JP2003347045A - Method for encapsulating a plurality of devices formed on substrate and electronic device - Google Patents

Method for encapsulating a plurality of devices formed on substrate and electronic device

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Publication number
JP2003347045A
JP2003347045A JP2003127461A JP2003127461A JP2003347045A JP 2003347045 A JP2003347045 A JP 2003347045A JP 2003127461 A JP2003127461 A JP 2003127461A JP 2003127461 A JP2003127461 A JP 2003127461A JP 2003347045 A JP2003347045 A JP 2003347045A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
layer
depositing
method
substrate
planarization layer
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Application number
JP2003127461A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP4520708B2 (en
Inventor
Kyle D Firshknecht
David Lacey
Karl Pichler
ピヒラー カール
ディー フリッシュクネヒト カイル
レイシー デイヴィッド
Original Assignee
Osram Opto Semiconductors Gmbh
オスラム オプト セミコンダクターズ ゲゼルシャフト ミット ベシュレンクテル ハフツング
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Priority to US10/137163 priority Critical
Priority to US10/137,163 priority patent/US6949389B2/en
Priority to US10/300,161 priority patent/US6911667B2/en
Priority to US10/300161 priority
Application filed by Osram Opto Semiconductors Gmbh, オスラム オプト セミコンダクターズ ゲゼルシャフト ミット ベシュレンクテル ハフツング filed Critical Osram Opto Semiconductors Gmbh
Publication of JP2003347045A publication Critical patent/JP2003347045A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP4520708B2 publication Critical patent/JP4520708B2/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED];
    • H01L51/52Details of devices
    • H01L51/5237Passivation; Containers; Encapsulation, e.g. against humidity
    • H01L51/5253Protective coatings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L21/00Processes or apparatus adapted for the manufacture or treatment of semiconductor or solid state devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/02Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L21/04Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer
    • H01L21/18Manufacture or treatment of semiconductor devices or of parts thereof the devices having at least one potential-jump barrier or surface barrier, e.g. PN junction, depletion layer or carrier concentration layer the devices having semiconductor bodies comprising elements of Group IV of the Periodic System or AIIIBV compounds with or without impurities, e.g. doping materials
    • H01L21/30Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26
    • H01L21/31Treatment of semiconductor bodies using processes or apparatus not provided for in groups H01L21/20 - H01L21/26 to form insulating layers thereon, e.g. for masking or by using photolithographic techniques; After treatment of these layers
    • H01L21/3105After-treatment
    • H01L21/31051Planarisation of the insulating layers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED];
    • H01L51/56Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices or of parts thereof

Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To deposit a flattening layer achieving the function of the flattening layer such as the minimization of action of contamination particles and pinholes and reacting with devices to be encapsulated only at the minimum, and to provide an electronic device having the flattening layer. <P>SOLUTION: A plurality of devices are manufactured on a substrate, at least one flattening layer is deposited on the device, at least one flattening layer is patterned and cured, the cured region essentially covers the device, at least one region not yet cured of the flattening layer is removed, and at least one barrier layer is selectively deposited in the cured region. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2004,JPO

Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a method for enclosing a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate, an electronic device,
The present invention relates to a method for encapsulating an organic electronic device and an encapsulated electronic device.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art Organic light emitting diodes (OLED = organi)
One of the last process steps in the fabrication of a c light emitting diode) is encapsulation. Encapsulation is a means of protecting OLED devices from damaging environmental factors (primarily oxygen and moisture). It is known in the prior art that the top glass (or another suitable material) layer is physically connected by an epoxy frame over the OLED device, but usually without touching it. This is to encapsulate the OLED device. The glass and its epoxy frame are usually effective, and have proven to be effective,
It provides the environmental protection needed for long-term use of the ED.

Recently, in this technical field, referred to as direct thin film encapsulation,
There is controversy to provide cheaper and better encapsulation methods. In this approach, thin film encapsulation is typically
(Polymer multi-layer), which consists of alternating and repeating layers of organic (usually acrylate or similar) and barrier layers. FIG. 1 shows a typical PML structure 100 that is presently known in the prior art. A glass (or other suitable material) substrate 102 provides a support structure for the OLED 104. The OLED is formed on substrate 102 in any manner known in the art.
Layers 102 and 104 typically form a structure that requires encapsulation, where the encapsulation is performed by known techniques or the encapsulation method of the present invention.

Typically, for a PML structure, a planarization layer 10
6 is formed on top of the OLED structure 104. The planarization layer 106 is typically an organic layer (eg, acrylate or the like) that allows the PML structure 112
A flat surface for depositing a is obtained. PML
The structure 112a typically has a barrier layer 118 and another planarization layer 110.

[0005] The barrier layer 108 typically comprises a sputtered metal, metal oxide or dielectric layer. The barrier layer 108 provides the required environmental isolation from the corrosive effects of oxygen and moisture. The planarization layer 110 is again an organic layer (eg, acrylate or similar)
And deposited to obtain a flat surface for depositing the barrier layer 108. PML structure 112a
The whole can be repeated (several times) (eg PML
Structure 112b), which provides additional encapsulation of the entire OLED device.

[0006] The advantages of the direct thin film encapsulation over the prior art are mainly reduced costs and improved reliability. Using the direct thin film encapsulation method, the package can also be thinner and / or lighter and / or more mechanically flexible. Some of the prior art steps and structures can be eliminated by this process. For example, a separate glass plate is not required, an epoxy seal is not required, (as is customary in the prior art)
No getter is required.

One of the problems of the direct thin film encapsulation is caused by the barrier layer. The barrier layer should ideally not contain point defects (ie, pinholes) on its surface. Otherwise, its usefulness as a barrier layer is greatly impaired. The first is that a flat organic layer is typically used as the substrate on which the barrier layer is deposited.
The reason for this is exactly this.

This problem is exacerbated during batch fabrication of many OLED devices on a single large glass sheet, as shown in the top view of FIG. On such a single glass sheet 200, dozens (or hundreds) of OLED devices 202 may be thus produced. As shown, the OLED device 202
Are typically placed in rows and columns on a large glass sheet 200. Typically, each OLED 202 includes an electrical contact area 204 for electrically connecting the OLED device to a drive circuit.

In a thin film encapsulation step, a PML structure is deposited, wherein at least one ultraviolet curable organic liquid material is deposited over a glass sheet containing a plurality of OLED devices. The organic layer is subsequently cured and then a barrier layer (eg, of a sputtered metal oxide or dielectric) is deposited. Such a process can be repeated, thereby forming a PML structure. This is mainly to avoid pinhole defects due to external particles / dirt.
After encapsulation, individual singulation is performed, for example, by forming scribe and break lines 206 throughout the structure, which can separate individual OLED devices 202, and It can be processed.

The problem with this PML method is that the only part of the device that needs to be encapsulated is the OLED structure itself, not an electrical pad, for example. In fact, the contact pads must typically be exposed for electrical connection with external drive circuits. Therefore, at a minimum, additional processes are performed to achieve PM
The L structure must be removed.

Another problem that can occur in current PML methods is that the presence of a PML layer over the scribe and break lines and / or the bond lines may cause the integrity of the sealed package to be reduced, for example, over these areas. Can be compromised by delamination of the PML layer.

In the prior art, the following are known as approaches other than PML. That is, it is known to achieve a certain degree of thin film direct encapsulation using a combination of an organic planarizing layer and an inorganic barrier layer. Organic planarizing layers that do not require special curing can be used in a vacuum or gas atmosphere, preferably in an inert gas, as can layers that are electron beam or thermally cured. Such an organic layer is in a non-liquid form, for example,
Evaporated or plasma deposited (eg, parylene).

The monomer can be used as an organic planarizing layer. The use of monomers in contact with the active region of the OLED (the active region is, for example, the region defined by the cathode) can result in contamination of the OLED (eg, a pin pole formed by the OLED). . This contamination can occur because the monomer can diffuse before it cures and travel through the pin poles around the edge of the active area. Since the monomer may not be completely cured, a small portion of the uncured monomer remains, which gradually erodes the OLED. To overcome this problem, the prior art uses monomers that react immediately upon contact with a surface such as the active region or substrate of an OLED. For example, by reacting immediately upon contact with the active region, the monomer cannot erode the OLED through defects (eg, pinholes) in the active region. The problem with the use of immediately reactive monomers is that they are dispersed everywhere and there is no opportunity to pattern the organic planarization layer. Therefore, it is desirable to provide a planarizing layer that can be patterned and that erodes the OLED only minimally.

If the technique used to deposit the barrier layer on the device is reactive, the deposition of the barrier layer can damage the organic electronic device to be encapsulated. To avoid such damaging reactions, the planarization layer is deposited using less reactive techniques, such as evaporation, screen printing, inkjet printing. However, if solvents are used to form a uniform film of the planarization layer, these solvents may react with and damage the device to be encapsulated.

Also, the planarization layer itself may react with the device to be encapsulated, though not as much as the barrier layer deposited by reactive techniques.

[0016]

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to react minimally with the device to be encapsulated while performing the function of a planarizing layer, such as minimizing the effects of contaminant particles and pin poles. It is to deposit a planarization layer and to provide an electronic device having such a planarization layer.

[0017]

According to the present invention, there is provided a method for encapsulating a plurality of devices to be fabricated on a substrate, comprising the steps of: fabricating a plurality of devices on the substrate; Depositing a layer and patterning and curing the at least one planarization layer so that the cured region is substantially covered by the device and the cured of the at least one planarization layer The problem is solved by removing the unreacted areas and selectively depositing at least one barrier layer on the cured areas.

[0018]

In another embodiment, a method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate includes fabricating the devices on the substrate and depositing at least one planarization layer on the devices. Here, the planarization layer is deposited as an unpatterned liquid film, and at least one barrier layer is selectively deposited on the planarization layer to remove areas of the unwanted planarization layer.

In yet another embodiment, a method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate includes fabricating the plurality of devices on the substrate and selectively depositing at least one planarization layer on the device. Then, at least one barrier layer is selectively deposited on the flattening layer.

In yet another embodiment, a method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate includes fabricating the devices on the substrate, depositing a mask on top of the substrate, and opening the mask. Depositing at least one planarization layer on the mask, removing the mask from the substrate, and selectively depositing at least one barrier layer on the planarization layer. Make a deposit.

In another embodiment of the method of the present invention, for example, a method for encapsulating an organic electronic device that meets the requirements of patterning a planarization layer and that minimally contaminates the device is described. Embodiments of the method include fabricating an organic electronic device on a substrate, the organic electronic device having an active region. This embodiment also includes selectively depositing a catalyst layer at least in the active region and exposing the catalyst layer to monomers to produce a planarization layer. Here, the catalyst layer is selectively deposited, and at least the barrier layer is selectively deposited on the planarization layer.

An additional alternative embodiment of an encapsulated electronic device is described herein, which satisfies, for example, the need to have a patterned planarization layer that minimally contaminates the device. ing. This embodiment of the encapsulated electronic device includes a substrate and an organic electronic device on the substrate, the organic electronic device having an active area. The encapsulated electronic device has at least an active region with a planarization layer, wherein the planarization layer selectively deposits a catalyst layer at least in the active region and exposes the catalyst layer to monomers. Formed by In this embodiment, the planarization layer is provided where the catalyst layer is selectively deposited. Further, the barrier layer is placed at least on the planarization layer.

Another embodiment of the present invention includes, for example, an organic material that deposits a planarization layer that is minimally reactive with the device to be encapsulated while still fulfilling the function of the planarization layer. A method for encapsulating an electronic device is described. Embodiments of the method include fabricating an organic electronic device on a first substrate, wherein the organic electronic device has an active region. This embodiment also includes depositing the planarization layer on a second substrate, transferring the planarization layer to at least an active region, and depositing a barrier layer on at least the planarization layer. .

An additional embodiment of an encapsulated electronic device is described herein, which includes, for example,
It has the requirement that it has a planarization layer that is minimally reactive with the device to be encapsulated, while still performing the function of the planarization layer. In an embodiment of the device, a substrate and an organic electronic device are included, the organic electronic device having an active area. The device has a planarization layer at least on the active region and a barrier layer on at least the planarization layer. The planarization layer is placed on a further substrate and then transferred at least to the active area.

[0025]

Referring to FIGS. 3A-3C, there is shown a series of side views of an OLED device encapsulated in accordance with the principles of the present invention. In FIG. 3A, some OLED devices 302 are formed on the surface of a substrate 300. For the purposes of the present invention, this structure should be quite extensive. For example, the substrate 300 may be made of glass (which may include ITO as the first electrode), quartz,
It can be composed of plastic foil, metal, metal foil, silicon wafer or any other material encompassing a very broad class of OLED devices. In general, the OLED device can be of the top extraction type or the bottom extraction type. Depending on whether the device is in a top or bottom extraction configuration,
The bottom electrode can be an anode or a cathode, respectively.

Further, the encapsulation method and structure of the present invention may be used for many applications, for example, for active matrix, passive matrix, segmented, alphanumeric or backlit OLED displays or any combination thereof. It is possible. Any of these OLED devices can be OLED devices having structures patterned on the OLED substrate, and it is appreciated that these structures are significantly higher than the OLED stack itself. For example, several micron high row separators (eg, mushrooms) or ink containment wells or banks used in inkjet printed OLEDs. The scope of the present invention is intended to include encapsulation in these structures that are within the active area of the display.

In addition, within the scope of the present invention are other displays and any electronics or other devices that require encapsulation, such as organic transistors, detectors, general organics such as solar cells (special OLEDs), etc. Also included are displays for lighting, such as electronic devices and OLED-based light sources and backlights.

The present invention also includes a myriad of electronic devices, which include a substrate, a plurality of active regions disposed on the substrate, and substantially only the active region. An overlying planarization layer disposed on the substrate and a plurality of barrier layers disposed on the substrate covering substantially only the planarization layer. Particularly in the present invention,
Electronic devices such as OLEDs, organic electronic circuits, organic detectors and organic solar cells are included.

Here, a UV curable organic layer 304 is deposited substantially throughout the display glass containing a plurality of OLED devices. Such an advantageous organic layer may be a liquid consisting of an acrylate with a photoinitiator for selective curing, or PML.
And other materials commonly known in prior art organic planarization methods that are curable by ultraviolet light or other methods.

[0030] Layer 304 can be any advantageous planarization layer. For example, an inorganic or hybrid planarization layer is sufficient for the buffer layer, where the buffer layer has the desired planarization and / or protection properties for the barrier layer deposition process.

In addition, spin-on glass (spin-on glass)
An organometallic compound that can be processed by a wet process such as glass) and that can be cured by post-processing is sufficient. Such an organic layer provides a planar structure upon which a barrier layer is deposited, substantially covering point defects (eg, contaminant particles) in underlying layers. It is generally desirable that the organic layer be deposited in a sufficient amount so that this layer is no longer "conformal" to point defects, i.e., any point defects are directed upward toward the layer to be deposited thereon. Is not projected geometrically to Such a first organic layer is also used to protect the underlying OLED from damage that can occur due to the deposition of the first barrier layer.

In yet another embodiment, a non-PML approach can be used within the principles and scope of the present invention. For example, non-liquid deposited organics, such as polysiloxanes, can be applied to later figures.

There are many ways to deposit this organic layer on an OLED device. For example, this layer can be deposited or flash deposited.
Alternatively, the liquid organic layer can be spin-coated, dip-coated, roll-coated or blade-coated as is known in the art. In addition, other advantageous printing techniques can be used, in particular screen printing or inkjet printing.

Once the organic layer is deposited on the OLED device, ultraviolet light is used to selectively cure the layer above the OLED device, thereby providing the desired cross-linking (cr)
oss-linking) is formed. This step is mask 3
06, which blocks ultraviolet light,
The region where removal of the organic layer is desired is not exposed to ultraviolet light. Alternatively, this crosslinking can be achieved using ultraviolet light with an optical patterning system, such as a projection exposure system. In another embodiment, crosslinking can be achieved by selectively scanning an ultraviolet beam across the plate. In yet another embodiment, this layer need not necessarily be UV cured. Instead, it is heat cured using, for example, a heat source having a predetermined temperature profile, an IR laser, a stencil / stamp, or is electron beam cured. Alternative methods can include: That is, a cross-linked, patterned thermal transfer system (heat trasf
er system), a patterned IR source, a masked IR source, a scanned IR source, a patterned electron beam, a masked electron beam, and a scanned electron beam.

Once the organic layer has been selectively crosslinked, the remaining uncrosslinked layer must be removed. This can be done by thermal evaporation (eg, heating the substrate) or by using a short, high-temperature pulse (eg, placing the OLED plate on a hot plate). Other removal methods are possible as well, for example by pumping in a vacuum to remove the liquid organic layer.
Combinations of techniques are likewise possible. That is, heat energy can be applied while pumping in a vacuum.

[0036] Yet another method of removal is immersion in a rinse tank, spray rinsing (spra rinsing).
Y rinsing), ultrasonic methods (whether dry or wet), combinations of techniques (eg dry ultrasonic or megasonic in vacuum) are also possible. It is also possible to use a plasma etching method to assist the removal process.
Additionally, heat may be supplied via a laser assisted method such as laser ablation or a laser.

Once the remaining organic layer has been removed, the barrier layer is then selectively deposited on the OLED plate. FIG. 3B shows that the barrier layer 308 is
Selective deposition on the LED device, where the organic layer is also deposited. Barrier layer 308 is composed of any material that is advantageous to protect the OLED device from the environmental effects of oxygen and moisture. It should therefore be quite impermeable to oxygen and moisture. Such barrier layer materials include metal oxide or dielectric layers such as SiOx (eg, SiO2),
SiNx (eg, Si2N3), SiOxNy, AlOx (eg, Al2O3),
It can include AlNx, ITO, ZnOx, ZnOx doped with Al or a high barrier dielectric or conductive oxide. For the purposes of the present invention, generally any inorganic material known from the prior art having good oxygen and moisture barrier properties is sufficient. In the case of a bottom take-out display, the encapsulation does not need to be transparent, and a metal or alloy film (eg, Al or alloy, Cr, Cu or alloy, etc.) or a non-transparent or colored dielectric film is advantageous. It is believed that both are deposited or sputtered.

[0038] The deposition of the barrier layer can be performed in any advantageous manner known in the prior art, whereby the dielectric layer, metal oxide, metal or alloy is deposited. For example, sputtering or reactive sputtering (DC, AC, pulse or a combination thereof) is sufficient. In addition, the deposition of such dielectrics (resistance heating or electron beam) or metal films is possible. Further deposition methods, assisted by an ion beam or enhanced by a plasma, are also possible.

Other embodiments are possible. For example, patterned ultraviolet curing described herein can be performed to reduce the thickness of the planarization layer from a value on the active area to zero or near zero somewhere outside of the active area. It is. Thus, starting from the active area and without encapsulation (eg scribe / break lines and / or
Or contact)
(Or another structure) and, in addition, a planarization layer. It is advantageous to cover the planarization layer with a slightly larger area of the barrier layer. This is because the flattening layer does not have a very large step, and the side step is sufficiently covered by the area covered by the barrier layer. This embodiment also applies to the other embodiments described herein. These embodiments can be tailored to provide a smooth transition of the buffer layer prior to the deposition of the barrier layer, such as by reflow or evaporation or printing or partial pre-curing of the planarization layer at the edges. In yet another embodiment, it may be desirable to encapsulate only the organic light emitting areas (eg, pixels), leaving the contact pads, auxiliary encapsulation areas, and scribe / break areas without organic and barrier layers. is there.

FIGS. 4A and 4B show another embodiment of the invention, in particular another way of encapsulating an OLED device. FIG. 4A illustrates one step in the process of the present invention, where an OLED device 404 is formed on top of a substrate 402. Organic layer 406 is deposited over the entire substrate, thereby
The LED device 404 is covered. Next, the barrier layer 40
8 are selectively deposited as is known from the prior art (eg, via a mask or screen 410).
FIG. 4B illustrates the next step in the process, after which portions of the undesired organic layer 406 are removed by methods known in the art.

The organic layer 406 may be entirely cured or uncured, and may or may not be selectively cured through a mask or screen. Similarly, it may be desirable not to cure the organic layer at all. In some embodiments, the organism can be either fully cured, partially cured, or not cured at all prior to the deposition of the patterned barrier layer. ,
Subsequent barrier layer depositions, and if no curing was performed prior to the barrier layer deposition, another curing step to ensure that the underlying organism has cured to the intended level. Can be provided.
If unwanted organic layers are etched away (any number of known methods, such as chemical (dry or wet) etching, plasma assisted (with or without oxygen), Barrier layer 408 (by ion etching, anisotropic reactive ion etching, etc.)
Can also act as an effective etch stop, similar to laser assist / base removal (eg, laser ablation).

Further, the organic layer may be formed by any of the methods described above (eg, by depositing a plurality of reactive organic molecules to form a conformal layer concentrated on the substrate) or by the well-known parylene coating method. It is possible to deposit.

In one embodiment, the edges of the active region may be exposed. However, even if the planarization layer has a thickness of only a few microns and the perimeter of the planarization + barrier layer around the active area is tens of microns or even more than 100 microns wide, Along a width of more than a few tens or 100 microns, penetration of, for example, water through this thin planarization layer should be slow.
Alternatively, the second barrier layer can be larger than the planarization layer area, so that the exposed edges of the planarization layer are also covered by the barrier layer. This is also achieved by making the second planarization layer + barrier layer stack that can be used wider than the first and the like. This can, of course, be achieved by increasing the width of the barrier layer mask in the embodiments described above.

FIG. 5 shows another embodiment of the encapsulation method according to the present invention. In this embodiment, OLED device 504 is again formed on substrate 502. The organic layer 506 is patterned and deposited similarly to the barrier layer 508. Since the organic layer 506 is selectively deposited, there is no need to cure this layer.
With respect to the type of material of the planarization layer and the deposition method, it is advantageous that the aspects of curing and patterning can be independent. For example, if a UV curable (or otherwise) curable liquid, PML or liquid for screen or ink jet printing is used, it can be cured. Alternatively, if the deposition of the organism through the mask is a relevant step,
No need to cure.

The manner in which the organic and barrier layers are selectively deposited can be achieved by various means. For example, the organic layer can be deposited through a shadow mask (shown as mask 510) or by inkjet deposition or other screen printing methods. In fact, generally any printing method suitable to provide the desired planarization layer material can be used.
Similarly, the barrier layer 508 can be selectively deposited. For alternative embodiments, any option for selective deposition can be used. That is, the same mask, a separate mask, or the same mask with a different distance between the substrate and the mask (for example, a relatively small distance for the planarization layer and a relatively large distance for the barrier, Broadening the coverage area, due to differences in material deposition and its slight omnidirectionality) can be used.

In the case of printing such as screen printing and ink-jet printing, a mask is not required (ink-jet printing).
Alternatively, it can be separate from the mask used to deposit the patterned and sputter deposited barrier layer. In another embodiment, if necessary, the planarization layer can be partially cured, the barrier layer can be deposited, and then the curing of the planarization layer can be completed.

6A to 6E show yet another embodiment of an encapsulation method according to the principles of the present invention. First, an OLED device 602 is formed on a substrate 600.
Next, a mask 604 is formed in the substrate 600, where it has a mask opening for the OLED device 602.

Suitable masks are formed in many conceivable ways. For example, such a mask is an OLED
It can be a mask laminated, pressed, pressed or clamped to a film or OLED. Additionally, such a mask can be a multipurpose mask or a disposable mask that is later removed. Such masks consist of metal, ceramic, plastic foil or sheet. Also, any material and / or encapsulation that does not adhere to PTFE (= polytetrafluorethylene) or polysiloxane type materials (eg, polydimethylsiloxane) or, generally, will cause damage or delamination when removing the OLED mask. The fuselage is made of a non-stick material and prevents the organics from being removed by the mask removal performed after the encapsulation organics deposition and (full or partial) curing.

The mask can be as follows. That is, the mask can be in good contact with the OLED, thereby limiting the encapsulated organics to the desired areas and preventing the encapsulated organics from penetrating undesired areas (eg, contact pads). Such a mask may include a “stamp” mask. Such masks can be pressed or clamped, or the mask can be made from a magnetic material and held magnetically (eg, in the form of a sheet behind a substrate that attracts the mask to the substrate). magnet). Additionally, the mask can be a multipurpose mask or a disposable mask. A vacuum suction mask may be used. Additionally, a laminated film mask is sufficient.

Once the mask 604 has been deposited, the organic layer 606 is deposited in any advantageous manner. For example, the organic layer may be dispensed, squashed, rolled, printed, blade-coated, dropped, and sprayed onto the mask opening. When the organic layer is deposited, the mask 604
Some or all of the organic layer may or may not be cured prior to removal of the organic layer. The mask can be removed by any conventionally known means, for example, by peeling off or, in the case of a stencil, by mechanical removal.

The edge of the planarization layer may or may not be reflowed, so that the subsequently deposited barrier advantageously covers the barrier edge better.

After removing the mask, a barrier layer 608 is selectively deposited on the planarization layer covering the OLED device. Any known technique for such selective deposits serves the purpose of the present invention. For different alternative embodiments, either the mask is removed after full curing, the mask is removed after partial curing, or the mask is removed without curing. Is possible. These alternative embodiments of s can also be combined with another cure that can be performed after barrier layer deposition. In particular, it is also possible to effect a slight curing and then a reflow, for example by heating, so that the edges are smoothed, followed by a complete curing / barrier layer deposition.

In yet another embodiment, the planarization and barrier layers can be deposited before removing the mask.

In yet another embodiment, all encapsulation steps can be performed in an inert atmosphere (ie, an atmosphere in which oxygen, ozone, other reactive gases and especially moisture have been reduced). Alternatively, the first organic layer and the first organic layer
It is also possible to fabricate only the barrier layer (ie the two-layer component "dyad") in an inert atmosphere. Alternatively, it is possible to produce only the first organic layer in an inert atmosphere.

Another embodiment may include encapsulation with a second encapsulation layer for additional protection. This is by lamination, gluing, otherwise plastic,
This can be done by depositing metal, metal and plastic foil, thin glass, thick glass or metal sheet on the OLED display sheet. This second encapsulation may include a getter material (eg, a zeolite in the form of a film, powder, paste,
Reactive metals, reactive metal oxides, metal sulfides, etc.) can be included in the package to absorb moisture, oxygen or reactive gases. Separation (Singulat
ion) may be performed before or after the second encapsulation.

FIGS. 7A-7C illustrate a novel gas nozzle deposition system for depositing several layers, including a planarization layer. FIG. 7A shows a one gas nozzle 704, which deposits a layer on a device 702 on a substrate 700. Nozzle 704 includes at least one nozzle 706 for delivering a gas that is advantageously inert, and a nozzle 708 for delivering the material to be deposited (eg, acrylate) to the device. The gas is pumped to remove deposit material from areas that should not be deposited. FIG. 7B shows the device 702 after being covered with a layer by the gas nozzle system. More specifically, region 710 is covered with a layer, whereas region 712 is not deposited. Such regions 712 include electrical contacts,
A scribe line or another area where it is desirable not to make such a deposit.

FIG. 7C shows such a gas nozzle array 720.
Operation of the device 702
Is deposited over the plate 700 of the second. Row 7
20 comprises a plurality of planarization layer nozzles 721 and an inert gas nozzle 723, which are advantageously arranged above the plate of the device as follows. That is, the layer to be deposited is arranged to be made only in this desired area. Region 730
Is the area where such deposition is desired in the entire area 732 for the device. Row 720 and plate 700 can be moved relatively,
This allows for effective deposition on multiple devices. The direction 722 shows how the rows move on the plate. On the other hand, direction 724 shows how the plate moves under the row. These two movements can be arbitrarily combined.

8A to 8H show still another embodiment of the encapsulated organic electronic device according to the present invention. In this embodiment, the planarization layer is formed by selectively depositing a catalyst layer, which is then exposed to a monomer in a gas or liquid phase, preferably a gas phase. In the gas phase, the monomer reacts only in the area where the catalyst layer is located, so there is no, if any, contamination of other areas of the organic electronic device. By selectively depositing the catalyst layer, the resulting planarization layer can be patterned. Since the monomer is polymerized here in contact with the catalyst layer, the monomer hardly migrates to and contaminates the organic electronic device. This catalyst layer
For example, it can be dicyclopentadienyl zirconium borate, and the monomer can be, for example, propylene. The planarization layer is used, for example, to fill particles or prevent the formation of pinholes. The barrier layer is selectively deposited on at least the planarization layer, thereby isolating the organic electronic device from the corrosive effects of oxygen and moisture. After the planarization and barrier layers have been deposited, one or more additional planarization and / or barrier layers can be added to further encapsulate the organic electronic device.

In FIGS. 8A-H, selective deposition of the catalyst layer is performed using a shadow masked thermal evaporation process. In another configuration, the selective deposition is, for example, ink jet printing, screen printing, flexographic printing, tampon printing.
Or by selective spray coating. In FIG. 8A, the organic electronic device includes a substrate 809, on which a bottom electrode and an organic stack 812 are deposited.
The organic stack includes one or more organic layers. This organic stack, for example, has an electronic device
It is possible to include a light-emitting layer if it is an LED, or a photosensitive layer if the electronic device is a photodetector or solar cell. The bottom electrode can be, for example, an anode or a cathode. As used in the specification and claims, the term "in" or "on" includes when a layer is in physical contact and when one or more layers are in contact. This is the case where the layers are separated by a sandwiched layer. Top electrode 815 is deposited through shadow mask 817 and over the organic stack. The upper electrode 815 can be, for example, an anode or a cathode. Top electrode 815 is the active area of the organic electronic device and should be protected by encapsulation.

In FIG. 8B, a catalyst layer 818 is deposited through the shadow mask 817 and over the top electrode 815.
The catalyst layer 818 defines the area of coverage of the resulting planarization layer, and the gaseous monomer reacts only in the area where the catalyst layer is located. Area is not contaminated. In FIG. 8C, the organic electronic device including the catalyst layer 818 is exposed to a gaseous monomer 821. The gaseous monomer 812 reacts with the catalyst layer 818, thereby forming a planarization layer 824 in the area where the catalyst layer 818 was selectively deposited. Here, the flattening layer 824
Is patterned using the same shadow mask used to selectively deposit the top electrode 815 (ie, a separate shadow mask is used to pattern the resulting planarization layer 824). Not required). Since the gaseous monomer 821 is polymerized and contacts the catalyst layer 818 here, the active region of the organic electronic device is hardly contaminated by the monomer. FIG. 8D shows the resulting planarization layer 824 on top electrode 815. In FIG. 8D, a separate shadow mask is used. That is, shadow mask 828 has a different opening size than shadow mask 817. Here, the shadow mask 828 has a larger opening size than the shadow mask 817, so that the deposited layer can cover a larger area than can be covered by the shadow mask 817. Barrier layer 827 is deposited on at least planarization layer 824 through shadow mask 828. Barrier layer 27
Is deposited using any process that can pattern and deposit a highly impervious barrier layer. These processes include, for example, evaporation,
Electron beam deposition, direct current ("DC = direct current") magnetron sputtering, reactive magnetron sputtering, radio frequency ("RF = radio frequecy") or alternating current ("AC")
= alernating current) magnetron sputtering,
Ion plating or plasma enhanced chemical vacuum deposition ("PECVD = plasma-enhanced chemical vapo
Another deposition of a plasma-enhanced deposition (e.g., r deposition ") is included. In FIG.
27 is deposited. By using the shadow mask 828, the barrier layer 827 and the catalyst layer 830 are deposited over a larger area (eg, a larger area than the area of the organic electronic device is covered by these deposited layers). This ensures that these layers contact the substrate 809 at the edge and hermetic sealing is ensured.

In FIG. 8F, the organic electronic device including catalyst layer 830 is exposed to gaseous monomer 821. The gaseous monomer 821 reacts with the catalyst layer 830 to form the catalyst layer 83.
The flattening layer 83 is formed in a region where 0 is selectively deposited.
3 is formed. The resulting planarization layer 833 is placed on the barrier layer 827. In FIG. 8G, a separate shadow mask is used. That is, the shadow mask 837
Has an opening that is different in size from the shadow mask 828 (eg, a larger opening). Here, another barrier layer (ie, barrier layer 836) is deposited on at least the planarization layer 833 through a shadow mask 837. FIG. 8H shows a barrier layer 836 placed on the planarization layer 833. 8A-H, the encapsulation of an organic electronic device having two barrier layers is obtained, wherein these barrier layers have a planarizing intermediate layer. Such an operation can be repeated one or more times, thereby adding more planarization and / or barrier layers, thereby further encapsulating the organic electronic device.

The area covered by the deposition is
It can be changed by using a shadow mask with different opening sizes, or by using another spacing between the substrate and the shadow mask, or by a combination of both. For example, by using a larger spacing between the substrate and the shadow mask, the area covered is often larger. This is because many deposition processes, such as evaporation or sputtering, cannot completely control the direction (eg, perpendicular to the substrate plane). If the area covered by the barrier layer is larger than the area covered by the planarization layer and the edge of the planarization layer is covered by the barrier layer, the barrier layer can directly adhere to the substrate,
This improves the encapsulation and improves the adhesion between the encapsulation layer and the substrate.

FIG. 9 shows yet another embodiment of an organic electronic device encapsulated according to the present invention. In this embodiment, the planarization layer is a transfer substrate (transf
er substrate) to minimize and stabilize its reactivity with surfaces such as active regions of organic electronic devices. The planarization layer is then transferred from the transfer substrate to at least the active region of the organic electronic device (e.g., the planarization layer covers the active region by the edge of the layer contacting the substrate of the organic electronic device). Or the organic electronic device can be hermetically sealed). By using this transfer substrate, the solvent or reactive monomer used to create the planarization layer may not contact the organic electronic device until the reactivity of the organic electronic device becomes less. Solvents can be used to form a uniform film of the planarization layer. To stabilize the planarization layer on the transfer substrate, the solvent is evaporated from the planarization layer and the planarization layer is cured (for example, the curing is performed using heat or light including ultraviolet light). Or reacting within this layer to completion, thereby forming a more stable and less reactive layer. Also, by using a transfer substrate, the planarization layer can be deposited and stabilized on the transfer substrate without having to perform this operation in a controlled environment such as in a vacuum chamber. It is good. Next, a barrier layer is deposited on this planarization layer.

In FIG. 9, the flattening layer 915 is used as the transfer substrate 918.
Has been deposited. The planarization layer 915 is deposited on the transfer substrate 918 with or without patterning. If any solvent is used to make the planarization layer 915, this solvent will be deposited on the transfer substrate 918, where most, if not all, solvent reactions take place. Transfer substrate 9
18 is, for example, a glass sheet, a plastic sheet,
Plastic foil or roll-to-roll (roll-t
o-roll) process-based continuous foil. Organic electronic devices 912a, 912b, 912c and 912d
Is manufactured on another substrate such as the substrate 909. A thermal transfer mechanism 921 is used to thermally transfer the planarization layer 915 to at least the active area of the organic electronic device. The thermal transfer mechanism 921 thermally transfers the planarizing layer,
Here, thermal dye transfer or L
This is performed using a process well known in the field of transfer printing such as ITI (= laser induced thermal imaging). The transfer of the planarizing layer 915 from the transfer substrate 918 to at least the active region may be performed by patterning.
Alternatively, it can be performed without patterning. After the planarization layer 915 is transferred, it is patterned
Alternatively, the barrier layer is transferred to at least the planarization layer 915 without patterning. After the planarization layer 915 and the barrier layer have been deposited, one or more planarization and / or barrier layers can be added to further encapsulate the organic electronic device.

The planarization layer 915 can be patterned as it is deposited on the transfer substrate 918, can be patterned after it has been deposited on the transfer substrate 918, or can be patterned from the transfer substrate 918 to the substrate 909.
The transfer of the planarization layer 915 to itself can be patterned by using a thermal transfer printing method that allows for patterning. Such methods are well-known in the art. The planarization layer 915 can be patterned by a combination of the above. If the planarization layer 915 is patterned on the transfer substrate 915, advantageously the transfer substrate 918
The transfer of the planarization layer 915 from to the substrate 909 is not patterned.

FIG. 10 illustrates one embodiment of the step of encapsulating an organic electronic device according to the present invention. At block 940, an organic electronic device is fabricated on a first substrate. Select a planarization layer to be deposited on at least the active region of the device. At block 943, the planarization layer is deposited on a second substrate (ie, a transfer substrate) with or without patterning. The organic electronic device to be encapsulated is positioned so that the planarization layer on the second substrate can be transferred to the device. At a block 946, a planarization layer is transferred from the second substrate to at least an active region of the organic electronic device. This transfer is a thermal-dye-transfe
r), it can be performed by a thermal transfer method such as thermal transfer printing or LITI. This transfer may be performed with or without patterning.
At block 949, the first substrate or planarization layer can be optionally post-processed. This post-treatment includes a heat treatment for melting, reflowing, or smoothing the planarizing layer. This post-processing may also include substantially blocking the planarization layer pin poles, substantially covering the planarization layer point defects (eg, dirt particles), or underneath overhanging structures such as cathode separators. This includes reflowing the planarization layer. At a block 952, a barrier layer is deposited on at least the planarization layer. After depositing the planarization and barrier layers, one or more planarization and / or barrier layers can be added to further encapsulate the organic electronic device.

The foregoing has described several embodiments of advanced encapsulation methods implemented in accordance with the principles of the present invention. It is to be understood that the invention includes any and all obvious variations described herein.

[Brief description of the drawings]

FIG. 1 shows a conventional PML formed on an OLED device.
It is a side view of a sealing structure.

FIG. 2 is a plan view of a row of OLED structures fabricated in large quantities on a single large glass substrate.

FIG. 3 is a side view illustrating processing steps in one embodiment of an encapsulation method implemented in accordance with the principles of the present invention.

FIG. 4 is a side view showing another embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a side view showing still another embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 6 is a side view showing still another embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 7A is a side view of a gas nozzle deposition system made in accordance with the principles of the present invention.

FIG. 7B is a plan view of the gas nozzle deposition system of FIG. 7A.

FIG. 7C is another plan view of the gas nozzle deposition system.

FIG. 8A illustrates an embodiment of an organic electronic device encapsulated in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 8B illustrates another embodiment of an organic electronic device encapsulated in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 8C illustrates yet another embodiment of an organic electronic device encapsulated in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 8D illustrates yet another embodiment of an organic electronic device encapsulated in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 8E illustrates yet another embodiment of an organic electronic device encapsulated in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 8F illustrates yet another embodiment of an organic electronic device encapsulated in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 8G illustrates yet another embodiment of an organic electronic device encapsulated in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 8H illustrates yet another embodiment of an organic electronic device encapsulated according to the present invention.

FIG. 9 shows yet another embodiment of an organic electronic device encapsulated according to the present invention.

FIG. 10 illustrates an embodiment of a process for encapsulating an organic electronic device according to the present invention.

[Explanation of symbols]

100 PML structure 102 glass substrate 104 OLED structure 106 Flattening layer 108 barrier layer 110 Flattening layer 112a, 112b PML structure 200 glass sheet 202 OLED device 204 electrical contact area 206 Scribe and Breakline 300 substrates 302 OLED device 306 mask 308 barrier layer 402 substrate 404 OLED device 406 organic layer 408 barrier layer 410 screen 502 substrate 504 OLED device 506 Organic layer 508 Barrier layer 510 shadow mask 600 substrates 602 OLED device 604 mask 606 Organic layer 608 barrier layer 700 substrates 702 device 704 gas nozzle 720 gas nozzle row 721 Flattening layer nozzle 723 inert gas nozzle 809 substrate 812 Organic Stack 815 Upper electrode 817 shadow mask 818 catalyst layer 821 gaseous monomer 824 flattening layer 827 barrier layer 828 shadow mask 830 catalyst layer 833 Flattening layer 836 barrier layer 837 shadow mask 909 substrate 912a-912d Organic electronic device 915 Flattening layer 918 Transfer substrate 921 Thermal transfer mechanism

   ────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── Continuation of front page    (72) Inventor Kyle Dee Frischknecht             United States California Riva             -More Sherry Street 566 (72) Inventor Karl Pichler             United States California Santa               Clara No. 15 Sea Saratoga               Avenue 444 (72) Inventor David Lacy             United States California Mount             Ten View Tiana Lane 705 F term (reference) 3K007 AB12 AB13 AB18 BB02 DB03                       FA01 FA02

Claims (61)

[Claims]
1. A method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate, the method comprising: fabricating a plurality of devices on the substrate; and depositing at least one planarization layer on the device. Patterning and curing the at least one planarization layer so that the cured region substantially covers the device; and curing the at least one planarization layer. Removing the missing area; and selectively depositing at least one barrier layer in the cured area, a method for encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate. .
2. The step of depositing the at least one planarization layer comprises one of the following groups: spin coating, flash evaporation, evaporation, blade coating, roll coating, The method of claim 1, comprising dip coating, spray coating, screen printing, and inkjet printing.
3. The step of patterning and curing the at least one planarization layer includes one of the following groups, which includes flood light exposure (UV) through a mask. flood-exposur
e), UV light source scanning through mask, UV light exposure including optical patterning system, UV light exposure including UV beam scanning system, crosslinking, patterned thermal transfer system, patterned 3. The method of claim 1 or 2, comprising an IR source, a masked IR source, a scanned IR source, a patterned electron beam, a masked electron beam, and a scanned electron beam.
4. Depositing the organic layer as a planarization layer, curing the organic layer includes cross-linking, and removing the non-cross-linked region of the at least one organic layer includes: The method according to claim 1, comprising removing by evaporation.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein said removing by thermal evaporation further comprises applying a short hot pulse.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein applying the short hot pulse further comprises placing the OLED plate on a hot plate.
7. The step of removing at least one area of the uncured planarization layer includes one of a group comprising: removing by pumping in a vacuum, thermal evaporation and in a vacuum. Removal by pumping, washing, blowing away, rins
4. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, comprising ing), sonicing or plasma.
8. The step of selectively depositing at least one barrier layer further comprises a barrier layer comprising one of the following groups, the group comprising: a dielectric, a metal, a metal oxide. Material, SiOx, SiNx, SiOxNy, AlO
The method according to any one of the preceding claims, comprising x, AlNx, ITO, ZnOx, Al-doped ZnOx and alloys.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of selectively depositing at least one barrier layer further comprises depositing the barrier layer through a mask. Method.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of selectively depositing at least one barrier layer further comprises depositing the barrier layer in an area larger than the planarization layer. A method according to any one of the preceding claims.
11. The method according to claim 1, wherein substantially only the light emitting area is covered by the planarization layer and the barrier layer.
12. A method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate, the method comprising: fabricating a plurality of devices on a substrate; and depositing at least one planarization layer on the devices. Selectively depositing at least one barrier layer on the planarization layer, and removing unnecessary regions of the planarization layer, wherein the planarization layer is provided with an unpatterned liquid film. A method for enclosing a plurality of devices to be manufactured on a substrate, characterized by depositing as:
13. The step of depositing the at least one planarization layer further includes one of the following groups, wherein the group comprises depositing an organic layer as a liquid film on a substrate. Selectively curing the layer; depositing the organic layer as a liquid film and curing the organic layer over the entire substrate; depositing a plurality of reactive organic molecules including a concentrated conformal film on the substrate. 13. The method of claim 12, comprising depositing a parylene coating, and depositing at least one planarization layer using plasma-assisted organic material deposition.
14. The method of claim 1, wherein the step of removing the unwanted planarization layer region further comprises one of the following groups, wherein the organic layer is used as a planarization layer. Layer etching, organic layer etching by chemical etching process, organic layer etching by plasma assisted etching process, organic layer etching by oxygen plasma, organic layer etching by reactive ion etching, organic layer etching by anisotropic etching Etching of organic layers by laser assisted / base removal,
14. The method according to claim 12 or 13, comprising etching the organic layer by laser ablation.
15. A method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate, the method comprising: fabricating a plurality of devices on the substrate; and selecting at least one planarization layer on the device. A method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate, comprising the steps of: selectively depositing; and selectively depositing at least one barrier layer on the planarization layer.
16. The step of selectively depositing at least one planarization layer further comprises one of the following groups, wherein the organic layer is deposited as a planarization layer by inkjet. 16. The method of claim 15, comprising: screen printing the organic layer as a planarizing layer; depositing using a gas nozzle; and depositing the organic layer through a shadow mask.
17. The step of selectively depositing at least one barrier layer further comprises one of the following groups: an inkjet deposit, a screen print deposit, and a shadow mask. 17. The method according to claim 15 or 16, comprising depositing using, sputtering, inkjet deposition, screen printing, and vapor deposition.
18. A method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate, the method comprising: fabricating a plurality of devices on a substrate; depositing a mask on top of the substrate; Causing the opening of the mask to be located on top of the device; depositing at least one planarization layer on the mask; removing the mask from the substrate; Selectively depositing one barrier layer. A method for encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate.
19. The step of depositing a mask further comprises one of the following groups: a stamp mask deposit, a laminate film mask deposit, a vacuum mask deposit, and a magnetic mask. 19. The method of claim 18, comprising depositing a mask that is permanently retained.
20. The method of claim 18, wherein depositing the mask further comprises depositing the mask so that the mask contacts a substrate.
21. The method of claim 18, wherein the step of depositing the mask further comprises depositing a mask that does not substantially adhere to the OLED substrate in a region between the active regions. The method described in the section.
22. The step of depositing a mask further comprises depositing a mask comprising one of the following groups, the group comprising a metal, ceramic, plastic, polymer, PTFE, 22. The method according to any one of claims 18 to 21, comprising a polysiloxane.
23. The method of any of claims 18 to 22, wherein depositing the at least one planarization layer further comprises depositing an organic layer over the mask. Method.
24. A method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate, the method comprising: fabricating a plurality of devices on the substrate; and depositing at least one planarization layer on the device. And depositing at least one barrier layer on the planarization layer, wherein the at least one step is performed in an inert atmosphere. How to encapsulate the device.
25. The method of claim 24, wherein the at least one step performed in an inert atmosphere is a step of depositing the at least one planarization layer.
26. The method of claim 24, wherein said at least one step performed in an inert atmosphere is a step of depositing said at least one barrier layer.
27. The at least one step performed in the inert atmosphere includes depositing the at least one planarization layer and depositing the at least one barrier layer. 25. The method of claim 24.
28. A method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate, the method comprising: fabricating a plurality of devices on the substrate; depositing at least one planarization layer on the device. A plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate, comprising: depositing at least one barrier layer on the planarization layer; and depositing a second encapsulation layer on the barrier layer. How to enclose.
29. The step of depositing the second encapsulation layer further comprises depositing one of the following groups: plastic, metal, metal and plastic foil. 29. The method of claim 28, comprising: a polymer; a glass;
30. The method of claim 28 or 29, wherein the step of depositing the second encapsulation layer further comprises individually separating the devices before depositing the second encapsulation layer.
31. A method of encapsulating a plurality of devices fabricated on a substrate, the method comprising: fabricating a plurality of devices on the substrate; depositing at least one planarization layer on the device. And depositing at least one barrier layer on the planarization layer, wherein the at least one deposition step is performed by gas nozzle deposition. How to encapsulate devices.
32. The method of claim 31, wherein the one deposition step performed by the gas nozzle deposition further comprises depositing a layer on a plurality of devices by an array of nozzles located above the substrate. The described method.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein depositing a layer on the plurality of devices further comprises moving the row and the substrate relative to each other.
34. An electronic device, comprising: a substrate; a plurality of active regions disposed on the substrate; a plurality of planarization layers disposed on the substrate; and a plurality of barrier layers disposed on the substrate. An electronic device, comprising: the planarization layer substantially covering only the active region; and the barrier layer substantially covering only the planarization layer.
35. The electronic device of claim 34, wherein said electronic device is one of a group comprising: an OLED, an organic electronic circuit, an organic detector, and an organic solar cell.
36. A method of encapsulating an organic electronic device, comprising the steps of: fabricating an organic electronic device having an active region on a substrate; and selectively depositing a catalyst layer on at least the active region. Exposing the catalyst layer to a monomer to form a planarization layer; and selectively depositing a barrier layer on at least the planarization layer, wherein the catalyst layer is selectively deposited. Characteristic method of encapsulating organic electronic devices.
37. The method of claim 36, wherein selectively depositing the catalyst layer comprises printing the catalyst layer.
38. The method of claim 31, further comprising: depositing an electrode layer of the organic electronic device through a shadow mask; and selectively depositing a catalyst layer on at least the active region, wherein at least the electrode layer is exposed through the shadow mask. 37. The method of claim 36, wherein the step of selectively depositing a barrier layer on at least the planarization layer comprises depositing the barrier layer through another shadow mask. The method described in.
39. The method further comprising: depositing another catalyst layer on the barrier layer through the another shadow mask; and exposing the another catalyst layer to the monomer to form another planarization layer. 39. The method of claim 38, wherein said another catalyst layer is selectively deposited.
40. The method of claim 39, wherein said another shadow mask has an opening size different from an opening size of said shadow mask.
41. The method of claim 38, wherein the spacing between the substrate and the shadow mask is varied while selectively depositing two separate layers.
42. The method of claim 36, wherein selectively depositing the barrier layer comprises depositing the barrier layer in an area larger than the catalyst layer.
43. An encapsulated electronic device, comprising: a substrate; an organic electronic device on the substrate having an active region; a planarization layer disposed at least in the active region; and at least a planarized layer disposed on the planarized layer. A barrier layer, wherein the flattening layer is formed by selectively depositing a catalyst layer on at least the active region and exposing the catalyst layer to a monomer. An encapsulated electronic device, characterized in that the layer is provided where it has been selectively deposited.
44. The electronic device of claim 43, wherein said selective depositing of said catalyst layer comprises printing said catalyst layer.
45. The organic electronic device includes an electrode layer deposited through a shadow mask, wherein the catalyst layer is at least by depositing the catalyst layer on at least the electrode layer through the shadow mask. 44. The electronic device of claim 43, wherein said electronic device is selectively deposited on said active region.
46. The electronic device according to claim 43, wherein the barrier layer is formed by depositing the barrier layer through another shadow mask.
47. The method of claim 47, further comprising another planarization layer on the barrier layer, wherein the another planarization layer deposits another catalyst layer through another shadow mask, 47. The electronic device according to claim 46, wherein the another planarization layer is provided at a location where the another catalyst layer is selectively deposited.
48. The electronic device of claim 46, wherein the another shadow mask has a different opening size than the shadow mask.
49. The electronic device according to claim 43, wherein the flattening layer is dicyclopentadienyl zirconium borate, and the monomer is propylene.
50. A method of encapsulating an organic electronic device, comprising: fabricating an organic electronic device having an active region on a first substrate; depositing a planarization layer on a second substrate; A method for encapsulating an organic electronic device, comprising the steps of: transferring to the active region; and depositing a barrier layer on at least the planarization layer.
51. Further, before transferring the flattening layer,
51. The method of claim 50, wherein the planarization layer is stabilized to minimize its reactivity.
52. The method for stabilizing the planarizing layer, comprising evaporating a solvent from the planarizing layer and curing the planarizing layer or allowing the planarizing layer to react within the planarizing layer. 52. The method of claim 51, comprising forming a more stable and less reactive layer.
53. The transfer of the flattening layer may be performed by thermal transfer of the flattening layer or laser-induced thermal transfer (LITI).
53. The method of any one of claims 50 to 52, comprising transferring the planarization layer using imaging.
54. The method according to any one of claims 50 to 53, wherein the deposit of the planarization layer comprises a selective deposit of the planarization layer.
55. The method of claim 50, wherein the planarizing layer is patterned at least when transferring the planarizing layer to the organic electronic device.
56. When the flattening layer is further transferred,
56. The method according to any one of claims 50 to 55, wherein defects in the planarization layer are treated.
57. An encapsulated electronic device, comprising: a substrate; an organic electronic device on the substrate having an active region; a planarization layer disposed at least in the active region; An encapsulated electronic device, characterized in that the planarization layer is first deposited on another substrate and then transferred to at least the active region.
58. The electronic device of claim 57, further comprising, prior to transferring the planarization layer, stabilizing the planarization layer to minimize its reactivity.
59. The planarization layer is thermally transferred to at least the active region, or LITI (= laser-induc).
59. The electronic device of claim 57 or 58, wherein the electronic device is transferred to at least the active area using ed thermal imaging.
60. The electronic device according to claim 57, wherein the planarization layer is patterned.
61. The electronic device according to any one of claims 43 to 49 or 57 to 59, wherein said organic electronic device is an organic light emitting device, an organic transistor, an organic detector, or a solar cell.
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