JP2004006217A - Fuel cell cogeneration system - Google Patents

Fuel cell cogeneration system Download PDF

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Publication number
JP2004006217A
JP2004006217A JP2002318654A JP2002318654A JP2004006217A JP 2004006217 A JP2004006217 A JP 2004006217A JP 2002318654 A JP2002318654 A JP 2002318654A JP 2002318654 A JP2002318654 A JP 2002318654A JP 2004006217 A JP2004006217 A JP 2004006217A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
fuel cell
fuel
control device
operation mode
hot water
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Pending
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JP2002318654A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Motoharu Ataka
Katsuhiro Imai
Yuichi Nakamori
Mineo Sagara
Hiroto Takeuchi
中森 勇一
今井 克広
安宅 元晴
相良 峰雄
竹内 裕人
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Sekisui Chem Co Ltd
積水化学工業株式会社
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Application filed by Sekisui Chem Co Ltd, 積水化学工業株式会社 filed Critical Sekisui Chem Co Ltd
Priority to JP2002318654A priority patent/JP2004006217A/en
Publication of JP2004006217A publication Critical patent/JP2004006217A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/50Fuel cells

Abstract

An object of the present invention is to provide a fuel cell cogeneration system capable of improving overall efficiency including thermal efficiency and power generation efficiency.
A fuel reformer (11) for reforming fuel to obtain hydrogen, a fuel cell main body (12) supplied with hydrogen from the fuel reformer to generate power, and waste heat generated from the fuel cell main body and the fuel reformer (10). And a control device 15 for controlling the fuel reforming device, the fuel cell body, and the exhaust heat recovery device. The control device 15 further includes a temperature sensor 20. Switching between a continuous operation mode and an intermittent operation mode in which starting and stopping are performed once or more in one day. The control device switches the operation based on the date, switches the operation based on the city water temperature, or switches the operation depending on the temperature and the condition of the hot water tank.
[Selection diagram] Fig. 1

Description

[0001]
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a fuel cell cogeneration system that uses fuel such as city gas, and more particularly to a fuel cell cogeneration system that can improve overall efficiency and reduce running costs.
[0002]
[Prior art]
Conventionally, as a fuel cell cogeneration system of this type, there is a fuel cell power generation system described in Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 11-317233. This system includes a reformer that supplies predetermined heat of reaction to the hydrogen source and water to react hydrocarbons or alcohols contained in the hydrogen source with water to generate hydrogen, and converts the hydrogen supplied from the reformer to air. A fuel cell that generates electric energy by reacting with oxygen therein, and a heater that is disposed in a water storage tank that stores water to be supplied to the reformer, is supplied with a drive current, and raises the temperature of the water in the water storage tank. And heater control means for driving the heater only during a predetermined midnight time zone and controlling the driving of the heater so that the water in the water storage tank has a preset target temperature during the midnight time zone. It is characterized by.
[0003]
DC power obtained from the fuel cell is converted to AC by an inverter, and then connected to commercial power to be used as home power. Exhausted heat recovered from the fuel cell and the reformer is stored in a hot water storage tank and used for hot water supply and the like.
[0004]
In the power generation system, since the heater raises the temperature of the water in the water storage tank to the target temperature at midnight, a sufficient amount of heat can be supplied to the reformer together with natural gas. Natural gas consumed by the reformer to supply the required heat of reaction to water and natural gas can be reduced. As a result, during the period immediately after the start of power generation, in which the amount of heat discharged from the reformer is small, it is possible to prevent the temperature of water supplied to the reformer from lowering and increase the natural gas consumed by the reformer. In addition, it is possible to effectively prevent a decrease in the power generation efficiency of the system.
[0005]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
In the above-described fuel cell power generation system, since the reformer operates at a high temperature of several hundred degrees Celsius, it is necessary to input a large amount of energy to raise the temperature when restarting from a stopped state. There is a problem that such energy input at the time of starting causes a starting loss, and as a result, the overall efficiency of such a fuel power generation system is reduced.
[0006]
The present invention has been made in view of such a problem, and its purpose is to change the driving method in response to a change in seasonal temperature and a change in introduced city water, It is an object of the present invention to provide a fuel cell cogeneration system capable of improving overall efficiency including thermal efficiency and power generation efficiency. Another object of the present invention is to provide a fuel cell cogeneration system that can reduce running costs.
[0007]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to achieve the above object, a fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention includes a fuel reformer that reforms fuel to obtain hydrogen, a fuel cell body that receives hydrogen from the fuel reformer to generate power, An exhaust heat recovery device that recovers exhaust heat generated from the battery body and the fuel reforming device; and a control device that controls the fuel reforming device, the fuel cell body, and the exhaust heat recovery device. The device is characterized by switching between a continuous operation mode in which operation is performed all day based on the output of the measuring means and an intermittent operation mode in which start and stop are performed one or more times in one day.
[0008]
In a preferred specific embodiment of the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention, the measuring means measures the temperature of city water to be introduced, and the control device performs a continuous operation method and an intermittent operation based on a result of the measuring means. The method is characterized by switching the method.
[0009]
Further, as another preferable specific specific embodiment of the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention, the measuring means measures the indoor and / or outdoor air temperature, and the control device controls the continuous operation method based on the result of the measuring means. And switching the intermittent operation mode.
[0010]
As still another preferred specific embodiment of the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention, the system includes a hot water storage tank for storing the exhaust heat recovered from the exhaust heat recovery device, and the control device measures by a measuring unit. It is characterized in that the continuous operation mode and the intermittent operation mode are switched based on the hot water storage condition such as the temperature of the hot water storage tank and the amount of hot water.
[0011]
Since the fuel cell cogeneration system of the present invention configured as described above switches between the continuous operation mode and the intermittent operation mode based on the output of the measuring means, the system startup loss can be reduced, and the overall efficiency can be improved. it can. Moreover, since the temperature of city water is measured, and when the temperature of city water is higher than the predetermined temperature, the operation is switched from the continuous operation to the intermittent operation, excess heat can be prevented and the efficiency can be increased. The overall efficiency of the system can be increased by measuring indoor and outdoor temperatures to determine whether the period is warm or cold, and switching from continuous operation to intermittent operation. Furthermore, based on the hot water storage condition, that is, when the hot water storage amount is equal to or higher than a preset level, for example, when the temperature is equal to or higher than a predetermined temperature, the operation is performed intermittently, and in other cases, the continuous operation is performed. Efficiency can be improved.
[0012]
Another fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention includes a fuel reformer for reforming fuel to obtain hydrogen, a fuel cell main body for supplying hydrogen from the fuel reformer to generate power, a fuel cell main body and a fuel reformer. Heat recovery device for recovering waste heat generated from the reforming device, and a control device for controlling the fuel reforming device, the fuel cell body, and the waste heat recovery device.The control device has a calendar function, It is characterized by switching between a continuous operation mode and an intermittent operation mode based on information on the day. According to this configuration, the operation method is switched so that intermittent operation is performed during the period from May to October, and continuous operation is performed during the period from November to April, for example, based on the date of the calendar function. Can be reduced and excess heat can be prevented, so that the overall efficiency of the entire system can be increased.
[0013]
Still another fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention is a fuel reformer that reforms fuel to obtain hydrogen, and generates power using hydrogen supplied from the fuel reformer, converts the power to AC, and outputs the AC power to a commercial power supply. A fuel cell body, a waste heat recovery device that recovers waste heat generated from the fuel cell body and the fuel reforming device, and a control device that controls the fuel reforming device, the fuel cell body, and the waste heat recovery device, The system further includes an input unit for a charge of a commercial power supply and a fuel to be introduced, and an arithmetic unit that calculates an energy supply cost based on the charge input from the input unit, and the control device reduces the energy supply cost. For this reason, the system is preferably switched to a continuous operation mode in which the system is operated all day or an intermittent operation mode in which the system is started and stopped one or more times a day based on the output of the arithmetic means. To. It is preferable that the input unit includes a manual input unit and a DB input unit that can be input from a utility bill database via a network. As the fuel, liquid fuels such as gasoline and kerosene are preferable in addition to gas fuels such as city gas.
[0014]
The fuel cell cogeneration system configured in this manner is based on the electricity rate and gas rate introduced into the system. The operation method can be switched so as to minimize the energy supply cost by calculating and comparing the operating conditions, and the running cost of the system can be reduced. Further, even if the price of gasoline or kerosene fluctuates, it is possible to input the fluctuating price and reduce the energy supply cost.
[0015]
BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
Hereinafter, a first embodiment of a fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. FIG. 1 is a schematic configuration diagram of a fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present embodiment.
[0016]
In FIG. 1, a fuel cell cogeneration system is supplied with a commercial power supply 1 and city gas 2 and propane gas as fuel gas, and generates and outputs electricity and heat from the supplied city gas 2 by a cogeneration device 10. This is a system for outputting the output electricity and heat together with the commercial power supply 1 to the outside. The cogeneration apparatus 10 includes a fuel reforming apparatus 11, a fuel cell body 12, an inverter 13, and an exhaust heat recovery apparatus 14. Is controlled by the control device 15.
[0017]
The fuel reforming device 11 is a device that reforms hydrocarbons of the fuel gas 2 by adding steam at a high temperature to obtain hydrogen. The fuel cell body 12 is a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), which uses a polymer as an electrolyte and has a low operating temperature of about 100 ° C. or less and a high energy conversion efficiency (power generation efficiency) of 30 to 40%. It is a fuel cell. The DC electricity generated in the fuel cell main body 12 is supplied to an inverter 13, converted into AC, and output to the main line 4 of the commercial power supply 1.
[0018]
The exhaust heat recovery device 14 performs the recovery of the exhaust heat of the fuel reformer 11 in addition to the recovery of the reaction heat of the fuel cell main body 12 and circulates hot water to store the waste heat in the hot water storage tank 16 into which the city water 3 is introduced. It is used as a heat source for air conditioning and hot water supply. The main line 4 is connected to an electric load 5 such as various electric devices, and a pipe for a heat medium (hot water) is connected from a hot water tank 16 to a heat load 6 such as a water heater and floor heating. The city gas 2 may use natural gas.
[0019]
The control device 15 is configured by a microcomputer or the like, starts and stops the cogeneration device 10 in response to the electric load 5 and the heat load 6, generates required power and heat, and has a program timer function. Have. The program timer can measure the time of day, activate the system at a predetermined time, for example, and stop the system at another predetermined time.
[0020]
This system includes a temperature sensor 20 which is a temperature measuring means for inputting a signal to the control device 15. The temperature sensor 20 measures the outdoor temperature, the indoor temperature, the temperature of city water introduced into the system, and the like, and has a function of calculating an average value of a plurality of measured temperatures. It has a function to emit a signal when it is higher than the reference value, for example.
[0021]
The control device 15 switches between continuous operation and intermittent operation based on the signal output from the temperature sensor 20. The continuous operation is a continuous operation without starting and stopping, and is divided into a rated operation always operating at a rated output and a load following operation in which the output is changed according to the load. The load following operation includes an electric main load following operation that follows an electric load and a thermal main load following operation that follows a thermal load such as hot water supply.
[0022]
In the case of the electric main load following operation, the operation is performed irrespective of the amount of hot water supply load, so that in a warm season when the hot water supply load is small, excess heat may be generated and the overall efficiency may be reduced. Further, in the case of the thermal main load following operation, since the system follows the hot water supply load that is discretely generated, the system frequently starts and stops, and the energy loss that occurs to restart the system frequently occurs. May reduce the overall efficiency of the system.
[0023]
The intermittent operation is an operation method in which starting and stopping are performed at least once a day for continuous operation, and is also called DSS (Daily Start-Up Shutdown) operation. The intermittent operation can reduce the excess heat and improve the overall efficiency in the warm season, but in the cold season, the disadvantages due to the start-up loss when starting and stopping are greater than the above advantages, and the overall efficiency is improved. May decrease.
[0024]
This embodiment has the above-described configuration, and the operation will be described below.
The temperature measuring means measures the water temperature with a temperature sensor 20 provided in the city water introduction section of the hot water storage tank 16, for example, measures the water temperature every hour from 1:00 to 23:00, and uses these measured values for one day. Calculate the average city water temperature. Then, if the calculated average city water temperature is higher than, for example, 15 ° C., the temperature sensor 20 determines that it is a warm season, and otherwise determines that it is a cold season.
[0025]
Then, the temperature sensor 20 sends a signal to the control device 15 of the system in a warm season, and the control device 15 switches from the continuous operation to the intermittent operation when the date is switched, and keeps the continuous operation in the cold season. I do. That is, the system is switched to the continuous operation mode during the cold season and to the intermittent operation mode during the warm season. The intermittent operation is set, for example, to be in a stopped state between 0:00 and 5:59 and to be continuously operated between 6:00 and 23:59. As described above, in the warm season, surplus heat can be prevented by switching from continuous operation to intermittent operation, and if there is an electric load when the system is stopped, power is purchased and responded.
[0026]
If, for example, the calculated average city water temperature is 15 ° C. or less, the temperature sensor 20 determines that it is a cold season, does not send a signal to the control device 15 of the system, and operates continuously for 24 hours without any continuous operation. As described above, the continuous operation is maintained during the cold season, and the merit of the continuous operation is greater than the disadvantage caused by the startup loss of the intermittent operation. For this reason, sufficient heat supply becomes possible, it can be used for hot water supply and heating, and it becomes possible to sell power when the power supply is larger than the amount of power used.
[0027]
As described above, the intermittent operation is performed during the warm season to reduce the excess heat, and the continuous operation is performed during the cold season to reduce the start-up loss. In general, a fuel cell cogeneration system is cheaper than commercial power or city gas when it is driven for both electric load and heat load, However, when the drive is performed only in response to the heat load, the cost may increase. However, in the system according to the present embodiment, by switching operation modes in response to a warm season or a cold season, excess heat or start-up loss is prevented, and power sales and power purchase are performed efficiently, so that overall efficiency is improved. Can be increased.
[0028]
In addition, in the measurement of city water temperature, if the control is performed by judging the warm season or cold season based on only one temperature measurement, if the temperature measurement value shows an abnormal value by accident, it will be based on the abnormal value. Therefore, it is preferable to perform control based on the results of a plurality of measurements, and as a result, the system can be operated stably.
[0029]
Next, a second embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to FIG. FIG. 2 is a schematic configuration diagram of a second embodiment of the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention. This embodiment is different from the above-described first embodiment in that the measurement target of the temperature sensor is changed, and in particular, the temperature of an indoor room and the temperature of an outdoor room are measured. The same reference numerals are given to other substantially equivalent components, and detailed description will be omitted.
[0030]
In FIG. 2, a temperature sensor 21 is installed outside the room. For example, the temperature sensor 21 measures the outside air temperature every hour from 1:00 to 23:00, and calculates the average temperature per day from these values. If the calculated average temperature is higher than, for example, 20 ° C., it is determined to be a warm season, and a signal is sent to the control device 15 to switch from continuous operation to intermittent operation. In this case, when the temperature is equal to or lower than 20 ° C., no signal is sent from the temperature sensor 21 to the control device 15, and the state of continuous operation continues. It should be noted that the temperature sensor may not only measure the outside air temperature, but also measure the indoor temperature, or may measure both the outdoor and indoor temperatures.
[0031]
Also in this embodiment, similarly to the above-described embodiment, surplus heat can be prevented by switching to intermittent operation during a warm season, and power is purchased when the system is stopped. In addition, since the system is continuously operated during the cold season, sufficient heat can be supplied, it can be used for hot water supply and heating, and if the power supply is larger than the amount of power used during continuous operation, power can be sold. Overall efficiency can be improved.
[0032]
A third embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to FIG. FIG. 3 is a schematic configuration diagram of a third embodiment of the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention. In this embodiment, the same components as those in the above-described embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and detailed description is omitted. In FIG. 3, the temperature sensor 22 is installed inside the hot water storage tank 16, and measures the hot water temperature to detect the hot water storage condition. The temperature sensor 22 is preferably installed at a height of about 30 cm when the hot water tank has a height of about 1.5 m. It should be noted that a configuration may be employed in which both the hot water temperature and the hot water amount are measured to detect the hot water storage condition, and the thermal energy of the hot water storage is measured.
[0033]
In this embodiment, if the temperature of the hot water in the hot water storage tank 16 is higher than, for example, 40 ° C., it is determined that the hot water storage amount is equal to or higher than the level, and a signal is transmitted to the control device 15 to switch from the continuous operation to the intermittent operation. If the temperature of the hot water is 40 ° C. or lower, no signal is sent and the operation is kept in continuous operation. According to this configuration, when the temperature of the hot water is higher than the predetermined temperature, if the heat is supplied more than that, the operation becomes wasteful, so that the operation is intermittent, and when the temperature is lower than the predetermined temperature, the exhaust heat generated from the system can be effectively used. Continuous operation. In this way, the overall efficiency of the entire system can be increased, and the running cost can be reduced.
[0034]
A fourth embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to FIG. FIG. 4 is a schematic configuration diagram of a fourth embodiment of the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention. The system of this embodiment is characterized in that it does not include a measuring means, and the control device has a calendar function, and switches between a continuous operation method and an intermittent operation method based on month and day information.
[0035]
The control device 25 has a calendar function, and switches the operation method based on the date information. For example, intermittent operation is performed during the period from May to October, and continuous operation is performed during the period from November to April. I do. With this configuration, continuous operation should be performed during relatively cold periods, increasing efficiency by increasing waste heat in response to periods of high heat load, and intermittent operation during warm periods because the heat load is low. This prevents excess heat, improves the overall efficiency of the entire system, and reduces running costs. Also in this case, if there is an electric load at the time of the stop during the intermittent operation, the electric power is purchased, and if the electric load is small during the continuous operation, the electric power can be sold.
[0036]
A fifth embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to FIG. FIG. 5 is a schematic configuration diagram of a fifth embodiment of the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention. The system according to this embodiment includes an input unit for a commercial power supply and a gas fuel charge to be introduced into the system, and calculates an energy supply cost by a calculation unit based on the charge input from the input unit. In order to reduce the energy supply cost, the system is operated by switching to a continuous operation mode or an intermittent operation mode.
[0037]
That is, in FIG. 5, the input unit includes an input unit 30 for manually inputting a power rate of a commercial power supply and a city gas rate, and a DB input unit 31 for inputting by referring to a public utility database via a network. An input unit 30 and an operation unit 32 for calculating an energy supply cost based on the power rate and the gas rate input from the DB input unit 31 are provided. The power generation unit price of the system is compared, and if the unit price of the commercial power source is large, the system is continuously operated, and if the unit price of the commercial power source is small, a signal is sent to the control unit 15 to stop the system. It is configured.
[0038]
In addition, in order to grasp and predict the operation status of the system, the temperature sensor 22 is installed at a position, for example, 1 / of the depth of the hot water tank 16. Using the temperature sensed by this temperature sensor as a parameter for operation control, if the temperature is lower than the predetermined temperature, the possibility of excess heat is small.Based on the cogeneration operation that supplies thermoelectricity, if the temperature is higher than the predetermined temperature, the possibility of excess heat is high. The operation of the system is controlled based on the mono-generation operation that supplies the power.
[0039]
In terms of electricity rates, in addition to the normal rate-based rate, a time-based contract rate system is set, and the cheapest rate is the late night time rate, which is about 1/2 to 1/3 of the normal rate. Has become. For this reason, the input unit 30 and the DB input unit 31 are for inputting a time zone and a fee for each time zone. In addition, gas prices are set at low prices for air-conditioning and heating devices using gas, and the unit price is about 60 to 80% of a normal metered rate. The present embodiment aims to reduce the energy supply cost of the system by effectively utilizing such an inexpensive fee system for each time zone.
[0040]
The operation of this embodiment will be described below. The city gas 2 is reformed by the fuel reformer 11, and the obtained hydrogen is supplied to the fuel cell main body 12, where the supplied hydrogen reacts with oxygen to obtain DC electricity. This DC electricity is converted into AC by the inverter 13, output to the main line 4 of the commercial power 1, and supplied to the electric load 5. The exhaust heat generated when generating hydrogen in the fuel reformer 11 and the exhaust heat generated when generating power in the fuel cell main body 12 are sent to an exhaust heat recovery device 14, where hot water subjected to heat exchange is stored in hot water. The city water 3 is circulated in the tank 16 to be heated and stored. The hot water stored in the hot water storage tank is measured by the temperature sensor 22 and input to the control device 15. The hot water in the hot water storage tank 16 is supplied to the heat load 6 as needed.
[0041]
Here, in calculating the energy supply cost, the power generation efficiency of the fuel cell is 35%, the thermal efficiency of the fuel cell is 35%, and the gas water heater efficiency is 80%. In addition, the power demand (kWh) is 3 1m to convert to 3 Is 9.9 Mcal, the amount of gas that generates 1 kWh of electric power is
[0042]
First, regarding the cogeneration state for supplying thermoelectricity, comparing the cost required to obtain 1 kWh of power and 1 kWh of heat,
(1) Electricity fee is 25 yen / kWh, gas fee is 130 yen / m 3 At the time of (2), in the case of the power purchase and the gas water heater, (25 + 130 × 0.08685 / 0.8) = about 39.1 yen. In the case of a fuel cell system, 130 × 0.08685 / 0.35 = about 32.3 yen. In this case, the cost can be reduced by operating the fuel cell system, and the arithmetic unit 32 outputs a signal for continuously operating the system to the control device 15.
[0043]
(2) Electricity rate is 25 yen / kWh, gas rate is 90 yen / m with hot water floor warm contract 3 In the case of (2), in the case of the power purchase and the gas water heater, (25 + 90 × 0.08685 / 0.8) = about 34.8 yen. In the case of the fuel cell system, 90 × 0.08685 / 0.35 = about 22.3 yen. In this case, operating the fuel cell system can reduce the cost, and the calculating means 32 outputs a signal for continuously operating the system to the control device 15.
[0044]
(3) Electricity rate is 10 yen / kWh for time zone discounts such as late-night power, gas rate is 130 yen / m 3 In the case of (2), (10 + 130 × 0.08685 / 0.8) = about 24.1 yen in the case of the power purchase and the gas water heater. In the case of a fuel cell system, 130 × 0.08685 / 0.35 = about 32.3 yen. In this case, the cost can be reduced by stopping the fuel cell system and using the commercial power supply, and the arithmetic means 32 does not output a signal for continuously operating the system to the control device 15 and operates in an intermittent operation mode.
[0045]
In this way, when there is a demand for both electricity and heat and no excess heat is generated, the fuel cell system was operated continuously unless a low-cost electricity rate such as a late-night electricity rate is applied. This can reduce energy supply costs. For this reason, in a time zone where a low power rate is applied, running control can be reduced by performing control for switching from the continuous operation mode to the intermittent operation mode.
[0046]
Next, in the mono-generation state where only electric power is supplied, the cost required to obtain 1 kWh of electric power is compared.
(4) Electricity fee is 25 yen / kWh, gas fee is 130 yen / m 3 In the case of, the price is 25 yen in case of power purchase. In the case of a fuel cell system, 130 × 0.08685 / 0.35 = about 32.3 yen. In this case, the cost can be reduced by stopping the fuel cell system, and the arithmetic unit 32 switches to the intermittent operation mode without outputting a signal for continuously operating the system to the control device 15.
[0047]
(5) Electricity fee is 25 yen / kWh, gas fee is 90 yen / m 3 In the case of, the price is 25 yen in case of power purchase. In the case of the fuel cell system, 90 × 0.08685 / 0.35 = about 22.3 yen. In this case, operating the fuel cell system can reduce the cost, and the calculating means 32 outputs a signal for continuously operating the system to the control device 15.
[0048]
(6) Electricity rate is 10 yen / kWh for time zone discounts such as midnight power, gas rate is 130 yen / m 3 In the case of, in the case of power purchase, it is 10 yen. In the case of a fuel cell system, 130 × 0.08685 / 0.35 = about 32.3 yen. In this case, the cost can be reduced by stopping the fuel cell system, and the arithmetic unit 32 switches to the intermittent operation mode without outputting a signal for continuously operating the system to the control device 15.
[0049]
(7) The electricity rate is 10 yen / kWh for time zone discounts such as late-night electricity, and the gas rate is 90 yen / m. 3 In the case of, in the case of power purchase, it is 10 yen. In the case of the fuel cell system, 90 × 0.08685 / 0.35 = about 22.3 yen. In this case, the cost can be reduced by stopping the fuel cell system, and the arithmetic unit 32 switches to the intermittent operation mode without outputting a signal for continuously operating the system to the control device 15.
[0050]
As described above, even when the demand is only electricity and excess heat is generated, when an inexpensive gas charge is applied, it is understood that power generation by the fuel cell system is cheaper and the cost can be reduced. Therefore, if the continuous operation mode is set without switching to the intermittent operation mode, the energy supply cost can be reduced. Further, when a low power rate is applied, the arithmetic means 32 sends a signal to the control device 15 so as to perform control for selecting an intermittent operation mode in which the system is stopped only during the time zone. Can be reduced.
[0051]
Next, an embodiment of the interface unit used in the fuel cell cogeneration system of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 6 is a front view of an embodiment of the interface unit used in the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention. In FIG. 6, an interface unit 40 is an interface for exchanging information between a user and a cogeneration device 10 that generates electricity and heat, and basically controls the control device 15 with an output from the interface unit 40. To drive the system.
[0052]
The interface unit 40 has a demand information input unit 41 for inputting information on the amount of demand for electricity and heat at the upper part. The demand information input unit 41 includes a “tomorrow's action schedule” input unit 41a for inputting a tomorrow's family action schedule, and a hot water use information input unit 41b. The input unit 41a is used to input the family's scheduled wake-up time and scheduled sleep time, and display the sleep time zone and the schedule of activity time periods other than when sleeping with a bar. The hot water usage information input section 41b is used to input and display "tomorrow's hot water usage" to be used on the first day tomorrow and "hot water filling start time" for the bath. The input to the demand information input unit 41 is performed from an input unit such as a ten key (not shown) or from a touch panel (not shown) mounted on the front of the display unit.
[0053]
Below the demand information input unit 41, as a past input demand information display unit 42 for reference to the input of the demand information input unit, for example, a "yes yesterday's scheduled action" display unit 42a and a "yes yesterday hot water use" The display unit 42b includes a display unit 42b for “amount” and “water filling start time”. In FIG. 6, "370" liter is displayed as the amount of hot water used yesterday, and "18:00" is displayed as the hot water filling start time. When inputting the demand information input section 41, the user can input the activity schedule, hot water usage amount, and hot water filling start time with reference to past demand information, thereby facilitating the input operation.
[0054]
The interface unit 40 includes an operation mode setting unit configured to set an operation mode of the cogeneration apparatus 10 based on the demand information input by the demand information input unit 41, and an introduction effect calculation unit configured to calculate a cost reduction effect according to an operation situation. And an introduction effect display section 43 for displaying the cost reduction effect to the user. The output from the operation mode setting means is input to the control device 15, and controls the cogeneration system to operate continuously or intermittently.
[0055]
The introduction effect display unit 43 includes a “yes yesterday merit” display unit 43a that displays the yesterday's cost reduction amount, and a “yes yesterday's possible merit” display unit 43b that displays the maximum reduction amount possible with the yesterday's cost reduction amount. A “yesterday's hot water usage” display section 43c is provided to indicate the hot water usage actually used yesterday. The display unit of the demand information input unit 41, the past input demand information display unit 42, and the introduction effect display unit 43 use a liquid crystal display device or an LED display device using light emitting diodes.
[0056]
The operation mode setting means determines the operation mode of the cogeneration device 10 based on the information input by the demand information input unit 41. Specifically, the information of the demand information input unit 41 can specify a sleeping time zone in which the use of the power device is reduced and the power consumption is reduced. Further, the hot water storage is completed under the condition that the hot water usage tomorrow input to the hot water usage information input section 41b and the hot water usage per day from the hot water storage speed to the hot water filling time are stored in the hot water storage tank. Time and the number of hours required for hot water storage in the hot water storage tank, and the time to start hot water storage can also be calculated.
[0057]
Next, a stop time zone of the cogeneration apparatus 10 can be set under the condition that no hot water is stored and no operation is performed during the bedtime zone. Thus, the operation mode setting means can set the start time and the stop time of the cogeneration device. The control device 15 operates the cogeneration device 10 based on the setting information.
[0058]
The introductory effect calculating means for calculating the introductory effect of cost reduction in accordance with the operation status of the cogeneration apparatus 10 requires the power and heat supplied from the cogeneration apparatus 10 to the user when purchased from the energy supplier. From the difference between the purchase cost and the cost required to operate the cogeneration apparatus 10, the effect of introducing the cogeneration apparatus, that is, the cost reduction amount is calculated. The cost reduction amount calculated in this way is displayed on the introduction effect display section 43, and the user can know the cost reduction amount specifically.
[0059]
The introduction effect display unit 43 displays the “yesterday's possible merit” display unit 43b as a maximum introduction effect unit that displays the maximum value of the introduction effect that would be required for operation of the cogeneration device 10 in the ideal state of operating at the minimum cost. The difference can be known by comparing with the “yes yesterday's merit” display unit 43a which is provided and is the actual cost reduction amount. Then, for example, by improving the lifestyle so as to reduce the difference, further cost reduction can be achieved. Specifically, compare the planned hot water usage with the actual hot water usage, and enter the tomorrow's hot water usage so that the remaining hot water usage is reduced, thereby reducing energy consumption and further reducing costs. Can be achieved.
[0060]
Thus, the user can determine the operation mode of the cogeneration device by inputting the demand information. Since the cogeneration device performs an operation suitable for the input demand information, the cost reduction effect increases if the cogeneration system is used as it is. In addition, by displaying the cost reduction effect of the introduction, it is possible to confirm the quality of the operation result determined by the demand information input in the past. If it is necessary to further increase the cost reduction effect according to this result, it is possible to bring the user's life closer to the input information.
[0061]
In addition, as the intermittent operation, an example in which the start and stop are performed once a day has been described, but the control may be performed such that the start and the stop are performed twice or more a day. In this case, for example, control is performed so that the continuous operation is performed before the time period when the amount of heat used is large, and the operation is stopped in the other time periods. Is also good.
[0062]
【The invention's effect】
As can be understood from the above description, the fuel cell cogeneration system of the present invention determines the warm season and the cold season based on the output of measuring means such as a temperature sensor, and switches between the continuous operation mode and the intermittent operation mode depending on the season. Overall efficiency including thermal efficiency and power generation efficiency can be improved. In addition, the temperature and temperature of city water are measured by a temperature sensor, and the operation method is switched based on the result, whereby the overall efficiency of the system can be improved. Furthermore, by switching the operation method based on the hot water storage condition of the hot water storage tank, the overall efficiency of the entire system can be improved and the running cost can be reduced.
[0063]
By giving a calendar function to the control device and switching the driving method based on the date information, the overall efficiency of the entire system can be improved and the running cost can be reduced. Since the power rate and gas rate of the commercial power source to be introduced into the system can be input and the operation mode can be switched from these rates to minimize the energy supply cost, the running cost of the fuel cell system can be reduced.
[Brief description of the drawings]
FIG. 1 is a schematic configuration diagram of a first embodiment of a fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a schematic configuration diagram of a second embodiment of a fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a schematic configuration diagram of a third embodiment of a fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a schematic configuration diagram of a fourth embodiment of a fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a schematic configuration diagram of a fifth embodiment of the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a front view of an interface unit used in the fuel cell cogeneration system according to the present invention.
[Explanation of symbols]
1 commercial power, 2 city gas,
3 city water, 4 main line,
5 electrical load, 6 heat load,
10 cogeneration equipment,
11 fuel reformer,
12 fuel cell body, 13 inverter,
14. Exhaust heat recovery device, 15, 25 control device,
16 hot water storage tanks,
20, 21, 22 temperature sensors,
30, 31 Input section for electricity rate and gas rate,
32 arithmetic means,
40 interface section,
41 demand information input section,
42 demand information display section,
43 Introduction effect display section

Claims (7)

  1. A fuel reformer for reforming fuel to obtain hydrogen, a fuel cell main body that is supplied with hydrogen from the fuel reformer to generate power, and recovers exhaust heat generated from the fuel cell main body and the fuel reformer. An exhaust heat recovery device, a fuel cell cogeneration system including the fuel reforming device, a control device that controls the fuel cell body and the exhaust heat recovery device,
    The system further includes a measuring unit,
    The fuel cell according to claim 1, wherein the control device switches between a continuous operation mode in which operation is performed throughout the day and an intermittent operation mode in which one or more start and stop operations are performed in one day based on an output of the measurement unit. Cogeneration system.
  2. The measurement unit measures a temperature of city water to be introduced, and the control device switches the continuous operation mode and the intermittent operation mode based on a result of the temperature measured by the measurement unit. Item 2. The fuel cell cogeneration system according to Item 1.
  3. 2. The fuel according to claim 1, wherein the measurement unit measures an air temperature, and the control device switches between the continuous operation mode and the intermittent operation mode based on a result of the air temperature measured by the measurement unit. 3. Battery cogeneration system.
  4. The system includes a hot water storage tank that stores the exhaust heat recovered from the exhaust heat recovery device, and the control device performs the continuous operation method based on the hot water storage state such as the temperature of the hot water tank measured by the measurement unit and the amount of hot water. The fuel cell cogeneration system according to claim 1, wherein the intermittent operation mode is switched.
  5. A fuel reformer for reforming fuel to obtain hydrogen, a fuel cell main body that is supplied with hydrogen from the fuel reformer to generate power, and recovers exhaust heat generated from the fuel cell main body and the fuel reformer. An exhaust heat recovery device, a fuel cell cogeneration system including the fuel reforming device, a control device that controls the fuel cell body and the exhaust heat recovery device,
    The fuel cell cogeneration system according to claim 1, wherein the control device has a calendar function, and switches between the continuous operation mode and the intermittent operation mode based on a date.
  6. A fuel reformer for reforming fuel to obtain hydrogen, a fuel cell main body for generating electric power using hydrogen supplied from the fuel reformer and outputting it to a commercial power source, and a fuel cell main body and the fuel reformer. A fuel cell cogeneration system comprising: a waste heat recovery device that recovers waste heat to be recovered; and a control device that controls the fuel reformer, the fuel cell body, and the waste heat recovery device,
    The system further includes an input unit for a charge of a commercial power supply and a fuel to be introduced, and an arithmetic unit that calculates an energy supply cost based on the charge input from the input unit,
    The control device is configured to perform a continuous operation method in which the system is operated all day, or start and stop one or more times in one day, based on an output of the arithmetic unit in order to reduce the energy supply cost. A fuel cell cogeneration system characterized by switching to an intermittent operation method.
  7. The fuel cell cogeneration system according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the fuel is a gas fuel or a liquid fuel.
JP2002318654A 2002-04-12 2002-10-31 Fuel cell cogeneration system Pending JP2004006217A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2002110679 2002-04-12
JP2002318654A JP2004006217A (en) 2002-04-12 2002-10-31 Fuel cell cogeneration system

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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