JP2003086827A - Photodiode array, solid image pickup unit and radiation detector - Google Patents

Photodiode array, solid image pickup unit and radiation detector

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Publication number
JP2003086827A
JP2003086827A JP2001277136A JP2001277136A JP2003086827A JP 2003086827 A JP2003086827 A JP 2003086827A JP 2001277136 A JP2001277136 A JP 2001277136A JP 2001277136 A JP2001277136 A JP 2001277136A JP 2003086827 A JP2003086827 A JP 2003086827A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
photodiode array
semiconductor substrate
channel stopper
type semiconductor
layer
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP2001277136A
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Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Yoshimarou Fujii
Koji Okamoto
Akira Sakamoto
坂本  明
浩二 岡本
義磨郎 藤井
Original Assignee
Hamamatsu Photonics Kk
浜松ホトニクス株式会社
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Publication date
Application filed by Hamamatsu Photonics Kk, 浜松ホトニクス株式会社 filed Critical Hamamatsu Photonics Kk
Priority to JP2001277136A priority Critical patent/JP2003086827A/en
Publication of JP2003086827A publication Critical patent/JP2003086827A/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a photodiode array capable of satisfactorily reducing the generation of any cross-talk even at the time of collecting electrodes or wiring at one face side. SOLUTION: In a photodiode array 1, a plurality of p type semiconductor layers 3 are arranged on a surface 2s of an n- type semiconductor substrate 2, and light to be detected is made incident from a back face 2u side of the semiconductor substrate 2. A plurality of n+ type channel stopper layers 2 are arranged at the surface 2s side of the semiconductor substrate 2 so as to be positioned in the neighborhood of each p type semiconductor layer 3. Also, a trench part 10 extended from the corresponding channel stopper layer 4 to the back face 2u is arranged at the surface 2s side of the semiconductor substrate 2 so that each p type semiconductor layer 3 and the periphery of the channel stopper layer 4 in the neighborhood can be completely surrounded.

Description

Description: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION [0001] 1. Field of the Invention [0002] The present invention relates to a photodiode array, a solid-state imaging device including the same, and a radiation detector. 2. Description of the Related Art A solid-state imaging device can be constructed by arranging a plurality of photodiodes on a common substrate. Further, the photodiode array is an X-ray tomography apparatus (hereinafter referred to as “CT”).
The device can also be used as a radiation detector. Here, when a photodiode array is used as a radiation detector for a CT device, a scintillator is generally mounted on the light incident surface of the photodiode array in order to obtain a good detection result. As described above, when the scintillator is mounted on the light incident surface of the photodiode array, it is required to make the light incident surface side of the photodiode array as flat as possible in order to enhance spatial resolution (resolution) and assembly efficiency. [0003] As a method of flattening the light incident surface side of a photodiode array, an electrode or wiring is usually provided on the front surface side of the photodiode array, so that the back surface is used as the light incident surface. May be configured as follows. However, in a so-called back-illuminated photodiode array in which electrodes and wiring are removed from the light incident surface side, carriers move by the thickness of the n-type substrate. Further, in this case, when a bias is applied, the depletion layer is unlikely to spread in the vertical direction, so that crosstalk is likely to occur between the photodiodes. Therefore, in order to apply a voltage to the n− type substrate via the n + type channel stopper layer, it is important to suppress crosstalk as much as possible. Accordingly, the present invention provides a photodiode array capable of favorably suppressing the occurrence of crosstalk even if electrodes and wiring are gathered on one surface side, a solid-state imaging device having high imaging accuracy, and a high resolution. It is intended to provide a radiation detector that can be obtained. A photodiode array according to the present invention has a plurality of second conductive type semiconductor layers on one surface side of a first conductive type semiconductor substrate, and detects light to be detected from the other surface side of the semiconductor substrate. A first conductivity type accumulation layer formed on the other surface of the semiconductor substrate and having an impurity concentration higher than that of the semiconductor substrate, a first conductivity type accumulation layer formed on the other surface of the semiconductor substrate, and each second conductivity type. A plurality of first conductive type channel stopper layers having a higher impurity concentration than the semiconductor substrate, and a plurality of second conductive type semiconductor layers;
And a trench portion provided on one surface side of the semiconductor substrate so as to completely surround the periphery of the channel stopper layer in the vicinity thereof and extending to the other surface side than the corresponding channel stopper layer. This photodiode array is a so-called back-illuminated photodiode array in which electrodes and wiring are removed from the light incident surface side, and has a first conductive type (n-type) semiconductor substrate. A plurality of semiconductor layers (impurity diffusion layers) of the second conductivity type (p-type) are provided on one side (front side) of the semiconductor substrate. In addition, on one side of the semiconductor substrate,
The first conductivity type (n +) having a higher impurity concentration than the semiconductor substrate so as to be located near each of the conductivity type semiconductor layers.
(Type) channel stopper layer. A voltage is applied to the semiconductor substrate from the cathode via the n + type channel stopper layer. [0008] The periphery of each second conductivity type semiconductor layer and the channel stopper layer in the vicinity thereof is completely surrounded by a trench extending to the other surface side from the corresponding channel stopper layer. Thus, in this photodiode array, the light generated from the other surface (back surface) of the semiconductor substrate is generated by the trench portion completely surrounding each second conductivity type semiconductor layer and the channel stopper layer in the vicinity thereof. The movement of the transferred carriers between the adjacent second conductivity type semiconductor layers is restricted. Therefore, in this photodiode array, even if electrodes and wirings are gathered on one surface side, it is possible to favorably suppress the occurrence of crosstalk. In this case, it is preferable that each channel stopper layer is provided so as to surround the corresponding second conductivity type semiconductor layer. [0010] Each channel stopper layer may be provided so as to be close to a part of the periphery of the corresponding second conductivity type semiconductor layer. By arranging a plurality of photodiodes on a common substrate as described above, a solid-state imaging device having high imaging accuracy can be easily realized. Further, a substrate for fixing each photodiode as described above is prepared, each second conductivity type semiconductor layer is bump-connected to a predetermined wiring of the substrate via an anode, and each channel stopper layer is connected to a cathode. If a scintillator is attached to the other surface of the photodiode array by bump connection to a predetermined wiring of the substrate via a substrate, a radiation detector capable of obtaining high resolution can be easily realized. Preferred embodiments of a photodiode array, a solid-state imaging device, and a radiation detector according to the present invention will be described below in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. FIG. 1 is a sectional view showing a first embodiment of a photodiode array according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a plan view of the photodiode array of FIG. 1 as viewed from the light incident side, and omits electrodes and a surface insulating film. The photodiode array 1 shown in these drawings is a so-called back-illuminated photodiode array in which electrodes and wiring are removed from the light incident surface side, and has a semiconductor substrate 2 made of n-type (first conductivity type) Si or the like. . The semiconductor substrate 2 is, for example, 1.0
It has an impurity concentration of about × 10 12 / cm 3 , and its thickness is, for example, about 270 μm. On one surface side of the semiconductor substrate 2, that is, on the surface 2s of the semiconductor substrate 2, a second conductive type semiconductor layer (p) made of p-type (second conductive type) Si or the like is formed.
By disposing a plurality of (type impurity diffusion layers) 3 in a matrix (2 × 2 = 4 in this embodiment), a photodiode array is formed. Each second conductivity type semiconductor layer 3
It has an impurity concentration of about 1.0 × 10 19 / cm 3 , and the depth (thickness) from the surface 2s is, for example, about 0.5 μm. On the surface 2 s side (one surface side) of the semiconductor substrate 2, an n + -type (second-type) having an impurity concentration higher than that of the semiconductor substrate 2 is located near each of the second conductive type semiconductor layers 3. A plurality of channel stopper layers 4 of one conductivity type (Si) or the like are provided. As shown in FIG.
In this embodiment, each channel stopper layer 4 is formed in a lattice shape so as to surround the corresponding second conductivity type semiconductor layer 3. Each channel stopper layer 4
It has an impurity concentration of about 1.0 × 10 18 / cm 3 , and the depth (thickness) from the surface 2s is, for example, about 1.5 μm. Further, an insulating layer 5 is laminated on the surface 2s of the semiconductor substrate 2, and a pattern wiring containing polysilicon, Au, Al or the like is provided. Each of the second conductivity type semiconductor layers 3 is an electrode E serving as an anode of the pattern wiring.
a, and each channel stopper layer 4 is connected to an electrode Ec serving as a cathode in the pattern wiring. As a result, a voltage is applied to the semiconductor substrate 2 from the electrode pad and the electrode Ec (cathode) (not shown) via the n + type channel stopper layer 4. The material for forming the insulating layer 5 is SiO 2
Or SiN x can be used. On the other hand, carriers generated in the semiconductor substrate 2 are formed on the back surface 2u of the semiconductor substrate 2 serving as the light incident surface.
An accumulation layer 6 for preventing recombination with u is formed. The accumulation layer 6
made of n-type Si or the like, for example, 5.0 × 10 18 / cm 3
It has a certain impurity concentration. The thickness of the accumulation layer 6 is, for example, about 0.2 μm. On the accumulation layer 6, a protective layer 7 is further laminated,
On the protective layer 7, a light-shielding film 8 having a plurality of openings 8a corresponding to the PD junction regions is laminated. This gives P
Crosstalk between D can be improved. As a material for forming the light-shielding film 8, for example, a black photoresist in which a black dye or a pigment such as insulated carbon black is mixed into a photoresist, a light-shielding metal, or the like can be used. As described above, the photodiode array 1
Is configured as a so-called back-illuminated type. In this case, if no measures are taken, crosstalk is likely to occur between the photodiodes. In view of this point, as shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, on the surface 2s side (one surface side) of the semiconductor substrate 2 of the photodiode array 1,
A trench 10 is formed. As shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the trench portion 10 has a lattice-shaped groove (recess) formed so as to penetrate the center of the channel stopper layer 4 formed in a lattice.
11, an insulating layer 12 laminated on the surface of the groove 11, and
And an insulator buried in the groove. Thereby, each second conductivity type semiconductor layer 3 and the periphery of each channel stopper layer 4 surrounding each second conductivity type semiconductor layer 3 are:
It is completely surrounded by the trench portion 10. Then, as shown in FIG. 1, the trench portion 10 extends to the back surface 2 u side of the corresponding channel stopper layer 4. That is, the depth from the surface 2 s of the trench portion 10 is larger than the depth from the surface 2 s of each channel stopper layer 4. As a material for forming the insulating layer 12, SiO 2 or SiN x can be used. Further, as the insulator 14, similarly to the light shielding film 8, for example, a black photoresist in which a black dye or a pigment such as carbon black subjected to insulation treatment is mixed in the photoresist can be used. Further, as the insulator 14, a resin such as polyimide, a non-doped insulating silica solution, or the like can be used. In this case, a resin such as polyimide or a non-doped insulating silica solution may be introduced into the groove 11 by spin coating and baked to bury the insulator 14 in the groove 11. Further, the pattern wiring may be arranged (crawled) along the trench portion 10 (the insulator 14). In the photodiode array 1 configured as described above, when light enters from the back surface 2u side of the semiconductor substrate 2, carriers (electrons / electrons) enter the light absorbing layer in response to the incident light.
Holes) are generated. The generated carriers move in accordance with the electric field in the semiconductor substrate 2, one of which is connected to the electrode Ec serving as a cathode via the n + -type channel stopper layer 4, and the other is connected to the second conductive type semiconductor layer 3. The electrode is taken out from the electrode Ea serving as the anode and output to the outside via the electrode pad. Here, as described above, in the photodiode array 1, the trench portions 10 extend to the other surface side than the corresponding channel stopper layers 4, and each of the second conductive semiconductor layers 3 and its corresponding The periphery of the surrounding channel stopper layer 4 is completely surrounded. Therefore, the movement of the carriers generated by the light incident from the back surface 2u of the semiconductor substrate 2 between the adjacent photodiodes is restricted by the trench portion 10. As a result, in the photodiode array 1, even if the pattern wiring including the electrode Ea serving as the anode and the electrode Ec serving as the cathode is collected on the surface 2s side, it is possible to favorably suppress the occurrence of crosstalk. By using the above-described photodiode array 1, a solid-state imaging device having high imaging accuracy and a radiation detector capable of obtaining high resolution can be easily configured. For example, when configuring a radiation detector, a wiring board 15 is prepared as shown in FIG. The wiring board 15 is obtained by providing a wiring pattern on a glass epoxy board or a flexible board. This wiring board 1
As shown in FIG. 4, a plurality (four in this case) of photodiode arrays 1 are arranged on 5. That is, the wiring pattern provided on the front surface 2s side of the photodiode array 1 is connected to the wiring substrate 15 via the bump 16 (see FIG. 5).
Is electrically connected to the wiring pattern. Furthermore, if the gap between the wiring board 15 and each photodiode array 1 is filled with an insulating resin or the like, the mechanical strength of the entire radiation detector can be improved. Each photodiode array 1 is connected to a wiring board 15
5, the scintillator 17 is fixed to the back surface 2u side of each photodiode array 1 as shown in FIG.
Thereby, the radiation detector 20 is completed. As described above, in the photodiode array 1, since the wiring patterns (electrodes) are gathered on the front surface 2s side, the back surface 2u side of the photodiode array 1 is in a flat state without protrusions such as electrodes. . Therefore, the scintillator 17 can be very easily and reliably attached to the back surface 2u side of the photodiode array 1. Further, since the photodiode array 1 and the scintillator 17 can be maintained in an extremely close state, the radiation detector 20
Have a high spatial resolution (resolution). As the scintillator 17, as shown in FIG. 5, one covering the entire photodiode array 1 may be used, or a plurality covering only the single photodiode array 1 may be used. FIGS. 6 and 7 show a photodiode array according to a second embodiment of the present invention. In addition, the first
The same elements as those described in the embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and overlapping description will be omitted. The photodiode array 1A shown in these drawings differs from the photodiode array 1 according to the first embodiment in that the trench 10 does not penetrate the channel stopper layer 4. That is, in the photodiode array 1 </ b> A, the plurality of channel stopper layers 4 are independently formed on the semiconductor substrate 2 for each second conductivity type semiconductor layer 3. The trench portion 10 completely surrounds each of the second conductivity type semiconductor layers 3 and the corresponding channel stopper layer 4, and extends to the back surface 2 u side (to be deeper) than the channel stopper layer 4. , Formed on the semiconductor substrate 2. In the photodiode array 1A thus configured as well, the movement of carriers generated by light incident from the back surface 2u of the semiconductor substrate 2 between the adjacent photodiodes is restricted by the trench portion 10. Therefore, in the photodiode array 1A, the electrode Ea serving as an anode and the electrode Ec serving as a cathode are provided.
Even if the pattern wirings including are collected on the surface 2s side, it is possible to favorably suppress the occurrence of crosstalk. Also,
As shown in FIG. 7, also in the photodiode array 1A, each channel stopper layer 4 is formed so as to surround the corresponding second conductivity type semiconductor layer 3. FIGS. 8 and 9 show a third embodiment of the photodiode array according to the present invention. In addition, the first
The same elements as those described in the embodiment and the like are denoted by the same reference numerals, and redundant description will be omitted. In the photodiode array 1B shown in these drawings, a channel stopper layer is provided on the surface 2s side of the semiconductor substrate 2 and at one location near the center. Then, a (deep) trench portion 10 extending to the back surface 2u side of the channel stopper layer penetrates the channel stopper layer and is formed so as to surround each second conductivity type semiconductor layer 3. Thereby, the photodiode array 1B
Then, as shown in FIG. 9, the channel stopper layer 4 is
It is divided for each second conductivity type semiconductor layer 3 and comes close to a part (one corner portion) around the corresponding second conductivity type semiconductor layer 3. In the photodiode array 1B thus configured, the movement of carriers generated by light incident from the back surface 2u of the semiconductor substrate 2 between the adjacent photodiodes is restricted by the trench portion 10. Therefore, in this photodiode array 1,
Even if the pattern wiring including the electrode Ea serving as the anode and the electrode Ec serving as the cathode is collected on the surface 2s side, it is possible to favorably suppress the occurrence of crosstalk. In this case, a channel stopper layer may be provided near the center of the surface 2s of the semiconductor substrate 2 and the trench portion 10 may be formed so as to penetrate the channel stopper layer. It can be manufactured. FIGS. 10 and 11 show a fourth embodiment of the photodiode array according to the present invention. Note that the same reference numerals are given to the same components as those described in regard to the above-described first embodiment and the like, and redundant description will be omitted. The photodiode array 1C shown in these drawings has basically the same configuration as the photodiode array 1B according to the third embodiment described above, but the trench portion 10 does not penetrate the channel stopper layer 4. This is different from the photodiode array 1B according to the third embodiment described above. That is, in the photodiode array 1 </ b> C, the plurality of channel stopper layers 4 are independent of the semiconductor substrate 2 for each second conductivity type semiconductor layer 3.
The second conductive type semiconductor layer 3 is formed so as to be close to a part (one corner) around the corresponding second conductive type semiconductor layer 3. The channel stopper layers 4 are arranged near the center of the semiconductor substrate 2 so as to approach each other. The trench portion 10 surrounds each of the second conductivity type semiconductor layers 3 and the corresponding channel stopper layer 4, and extends to the back surface 2 u side (to be deeper) than the channel stopper layer 4. It is formed on the substrate 2. In the photodiode array 1B thus configured, the movement of carriers generated by light incident from the back surface 2u of the semiconductor substrate 2 between the adjacent photodiodes is restricted by the trench portion 10. Therefore, in this photodiode array 1,
Even if the pattern wiring including the electrode Ea serving as the anode and the electrode Ec serving as the cathode is collected on the surface 2s side, it is possible to favorably suppress the occurrence of crosstalk. The photodiode array according to the present invention has the following features.
With the configuration described above, the following effects are obtained. That is, the photodiode array according to the present invention has a plurality of second conductivity type semiconductor layers on one surface side of the first conductivity type semiconductor substrate, and allows detection light to enter from the other surface side of the semiconductor substrate. A plurality of first conductive type channel stopper layers having a higher impurity concentration than the semiconductor substrate, and a plurality of first conductive type channel stopper layers disposed on one surface side and in the vicinity of each second conductive type semiconductor layer; A mold semiconductor layer and a trench portion provided on one surface side of the semiconductor substrate so as to completely surround the periphery of the channel stopper layer in the vicinity thereof and extending to the other surface side than the corresponding channel stopper layer. Therefore, in this photodiode, even if the electrodes and wirings are gathered on one surface side, the occurrence of crosstalk can be satisfactorily suppressed. Then, by using such a photodiode array according to the present invention, it is possible to realize a solid-state imaging device having high imaging accuracy and a radiation detector capable of obtaining high resolution.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a sectional view showing a photodiode array according to the present invention. FIG. 2 is a plan view of the photodiode array of FIG. 1 as viewed from a light incident side. FIG. 3 is a plan view showing an example of a wiring board on which a photodiode array according to the present invention can be mounted. FIG. 4 is a plan view showing a state where a photodiode array according to the present invention is mounted on a substrate. FIG. 5 is a sectional view illustrating a usage example of a photodiode array according to the present invention. FIG. 6 is a sectional view showing a photodiode array according to a second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 is a plan view of the photodiode array of FIG. 6 as viewed from a light incident side. FIG. 8 is a sectional view showing a third embodiment of the photodiode array according to the present invention. FIG. 9 is a plan view of the photodiode array of FIG. 8 as viewed from the light incident side. FIG. 10 is a sectional view showing a photodiode array according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. 11 is a plan view of the photodiode array of FIG. 10 as viewed from the light incident side. [Description of Signs] 1, 1A, 1B, 1C: photodiode array, 2: semiconductor substrate, 2s: front surface, 2u: back surface, 3: second conductivity type semiconductor layer, 4: channel stopper layer, 5: insulating layer, 6 …
Accumulation layer, 7: protective layer, 8: light shielding film, 10
... Trench portion, 11 groove, 12 insulating layer, 14 insulator, 15 wiring board, 16 bump, 17 scintillator, 20 radiation detector, Ea, Ec electrode.

──────────────────────────────────────────────────続 き Continued on the front page (51) Int.Cl. 7 Identification symbol FI Theme coat ゛ (Reference) H01L 31/09 H01L 27/14 Z H04N 5/32 K DF (72) Inventor Yoshiro Fujii Shizuoka 1126, Nomachi, Ichinohama, Hamamatsu City F term in Hamamatsu Photonics Co., Ltd. (reference) EX21 GX03 5F049 MA01 MB02 NB05 PA09 QA04 RA02 SS02 SZ11 SZ20 5F088 AA01 AB02 BA03 BB03 BB07 CB09 DA01 EA04 GA04 HA11 LA08

Claims (1)

1. A photodiode array having a plurality of second conductivity type semiconductor layers on one surface side of a first conductivity type semiconductor substrate and receiving light to be detected from the other surface side of the semiconductor substrate. A first conductivity type accumulation layer formed on the other surface of the semiconductor substrate and having a higher impurity concentration than the semiconductor substrate; and the one surface side of the semiconductor substrate and each of the second conductivity type semiconductor layers. A plurality of first conductive type channel stopper layers having a higher impurity concentration than the semiconductor substrate, and a plurality of the second conductive type semiconductor layers; A channel is provided on the one surface side of the semiconductor substrate so as to completely surround the periphery of the channel stopper layer, and extends to the other surface side than the corresponding channel stopper layer. Photodiode array, characterized in that it comprises a bench unit. 2. The photodiode array according to claim 1, wherein each of the channel stopper layers is provided so as to surround a corresponding second conductivity type semiconductor layer. 3. The photodiode array according to claim 1, wherein each of the channel stopper layers is provided so as to be close to a part of a periphery of the corresponding second conductivity type semiconductor layer. 4. A solid-state imaging device comprising a plurality of photodiode arrays according to claim 1, wherein:
A solid-state imaging device, wherein a plurality of the photodiode arrays are provided on a common substrate. 5. A radiation detector comprising the photodiode array according to claim 1, comprising a substrate for fixing the photodiode array, wherein each of the second conductive semiconductor layers is A bump connected to a predetermined wiring of the substrate via an anode, each of the channel stopper layers is bump-connected to a predetermined wiring of the substrate via a cathode, and a scintillator on the other surface of the photodiode array. A radiation detector, wherein a radiation detector is attached.
JP2001277136A 2001-09-12 2001-09-12 Photodiode array, solid image pickup unit and radiation detector Pending JP2003086827A (en)

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