JP2003286819A - Pm purifier - Google Patents

Pm purifier

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Publication number
JP2003286819A
JP2003286819A JP2002094077A JP2002094077A JP2003286819A JP 2003286819 A JP2003286819 A JP 2003286819A JP 2002094077 A JP2002094077 A JP 2002094077A JP 2002094077 A JP2002094077 A JP 2002094077A JP 2003286819 A JP2003286819 A JP 2003286819A
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
plasma
oxidizing gas
exhaust gas
gas supply
amount
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
JP2002094077A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP4132920B2 (en
Inventor
Kazunobu Ishibashi
Yoshihiko Ito
Takaaki Kanazawa
Hirobumi Shinjo
由彦 伊藤
博文 新庄
一伸 石橋
孝明 金沢
Original Assignee
Toyota Central Res & Dev Lab Inc
Toyota Motor Corp
トヨタ自動車株式会社
株式会社豊田中央研究所
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Application filed by Toyota Central Res & Dev Lab Inc, Toyota Motor Corp, トヨタ自動車株式会社, 株式会社豊田中央研究所 filed Critical Toyota Central Res & Dev Lab Inc
Priority to JP2002094077A priority Critical patent/JP4132920B2/en
Publication of JP2003286819A publication Critical patent/JP2003286819A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of JP4132920B2 publication Critical patent/JP4132920B2/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
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Abstract

<P>PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a PM purifier in which a PM captured in a capturing device is burned off and removed by a small amount of electrical power by utilizing plasma. <P>SOLUTION: An oxidative gas is supplied into plasma generated by a plasma generator 3, the oxidative gas activated by the plasma is supplied to a capturing device 4. The captured PM is removed from a low temperature region by the oxidative gas which has been converted to radicals or ions by the plasma. <P>COPYRIGHT: (C)2004,JPO

Description

Detailed Description of the Invention

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a PM purification device capable of efficiently burning and purifying PM mainly containing carbon contained in exhaust gas of a diesel engine in an exhaust gas temperature range.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art The exhaust gas of a diesel engine contains PMs such as carbon, SOF (Soluble Organic Fraction), high molecular weight organic compounds, and sulfuric acid mist, which are emitted from the viewpoint of air pollution and adverse effects on the human body. There is a growing movement to curb this. There are two methods to suppress the emission of PM: a method of collecting PM by a filter and a method of burning and removing PM by using a flow-through type catalyst, and technological development of each or a combination of both is in progress. Has been.

As the filter, a honeycomb-shaped heat-resistant base material in which openings at both ends are alternately closed in a checkered pattern, or a foam-shaped material having a mesh structure is used. In the method of collecting PM by this filter, the pressure loss increases due to the accumulated PM, so when the PM is deposited to some extent, the deposited PM is shaken off, or heat-treated at a high temperature.
Maintenance is required to remove M. Therefore, the filter must have sufficient strength and heat resistance, but it is not sufficient at this time. When applied to the internal combustion engine of an automobile,
There is also a problem that a heating device for that purpose is required. Further, in the method using a filter, it is desirable to use a fine filter in order to increase the PM collection efficiency, but this causes a serious problem that the pressure loss increases. Further, even if the accumulated PM is burned and removed, there is a problem that clogging occurs due to the remaining ash content.

Therefore, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 6-146852 discloses a method in which discharge is generated through a filter element to which soot is attached, radicals are generated by discharge plasma, and the soot deposited on the filter is oxidized by the radical at low temperature. Is disclosed.

Further, Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 10-159552 describes a method in which an oxidizing gas rich in NO 2 is supplied to the monolith to burn and remove PM trapped in the monolith with the oxidizing gas. .

Further, in Japanese Patent No. 3056626, charged PM is collected by a pellet made of a ferroelectric substance by electrostatic force, and microplasma is generated between the pellets to burn and remove the collected PM. A method is disclosed.
By doing so, even if the flow-through type is used, the PM collection efficiency can be significantly increased, and the collected PM can be efficiently burned and removed.

[0007]

By the way, the temperature of exhaust gas from a diesel engine is usually lower than 300 ° C. Further, at the time of starting, the exhaust gas temperature is even lower. Therefore, when PM is oxidatively burned with an oxidizing gas such as NO 2, it is difficult to burn PM in a low temperature range, and PM is deposited in a low temperature range and burns at once in a high temperature range. Therefore, there is a problem that the filter is damaged by the combustion heat. Further, in order to burn and remove the accumulated PM, it is necessary to supply a large amount of oxidizing gas, which causes a problem that the device becomes large.

Further, in the method of generating discharge through the filter element and burning and removing the deposited PM by using discharge plasma, a large amount of electric power is required because the discharge is performed in the exhaust gas having a large space velocity, and energy efficiency is increased. Is low. Further, since the electrodes and the like are incorporated in the filter, the structure becomes complicated. Further, even in the method of collecting PM by electrostatic force and burning and removing the collected PM by discharge, similarly, there is a problem that electric power required for discharge is large and energy efficiency is low.

The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and an object thereof is to make it possible to burn and remove deposited PM by using plasma with a small electric power.

[0010]

The characteristics of the PM purifying apparatus of the present invention for solving the above-mentioned problems are as follows: a PM collecting apparatus arranged in a flow path of exhaust gas containing PM to collect PM; and a plasma generating plasma. And a oxidative gas supply device for supplying an oxidative gas into the plasma generated by the plasma generator and supplying the oxidative gas activated by the plasma to the PM trapping device. The purpose is to burn and remove the PM collected by the apparatus by the activated oxidizing gas.

A collection amount estimation means for estimating a collection amount of PM collected in the PM collection device, and an oxidizing gas supply device according to the PM collection amount estimated by the collection amount estimation means It is preferable that the control device further includes a control device that controls driving of the plasma generation device, and the control device drives the plasma generation device and the oxidizing gas supply device when the amount of trapped PM is a predetermined value or more.

Further, a content estimating means for estimating the content of PM in the exhaust gas, and a control for controlling the driving of the oxidizing gas supply device and the plasma generator according to the content of PM estimated by the content estimating means. PM in exhaust gas further equipped with a device
It is desirable to drive the plasma generation device and the oxidizing gas supply device when the content of is greater than or equal to a predetermined value.

[0013]

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION In the PM purifying apparatus of the present invention, the oxidizing gas is activated by the plasma generated by the plasma generating apparatus, and the activated oxidizing gas is supplied to the PM collecting apparatus. Oxidizing gas is activated by becoming radicals or ions by plasma, and its oxidizing activity is extremely high. Therefore, the PM trapped in the PM trap is easily burned and removed even in a low temperature range.

Oxidizing gas activated by forming radicals or ions has extremely high reaction activity with PM. Therefore, almost all of the supplied oxidizing gas contributes to the combustion of PM, and the reaction efficiency is significantly improved. Thereby, the supply amount of the oxidizing gas can be reduced, and the device can be downsized.

The oxidizing gas supply device first supplies the oxidizing gas into the plasma generated by the plasma generator. Therefore, the oxidizing gas is efficiently activated as radicals or ions, and a small amount of oxidizing gas is required, so that the space velocity is small. Therefore, the energy required for the discharge is small and the energy efficiency is good.

The PM collecting device is a conventional one that physically collects PM such as a honeycomb-shaped heat-resistant base material in which openings at both ends are alternately closed in a checkered pattern or a mesh-shaped foam shape. Can be used. It is also possible to forcibly charge the PM and to adsorb the charged PM by electrostatic force to collect it. In this case, a straight flow structure such as a plate shape, a cylinder shape, a pellet shape, a honeycomb shape, or a mesh shape can be used.
For example, if a DC voltage is applied between a pair of electrodes existing in the exhaust gas to generate a discharge, PM is generally negatively charged and is adsorbed to the positive or ground electrode by electrostatic force. Therefore, the PM trapping device may be formed as an electrode on the plus side or the ground side.

O 2 , NO, NO 2 , and S are used as the oxidizing gas.
O 2 , SO 3, etc. are exemplified, and O 2 , NO 2 , SO 3 which are easily activated by radicals or ions by plasma are particularly preferable. The oxidizing gas supply device is not particularly limited as long as it can supply the oxidizing gas into the plasma generated by the plasma generator and supply the oxidizing gas activated by the plasma to the PM trapping device. , A pump, an injector, or a pipe that can be supplied by the pressure of the oxidizing gas compressed and stored in a tank.
Further, the activated oxidizing gas may be directly supplied to the PM trapping device or may be supplied into the exhaust gas supplied to the PM trapping device.

However, when the activated oxidizing gas is present in the exhaust gas, the activated oxidizing gas reacts with reducing components such as HC and CO in the exhaust gas and disappears to burn the collected PM. The amount to do will decrease. Therefore, when supplying the activated oxidizing gas into the exhaust gas, it is desirable that the activated oxidizing gas be mixed into the exhaust gas immediately before the PM trapping device.

The plasma generator is generally constructed so that a plasma discharge is generated by applying a high voltage of about 10 to 50 kV. As the high voltage source, a DC voltage, an AC voltage, an AC pulse voltage, or the like can be used.
For example, a pair of electrodes may be formed in the oxidizing gas flow channel, and plasma may be generated by discharging between the electrodes to activate the oxidizing gas flowing in the flow channel. The shape of the electrode is not particularly limited, but it is desirable to use a shape such as a needle shape or an edge shape that facilitates discharge.

By the way, since the electric power supplied at the time of discharging the plasma generator is large, the method of continuously discharging is not practical because the load on the automobile battery is large.
It is also wasteful to drive the oxidizing gas supply device when plasma is not generated. Therefore, it is desirable to control the driving of the plasma generator and the oxidizing gas supply device.

For example, when platinum (Pt) or the like is carried on the PM trapping device, when the exhaust gas temperature is in a high temperature range above the activation temperature of Pt, it is trapped by the oxidizing ability of Pt. It becomes possible to oxidize and burn existing PM. So P
It is preferable to include a temperature sensor that detects the temperature of at least one of the exhaust gas flowing into the M trapping device and the PM trapping device, and drive the plasma generator and the oxidizing gas supply device when the temperature is below a predetermined value. . If you do this,
The plasma generator and the oxidizing gas supply device can be driven only in a low temperature range where activation of Pt is difficult, and energy efficiency is improved.

It is also preferable to drive the plasma generator and the oxidizing gas supply device only when a certain amount of PM is accumulated in the PM trap. In this case, the PM trapping device is provided with a trapping amount estimation means for estimating the trapped amount of the trapped PM, and the plasma generator and the oxidizing gas supply when the trapped amount of the PM is a predetermined value or more. It suffices to drive the device. As the collection amount estimation means, the collection amount may be detected by using a PM sensor such as a light scattering particle counter, or may be calculated and estimated from the driving condition of the internal combustion engine.

It is also preferable to estimate the PM content in the exhaust gas from the operating state of the internal combustion engine and drive the plasma generator and the oxidizing gas supply apparatus when the PM content is above a predetermined value. By doing this, it is possible to prevent the plasma generator and the oxidizing gas supply device from being driven when the amount of PM in the exhaust gas is almost absent, for example, during steady running, and the amount of PM in the exhaust gas is reduced during acceleration. Only when the number is large, the plasma generator and the oxidizing gas supply device can be driven to burn the PM, so that wasteful consumption of electric power can be prevented and energy efficiency is improved.

[0024]

EXAMPLES The present invention will be specifically described below with reference to examples.

(Embodiment 1) FIG. 1 shows a PM purifying apparatus of this embodiment. The PM purifying apparatus of this embodiment includes a PM trapping device 2 arranged in an exhaust pipe 10 of a diesel engine 1, a plasma reactor 3 for generating plasma, and an oxidizing gas supply device 4.

The PM trap 2 is composed of a conventional filter (DPF) in which openings at both ends of a honeycomb-shaped heat-resistant base material are alternately closed to form a checkerboard pattern, and when the exhaust gas passes through the cell partition walls, the PM is separated into cells. It is configured to be collected by the partition wall.

As shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, the plasma reactor 3 is composed of a cylindrical ground electrode 30 having a diameter of 30 mm and a length of 100 mm and a linear discharge electrode 31 arranged at the center of the cylindrical ground electrode 30. Between 32 and the ground electrode 30 and the discharge electrode 31, as shown in FIG.
By applying a pulse voltage of 20 kV at 0.005 second intervals,
A plasma discharge is intermittently generated in the cylindrical ground electrode 30.

The oxidizing gas supply device 4 comprises a cylinder 40 in which NO 2 gas is compressed and stored, and a gas passage 41 through which NO 2 gas released at a predetermined pressure from the cylinder 40 passes. Is connected to the exhaust pipe 10 immediately before the PM trap 2. Then, the plasma reactor 3 is arranged in a part of the gas flow path 41, and the NO 2 gas released from the cylinder 40 at a pressure of 20 kPa flows into the exhaust pipe 10 after passing through the plasma reactor 3 and the PM trapping device together with the exhaust gas. It is configured to flow into 2.

In the PM purifying apparatus of this embodiment, the NO 2 gas flowing into the plasma reactor 3 is generated by plasma discharge.
Activated by becoming NO 2 radicals or NO 2 ions,
It flows into the PM collection device 2. The PM trapped in the PM trap 2 and the PM in the exhaust gas are burned and removed by NO 2 radicals or NO 2 ions. NO 2 radicals or NO 2 ions have high oxidative activity and can burn and remove PM even in a low temperature range of 200 to 300 ° C.
The PM inside is efficiently burned and removed from the low temperature range, the PM trapping ability is restored, and the pressure loss is reduced.

FIG. 5 shows the effect of the PM purifying apparatus of this embodiment. In FIG. 5, the vertical axis represents the PM deposition amount and the horizontal axis represents time. For example, in the case of the comparative example which does not have the plasma reactor 3 and the oxidizing gas supply device 4, since PM is not burned, the PM deposition amount increases with time. However, according to the PM purification apparatus of this embodiment, after the time P when the plasma reactor 3 and the oxidizing gas supply apparatus 4 are driven, the oxidizing gas activated by the discharge plasma is almost continuously PM.
Therefore, the PM deposition amount becomes almost constant at a low value regardless of time.

(Second Embodiment) FIG. 6 shows a PM purifying apparatus according to a second embodiment. This PM purification device further includes a control device 5 that receives a signal from the engine control unit 11 that controls the operating state of the diesel engine 1 and that controls the high pressure power supply 32 and the valve 42 provided in the oxidizing gas supply device 4. Except for this, the configuration is the same as that of the first embodiment.

The control contents of the control unit 5 will be described below with reference to the flow chart shown in FIG.
The operation of the purification device will be described.

When the diesel engine 1 is driven in step 100, first, in step 101, the present PM accumulation amount X and the constant A recorded in the memory of the controller 5 are read. The constant A is the upper limit value (critical deposition amount A) of PM that can be deposited on the PM trapping device 2 within a range in which the pressure loss does not affect the engine characteristics.

Then, in step 102, the current PM generation amount Y and the exhaust gas temperature T are calculated from the rotation speed and load condition of the diesel engine 1. This value is read from a map in which the relationship between the engine speed and load, the PM generation amount, and the exhaust gas temperature is recorded in advance. Of course, it may be calculated using a relational expression, or the exhaust gas temperature T may be measured by a temperature sensor.

In step 103, X = X + Y is calculated and the current PM deposition amount X is updated.

Next, at step 104, the current PM deposit amount X and the critical deposit amount A are compared. If the PM deposit amount X is equal to or greater than the critical deposit amount A, at step 105 the valve 42 is opened and the cylinder 40 is removed. NO 2 gas is supplied and step 1
At 06, the high voltage power supply 32 is turned on, and a pulse voltage of 20 kV is applied to the plasma reactor 3 for a predetermined time. As a result, discharge plasma is generated in the plasma reactor 3 and the activated N
The O 2 gas flows into the PM trap 2 and the accumulated PM is burned and removed.

On the other hand, if the PM deposition amount X is less than the critical deposition amount A in step 104, nothing is done and the process returns to step 102.

Next, at step 107, the PM amount Δx burned and removed according to the total time t when the discharge plasma is generated and the exhaust gas temperature T is calculated, and the PM accumulation amount X is updated to reduce Δx. Return to 102.

Therefore, according to the PM purifying apparatus of this embodiment, when the PM accumulation amount X is less than the critical accumulation amount A, the PM in the exhaust gas is successively collected by the PM collecting device 2. When the PM deposition amount X becomes equal to or more than the critical deposition amount A, PM deposited by the NO 2 gas activated by the discharge plasma is burned and removed, so that the PM deposition amount X rapidly decreases and the PM trapping device 2 Recovers the collecting ability again and the pressure loss decreases. The plasma reactor 3 and the oxidizing gas supply device 4 are driven only when the current PM deposition amount X is equal to or greater than the critical deposition amount A, so that power consumption can be saved and energy efficiency can be improved.

FIG. 8 shows the effect of the PM purifying apparatus of this embodiment. In FIG. 8, the vertical axis represents the PM deposition amount and the horizontal axis represents time. According to the PM purifying apparatus of the present embodiment, the oxidizing gas activated by the discharge plasma intermittently removes PM, so that the PM deposition amount has a saw-tooth shape, and the maximum value thereof is the critical deposition amount A or less. Therefore, increase in pressure loss can be reliably prevented.

[0041]

According to the PM purifying apparatus of the present invention, the deposited PM can be burned and removed with a small electric power by using plasma, and the deposited PM can be deposited even in a low temperature range.
Can be removed by burning.

[Brief description of drawings]

FIG. 1 is an explanatory diagram showing a configuration of a PM purifying apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a plasma reactor (plasma generator) used in a PM purifying apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of a plasma reactor (plasma generator) used in the PM purifying apparatus according to an embodiment of the present invention when driven.

FIG. 4 is an explanatory diagram showing a drive voltage waveform of a plasma reactor (plasma generator) in the PM purifying apparatus of one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 5 is an explanatory diagram showing an effect of the PM purifying apparatus according to the embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 6 is an explanatory diagram showing a configuration of a PM purifying apparatus according to a second embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 7 is a flowchart showing the control contents of the control device 5 in the PM purifying device according to the second embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 8 is an explanatory diagram showing an effect of the PM purifying apparatus according to the second embodiment of the present invention.

[Explanation of symbols]

1: Diesel engine 2: PM trapping device 3:
Plasma reactor 4: Oxidizing gas supply device 5: Control device 10:
Exhaust pipe 30: Ground electrode 31: Discharge electrode 32:
High-voltage power supply 40: cylinder 41: gas flow path 42:
valve

Continued front page    (72) Inventor Hirofumi Shinjo             Aichi Prefecture Nagachite Town Aichi District             Local 1 Toyota Central Research Institute Co., Ltd. (72) Inventor Kazunobu Ishibashi             1 Toyota Town, Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture Toyota Auto             Car Co., Ltd. (72) Inventor Takaaki Kanazawa             1 Toyota Town, Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture Toyota Auto             Car Co., Ltd. F term (reference) 3G090 AA02 AA06 BA01 CA01 DA12                       DA18 DA20                 4D058 JA32 MA41 MA52 MA53 MA60                       SA08

Claims (3)

[Claims]
1. A PM disposed in a flow path of exhaust gas containing PM.
A PM collecting device for collecting the PM, a plasma generating device for generating plasma, and an oxidizing gas supplied to the plasma generated by the plasma generating device and the PM collecting for the oxidizing gas activated by the plasma. A PM purifying device comprising: an oxidizing gas supply device for supplying to a collecting device; and burning and removing PM collected by the PM collecting device by the activated oxidizing gas.
2. A collection amount estimation means for estimating a collection amount of PM collected by the PM collection device, and the oxidation according to the collection amount of PM estimated by the collection amount estimation means. Further comprises an oxidizing gas supply device and a control device for controlling the driving of the plasma generation device, and the control device controls the plasma generation device and the oxidizing gas supply device when the amount of trapped PM is a predetermined value or more. It drives, PM of Claim 1 characterized by the above-mentioned.
Purification device.
3. A content estimating means for estimating the content of PM in exhaust gas, and driving of the oxidizing gas supply device and the plasma generator according to the content of PM estimated by the content estimating means. The PM according to claim 1, further comprising: a control device that controls the plasma generation device, and drives the plasma generation device and the oxidizing gas supply device when the PM content in the exhaust gas is equal to or greater than a predetermined value. Purification device.
JP2002094077A 2002-03-29 2002-03-29 PM purification device Expired - Fee Related JP4132920B2 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2002094077A JP4132920B2 (en) 2002-03-29 2002-03-29 PM purification device

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2002094077A JP4132920B2 (en) 2002-03-29 2002-03-29 PM purification device

Publications (2)

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JP2003286819A true JP2003286819A (en) 2003-10-10
JP4132920B2 JP4132920B2 (en) 2008-08-13

Family

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Country Status (1)

Country Link
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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR100638639B1 (en) 2006-07-31 2006-10-31 한국기계연구원 A plasma reactor for vaporization and mixing of liquid fuel
WO2008016225A1 (en) * 2006-08-01 2008-02-07 Korea Institute Of Machinery & Materials Apparatus for plasma reaction and system for reduction of particulate materials in exhaust gas using the same
US7510600B2 (en) 2005-03-16 2009-03-31 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Gas purifying apparatus
JP2013122220A (en) * 2011-12-12 2013-06-20 Mitsubishi Motors Corp Exhaust emission control device of internal combustion engine

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7510600B2 (en) 2005-03-16 2009-03-31 Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha Gas purifying apparatus
KR100638639B1 (en) 2006-07-31 2006-10-31 한국기계연구원 A plasma reactor for vaporization and mixing of liquid fuel
WO2008016225A1 (en) * 2006-08-01 2008-02-07 Korea Institute Of Machinery & Materials Apparatus for plasma reaction and system for reduction of particulate materials in exhaust gas using the same
US8272206B2 (en) 2006-08-01 2012-09-25 Korea Institute Of Machinery & Materials Apparatus for plasma reaction and system for reduction of particulate materials in exhaust gas using the same
JP2013122220A (en) * 2011-12-12 2013-06-20 Mitsubishi Motors Corp Exhaust emission control device of internal combustion engine

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