JP2004016234A - Method for cultivating globefish and method for detoxifying globefish using the method - Google Patents

Method for cultivating globefish and method for detoxifying globefish using the method Download PDF

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JP2004016234A
JP2004016234A JP2003135773A JP2003135773A JP2004016234A JP 2004016234 A JP2004016234 A JP 2004016234A JP 2003135773 A JP2003135773 A JP 2003135773A JP 2003135773 A JP2003135773 A JP 2003135773A JP 2004016234 A JP2004016234 A JP 2004016234A
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puffer fish
fish
blowfish
cultivating
puffer
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JP2003135773A
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JP3814670B2 (en
Inventor
Tamao Noguchi
野口 玉雄
Osamu Arakawa
荒川  修
Tomohiro Takatani
高谷 智裕
Seiji Yamaguchi
山口 聖二
Kunihiro Itaya
板谷 國博
Akihide Ogawa
小川 明秀
Masataka Kinashi
木梨 雅孝
Yoshihisa Ota
太田 善久
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KINASHI FUGU KYUSHUTEN KK
OGAWA SUISAN KK
TAKASHIMA AO GYOGYO KYODO KUMIAI
Manbou Corp
Kanmonkai Co Ltd
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KINASHI FUGU KYUSHUTEN KK
OGAWA SUISAN KK
TAKASHIMA AO GYOGYO KYODO KUMIAI
Manbou Corp
Kanmonkai Co Ltd
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a method for cultivating globefishes, wherein the globefishes are detoxified thereby. <P>SOLUTION: The method for cultivating globefishes comprises cultivating under circumstances blocking out benthonic organisms such as polyclad, nemertinean, chaetognath, crab, small conch, skeleton shrimp, asteroids, globefishes, Gobius crinigeri, Hapalochlaena maculosa, carnivorous conch, Tachypleus tridentatus and chaetognath. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2004,JPO

Description

【0001】
【発明の属する技術分野】
本発明は、フグの養殖方法及びそれを用いたフグの無毒化方法に関し、特に、底生性生物を遮断した環境下におけるフグの養殖方法及びそれを用いたフグの無毒化方法に関する。
【0002】
【従来の技術】
一般に、フグの養殖方法として、湾を仕切って5月から6月にかけて4千〜4千五百尾の稚魚を仕切った区域内に入れ次の年の10月ころまで育てる方法が知られている。フグの稚魚は体重1〜10g程度であるがわずか1年で300〜400gまでに成長、出荷段階で0.7〜1.3kgまで急成長する。
【0003】
フグはハマチやタイに比べ市場価格が高く、病気に注意すれば、採算性が高い養殖魚といえる。
【0004】
そして、古来より、フグが有毒である事が知られている一方、フグは美味で、昔から人に食され、特に筋肉、肝臓、及び白子が好まれていた。
【0005】
このようなことから、現在では盛んに養殖が行なわれている。
【0006】
【発明が解決しようとする課題】
しかし、上述の養殖法においては、天然フグと同様に、毒性を有するフグが多数存在していた。特に湾を仕切る粗放的な養殖においては、毒性を有するものが多く存在していたが、一部の生け簀養殖においても毒性を有するものが存在していた。
【0007】
一方、一部の地域においては、伝統食品としてフグ肝が生産されていた事実もあった。これは、同種のフグ間においても、毒性を有するものと有しないものとが存在するという理由からである。したがって、フグの中には、一般に有毒と知られているものであっても無毒化したフグも存在していた。元来有毒のフグがどのような過程で、無毒化されるに至ったのか判明すれば、再び、伝統食品としてフグ肝のみならず、フグが安心して食卓に提供されることとなりうる。
【0008】
しかし、何故にこのような毒を有するフグと毒を有しないフグとが同種のフグ間においてさえ存在するのかについてこれまで詳細な研究調査がなされていない。
【0009】
そこで、本発明の目的は、フグを無毒化し得るフグの養殖方法を提供することにある。
【0010】
【課題を解決するための手段】
上記目的を達成するために、発明者らは、長年に渡ってフグ毒を鋭意研究した結果、フグ毒の由来は食物連鎖である事を見出し、本発明に至った。
【0011】
本発明のフグの養殖方法は、底生性生物を遮断した環境下、養殖することを特徴とする。
【0012】
また、本発明のフグの養殖方法の好ましい実施態様において、底生性生物が、フグ毒を生産するバクテリアを含む生物であることを特徴とする。
【0013】
また、本発明のフグの養殖方法の好ましい実施態様において、底生性生物が、ヒラムシ、ヒモムシ、ヤムシ、カニ、小型巻き貝、ワレカラ、ヒトデ類、フグ類、ツムギハゼ、ヒョウモンダコ、肉食性巻き貝、カブトガニ、ヤムシからなる群から選択される少なくとも1種であることを特徴とする。
【0014】
また、本発明のフグの養殖方法の好ましい実施態様において、底生性生物の遮断を、囲い養殖法により行なうことを特徴とする。
また、本発明のフグの養殖方法の好ましい実施態様において、囲い養殖法が、網生け簀養殖、又は陸上養殖であることを特徴とする。
【0015】
また、本発明のフグの養殖方法の好ましい実施態様において、網生け簀養殖において、海底から網を離して行なうことを特徴とする。
【0016】
また、本発明のフグの養殖方法の好ましい実施態様において、海底から10m以上網を離して行なうことを特徴とする。
【0017】
また、本発明のフグの無毒化方法は、請求項1〜7項記載の養殖方法により養殖することによって、フグを実質的に無毒化することを特徴とする。
【0018】
また、本発明のフグの無毒化方法の好ましい実施態様において、ふ化後15週間以内のフグを養殖することを特徴とする。
【0019】
また、本発明のフグの無毒化方法の好ましい実施態様において、前記フグの、肝臓、生殖巣(精巣、卵巣)、その他の内臓を無毒化することを特徴とする。
【0020】
【発明の実施の形態】
本発明のフグの養殖方法は、底生性生物を遮断した環境下で養殖する。これは、フグ毒の由来は食物連鎖によるものであるとの知見に基づき、フグは、毒を保有している底生性生物を好んで食する事を見出し、これを遮断することにより、フグを無毒化しようとするためである。
【0021】
ここで、底生性生物とは、フグ毒を生産するバクテリアを含む生物であることを意図する。このような生物は通常海底に生息しており、例えば、ヒラムシ、ヒモムシ、ヤムシ、カニ、小型巻き貝、ワレカラ、ヒトデ類、フグ類、ツムギハゼ、ヒョウモンダコ、肉食性巻き貝、カブトガニ、ヤムシからなる群から選択される少なくとも1種を挙げることができる。本発明において、底生性生物を遮断して養殖を行なうのは、底生性生物をフグが好んで食することによりフグが毒化することが判明した事による。すなわち、フグの毒は、食物連鎖によるものであり、どのような養殖法によっても、典型的には、例えば、湾を仕切る粗放的な養殖等、海底に生息する底生性生物を遮断せずに行なえば、フグは、底生性生物を好んで食し、次第に内臓等に毒が蓄積していき、毒化すると考えられる。
【0022】
底生性生物の遮断は、囲い養殖により行なうことができる。囲い養殖としては、網生け簀養殖、陸上養殖を挙げることができるが、いずれの方法による場合でも、これらの方法をそのまま用いるのではなく、底生性生物を遮断した環境下で行なう必要がある。底生性生物の遮断の方法の一例を示すと以下の通りとなる。まず、囲い養殖法を例に説明すれば、養殖に用いる網を海底から離す様にする事が必要である。すなわち、毒保有のカニ、ヒトデなどが網に接触しない様にする必要がある。あるいは、接触したとしても網の目を細かくしておく事により、養殖場内に底生性生物が混入しない様にする事が好ましい。
【0023】
海底から網の距離は、好ましくは、海底から10m以上、より好ましくは20m以上である。海底との距離があまりに短いと、粗放的な養殖と同様に、養殖場内に底生性生物が侵入してくる場合もあり、誤って養殖フグがこれらを食するおそれがあるからである。
【0024】
また、網の目の大きさについては、海底からの網の距離を十分とった場合には、養殖フグが逃げない大きさである限り限定されないが、海底からの距離が10m未満の場合、網の目を4mm 〜10mmとするのが好ましい。この程度の網の目であれば、たとえ網の中へ未成熟の底生性生物が侵入したとしても毒性が極めて低いので、後述するフグの無毒化には影響を与えないと考えられるからである。
【0025】
また、底生性生物を遮断する環境を維持するために、一旦、底生性生物を遮断する環境が得られれば、養殖場を固定する必要がある。なぜなら、潮の流れ等により、養殖場が浅瀬に流される場合もあり、この場合、底生性生物に養殖用の網が接触するおそれがあるからである。
【0026】
固定化の方法は特に限定されないが、複数箇所において、例えば、いかだに固定したロープを繋いだアンカーを海底に打ち固定する事ができる。これによって、いかだが流されない様に、ひいては、網が海底に接近しない様にする事ができる。
【0027】
ここで、囲い養殖法の一例を図1を用いて説明する。図1Aは、囲い養殖用の網を斜視図で示したものであり、図中、1はフロート、2は鋼管、3は網である。すなわち、囲い養殖法に用いる装置としては、少なくともフロート、筏、網、及び装置固定用アンカーを備える。フロート1は、発泡スチロール等、網及び鋼管を沈ませないほどの浮力を有するものであれば特に限定されない。筏の材質は特に限定されないが、例えば、鋼管2等のある程度強度を有するものである。網3の材質も特に限定されず例えば、化繊等を挙げることができる。網3の網目は、フグが逃げ出さない程度であれば、特に限定されない。但し、網が海底に十分近い場合、例えば10m以内等では、底生性生物が混入しないように、網目を細かくする必要がある。このような網目は、4〜10mmの範囲である。アンカーは、主として海底から一定の距離を確保するために装置を固定するためのものである。
【0028】
網について、簡単に説明すれば、稚魚サイズが5cm〜12cm(稚魚重量50g)ほどの間では、 網目を、4〜20mmの範囲とするのが好ましい。魚サイズ12cm〜20cm(魚重量50〜200g)ほどの間では、網目を、8〜20mmの範囲とするのが好ましい。魚サイズ20cm〜30cm(魚重量600gまで)ほどの間では、網目を、18〜40mmの範囲とするのが好ましい。魚サイズ30cm〜50cm(魚重量1000〜1500g)ほどの間では、網目を、35〜60mmの範囲とするのが好ましい。このような養殖を、図1Aに示す点線で鋼管を仕切って行なってもよい。すなわち、成長時期に合わせて筏を区分けして成長の異なるフグを同時に養殖しても良い。
【0029】
これに対して、陸上養殖法においては、囲い養殖と異なり、養殖当初に底生性生物を遮断した環境を準備すれば、ほとんどの場合、当該環境を維持する事ができる。したがって、陸上養殖法においては、養殖を開始する時期に、底生性生物が混入している場合は、積極的に除去する必要がある。
【0030】
しかしながら、陸上養殖法においても、底生性生物の卵等が当初から養殖場に混入していれば、次第に底生性生物が成長、増殖するおそれがある。このような場合には、適当な濾過装置を用いて養殖場の海水を濾過して、底生性生物を除去しつつ養殖をすることができる。このような濾過装置は、特別のものを用意する必要は必ずしもなく、底生性生物の卵等が除去できる限り特に限定されない。
【0031】
例えば、図を用いて、本発明における陸上養殖法の一例を示せば以下の通りになる。図4は、取水方法の一例を示す。図4に示す取水装置は、少なくとも、水中ポンプ、濾過機、貯水槽を備える。図4に基づき説明すると、海水21を水中ポンプ20によって貯水槽23まで汲み上げる。この貯水槽23は、より慎重に取水するために設けたものであり、必ず必要なものではなく、したがって、水中ポンプから汲み上げた海水を直接的に濾過機へ導入しても良い。貯水槽23から送水ポンプ22で濾過機24へ送水する。濾過機24において、濾過しつつ、塩素等により殺菌、滅菌処理することができる。これによって、底生性生物を除去することができる。濾過、殺菌された海水は、非常用、補給用等のために貯水槽で一時保存される。なお、濾過、殺菌された海水を直接飼育槽に導入しても良い。
【0032】
図2は、飼育槽及び飼育槽内を循環する海水の様子を示したものである。すなわち陸上養殖装置を説明したものである。陸上養殖装置は、飼育槽、濾過槽、温度調整槽、曝気装置、酸素供給装置を備える。濾過槽は、底生性生物の混入が永続的に保つことをより確実にするため、複数の濾過槽を設けても良い。たとえば、以下では、一次、二次、三次の3段階の濾過槽を用いた場合について説明する。海水の流れに沿って説明すると、飼育槽からポンプ(図示せず)を通じて、一次濾過槽6へ海水を送水する。一次濾過槽6では、主にSS除去を行なう。SSとは、浮遊物質量(Suspended Solids)の略称で、水中に浮遊又は懸濁している直径2mm以下の粒子状物質をいう。これには、粘土鉱物による微粒子、動植物プランクトンやその死骸、下水、工場廃水などに由来する有機物や金属の沈澱物が含まれている。
【0033】
一次濾過槽6で濾過された海水は循環ポンプ7を通して二次濾過槽8へ送水される。二次濾過槽8では海水を電気分解して得られた塩素で殺菌、滅菌する。殺菌、滅菌された海水は、三次濾過槽9へ送られる。三次濾過槽9では、主として、生物による濾過が行われる。すなわち、好気性細菌による濾過を行なう。
【0034】
このようにして濾過された海水は、必要に応じて、温度調整、曝気調整、酸素調整されて、元の飼育槽へ戻る。温度調整は、温度調整槽11で行なうことができ、ここでは、冷凍機10などの温度調整機能を有する器具を備える。この温度調整槽によって、夏場など海水が高温に達することにより、飼育に問題が生じた場合に対処することができる。一般に飼育槽内の海水が25℃以上となると魚に影響を及ぼすので、適宜冷却するのが好ましい。
【0035】
また、曝気は、濃縮酸素を濾過海水に強制的に混入するもので、これによって、酸素を供給する。また、曝気の主たる目的は、窒素ガスや炭酸ガスの放出にある。SSを除去した飼育水を硝化細菌の働きでアンモニア態窒素→亜硝酸態窒素→硝酸態窒素に変え水中から放出する。また、飼育魚やろ過システム中の細菌が呼吸することによって水中に排泄する炭酸ガスもこのシステムで大気中に放出する。したがって、以上が順調に進まないと酸素の溶入が困難となる。水中に溶け込む酸素量には限度があり循環システムでは酸素を過飽和に溶け込ませる技術が求められる。
酸素供給においては、大気(空気)中の酸素を濃縮し、循環ろ過システムでクリーニングされた海水に溶入する。エアレーションでは大気の温度が海水に影響を与えるため、酸素濃度を高めるシステムでは曝気は最小限に留めることが望ましい。濃縮酸素の代わりに、液体酸素(純酸素)を溶入してもよい。
なお、排水処理は、SS除去後、生物濾過槽を経由して塩素で滅菌して行なう。
【0036】
このように、まず、取水処理時に海水を殺菌、滅菌処理し、さらに、飼育時においても海水を循環させて殺菌、滅菌処理することにより、底生性生物の卵、幼生等が海水に混入されていたとしても、未然に飼育槽から遮断することが可能となる。
【0037】
なお、その他の養殖法に関しては、通常の養殖法に従う。例えば、フグは雑食であるので、餌として特に限定されることはないが、通常の餌は、例えば、発酵魚粉、市販魚粉餌料、アジ、サバ、アミ等の生餌等である。本発明においては、上述の底生性生物を遮断した環境下、これらの通常の餌をフグに与えることができる。
【0038】
次に、本発明のフグの無毒化方法について説明する。本発明のフグの無毒化方法においては、上述した本発明の養殖方法により養殖することによって、フグを実質的に無毒化する。
【0039】
ここで、実質的に無毒化とは、人体に害を及ぼすおそれがない10MU/g未満をいう。具体的な養殖方法については、上述の説明を本発明の無毒化方法にそのまま引用する事ができる。
【0040】
また、ふ化後15週間以内のフグを前述の本発明のフグの養殖法を用いて養殖することにより、実質的に無毒化することができる。ふ化後15週間以内のものであれば、あまり成長していないので、フグが元来保有する毒量も少なく、かかる段階のフグを上述の養殖法により養殖すれば、フグの無毒化を達成できる。
【0041】
なお、ある程度成長したフグの場合、天然の有毒魚であれ、毒餌を摂取し毒化した養殖魚であれ、殆ど毒が抜ける事がなく、1〜3年の間毒を保持しつづける傾向がある。この観点から、ある程度成長したフグに関しては、十分長い間、上記本発明の養殖法で養殖する必要がある。
【0042】
また、本発明の好ましい実施態様において、前記フグの、肝臓、生殖巣(精巣、卵巣)、その他の内臓を無毒化する。これらは、フグ毒が、食物連鎖によるものであるとの知見に基づき、上述の底生性生物を遮断した環境下で行なうことにより、毒の由来を絶つことによる結果、フグが無毒化することを見出したことによるものである。
【0043】
【実施例】
以下、本発明を実施例により更に具体的に説明するが、本発明は、下記実施例に限定して解釈されることを意図するものではない。
【0044】
実施例1
体重3kgの雌の天然魚及び養殖魚から採卵し、卵に養殖の雄親の精子をかけて人工授精させ、次いでふ化させて稚魚を得た。孵化稚魚を陸上で10〜11週位まで飼育し、人口餌料やミンチ肉を与えて飼育できるようになった後、屋外施設に収容し、その約9〜11日後海面いけすにうつした。これは、フグはタイやヒラメに比べて体形が水流を受けやすいので、水質、水流のコントロールが飼育し易い施設で飼育するのが好ましいからである。特に、海面いけすでは波や風の影響を受けやすく、稚魚がいけす網ですれるおそれもある。
このように、稚魚を室内で数週間程度アルテミア、ミジンコなどの飼料で飼育し、その後囲い養殖用の種苗に用いた。
【0045】
網生け簀養殖用の概念図を図1に示す。図1A中、1はフロート、2は鋼管(60mm)、3は網である。フロートとしては、発泡スチロールを用いた。網3としては、縦10m×横10m×深さ4mのものを用いた。実際に、深さ4mの網を海底から10m以上離し、底生性生物が接触しない様に十分注意した。
【0046】
稚魚のサイズ12cm以下までは、図1に示す筏を4分割して、4〜10mmの網を用いて、5〜10週間の間養殖した。その後は、8〜37mmの網に稚魚を移し、6〜14ヵ月の間養殖した。養殖中は、1日に2〜5回、イワシ、サバ、アジなどの市販の魚粉餌料を与え、1〜3年間飼育した。
【0047】
最終的に、養殖したフグの毒性を検査した。毒性の検査に用いたフグは、全部で2,295尾であった。このうち、2,245尾は肝臓、25尾は卵巣、残り25尾は筋肉、肝臓、皮膚、生殖巣及びその他の内臓について検査した。この結果、すべてのトラフグのこれらの部位について毒性値は、いずれも2MU/g未満であり、非常に安全な値が得られた。
【0048】
実施例2
実施例1と同様に、4週間程飼育した稚魚を用いて、今度は、陸上養殖方式によって、養殖を行なった。
【0049】
図2は、飼育用の海水を殺菌濾過しながら行なう方法の一例を示す。図3は、排水処理のフローを示す。
【0050】
陸上養殖方式では、100トン水槽(直径10m)の底に砂を敷詰め、海水を循環させて養殖を行なった。取水は海面養殖場から1km近く離れた場所で水深3m程の中層からポンプアップすることにより、図4に示すようなシステムを通じて行なった。
【0051】
これを300m程離れた養殖場の高架貯水タンク(100トン)に濾過機を通して一時貯水した。この海水は飼育槽の補充用と緊急用としてストックし、逆洗や機材の洗浄水は水道水を使用した。
【0052】
飼育槽の海水は蒸発分と餌の脂肪分を表面から取り除く分(飼育水の5〜10%/日)を除きSS除去、生物濾過、酸素溶入をし循環再利用した。図2に示すシステムを用いて、海水を循環させつつフグの飼育を行なった。一次濾過槽では、主として、SS除去し、二次濾過槽では、海水を電気分解して得た塩素で殺菌、滅菌し、三次濾過槽では、生物濾過(好気性細菌による濾過)を行なった。なお、必要に応じて、曝気装置により、濾過海水に濃縮酸素を強制的に溶入し(純酸素を利用する装置もある)、また、温度調整槽(冷凍機)により、温度調整を行なった。飼育魚に問題が起きるのは主として高水温なので最高水温を26℃に押える事を目的に使用した。 排水処理はSS除去後、生物濾過槽を経由して塩素で滅菌して行なった。
【0053】
このような飼育槽内で、1日に2回〜5回イワシ、サバ、アジや市販の魚粉飼料を与えることにより、1〜3年間飼育した。
【0054】
このような飼育方法によって、飼育したトラフグ114尾の肝臓、精巣、卵巣、その他の内臓の毒性試験を実施例1と同様に行なった結果、すべてのトラフグの各部位における毒性値は、いずれも2MU/g未満であり、非常に安全な値が得られた。
【0055】
【発明の効果】
本発明のフグの養殖方法は、フグを実質的に無毒化することができるという有利な効果を奏する。
【図面の簡単な説明】
【図1】囲い養殖用の網の一例を斜視図で示す。
【図2】飼育用の海水を殺菌濾過しながら行なう方法の一例を示す。
【図3】排水処理のフローの一例を示す。
【図4】取水方法の一例を示す。
【符号の説明】
1 フロート
2 鋼管
3 網
4 ポンプ
5 飼育槽
6 一次濾過槽
7 循環ポンプ
8 二次濾過槽
9 三次濾過槽
10 冷凍機
11 温度調製槽
12 曝気装置
13 酸素供給装置
14 洗浄水
15 殺菌水
16 排水調整槽
17 薬液タンク
18 薬液ポンプ
19 側溝
20 水中ポンプ
21 海
22 送水ポンプ
23 貯水槽
24 濾過機
25 機械室
[0001]
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a method of cultivating puffer fish and a method of detoxifying puffer fish using the same, and more particularly, to a method of cultivating puffer fish in an environment where benthic organisms are shielded, and a method of detoxifying puffer fish using the same.
[0002]
[Prior art]
Generally, as a method of cultivating puffer fish, a method is known in which 4,000 to 450,500 juveniles are placed in a partitioned area from May to June after partitioning the bay and raised until around October of the following year. . Fugu larvae weigh about 1-10 g, but grow to 300-400 g in just one year, and grow rapidly to 0.7-1.3 kg at the shipping stage.
[0003]
Fugu has a higher market price than hamachi and Thailand, and if you pay attention to diseases, it can be said that it is a highly profitable cultured fish.
[0004]
And since ancient times, puffer fish has been known to be toxic, while puffer fish is delicious and has long been eaten by humans, with muscles, liver, and milt being particularly favored.
[0005]
For these reasons, aquaculture is now actively practiced.
[0006]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
However, in the above-described aquaculture method, there were many toxic puffer fish like natural puffer fish. In particular, in the extensive farming that partitions the bay, there were many toxic ones, but also in some cage cultivation there was one that was toxic.
[0007]
On the other hand, in some areas, there was the fact that puffer liver was produced as a traditional food. This is because among the same type of puffer fish, some have toxicity and some do not. Therefore, some puffer fish, which are generally known as poisonous, have been detoxified. If it becomes clear how the originally toxic puffer fish became detoxified in the process, it will be possible to provide the puffer fish not only as a traditional food but also as a traditional food at the table with confidence.
[0008]
However, no detailed research has been conducted so far on why such a poisonous puffer fish and a non-poisonous puffer fish exist even among the same kind of puffer fish.
[0009]
Therefore, an object of the present invention is to provide a method for cultivating a blowfish that can detoxify the blowfish.
[0010]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to achieve the above object, the present inventors have conducted intensive studies on puffer venom for many years, and as a result, have found that the origin of puffer venom is a food chain, leading to the present invention.
[0011]
The method for cultivating puffer fish according to the present invention is characterized in that culturing is performed in an environment in which benthic organisms are shielded.
[0012]
In a preferred embodiment of the method for cultivating puffer fish according to the present invention, the benthic organism is an organism containing a bacterium that produces puffer fish venom.
[0013]
Further, in a preferred embodiment of the method for cultivating puffer fish of the present invention, the benthic organisms are: aphid, a caterpillar, a yam, a crab, a small conch, a starfish, a starfish, a puffer fish, a thrush, a leopard monk, a carnivorous conch, a horseshoe crab, and a yamushi. At least one selected from the group consisting of
[0014]
In a preferred embodiment of the method for cultivating puffer fish according to the present invention, the method of blocking benthic organisms is performed by an enclosure culture method.
In a preferred embodiment of the method for cultivating puffer fish according to the present invention, the pen culture method is net cage culture or land culture.
[0015]
In a preferred embodiment of the method for cultivating puffer fish of the present invention, net cultivation is carried out with nets separated from the seabed in net cage culture.
[0016]
In a preferred embodiment of the method for cultivating puffer fish according to the present invention, the method is carried out with a net separated from the seabed by at least 10 m.
[0017]
Further, the method for detoxifying puffer fish according to the present invention is characterized by substantially detoxifying puffer fish by culturing by the aquaculture method according to claims 1 to 7.
[0018]
In a preferred embodiment of the method for detoxifying puffer fish according to the present invention, the puffer fish is cultured within 15 weeks after hatching.
[0019]
In a preferred embodiment of the method for detoxifying puffer fish according to the present invention, the liver, gonads (testis, ovary) and other internal organs of the puffer fish are detoxified.
[0020]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
The method for cultivating puffer fish according to the present invention is to cultivate in an environment where benthic organisms are shielded. This is based on the finding that the origin of puffer fish venom is based on the food chain, and found that puffer fish prefers to eat benthic organisms that possess poison, and by blocking this, fugu is protected. This is to try to detoxify.
[0021]
Here, the benthic organism is intended to be an organism containing bacteria that produce pufferfish venom. Such organisms usually inhabit the ocean floor, and are selected from the group consisting of, for example, grouped beetles, caterpillars, yambugs, crabs, small snails, walkers, starfish, puffers, thrush, gobys, carnivorous snails, horseshoe crabs, and yams. At least one of the above. In the present invention, the reason why aquaculture is performed by blocking benthic organisms is that it has been found that pufferfish prefers to eat benthic organisms, thereby poisoning puffer fish. That is, puffer fish poisoning is due to the food chain, and any aquaculture method typically does not block benthic organisms that live on the ocean floor, such as, for example, extensive farming that partitions bays. If carried out, puffer fish will prefer to eat benthic organisms, and the poison will gradually accumulate in the internal organs and the like and become poisoned.
[0022]
Blockage of benthic organisms can be achieved by pen culture. As the pen culture, net cage culture and land culture can be mentioned. However, in any case, these methods need to be performed in an environment where benthic organisms are shielded, instead of using these methods as they are. An example of a method for blocking benthic organisms is as follows. First, using the enclosure culture method as an example, it is necessary to keep the net used for aquaculture away from the seabed. That is, it is necessary to prevent poisonous crabs and starfish from coming into contact with the net. Alternatively, it is preferable to keep the mesh fine so that benthic organisms do not enter the farm.
[0023]
The distance of the net from the seabed is preferably at least 10 m from the seabed, more preferably at least 20 m. If the distance from the seabed is too short, benthic organisms may invade the farm, as in the case of extensive farming, and the farmed puffer fish may erroneously eat them.
[0024]
Further, the size of the mesh is not limited as long as the cultured puffer fish does not escape if the distance from the sea bottom is sufficient, but if the distance from the sea bottom is less than 10 m, the size of the net is not limited. Is preferably 4 mm to 10 mm. This is because even if immature benthic organisms infiltrate into the net, the toxicity is extremely low, and it is considered that this will not affect the detoxification of puffer fish, which will be described later. .
[0025]
In addition, in order to maintain an environment for blocking benthic organisms, it is necessary to fix the farm once the environment for blocking benthic organisms is obtained. This is because the cultivation site may be washed away by a tide or the like in the shallow water, and in this case, a net for aquaculture may come into contact with benthic organisms.
[0026]
The method of immobilization is not particularly limited. For example, an anchor connected to a raft fixed rope can be hit and fixed to the sea floor at a plurality of locations. This will prevent the raft from being washed away, and thus the net from approaching the seabed.
[0027]
Here, an example of the enclosure culture method will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 1A is a perspective view showing an enclosure culture net, in which 1 is a float, 2 is a steel pipe, and 3 is a net. That is, the apparatus used for the enclosure culture method includes at least a float, a raft, a net, and an anchor for fixing the apparatus. The float 1 is not particularly limited as long as it has a buoyancy such as styrofoam or the like that does not sink the net and the steel pipe. The material of the raft is not particularly limited. For example, the raft has a certain strength such as a steel pipe 2 or the like. The material of the net 3 is not particularly limited, and examples thereof include synthetic fibers. The mesh of the net 3 is not particularly limited as long as the blowfish does not escape. However, when the net is sufficiently close to the seabed, for example, within 10 m, it is necessary to make the mesh fine so that benthic organisms are not mixed. Such meshes range from 4 to 10 mm. The anchor is mainly for fixing the device in order to secure a certain distance from the sea floor.
[0028]
To briefly explain the net, it is preferable that the mesh is in the range of 4 to 20 mm when the size of the fry is about 5 cm to 12 cm (fry weight 50 g). When the fish size is about 12 cm to 20 cm (fish weight is 50 to 200 g), it is preferable that the mesh is in the range of 8 to 20 mm. When the fish size is about 20 cm to 30 cm (up to a fish weight of 600 g), the mesh is preferably in the range of 18 to 40 mm. When the fish size is about 30 cm to 50 cm (fish weight is about 1000 to 1500 g), it is preferable that the mesh is in the range of 35 to 60 mm. Such aquaculture may be performed by partitioning the steel pipe by the dotted line shown in FIG. 1A. That is, the raft may be divided according to the growing season, and the puffer fish of different growth may be cultured at the same time.
[0029]
On the other hand, in the land farming method, unlike the pen farming, if an environment in which benthic organisms are shielded at the beginning of the farming is prepared, the environment can be maintained in most cases. Therefore, in the onshore aquaculture method, it is necessary to actively remove benthic organisms when aquaculture starts at the time of starting aquaculture.
[0030]
However, also in the land farming method, if eggs of benthic organisms and the like are mixed in the farm from the beginning, the benthic organisms may gradually grow and proliferate. In such a case, aquaculture can be performed while filtering benthic organisms by filtering the seawater of the aquaculture farm using an appropriate filtration device. It is not always necessary to prepare such a filtration device, and there is no particular limitation as long as eggs and the like of benthic organisms can be removed.
[0031]
For example, with reference to the drawings, an example of the land culture method in the present invention is as follows. FIG. 4 shows an example of a water intake method. The water intake device shown in FIG. 4 includes at least a submersible pump, a filter, and a water storage tank. Referring to FIG. 4, seawater 21 is pumped by a submersible pump 20 to a water storage tank 23. The water storage tank 23 is provided to take water more carefully and is not always necessary. Therefore, seawater pumped from a submersible pump may be directly introduced into the filter. Water is supplied from the water storage tank 23 to the filter 24 by the water supply pump 22. In the filter 24, sterilization and sterilization can be performed with chlorine or the like while filtering. Thereby, benthic organisms can be removed. The filtered and sterilized seawater is temporarily stored in a water tank for emergency use, supply, and the like. The filtered and sterilized seawater may be directly introduced into the breeding tank.
[0032]
FIG. 2 shows a breeding tank and seawater circulating in the breeding tank. That is, it describes a land aquaculture apparatus. The terrestrial aquaculture device includes a breeding tank, a filtration tank, a temperature control tank, an aeration device, and an oxygen supply device. The filtration tank may be provided with a plurality of filtration tanks to further ensure that the incorporation of benthic organisms is maintained permanently. For example, a case will be described below in which a three-stage filtration tank of primary, secondary, and tertiary is used. Explaining along the flow of seawater, seawater is sent from the breeding tank to the primary filtration tank 6 through a pump (not shown). In the primary filtration tank 6, SS removal is mainly performed. SS is an abbreviation of suspended solids, and refers to particulate matter having a diameter of 2 mm or less suspended or suspended in water. This includes particulates of clay minerals, organic and metal deposits from animal and phytoplankton and their carcasses, sewage, industrial wastewater, and the like.
[0033]
The seawater filtered in the primary filtration tank 6 is sent to a secondary filtration tank 8 through a circulation pump 7. In the secondary filtration tank 8, seawater is sterilized and sterilized with chlorine obtained by electrolysis. The sterilized and sterilized seawater is sent to the tertiary filtration tank 9. In the tertiary filtration tank 9, filtration by living organisms is mainly performed. That is, filtration by aerobic bacteria is performed.
[0034]
The seawater filtered in this way is subjected to temperature adjustment, aeration adjustment and oxygen adjustment as required, and returns to the original breeding tank. The temperature adjustment can be performed in the temperature adjustment tank 11, and here, a device having a temperature adjustment function such as the refrigerator 10 is provided. With this temperature adjustment tank, it is possible to cope with a problem in breeding when seawater reaches a high temperature such as in summer. Generally, if the seawater in the breeding tank reaches 25 ° C. or higher, it affects fish, so it is preferable to appropriately cool the seawater.
[0035]
Aeration is to forcibly mix the concentrated oxygen into the filtered seawater, thereby supplying oxygen. The main purpose of aeration is to release nitrogen gas and carbon dioxide gas. The breeding water from which SS has been removed is changed from ammonia nitrogen to nitrite nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen by the action of nitrifying bacteria and released from the water. The system also releases carbon dioxide, which is excreted into water by the breathing of bacteria in the fish and filtration systems, into the atmosphere. Therefore, if the above does not proceed smoothly, the penetration of oxygen becomes difficult. There is a limit to the amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in water, and a circulating system requires a technology that allows oxygen to be dissolved into supersaturation.
In the oxygen supply, oxygen in the atmosphere (air) is concentrated and enters into seawater cleaned by a circulation filtration system. Since the temperature of the atmosphere affects seawater during aeration, it is desirable to minimize aeration in systems that increase oxygen concentration. Liquid oxygen (pure oxygen) may be introduced instead of concentrated oxygen.
The wastewater treatment is performed by sterilizing with chlorine through a biological filtration tank after removing SS.
[0036]
As described above, first, seawater is sterilized and sterilized at the time of water intake processing, and further, seawater is circulated and sterilized and sterilized at the time of rearing, whereby eggs and larvae of benthic organisms are mixed into the seawater. Even if it does, it will be possible to shut it off from the breeding tank.
[0037]
In addition, about other aquaculture methods, it follows a normal aquaculture method. For example, since puffer fish is an omnivorous food, it is not particularly limited as a bait, but a usual bait is, for example, a fermented fish meal, a commercially available fish meal bait, a raw feed such as horse mackerel, mackerel, and ami. In the present invention, these ordinary foods can be fed to puffer fish in an environment in which the above-mentioned benthic organisms are shielded.
[0038]
Next, the method for detoxifying puffer fish according to the present invention will be described. In the method for detoxifying puffer fish according to the present invention, the puffer fish is substantially detoxified by cultivation by the above-described culture method according to the present invention.
[0039]
Here, the term “substantially detoxified” means less than 10 MU / g which does not cause harm to the human body. For the specific aquaculture method, the above description can be directly referred to the detoxification method of the present invention.
[0040]
Further, by culturing puffer fish within 15 weeks after hatching using the above-described puffer fish cultivation method of the present invention, it is possible to substantially detoxify the puffer fish. If it is less than 15 weeks after hatching, it does not grow much, so the puffer fish originally has a small amount of poison, and if the puffer fish at this stage is cultured by the above-mentioned aquaculture method, detoxification of the puffer fish can be achieved. .
[0041]
In the case of puffer fish that has grown to some extent, even if it is a natural poisonous fish or a cultured fish that has been poisoned by ingesting poison bait, the poison hardly escapes, and the poison tends to remain for 1 to 3 years. From this viewpoint, it is necessary to farm the blowfish that has grown to some extent by the above-described farming method of the present invention for a sufficiently long time.
[0042]
In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the liver, gonads (testis, ovary) and other internal organs of the puffer fish are detoxified. Based on the finding that puffer fish venom is caused by the food chain, it is suggested that by performing it in an environment in which the above-mentioned benthic organisms are shielded, by eliminating the source of the venom, the puffer fish will be detoxified. This is due to the finding.
[0043]
【Example】
Hereinafter, the present invention will be described more specifically with reference to examples. However, the present invention is not intended to be construed as being limited to the following examples.
[0044]
Example 1
Eggs were collected from female natural fish and cultured fish weighing 3 kg, and the eggs were artificially inseminated with sperm of the cultured male parent and then hatched to obtain fry. The hatched juveniles were bred on land for about 10 to 11 weeks, and after feeding them with artificial diet and minced meat, they were housed in an outdoor facility, and after about 9 to 11 days, they were transferred to the sea surface. This is because puffer fish are more susceptible to water flow than Thailand and flounder, and it is therefore preferable to breed them in a facility where water quality and water flow control are easy to breed. In particular, sea surface fishing is susceptible to the effects of waves and wind, and there is a risk that fry will be washed off by fishing nets.
In this way, the fry were bred indoors with feeds such as artemia and daphnia for several weeks, and then used as seedlings for enclosure culture.
[0045]
A conceptual diagram for net cage culture is shown in FIG. In FIG. 1A, 1 is a float, 2 is a steel pipe (60 mm), and 3 is a net. Styrofoam was used as the float. As the net 3, one having a length of 10 m × width 10 m × depth 4 m was used. Actually, a net having a depth of 4 m was separated from the seabed by 10 m or more, and sufficient care was taken so that benthic organisms did not come into contact.
[0046]
Until the size of the fry was 12 cm or less, the raft shown in FIG. 1 was divided into four and cultured using a net of 4 to 10 mm for 5 to 10 weeks. Thereafter, the fry were transferred to 8-37 mm nets and cultured for 6-14 months. During the aquaculture, commercially available fish meal feeds such as sardines, mackerel, horse mackerel, etc. were given 2 to 5 times a day and bred for 1 to 3 years.
[0047]
Finally, the cultured puffer fish were tested for toxicity. A total of 2,295 puffer fish were used for toxicity testing. Of these, 2,245 were examined for liver, 25 for ovaries, and the remaining 25 for muscle, liver, skin, gonads and other internal organs. As a result, the toxicity values for these sites in all the pufferfish were all less than 2 MU / g, and very safe values were obtained.
[0048]
Example 2
In the same manner as in Example 1, aquaculture was carried out using a fry reared for about 4 weeks, this time by an on-land aquaculture method.
[0049]
FIG. 2 shows an example of a method for performing breeding seawater while sterilizing and filtering. FIG. 3 shows a flow of the wastewater treatment.
[0050]
In the on-land aquaculture method, sand was laid on the bottom of a 100-ton aquarium (diameter: 10 m), and aquaculture was performed by circulating seawater. The water was taken through a system as shown in FIG. 4 by pumping up from the middle layer at a depth of about 3 m at a location about 1 km away from the sea farm.
[0051]
This was temporarily stored in an elevated water storage tank (100 tons) at a farm about 300 m away through a filter. This seawater was stocked for replenishment of breeding tanks and for emergency use, and tap water was used for backwashing and equipment washing.
[0052]
Seawater in the breeding tank was subjected to SS removal, biofiltration, and oxygen penetration except for evaporation (fat and 5% / day of breeding water) from the surface to remove fat and feed fat, and was recycled for circulation. Using the system shown in FIG. 2, the puffer fish were bred while circulating seawater. In the primary filtration tank, SS was mainly removed, in the secondary filtration tank, sterilization and sterilization were performed with chlorine obtained by electrolyzing seawater, and in the tertiary filtration tank, biological filtration (filtration by aerobic bacteria) was performed. If necessary, concentrated oxygen was forcibly introduced into the filtered seawater by an aeration device (some devices use pure oxygen), and the temperature was adjusted by a temperature adjustment tank (refrigerator). . The problem with the breeding fish is mainly due to the high water temperature, so it was used for the purpose of keeping the maximum water temperature at 26 ° C. The wastewater treatment was performed after removing SS, sterilizing with chlorine via a biological filtration tank.
[0053]
In such a breeding tank, sardines, mackerel, horse mackerel, and commercially available fish meal feed were fed twice to five times a day, and they were bred for 1 to 3 years.
[0054]
According to this breeding method, the liver, testis, ovary, and other viscera of 114 bred pufferfish were bred in the same manner as in Example 1. As a result, the toxic value at each site of all pufferfish was 2 MU. / G, a very safe value was obtained.
[0055]
【The invention's effect】
The puffer fish cultivation method of the present invention has an advantageous effect that the puffer fish can be substantially detoxified.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing an example of an enclosure culture net.
FIG. 2 shows an example of a method in which seawater for breeding is sterilized and filtered.
FIG. 3 shows an example of a flow of wastewater treatment.
FIG. 4 shows an example of a water intake method.
[Explanation of symbols]
DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Float 2 Steel pipe 3 Net 4 Pump 5 Breeding tank 6 Primary filtration tank 7 Circulation pump 8 Secondary filtration tank 9 Tertiary filtration tank 10 Refrigerator 11 Temperature control tank 12 Aeration device 13 Oxygen supply device 14 Cleaning water 15 Sterilization water 16 Drainage adjustment Tank 17 Chemical liquid tank 18 Chemical liquid pump 19 Gutter 20 Submersible pump 21 Sea 22 Water supply pump 23 Water storage tank 24 Filtration machine 25 Machine room

Claims (9)

孵化後15週間以内の孵化稚魚を、底生性生物を遮断した環境下、養殖して成長させるフグの養殖方法によりフグを養殖して、実質的に無毒化したフグ。A puffer fish that has been substantially detoxified by culturing puffer fish by a method of culturing puffer fish in which hatched larvae within 15 weeks after hatching are cultured and grown in an environment where benthic organisms are shielded. 当該フグの、肝臓、生殖巣(精巣、卵巣)、その他の内臓からなる群から選択される少なくとも1種の部分が無毒化したことを特徴とする請求項1記載のフグ。2. The puffer fish according to claim 1, wherein at least one portion of the puffer fish selected from the group consisting of liver, gonads (testis, ovary), and other internal organs is detoxified. 前記フグの部分が、10MU/g未満の値を有することを特徴とする請求項1又は2項に記載のフグ。3. The blowfish according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the blowfish portion has a value of less than 10 MU / g. 底生性生物が、フグ毒を生産するバクテリアを含む生物であることを特徴とする請求項1〜3項記載のフグ。The blowfish according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the benthic organism includes a bacterium that produces a blowfish venom. 底生性生物が、ヒラムシ、ヒモムシ、ヤムシ、カニ、小型巻き貝、ワレカラ、ヒトデ類、フグ類、ツムギハゼ、ヒョウモンダコ、肉食性巻き貝、カブトガニ、ヤムシからなる群から選択される少なくとも1種であることを特徴とする請求項1〜4項のいずれか1項に記載のフグ。The benthic organism is at least one member selected from the group consisting of a beetle, a caterpillar, a yam, a crab, a small conch, a scallop, a starfish, a puffer fish, a thrush, a leopard octopus, a carnivorous conch, a horseshoe crab, and a yambug. The blowfish according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein 底生性生物の遮断を、囲い養殖法により行なうフグの養殖方法にしたがって、無毒化した請求項1〜5項のいずれか1項に記載のフグ。The blowfish according to any one of claims 1 to 5, which is detoxified according to a method of cultivating a blowfish in which a benthic organism is shut off by a pen culture method. 囲い養殖法が、網生け簀養殖、又は陸上養殖である請求項6記載のフグ。7. The puffer fish according to claim 6, wherein the enclosure culture method is net cage culture or land culture. 網生け簀養殖において、海底から網生け簀用の網を離して行なう請求項7記載のフグ。8. The puffer fish according to claim 7, wherein the net for the net cage is separated from the seabed in the net cage culture. 海底から10m以上網を離して行なうフグの養殖方法にしたがって、無毒化した請求項8記載のフグ。9. The puffer fish according to claim 8, which is detoxified according to a method of cultivating puffer fish which is separated from the seabed by a distance of 10 m or more.
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CN103053451A (en) * 2012-12-24 2013-04-24 广西红树林研究中心 Piston type opening pipe inserting benthonic animal nature conservation device and application
CN104872067A (en) * 2015-05-04 2015-09-02 钦州学院 Method for increasing egg laying amount of egg-laying female tachypleus tridutatus
CN105594639A (en) * 2016-01-13 2016-05-25 中国海洋大学 Method for continuously reproducing amphithoe japonica in marspenaeus japonicas culture pond
CN106172136A (en) * 2016-07-26 2016-12-07 江苏中洋集团股份有限公司 A kind of Puffer fish artificial fecundation method in winter
JP2019208373A (en) * 2018-05-31 2019-12-12 公立大学法人大阪 Culture system

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103053451A (en) * 2012-12-24 2013-04-24 广西红树林研究中心 Piston type opening pipe inserting benthonic animal nature conservation device and application
CN104872067A (en) * 2015-05-04 2015-09-02 钦州学院 Method for increasing egg laying amount of egg-laying female tachypleus tridutatus
CN105594639A (en) * 2016-01-13 2016-05-25 中国海洋大学 Method for continuously reproducing amphithoe japonica in marspenaeus japonicas culture pond
CN106172136A (en) * 2016-07-26 2016-12-07 江苏中洋集团股份有限公司 A kind of Puffer fish artificial fecundation method in winter
CN106172136B (en) * 2016-07-26 2019-10-11 江苏中洋集团股份有限公司 A kind of fugu obscurus winter artificial fecundation method
JP2019208373A (en) * 2018-05-31 2019-12-12 公立大学法人大阪 Culture system
JP7112070B2 (en) 2018-05-31 2022-08-03 公立大学法人大阪 aquaculture system

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