JP2003324956A - Method of controlling series resonant bridge inverter circuit and the circuit - Google Patents

Method of controlling series resonant bridge inverter circuit and the circuit

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Publication number
JP2003324956A
JP2003324956A JP2002133746A JP2002133746A JP2003324956A JP 2003324956 A JP2003324956 A JP 2003324956A JP 2002133746 A JP2002133746 A JP 2002133746A JP 2002133746 A JP2002133746 A JP 2002133746A JP 2003324956 A JP2003324956 A JP 2003324956A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
circuit
bridge
power
full
load
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Pending
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JP2002133746A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Kiyomi Watanabe
清美 渡辺
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Origin Electric Co Ltd
オリジン電気株式会社
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Application filed by Origin Electric Co Ltd, オリジン電気株式会社 filed Critical Origin Electric Co Ltd
Priority to JP2002133746A priority Critical patent/JP2003324956A/en
Publication of JP2003324956A publication Critical patent/JP2003324956A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To improve greatly the controllability in a light loading in a series resonant inverter circuit, and fulfill the increase in efficiency and the reduction in an output ripple. <P>SOLUTION: In a controlling method of a series resonant bridge inverter in which semiconductor switches with anti-paralleled diodes are formed in full- bridge circuit, and which is comprised of an inductance 6 for use in resonance, a capacitor 5 for use in resonance and a load circuit 16 that are connected at an AC output side of the full-bridge circuit 2, the full-bridge circuit 2 is made to operate in a full-bridge form when an output electric power falls within the predetermined range of an electric power, and the full-bridge circuit 2 is made to operate on equivalent basis and in half-bridge form when an output electric power is smaller than the predetermined range of an electric power. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2004,JPO

Description

Description: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a control method of a series resonant bridge inverter circuit having improved control characteristics when output power is smaller than a predetermined power range, and a method of controlling the same. The present invention relates to a series resonance type bridge inverter circuit. 2. Description of the Related Art Normally, a single-phase series resonant bridge inverter circuit includes a full-bridge circuit including two sets of semiconductor switches having anti-parallel diodes across a DC voltage source. A resonance inductance, a resonance capacitor and a load circuit are connected to the AC output side of the circuit, and the two sets of semiconductor switches are connected one by one at a drive frequency related to the series resonance frequency of the resonance inductance and the resonance capacitor. Power is alternately supplied to the load circuit. In this series resonance type bridge inverter circuit, when the load circuit is configured by a transformer, a rectifier circuit, and a load, a series resonance type DC-DC converter is formed. In this type of series resonant bridge inverter circuit, the current flowing through the semiconductor switch becomes a sine wave,
Zero current turn-on, turn-off (ZCS) is possible,
Low switching loss and high efficiency. Also, DC
In a DC converter, a capacitor input circuit that does not require a choke coil can be used for a rectifier circuit of a secondary circuit of a transformer, so that it is used as a high-voltage power supply, particularly a high-voltage power supply such as a medical X-ray power supply. . FIG. 7 shows a DC-DC converter using a conventional series resonance type inverter converter circuit, and a conventional problem will be described while explaining its circuit configuration and operation. 1 is a DC power supply, 2 is a voltage-type bridge inverter connected to the DC power supply, and two IGBTs 3A and 3B are connected in series across the DC power supply 1; IGBTs 3C and 3D are connected in series. Each IGBT has a diode 4
A, 4B, 4C, and 4D are connected in anti-parallel. AC output of voltage type bridge inverter 2, IGBT 3A, 3
A resonance capacitor 5, a resonance inductance 6, and a primary winding 8 of a transformer 7 are connected in series between the series connection point of B and the series connection point of the IGBTs 3C and 3D. The secondary winding 9 of the transformer 7 has four diodes 10, 11, 12, 1
3 is connected, and further,
The filter capacitor 15 is connected, and the load device 16 is connected. Each IGBT receives gate signals VgA, VgB, VgC, and VgD from the control circuit 17 through signal isolation circuits 18A, 18 such as pulse transformers or photocouplers.
B, 18C and 18D. Gate signal Vg
A and VgD are in phase with each other, and the gate signals VgB and VgC have opposite phases with respect to the gate signals VgA and VgD. As a result,
The set of IGBTs 3A and 3D and the set of IGBTs 3C and 3B are alternately turned on for a certain time. FIGS. 8A and 8B show, as an example, waveforms of the inverter current Ip and the load voltage Vo in a rated 100% load (60 kV-400 mA) operation of a high-voltage DC-DC converter rated at 24 kW. . The inverter circuit is driven at a drive frequency of 40 kHz lower than the resonance frequency of the resonance capacitor 5 and the resonance inductance 6. Although the inverter current Ip flowing through the inverter circuit has a peak value of 200 A, it is a substantially perfect sine wave, and turns on at zero current and turns off at zero current, so that switching loss is reduced. At this time,
The ripple of the load voltage Vo is about 1 kV. In this type of converter, control of the load voltage, for example, constant voltage control of the load voltage is performed by changing the drive frequency fs. When the load becomes lighter or when the power supply voltage rises, the drive frequency is controlled.
Reduce fs to maintain constant voltage. [0006] Therefore, when a light load smaller than a certain power, that is, a small power load, the driving frequency fs must be reduced, and the ripple of the load voltage Vo increases. 9 (A) and 9 (B) show the rated 25% load operation (30 kV
2 shows a waveform of the inverter current Ip and a ripple of the load voltage Vo at −200 mA). In order to maintain a constant voltage, the driving frequency fs must be reduced to 8 kHz, the peak value of the inverter current Ip increases to 300 A or more, and the ripple voltage increases to 5 kV. In other words, this type of series resonant converter has a problem that output characteristics under light load are considerably deteriorated. For this reason, conventionally, a method of controlling the DC input voltage of the inverter circuit or switching the values of the resonance inductance 6 and the resonance capacitor 5 according to the load power has been adopted. There are problems such as complexity and increased cost. [0007] In order to solve this problem, according to the invention of claim 1, a semiconductor switch in which diodes are connected in antiparallel across a DC voltage source is configured as a full bridge circuit, A resonance inductance, a resonance capacitor and a load circuit are connected to the AC output side of the full bridge circuit, and the semiconductor switch is driven at a drive frequency related to the series resonance frequency of the resonance inductance and the resonance capacitor. In the control method of the series resonant bridge inverter circuit that supplies power to the load circuit, when the output power is in a predetermined power range, the full bridge circuit is operated in a full bridge mode, and the output power is When it is smaller than the predetermined power range,
The present invention proposes a method of controlling a series resonance type bridge inverter circuit that operates the full bridge circuit equivalently in a half bridge form. According to the present invention, it is possible to cope with a light load without lowering the control frequency of the switching semiconductor element of the series resonant bridge inverter circuit, so that the output ripple can be sufficiently reduced and the power loss can be reduced. According to a second aspect of the present invention, in order to solve the above-mentioned problem, in the first aspect, when the detected value of the output power is larger than the reference power, the two sets of the semiconductor switches forming the full bridge circuit are connected. The full-bridge circuit is operated in a full-bridge mode by alternately driving and switching, and when the output power is equal to or less than the reference power, one of the semiconductor switches of the first set of the two sets is used. Is continuously turned on, the other is continuously turned off, and the semiconductor switches of the second set are alternately turned on and off, thereby operating the full-bridge circuit equivalently in a half-bridge mode. A control method of a bridge inverter circuit is proposed. According to a third aspect of the present invention, in order to solve the above-mentioned problem, in the first aspect, when the detected value of the output power is larger than the reference power, two sets of the semiconductor switches constituting the full bridge circuit are connected. The full-bridge circuit is operated in a full-bridge mode by alternately driving and switching, and when the output power is equal to or less than the reference power, one of the semiconductor switches of the first set of the two sets is used. Is turned on and off, the other is continuously turned off, and the second set of the semiconductor switches are turned on and off alternately to operate the full-bridge circuit equivalently in a half-bridge mode. A control method of a bridge inverter circuit is proposed. According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in order to solve the above problem, in any one of the first to third aspects, the reference power is determined based on output power data obtained in advance for the load circuit. The present invention proposes a control method for a series resonant bridge inverter circuit. According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, in order to solve the above problem, in the fourth aspect, the series power bridge inverter circuit according to the fourth aspect, wherein the reference power is determined based on a rated output voltage and a rated output current of the load circuit. Is proposed. In order to solve the above-mentioned problem, a semiconductor switch in which a diode is connected in an anti-parallel manner across a DC voltage source is formed in a full bridge circuit, and an AC output side of the full bridge circuit is provided. Resonance inductance,
A series resonant bridge inverter that connects a resonance capacitor and a load circuit, and drives the semiconductor switch at a drive frequency related to the series resonance frequency of the resonance inductance and the resonance capacitor to supply power to the load circuit. A control circuit for generating a control signal for switching the semiconductor switch, and a low-power load signal generating circuit for outputting a low-power load signal when a combination of a detected value of an output voltage and an output current is equal to or less than a reference power. When receiving the low power signal in addition to the control signal, one of the first set of semiconductor switches of the two sets of semiconductor switches forming the full bridge circuit is continuously turned off. When receiving the control signal and the low power load signal, the continuous bridge circuit constitutes the full bridge circuit. Two sets of one set of the other of the switching operation of the semiconductor switches of said semiconductor switches, or continue to proposes a series resonant bridge inverter circuit and a circuit for turning on operation. In the invention according to claim 7, in order to solve the above problem, the small power load signal generating circuit includes a series resonance type bridge inverter circuit including a memory storing a reference power indicating a small power output characteristic of the load. Is proposed. According to an eighth aspect of the present invention, in order to solve the above problem, in the sixth or seventh aspect, the load circuit comprises a rectifier circuit and a load, and includes a DC circuit together with the load circuit.
The present invention proposes a series resonant bridge inverter circuit constituting a DC converter. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The present invention provides a series resonant bridge inverter circuit in which, when the output power is within a predetermined power range, the full bridge circuit is operated in a full bridge mode. When the power is smaller than the predetermined power range, the full-bridge circuit is equivalently operated in a half-bridge mode. FIG. 1 shows a series resonant inverter circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention. The main circuit configuration is the same as a general circuit configuration, but a control circuit 17 for generating a control signal for switching IGBTs 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D used as switching semiconductor elements and an IGBT 3
During the period in which the low power load signal S is applied between the IGBT 3C and the gate of the IGBT 3C,
Continuous off circuit 19 that does not apply gate signal VgC to the gate of
Is provided. Further, during the period in which the low power load signal S is applied between the control circuit 17 and the gate of the IGBT 3D, a continuously-on gate signal VgC is generated from the control signal, and the continuously-on gate signal VgC is applied to the gate of the IGBT 3C.
Is connected. That is, under a load condition in which the load power is in a relatively large range such as near the rated power, the small power load signal S is not applied.
VgC is transmitted to IGBTs 3D and 3C as they are,
T3C and 3D repeat normal ON and OFF operations. On the other hand, when the load power reaches a predetermined range smaller than the above range, the low power load signal S
During the period in which the low power load signal S is being generated, the gate signal VgC is blocked, the IGBT 3C is continuously turned off, and the gate signal VgD becomes a continuous signal.
The voltage is applied to the GBT 3D, and the IGBT 3D is continuously turned on. The low power load signal S is generated by a low power load signal generation circuit 21. Low power load signal generation circuit 21
Performs the startup operation of the DC-DC converter in a normal bridge operation, detects the load voltage Vo and the load current Io after startup, and determines whether or not the combination is within a predetermined range of low power. Then, only when the power is within the range of the small power, the small power signal S is generated. Specifically, the load voltage Vo
Only when the load current Io is inside the small power curve 3 of the output characteristic of FIG. 6 described later, that is, within the range surrounded by the small power curve 3 and the vertical and horizontal axes, the small power signal S is generated. . Therefore, when the load condition changes in the direction of increase on the way and the combination of the load voltage Vo and the load current Io protrudes outside the small power curve 3 and the output cannot be maintained in the half-bridge operation, the normal operation state That is, the operation is returned to the full-bridge operation. The above-described determination is performed by a CPU storing a predetermined small power curve 3 as shown in FIG.
By using such a method, it can be easily realized by those skilled in the art. In particular, when setting the voltage and current of the X-ray tube in advance before outputting a high voltage, such as an X-ray power supply,
Since it is possible to determine whether the operation is the low-power operation or the normal operation before the operation is started, the discrimination control can be further simplified. FIG. 2 shows the low power load signal S and the gate signals VgA, VgB, VgC, VgD of each IGBT. In FIG. 2, the time t0-t1 is under a relatively large load condition near the rated load, and is a period in which the combination of the load voltage Vo and the load current Io is larger than the reference power corresponding to a predetermined small power load value. , The small power load signal S is at the L level. As a result, neither the continuous-off circuit 19 nor the continuous-on circuit 20 operates, and the control circuit 17 outputs signals from the IGBTs 3A, 3
A gate signal is alternately applied to the set D and the set of IGBTs 3C and 3B, and the corresponding IGBTs alternately turn on and off. On the other hand, during the low power load period from time t1 to t2, that is, during the period when the combination of the load voltage Vo and the load current Io is equal to or lower than the reference power corresponding to the predetermined low power load value, the low power load signal S is at the H level. Then, both the continuous off circuit 19 and the continuous on circuit 20 operate to continuously turn off the IGBT 3C without supplying a gate signal, and continuously supply the gate signal to the IGBT 3D to remain on. Other gate signals are the same as in the time t0-t1. That is, IGBT3A and IGBT
Only the BT3B alternately turns on and off. FIG. 3 shows an equivalent circuit at this time, and FIG.
Is an operation explanatory diagram. In FIG. 4, I1 is IGBT3A
, The resonance current when the IGBT 3B is on, and Vc the voltage of the resonance capacitor 5. In FIG. 3, since the IGBT 3C is continuously off, disconnect it.
Since the IGBT 3D is continuously ON, it is connected. As described above, at time t0, the same gate signal Vg as at the time of the rated load power is applied.
When the IGBT 3A is turned on by A, the transformer 7 is charged from the DC power source 1 while charging the resonance capacitor 5 to the polarity shown.
A current I1 flows through the primary winding 8 to supply load power, the resonance capacitor 5 is charged to a voltage Vc higher than the power supply voltage, the current I1 is inverted, and a feedback current flows through the diode 4A. The voltage Vc of the resonance capacitor 5 is maintained as it is until time t1. Next, at time t1, the IGBT 3B is turned on, and the discharge current I2 flows from the resonance capacitor 5 having the illustrated polarity through a closed circuit including the resonance inductance 6 and the primary winding 8 of the transformer 7, thereby causing the load to flow. Power is supplied. At this time, the voltage of the resonance capacitor 5 is inverted to the polarity opposite to that shown in the figure, and then to the polarity shown again through the feedback diode 4B. Even if the voltage of this polarity is reached, I
Since the GBT 3B has already been turned off, the voltage Vc of the resonance capacitor 5 is maintained until the next ON time t2 of the IGBT 3A. That is, the operation mode is the operation mode of the half bridge circuit. Therefore, at the time of a small power load, the power supply voltage of the inverter circuit 2 is equivalently halved to 1/2, the output voltage is also reduced to 1/2, and the output power is reduced to 1/4. When the load meets this output condition, a low power load signal S is generated. This half-bridge mode of operation eliminates the need for lowering the frequency as compared with the prior art even with a small load power supply, and reduces the peak value and the effective value of the current flowing through the IGBT. Therefore, there is an advantage that the output voltage ripple, the power loss of the IGBT, and the winding loss of the transformer are also reduced. In this case, since the IGBT 3D is kept on, no turn-on loss or turn-off loss occurs, and the efficiency is further improved. FIG. 5 shows the waveform of the inverter current Ip and the ripple of the load voltage Vo according to the present invention under the same light load condition (30 kV-200 mA) as in the conventional circuit shown in FIG. The drive frequency fs of the inverter circuit 2 is 40 kHz because the output voltage can be controlled without lowering it.
And the peak value of the current Ip of the inverter circuit is 1
00A, which is much lower than in the past. Since the driving frequency fs does not need to be lowered, the ripple voltage is 1 kV
It has dropped below. Comparing with FIG. 9 showing the characteristics of the conventional inverter circuit at light load, it can be seen that the light load characteristics of the present invention are significantly improved as compared with the conventional control. In the waveform of FIG. 5, the on-time (positive pulse time) of the inverter current Ip is shorter than the on-time during the rated operation in FIG. 8, so that the IGBT gate signal is turned on by the small power load signal S. The width needs to be slightly shorter. As another method, it can be controlled automatically by detecting that the current flowing through the IGBT reverses and that the current starts flowing through the anti-parallel diode, and turns off the gate signal of the corresponding IGBT. These are techniques that are easy for those skilled in the art, and a description thereof will be omitted. FIG. 6 shows output characteristics of a DC-DC converter using the series resonance type inverter circuit of the present invention.
The horizontal axis is the load current, and the vertical axis is the output voltage. Curve 1 is a typical maximum output characteristic of a DC-DC converter using a series resonance type inverter circuit, and a DC-DC converter within a range of a rated output characteristic curve 2 falling within this range is used. That is, the rated voltage Vo 'and the rated current Io'
Use within the following range. The small power curve 3 shows the maximum output characteristic at which a desired output can be obtained by the half-bridge control according to the present invention, and is obtained by reducing both the voltage and the current of the curve 1 to 1/2. That is, in the range of the small power curve 3 in the rated output characteristic curve 2, a desired output can be obtained by the control of the half-bridge form according to the present invention. it can. As described above, the power characteristic of the small power curve 3 obtained in advance is stored in a CPU (not shown) provided in the small power load signal generation circuit 21 and the small power curve is stored in the reference power As, it is determined whether the combination of the detected value of the load voltage Vo and the load current Io is within the range of the reference power,
It is sufficient that the small power signal S 1 is generated only when the power is within the range of the reference power. Here, in the embodiment of FIG.
Although T3D is continuously turned on, it may be turned on and off with the same gate signal as IGBT3A. In this case, IGB
When T3B is turned on, the discharge current I2 flows from the resonance capacitor 5 and the voltage Vc of the resonance capacitor 5 is inverted. However, since the IGBT 3D is turned off simultaneously with the IGBT 3B, the antiparallel diode 4 of the IGBT 3B is turned off.
There is no reverse current flowing through B. As a result, IG
The output power can be slightly increased compared to the continuous ON state of the BT3D. In this case, the continuation ON circuit can be eliminated. In the above embodiment, the DC-DC converter using the series resonance type bridge inverter circuit has been described. However, the present invention is basically a series resonance type bridge inverter circuit, and the output rectification is not necessarily required. A rectifying circuit is not necessary, and an AC output voltage or current may be detected as necessary, and the detected AC voltage or AC current may be rectified and used as a detected voltage or detected current. Although the IGBT is used as the switching semiconductor element, the MOSF
Other switching semiconductor elements such as ET can be used in a similar manner. Furthermore, in the embodiment, four single switching semiconductor elements are connected to the bridge, but two or more switching semiconductor elements connected in parallel are connected to the bridge, or two or more switching semiconductor elements connected in series are connected to the bridge. Of course, a bridge circuit may be used. As described above, according to the present invention, the controllability under a light load, which is a drawback of the series resonance type inverter circuit, is greatly improved, and the efficiency is improved and the ripple voltage is reduced. can do.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows an embodiment of a series resonant bridge inverter circuit of the present invention. FIG. 2 shows signals for explaining the control method of the present invention. FIG. 3 shows an equivalent circuit at a light load of the series resonant bridge inverter circuit according to the invention. FIG. 4 shows waveforms for explaining the equivalent circuit shown in FIG. FIG. 5 shows an inverter current Ip and a load voltage Vo of the series resonance type bridge inverter circuit according to the present invention when a small power load is applied. FIG. 6 shows a DC output characteristic obtained by rectifying an AC output of the series resonant bridge inverter circuit according to the present invention. FIG. 7 shows an example of a conventional series resonance type converter. FIG. 8 shows an inverter current Ip and a load voltage Vo at a rated power of a conventional series resonant converter. FIG. 9 shows an inverter current Ip and a load voltage Vo of the conventional series resonant converter at a low power load. [Description of Signs] 1-DC power supply 2-Voltage-type bridge inverters 3A to 3D -Switching semiconductor elements 4A to 4D-
Anti-parallel diode 5-Resonant capacitor 6-Resonant inductance 7-Transformer 14 having primary winding 8 and secondary winding 9-Rectifier circuit composed of rectifying diodes 10 to 12-Filter capacitor 16-Load circuit 17-Control circuit 18A to 18
D-signal insulation circuit 19-continuation off circuit 20-continuation on circuit 21-low power load signal generation circuit 22-load power detection circuit 23-reference power means 24-power comparison circuit

Claims (1)

  1. Claims: 1. A full-bridge circuit comprising a semiconductor switch in which diodes are connected in anti-parallel across a DC voltage source,
    A resonance inductance, a resonance capacitor and a load circuit are connected to the AC output side of this full bridge circuit,
    In a control method of a series resonance type bridge inverter circuit for driving the semiconductor switch at a drive frequency related to a series resonance frequency of the resonance inductance and the resonance capacitor to supply power to the load circuit, an output power is predetermined. When in the power range, the full-bridge circuit operates in a full-bridge mode, and when the output power is smaller than the predetermined power range, the full-bridge circuit operates equivalently in a half-bridge mode. A method for controlling a series resonance type bridge inverter circuit, characterized in that: 2. The full-bridge circuit according to claim 1, wherein when the detected value of the output power is larger than a reference power, the two sets of the semiconductor switches constituting the full-bridge circuit are alternately driven and switched. Operating the circuit in a full bridge configuration, when the output power is less than or equal to the reference power, one of the semiconductor switches of the first set of the two sets is continuously turned on, and the other is continuously turned off. And controlling the full-bridge circuit equivalently to operate in a half-bridge form by alternately turning on and off the second set of the semiconductor switches. 3. The full bridge according to claim 1, wherein when the detected value of the output power is larger than a reference power, the two sets of the semiconductor switches constituting the full bridge circuit are alternately driven and switched. Operating the circuit in a full-bridge configuration, when the output power is less than or equal to the reference power, turn on and off one of the semiconductor switches of the first set of the two sets, and continuously turn off the other And controlling the full-bridge circuit equivalently to operate in a half-bridge form by alternately turning on and off the second set of the semiconductor switches. 4. The series resonant bridge inverter circuit according to claim 1, wherein the reference power is determined based on output power data obtained in advance for the load circuit. Control method. 5. The control method for a series resonant bridge inverter circuit according to claim 4, wherein the reference power is determined based on a rated output voltage and a rated output current of the load circuit. 6. A full-bridge circuit comprising a semiconductor switch in which diodes are connected in anti-parallel across a DC voltage source,
    A resonance inductance, a resonance capacitor and a load circuit are connected to the AC output side of this full bridge circuit,
    In a series resonance type bridge inverter circuit for supplying power to the load circuit by driving the semiconductor switch at a drive frequency related to a series resonance frequency of the resonance inductance and the resonance capacitor, a control for switching the semiconductor switch A control circuit that generates a signal; a low-power load signal generation circuit that outputs a low-power load signal when a combination of a detected value of an output voltage and an output current is equal to or less than a reference power; When receiving
    A continuous off circuit for continuously turning off one of the first set of the semiconductor switches of the two sets of the semiconductor switches forming the full bridge circuit; and the control signal and the low power load signal. And a circuit for performing a switching operation or a continuous ON operation of the other of the sets of the semiconductor switches of the two sets of the semiconductor switches constituting the full bridge circuit. Series resonant bridge inverter circuit. 7. The series resonant bridge inverter circuit according to claim 6, wherein the low power load signal generation circuit includes a memory storing a reference power indicating a low power output characteristic of the load. 8. The series resonant bridge inverter circuit according to claim 6, wherein the load circuit includes a rectifier circuit and a load, and forms a DC-DC converter together with the load circuit.
JP2002133746A 2002-05-09 2002-05-09 Method of controlling series resonant bridge inverter circuit and the circuit Pending JP2003324956A (en)

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