JP2003050107A - Camera calibration device - Google Patents

Camera calibration device

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Publication number
JP2003050107A
JP2003050107A JP2001239403A JP2001239403A JP2003050107A JP 2003050107 A JP2003050107 A JP 2003050107A JP 2001239403 A JP2001239403 A JP 2001239403A JP 2001239403 A JP2001239403 A JP 2001239403A JP 2003050107 A JP2003050107 A JP 2003050107A
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
camera
calibration
coordinates
means
calibration points
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP2001239403A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Ryuichi Mato
隆一 間藤
Original Assignee
Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd
松下電器産業株式会社
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd, 松下電器産業株式会社 filed Critical Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd
Priority to JP2001239403A priority Critical patent/JP2003050107A/en
Publication of JP2003050107A publication Critical patent/JP2003050107A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Abstract

(57) [Summary] [Problem] To calibrate a traffic monitoring camera without regulating vehicle traffic. A moving calibration board (11) is moved to a camera shooting range (15).
Inside, it is mounted on a vehicle and moved horizontally. A calibration point is manually or automatically extracted from an image of the mobile calibration board 11 taken by the camera 12. The world coordinates (coordinates fixed on the road) of the calibration point are obtained from the movement data. The camera coordinates (coordinates fixed to the camera) of the calibration point are obtained from the frame coordinates (image coordinates). The functional relationship between the average of the world coordinates and the camera coordinates is obtained for a plurality of calibration points. Camera calibration means 13
Then, based on the functional relationship between a plurality of calibration points, external parameters (a rotation matrix and a translation vector) of the camera 12 are obtained.

Description

Detailed Description of the Invention

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a camera calibration device, and more particularly to a camera calibration device for calibrating a camera used in the traffic surveillance field.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art Recently, in order to calibrate an image of a traffic surveillance camera, a camera calibration device has been developed which obtains a camera posture parameter (external parameter) with respect to a road surface or a horizontal plane. Hereinafter, a conventional camera calibration device will be described with reference to FIG.

FIG. 5 (a) is a conceptual diagram for explaining the operation of a conventional camera calibration device. FIG. 5B is a diagram showing a calibration procedure of the camera calibration device. In FIG. 5, a road marker 51 is an object such as a pedestrian crossing that serves as a marker or a marker that is temporarily installed on the road. The camera 52 is a traffic monitoring camera. The camera calibration means 53 is a means for obtaining external parameters from the image of the camera. The road 54 is a road to be monitored. The camera shooting range 55 is a shooting range of the surveillance camera.

The operation of the camera calibration device configured as described above will be described. The accurate positional relationship of the road markers 51 is measured and expressed in three-dimensional coordinates called world coordinates. X on the road
The (X, Y) plane including the axis and the Y axis is set, and the height direction is set as the Z axis. Take a picture of the road marker 51 with the camera 52 (step 51
1) Read the coordinates on the screen of the point corresponding to the road marker 51. The two-dimensional coordinates on this screen are called frame coordinates.
The camera calibration means 53 calculates an external parameter which is a posture parameter of the camera from the relationship between the world coordinates of the road marker 51 and the frame coordinates (step 512). This parameter is set in the camera 52 (step 513). For details of this process, refer to Reference 1 [Roger Y. Tsai "A VersatileCamera Ca
libration Technique for High-Accuracy 3D Machine V
ision Metrology Using Off-the-Shelf TV Cameras and
Lenses "IEEE Journal of Robotics and automation, V
ol.RA-3. No.4 August 1987, pp323-344].

The camera parameters are classified into camera internal parameters and external parameters. The camera internal parameters are a scale factor indicating a distance between pixels, an image center of frame coordinates, a lens distortion parameter, and a focal length. The external parameters are rotation parameters and movement parameters for converting from world coordinates to camera coordinates. A brief description will be given of the external parameters relevant to the present invention. If the world coordinates of each point of the road marker 51 are x w , y w , z w , and the corresponding camera coordinates are x, y, z, (Equation 1)
become that way. However, r 1 to r 9 are rotation matrix elements of coordinates, and Tx, Ty, and Tz are translation vector elements of coordinates.

[Equation 1]

The camera coordinates are the center of the screen (camera center)
Is the origin, the horizontal direction of the screen is the X axis, the vertical direction of the screen is the Y axis, and the direction perpendicular to the screen is the Z axis.
When the camera is installed at the origin of the world coordinates so as to face vertically downward so that the X axes coincide with each other and the Y axes also coincide with each other, the camera coordinates coincide with the world coordinates.
The conversion between the camera coordinates and the frame coordinates is a projective conversion determined by camera internal parameters such as the focal length.

[0007]

However, in the configuration of the camera calibration device described above, when the camera is installed at an intersection or the like, in order to measure the world coordinates of the road marker, the vehicle traffic within the camera photographing range is measured. There was a problem of having to regulate. In addition, there is a problem that it is necessary to prepare markers over a wide range in order to calibrate a camera that captures a wide range.

An object of the present invention is to solve the above-mentioned problems of the prior art and to provide a camera calibration device and method capable of performing camera calibration by a simple method.

[0009]

In order to solve the above problems, according to the present invention, a camera calibrating device is provided with a camera for photographing a road from a predetermined direction and a horizontal plane of a certain height within the photographing range of the camera. A mobile calibration board that moves, a means for extracting calibration points from the image of the mobile calibration board taken by the camera,
A means for obtaining the world coordinates of the calibration points, a means for obtaining the camera coordinates from the frame coordinates of the calibration points, a means for obtaining the functional relationship between the world coordinates of the calibration points and the camera coordinates, and a camera based on the functional relationship between the plurality of calibration points. And a means for determining an external parameter of. With this configuration, camera calibration can be performed without restricting vehicle traffic.

[0010]

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION Hereinafter, embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings.

(First Embodiment) In the first embodiment of the present invention, a moving calibration board horizontally mounted on a vehicle is moved and photographed by a camera, and world coordinates of a plurality of calibration points and a camera are taken. It is a camera calibration device that obtains external parameters of a camera based on a relationship with coordinates.

FIG. 1 is a diagram for explaining the operation of the camera calibration device according to the first embodiment of the present invention. Figure 1 (a)
It is a conceptual diagram explaining operation | movement of a camera calibration apparatus. Figure 1
(B) is a figure which shows the calibration procedure of a camera calibration apparatus.
In FIG. 1, the mobile calibration board 11 is a board horizontally installed on the vehicle. The camera 12 is a surveillance camera. The camera calibration means 13 is a means for obtaining external parameters from a camera image. The road 14 is a road to be monitored through which vehicles pass. The camera shooting range 15 is a shooting range of the surveillance camera. FIG. 2 is an operation flowchart of the camera calibration device.

The operation of the camera calibration device according to the first embodiment of the present invention configured as above will be described. As shown in FIG. 1A, the mobile calibration board 11 is installed horizontally on the vehicle 10. The vehicle 10 travels on the road 14 within the camera photographing range 15 while recording the traveling position and time. The camera 12 captures a moving image of the movement calibration board 11 of the traveling vehicle (step 111). The camera calibration means 13 calculates the posture parameter of the camera from the moving image of the movement calibration board 11 by the method shown in the flowchart of FIG. 2 (step
112) and calibrate the camera (step 113). The mobile calibration board 11 does not necessarily have to be on the vehicle, and it is sufficient that the mobile calibration board 11 can be horizontally moved by some method.

The operation of the camera calibration means 13 will be described with reference to the flowchart of FIG. Before installing the camera 12 on the road, in step 201, the camera internal parameters are determined indoors in advance. Therefore, if the position of the object and the height from the road surface are known, the two-dimensional frame coordinates can be converted into the three-dimensional camera coordinates.

In step 202, the frame calibration process shown in steps 203 to 207 is performed for each frame of the moving image. In step 203, the calibration points of the calibration board are extracted from the image either manually or automatically by pattern recognition. In step 204, the world coordinates of the calibration point in the calibration board are determined. World coordinates can be obtained from movement data of a vehicle equipped with a calibration board.

At step 205, camera calibration is performed using the world coordinates inside the calibration board, the frame coordinates, and the camera internal parameters calculated indoors. That is, the conversion formula between the world coordinates of the calibration point and the camera coordinates is obtained from the world coordinates of the calibration points and the camera coordinates obtained from the frame coordinates of the calibration points. In step 206, the frame coordinates are obtained from the world coordinates of each calibration point using the camera internal parameters.
If the difference distance from the actual frame coordinates is within the specified range,
It is determined that the value of each parameter is a correct calibration success frame.

Since the camera coordinates corresponding to the world coordinates of the camera center are (0,0,0), the translation vector is obtained in step 207 using the world coordinates of the camera center. Let the world coordinates of the camera center be (0, 0, Zc). Zc is the ground clearance of the camera. At this time, (Equation 2) is established. However, r 1 to r 9 are elements of the coordinate rotation matrix, and Tx, Ty, and Tz are elements of the coordinate translation vector. (Xc, Yc, Zc) are world coordinates of the camera center.

[Equation 2]

Therefore, T = -RC X = RW + T = RW-RC = R (W-C) However, T is a translation vector, R is a rotation matrix, C is the world coordinates of the camera center, X is the camera coordinates of the calibration point, and W is the world coordinates of the calibration point.

The rotation matrix is the world coordinates R around the Z axis.
Since the coordinate transformation is z (rad) rotation, Ry (rad) rotation about the Y axis, and Rx (rad) rotation about the X axis, it is expressed by the equation (3). Using these formulas, X
Rotation angles Rx and Ry around the Y axis and the Y axis are obtained. That is,
World coordinates W and camera coordinates X of a plurality of calibration points are obtained, and rotation angles Rx and Ry are obtained respectively. At this time, the rotation angle Rz about the Z axis is arbitrary and is set to 0.

[Equation 3]

At step 208, Rx of the calibration success frame,
The average value of Ry is calculated and used as the average Rx and the average Ry. When the moving calibration board of each frame moves on the same horizontal plane,
Since the Z axis is in the direction perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the height of the calibration point with respect to the horizontal plane remains unchanged. In step 209, the rotation matrix is obtained from (Equation 3) with Rx = average Rx Ry = average Ry Rz = 0.

In step 210, an internal viewpoint image of the road surface (plan view of the road) is created and displayed using the internal parameters of the camera. The world coordinates are obtained from the frame coordinates of the four corners of the screen, and the world coordinates are used as a guide for the display range to display the image. In step 211, the reference coordinates and the rotation angle Rz are adjusted in the upper viewpoint image to determine the final external parameter. In this way, camera calibration can be performed without restricting vehicle traffic.

As described above, in the first embodiment of the present invention, the camera calibration device moves the moving calibration board horizontally installed on the vehicle, photographs it with the camera, and sets the world coordinates of the plurality of calibration points. Since the external parameters of the camera are calculated based on the relationship between the camera coordinates and the camera coordinates, the camera can be calibrated without restricting vehicle traffic.

(Second Embodiment) In a second embodiment of the present invention, a flat calibration board installed on a road surface is photographed by rotating a camera around an axis vertical to the road surface, It is a camera calibration device that obtains external parameters of a camera based on a relationship between world coordinates of calibration points and camera coordinates.

FIG. 3 is an operation explanatory diagram of the camera calibration device according to the second embodiment of the present invention. Figure 3 (a) shows
It is a conceptual diagram explaining operation | movement of a camera calibration apparatus. Figure 3
(B) is a figure which shows the calibration procedure of a camera calibration apparatus.
In FIG. 3, the flat calibration board 31 is a board horizontally installed on the road surface. The camera 32 is a surveillance camera. The camera calibration means 33 is a means for obtaining external parameters from the camera image. The road 34 is a road to be monitored by a vehicle. The camera photographing range 35 is a photographing range of the surveillance camera.

The operation of the camera calibration device according to the second embodiment of the present invention configured as described above will be described. As shown in FIG. 3 (a), the flat-standing calibration board 31 is placed horizontally in a place that does not interfere with vehicle traffic. The camera 32 is rotatable about the vertical direction as a center axis. When the traffic is monitored, the camera photographing range 35 is photographed, and when the camera is calibrated, the camera 32 is rotated about the vertical direction to photograph the flat calibration board 31 (step 31).
1). The camera calibration means 33 calculates the posture parameter of the camera from the still image obtained by photographing the flat calibration board 31 by the following method (step 312) and calibrates the camera (step 313).

The external parameters of the camera are obtained by the conventional camera calibration method using the correspondence between the world coordinates of the calibration points of the flat calibration board and the frame coordinates. Using the obtained external parameters, an upper viewpoint image of the image of the camera shooting range 35 is created. When the rotation angle Θ of the upper viewpoint image is obtained using the upper viewpoint image, the rotation matrix becomes (Equation 4). In this way, camera calibration can be performed without restricting vehicle traffic.

[Equation 4]

As described above, in the second embodiment of the present invention, the camera calibrating device is used to photograph the flat calibration board installed on the road surface by rotating the camera around an axis perpendicular to the road surface. However, since the external parameters of the camera are obtained based on the relationship between the world coordinates of the calibration points and the camera coordinates, the camera calibration can be performed without vehicle traffic regulation.

(Third Embodiment) In the third embodiment of the present invention, a camera is used to photograph a horizontal calibration board horizontally installed at a high place where road traffic is not hindered, and the world of calibration points is shown. A camera calibration device that obtains external parameters of a camera based on the relationship between coordinates and camera coordinates.

FIG. 4 is an operation explanatory diagram of a camera calibration device according to the third embodiment of the present invention. Figure 4 (a)
It is a conceptual diagram explaining operation | movement of a camera calibration apparatus. Figure 4
(B) is a figure which shows the calibration procedure of a camera calibration apparatus.
In FIG. 4, the horizontal calibration board 41 is a board horizontally installed at a high place. The camera 42 is a surveillance camera.
The camera calibration means 43 is a means for obtaining external parameters from the camera image. The road 44 is a monitored road through which vehicles pass. The camera shooting range 55 is a shooting range of the surveillance camera.

The operation of the camera calibrating apparatus according to the third embodiment of the present invention constructed as above will be described. As shown in FIG. 4, the horizontal calibration board 41 is placed horizontally at a high place within the camera photographing range 55 that does not obstruct vehicle traffic. camera
At 42, the horizontal calibration board 41 is photographed (step 411).
The camera calibration means 43 calculates the posture parameter of the camera from the still image obtained by photographing the horizontal calibration board 41 by the following method (step 412) and calibrates the camera (step 41).
3). After calibrating the camera, the horizontal calibration board 41 is removed.

The height of the horizontal calibration board is measured and used as the Z coordinate value of the world coordinates of the calibration point. Using the correspondence between the world coordinates of the calibration points and the frame coordinates, the external parameters of the camera are obtained by the conventional camera calibration method. In this way, camera calibration can be performed without restricting vehicle traffic.

As described above, in the third embodiment of the present invention, the camera calibration device is used to photograph a horizontal calibration board horizontally installed at a high place where it does not obstruct traffic on the road, and the calibration points are taken. Since the external parameters of the camera are calculated based on the relationship between the world coordinates of and the camera coordinates,
Camera calibration can be performed without restricting vehicle traffic.

[0033]

As is apparent from the above description, according to the present invention, the camera calibration device includes a camera for photographing a road from a predetermined direction, a calibration board within a photographing range of the camera, and a calibration photographed by the camera. A means for extracting the calibration points of the board image, a means for obtaining the world coordinates of the calibration points, a means for obtaining the camera coordinates from the frame coordinates of the calibration points, and a means for obtaining the functional relationship between the world coordinates of the calibration points and the camera coordinates. Since the configuration is provided with the means for obtaining the external parameter of the camera based on the functional relationship of the plurality of calibration points, the effect that the camera can be calibrated without restricting the vehicle traffic is obtained.

[Brief description of drawings]

FIG. 1 is an operation explanatory diagram of a camera calibration device according to a first embodiment of the present invention,

FIG. 2 is an operation flowchart of the camera calibration device according to the first embodiment of the present invention,

FIG. 3 is an operation explanatory view of the camera calibration device according to the second embodiment of the present invention,

FIG. 4 is an operation explanatory diagram of the camera calibration device according to the third embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 5 is an operation explanatory diagram of a conventional camera calibration device.

[Explanation of symbols]

11 Mobile calibration board 12,32,42,52 camera 13,33,43,53 Camera calibration means 14,34,44,54 roads 15,35,45,55 camera shooting range 31 Flat calibration board 41 Horizontal calibration board 51 Road Marker

─────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── Continuation of front page (51) Int.Cl. 7 Identification code FI theme code (reference) G08G 1/04 G08G 1/04 C 5L096 H04N 7/18 H04N 7/18 EF term (reference) 2F065 AA04 BB27 FF04 JJ03 JJ26 QQ31 5B047 AA19 BB04 BC14 BC23 CA02 CB22 DC07 5B057 AA16 BA11 CA13 CB13 CB20 CD03 DA07 DB03 DC05 5C054 AA01 CF06 FC04 FF02 GB12 HA26 5H180 AA01 CC04 5L096 AA09 AA11 BA04 CA04

Claims (6)

[Claims]
1. A camera for photographing a photographing range from a predetermined direction, a moving calibration board for moving in a horizontal plane of a certain height within the photographing range of the camera, and a calibration of an image of the moving calibration board photographed by the camera. Means for extracting points, means for obtaining world coordinates of the calibration points, means for obtaining camera coordinates from the frame coordinates of the calibration points, and means for obtaining a functional relationship between the world coordinates of the calibration points and the camera coordinates. And a means for determining an external parameter of the camera based on the functional relationship of a plurality of calibration points.
2. A camera rotatable about a predetermined rotation axis, a flat calibration board placed on a horizontal plane, and the flat rotation calibration board photographed by rotating the camera around the predetermined rotation axis. Means, means for extracting the calibration points of the image of the photographed flat placement calibration board, means for obtaining the world coordinates of the calibration points, means for obtaining the camera coordinates from the frame coordinates of the calibration points, and the calibration points 2. A camera calibration device, comprising: means for obtaining a functional relationship between the world coordinates and the camera coordinates, and means for obtaining an external parameter of the camera based on the functional relationship between a plurality of calibration points.
3. A camera for photographing a photographing range from a predetermined direction, a horizontal calibration board placed on a horizontal plane of a certain height within the photographing range of the camera, and a calibration of an image of the horizontal calibration board photographed by the camera. Means for extracting points, means for obtaining world coordinates of the calibration points, means for obtaining camera coordinates from the frame coordinates of the calibration points, means for obtaining a functional relationship between the world coordinates of the calibration points and the camera coordinates, A camera calibration device, comprising means for determining an external parameter of the camera based on a functional relationship between a plurality of calibration points.
4. A camera for photographing a photographing range from a predetermined direction, a moving calibration board moving in a horizontal plane having a constant height within the photographing range of the camera, and an image of the moving calibration board photographed by the camera. Of the calibration points, the world coordinates of the calibration points are obtained, the camera coordinates are obtained from the frame coordinates of the calibration points, the functional relationship between the world coordinates of the calibration points and the camera coordinates is obtained, and A camera calibration method, characterized in that external parameters of the camera are obtained based on the functional relationship.
5. A camera that is rotatable about a predetermined rotation axis is rotated about the predetermined rotation axis to photograph a flat calibration board placed on a horizontal plane, and the photographed flat calibration board Extract the calibration points of the image, find the world coordinates of the calibration points, find the camera coordinates from the frame coordinates of the calibration points, find the functional relationship between the world coordinates of the calibration points and the camera coordinates, A camera calibration method, characterized in that external parameters of the camera are obtained based on the functional relationship.
6. An image of a horizontal calibration board photographed by the camera, which photographs a horizontal calibration board placed in a horizontal plane of a certain height within the photographing range of the camera with a camera photographing the photographing range from a predetermined direction. Of the calibration points, the world coordinates of the calibration points are obtained, the camera coordinates are obtained from the frame coordinates of the calibration points, the functional relationship between the world coordinates of the calibration points and the camera coordinates is obtained, and the function of the plurality of calibration points is obtained. A camera calibration method, characterized in that external parameters of the camera are obtained based on a relationship.
JP2001239403A 2001-08-07 2001-08-07 Camera calibration device Pending JP2003050107A (en)

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