding condition in each grinding process by each of the whetstones is changed according to a measurement result of a surface to be ground during the grinding process.
  4. 前記各砥石による研削加工は、研削送り速度の異なる複数の工程を有するものであり、前記各工程のうち、研削送り速度の遅い工程において、前記他の砥石による研削加工の研削取代を、前記予め定めた砥石による研削加工の研削取代よりも多く設定することを特徴とする請求項1から請求項3までのいずれか一つに記載の研削方法。The grinding by each of the grindstones has a plurality of steps with different grinding feed rates, and among the respective steps, in a step with a low grinding feed rate, the grinding allowance of the grinding with the other grindstone is set in advance by the grinding allowance. The grinding method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the amount is set to be larger than a grinding allowance of the grinding by the determined grindstone.
  5. 前記他の砥石による研削加工を、前記予め定めた砥石による研削加工よりも所定時間遅らせて行うことを特徴とする請求項1から請求項4までのいずれか一つに記載の研削方法。The grinding method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the grinding with the other grindstone is performed with a predetermined time delay from the grinding with the predetermined grindstone.
  6. 前記予め定めた砥石を、研削加工終了後においても工作物の研削対象面に接触したままの状態で待機させ、前記他の砥石の研削加工終了後に、予め定めた砥石と他の砥石とを同時に工作物から遅い速度で離間させ、その後、速い速度で離間させることを特徴とする請求項1から請求項5までのいずれか一つに記載の研削方法。The predetermined grindstone is kept in a state of being in contact with the surface to be ground of the workpiece even after the completion of the grinding, and after the grinding of the other grindstone, the predetermined grindstone and the other grindstone are simultaneously placed. The grinding method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the workpiece is separated from the workpiece at a low speed and then separated at a high speed.
JP2002203642A 2002-07-12 2002-07-12 Grinding method Active JP3878519B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2002203642A JP3878519B2 (en) 2002-07-12 2002-07-12 Grinding method

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2002203642A JP3878519B2 (en) 2002-07-12 2002-07-12 Grinding method
EP20030015801 EP1380385B1 (en) 2002-07-12 2003-07-10 Method of simultaneously grinding a plurality of grinding portions on a workpiece
US10/617,053 US7037173B2 (en) 2002-07-12 2003-07-11 Method of grinding

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2004042199A true JP2004042199A (en) 2004-02-12
JP3878519B2 JP3878519B2 (en) 2007-02-07

Family

ID=29728526

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP2002203642A Active JP3878519B2 (en) 2002-07-12 2002-07-12 Grinding method

Country Status (3)

Country Link
US (1) US7037173B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1380385B1 (en)
JP (1) JP3878519B2 (en)

Families Citing this family (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP4730944B2 (en) * 2004-06-04 2011-07-20 コマツNtc株式会社 Multi-head grinding machine and grinding method using multi-head grinding machine
JP5058460B2 (en) * 2005-07-11 2012-10-24 Ntn株式会社 LATHE WITH POLISHING DEVICE AND SHAFT WORK PROCESSING METHOD USING THE SAME
EP2162260B1 (en) * 2007-06-13 2010-10-13 EMAG Holding GmbH Method for grinding cams of a camshaft
JP5359320B2 (en) * 2009-01-29 2013-12-04 株式会社ジェイテクト Machine Tools
US8299743B2 (en) * 2009-01-29 2012-10-30 Jtekt Corporation Machine tool and controlling method thereof
DE102009047913A1 (en) * 2009-09-22 2011-03-31 Schaudt Mikrosa Gmbh Grinding machine for grinding workpieces
WO2012090124A2 (en) * 2010-12-29 2012-07-05 Ecolab Usa Inc. IN SITU GENERATION OF PEROXYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS AT ALKALINE pH, AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF
DE102012012331B4 (en) * 2011-07-28 2016-03-03 Emag Holding Gmbh machine tool
EP2769806B1 (en) * 2013-02-21 2014-12-17 Supfina Grieshaber GmbH & Co. KG Device and system for finishing a workpiece in the form of a crankshaft or a camshaft
US11040430B2 (en) * 2016-02-29 2021-06-22 Charles Neff Texture pattern for abrasive tool
US10654144B2 (en) * 2018-01-17 2020-05-19 Dave Phelps Spindle reconditioning system

Family Cites Families (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5371973A (en) * 1992-09-30 1994-12-13 Western Atlas Inc. Grinding machine utilizing multiple, parallel, abrasive belts simultaneously grinding surfaces on a workpiece
US5529531A (en) * 1994-12-23 1996-06-25 Western Atlas Corporation Tapered bearing for drive drum assembly of grinding machine utilizing multiple, parallel abrasive belts
GB9615511D0 (en) * 1996-07-24 1996-09-04 Western Atlas Uk Ltd Improvements relating to grinding methods and apparatus
US5975995A (en) * 1997-06-25 1999-11-02 Unova Ip Corp. Machining apparatus and method
JP3649037B2 (en) * 1999-04-14 2005-05-18 豊田工機株式会社 Compound grinding machine
JP3787248B2 (en) * 1999-09-30 2006-06-21 株式会社ジェイテクト Method and apparatus for controlling sizing of machine tool

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JP3878519B2 (en) 2007-02-07
EP1380385A1 (en) 2004-01-14
US7037173B2 (en) 2006-05-02
US20040009741A1 (en) 2004-01-15
EP1380385B1 (en) 2012-05-02

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US8360819B2 (en) Method for grinding a machine part, and grinding machine for carrying out said method
JP4140574B2 (en) Method and apparatus for grinding a cam having a concave surface
EP1380385B1 (en) Method of simultaneously grinding a plurality of grinding portions on a workpiece
SK9052000A3 (en) Method and device for polishing workpieces with a simultaneous superfinish
KR20160133494A (en) Method and device for grinding large crankshafts
US4621463A (en) Method of grinding cams on a camshaft
JP2008073838A (en) Traverse grinding device and grinding method
JP3071640B2 (en) Deep hole inner surface grinding method for workpieces
JP2003103460A (en) Method and device for grinding workpiece surface into superfinished surface having oil retaining part
JP6127657B2 (en) Truing method for rotating wheel and grinding machine for carrying out the truing method
US2047041A (en) Method of abrading workpieces
JP3907977B2 (en) Crankshaft grinding method and grinding apparatus
JP2003291069A (en) Grinding wheel for grinder and grinding method using grinding wheel
JP2010201539A (en) Grindstone forming method
JP2020179431A (en) Dressing method for grinding wheel and correction device for grinding wheel
JPH1177493A (en) Grinding device and grinding method
JP5668486B2 (en) Truing method and grinding machine
JP2020121393A (en) Metal component manufacturing method and metal component
JP2013240871A (en) Method of dressing rotary grinding wheel, rotary grinding wheel, and grinding method
JP2012091285A (en) Grinding method, grinding system, and multifunction grinding machine
JP2012091284A (en) Grinding method and multifunction grinding machine
JP2003136385A (en) End face machining method and device
JPH05162005A (en) Turning machine with cutting tool forming function
JP5262577B2 (en) Grinding method and grinding machine
KR20160013463A (en) Minuteness multi-form dressing processing equipment and method

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
A621 Written request for application examination

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A621

Effective date: 20050330

A711 Notification of change in applicant

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A712

Effective date: 20060301

A131 Notification of reasons for refusal

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A131

Effective date: 20060815

A521 Written amendment

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A523

Effective date: 20061002

TRDD Decision of grant or rejection written
A01 Written decision to grant a patent or to grant a registration (utility model)

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A01

Effective date: 20061031

A61 First payment of annual fees (during grant procedure)

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: A61

Effective date: 20061102

R150 Certificate of patent or registration of utility model

Ref document number: 3878519

Country of ref document: JP

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R150

Free format text: JAPANESE INTERMEDIATE CODE: R150

FPAY Renewal fee payment (event date is renewal date of database)

Free format text: PAYMENT UNTIL: 20101110

Year of fee payment: 4

FPAY Renewal fee payment (event date is renewal date of database)

Free format text: PAYMENT UNTIL: 20111110

Year of fee payment: 5

FPAY Renewal fee payment (event date is renewal date of database)

Free format text: PAYMENT UNTIL: 20121110

Year of fee payment: 6

FPAY Renewal fee payment (event date is renewal date of database)

Free format text: PAYMENT UNTIL: 20121110

Year of fee payment: 6

FPAY Renewal fee payment (event date is renewal date of database)

Free format text: PAYMENT UNTIL: 20131110

Year of fee payment: 7