JP2002277771A - Optical modulator - Google Patents

Optical modulator

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Publication number
JP2002277771A
JP2002277771A JP2001080542A JP2001080542A JP2002277771A JP 2002277771 A JP2002277771 A JP 2002277771A JP 2001080542 A JP2001080542 A JP 2001080542A JP 2001080542 A JP2001080542 A JP 2001080542A JP 2002277771 A JP2002277771 A JP 2002277771A
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Prior art keywords
electrode
intermediate electrode
reflecting plate
reflector
voltage
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Japanese (ja)
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Hirotoshi Eguchi
裕俊 江口
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Ricoh Co Ltd
株式会社リコー
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Priority to JP2001080542A priority Critical patent/JP2002277771A/en
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To realize an electrostatic actuator system optical modulator to be driven by a low voltage. SOLUTION: An intermediate electrode 10 to be displaced is arranged between a reflection board 1 and an opposite electrode 2 so as to constitute an electrostatic actuator between the reflection board 1 and the opposite electrode 2. A displacing amount being equal to that of the reflection board 1 is secured by a driving voltage which is lower than that in the case of the modulator without the intermediate electrode 10. Besides the amount of displacement of the reflection board 1 is increased by the same driving voltage.

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

【0001】 [0001]

【発明の属する技術分野】本発明は、光変調装置に係り、特に、静電気力によって反射板を変位させて光スイッチングを行う光変調装置に関する。 The present invention relates to relates to an optical modulation device, in particular, to an optical modulation device for performing optical switching by displacing the reflector by an electrostatic force.

【0002】 [0002]

【従来の技術】この種の光変調装置として、反射板を構成している片持ち梁を静電気力で撓ませることにより、 2. Description of the Prior Art As this type of optical modulator, the cantilever constituting the reflector by flexing by the electrostatic force,
光の反射方向を変えて光スイッチング(変調)を行うデバイスと、それを用いた変調システムが KE Peterse A device for performing optical switching (modulation) by changing the reflection direction of the light modulation system KE Peterse using the same
n により1977年に発表されている(Applied Physics Le It has been published in 1977 by the n (Applied Physics Le
tters, Vol.31, No.8, pp.521〜523)。 tters, Vol.31, No.8, pp.521~523). 同様の片持ち梁の反射板を用いる光変調装置は、例えば特公平7−56531 Light modulating device using a reflector similar cantilever, for example Kokoku 7-56531
号公報にも開示されている。 It is also disclosed in JP. また、特開平7−49460号公報には、円形の薄膜ダイアフラムで反射板を構成し、静電気力でダイアフラムを変形させ、その焦点を変える光変調装置が開示されている。 JP-A-7-49460, constitutes a reflector with a circular thin diaphragm, deforming the diaphragm by electrostatic force, the light modulation device is disclosed for changing its focus.

【0003】 [0003]

【発明が解決しようとする課題】反射板を変位させて光の反射方向を変える光変調装置は、ディスプレイやプロジェクタなどに使用されている。 By displacing the reflector [0006] optical modulation device changing a reflection direction of light is used, such as a display or a projector. このような応用では、 In such an application,
反射板は表示画像の1つ1つの画素に対応付けられ、数十乃至数百μmといった微小な大きさに形成される。 Reflector associated with one single pixel of the display image is formed on the small size of several tens to several hundreds of [mu] m.

【0004】反射板の駆動方法には種々の方式があるが、反射板を変形させるための力以外の力は不要であること、変位量を比較的大きく取れること、及び、低消費電力であることから、静電気力が利用されることが多い。 [0004] The driving method of the reflector there are various schemes, the force other than the force for deforming the reflection plate is not needed, relatively large take that the amount of displacement, and is the low power consumption from it, it is often the electrostatic force is used. 反射板を導電性部材で形成して電極とし、反射板の対向位置にさらに電極を設けて、それら電極間に電圧を印加(ON)することで静電気力を作用させて反射板を対向電極側に撓ませる。 To form a reflection plate with a conductive member and an electrode, provided further electrode to the opposing position of the reflector, the counter electrode-side reflection plate by the action of electrostatic forces by applying a voltage (ON) between the electrodes deflect in. 印加電圧を解除(OFF)すると、反射板は自身のバネ性で復帰する。 Releasing the applied voltage (OFF) Then, the reflecting plate is returned in its spring property. したがって、電圧のON/O Therefore, the voltage of the ON / O
FFによって反射板を駆動することで光スイッチングができることになる。 So that it is optical switching by driving the reflector by FF. すなわち、反射板と対向電極とで静電アクチュエータを構成している。 That constitutes an electrostatic actuator in the reflecting plate and the counter electrode. こういった静電アクチュエータを用いた光変調装置は、前記特公平7-56531号公報に開示されたもののほか種々提案されている。 Light modulating device using these electrostatic actuator is well proposed various those disclosed in the KOKOKU 7-56531 JP.

【0005】ところで、反射板の変位量を大きくしたい場合には、反射板と対向電極との距離を大きくしなければならない。 Meanwhile, when it is desired to increase the amount of displacement of the reflector, it is necessary to increase the distance between the reflecting plate and the counter electrode. しかし、電極間に作用する静電気力の強さは電極間の距離の2乗に反比例するため、反射板と対向電極の距離を大きくすると駆動電圧の大幅な上昇を招くという問題があった。 However, the strength of the electrostatic force acting between the electrodes to inverse proportion to the square of the distance between the electrodes, there is a problem that leads to a significant increase in the drive voltage to increase the distance of the reflecting plate and the counter electrode.

【0006】また、反射板と対向電極との間に、反射板が変位振動するスペース(以下、ギャップと記す)が確保されるが、このギャップ内部の空気が反射板の変位に伴って圧縮されて圧力が上昇する現象(エアダンパ効果と呼ぶ)が起こる。 Further, between the reflecting plate and the counter electrode, the space reflection plate is displaced vibration (hereinafter, referred to as gap) but is secured, the air inside the gap is compressed in accordance with the displacement of the reflection plate phenomenon in which the pressure rises Te (referred to as an air damper effect) occurs. このエアダンパ効果のために、ギャップ内が空気がない条件下で静的に計算して求めた反射板の変位量よりも、反射板の実際の変位量が小さくなってしまい、必要な変位量を得るための駆動電圧が上昇するという問題がある。 For this air damper effect, than the displacement amount of the reflection plate obtained by the gap is statically calculated under no air, the actual displacement of the reflector becomes small, the amount of displacement required there is a problem that the driving voltage for obtaining rises. このエアダンパ効果は、反射板の応答特性を損ねる要因にもなる。 The air damper effect is also a factor to detract from the response characteristics of the reflector.

【0007】また、反射板の変位量は反射板の厚さの3 [0007] 3 of the thickness of the displacement of the reflection plate reflecting plate
乗に反比例するため、反射板の変位量を確保しつつ駆動電圧を下げるためには、反射板の厚さも薄くする必要がある。 Inversely proportional to multiplication, in order to reduce the driving voltage while maintaining the amount of displacement of the reflector, it is necessary to reduce also the thickness of the reflector. しかし、反射板を薄くすると、均一な薄さに形成することが困難となり、また、特性を揃えるのが難しくなるため、反射板を薄くすることにも限界がある。 However, when thinning the reflective plate, it is difficult to form a uniform thin, also, since the align properties becomes difficult, there is a limit to thinning the reflector.

【0008】よって、本発明の1つの目的は、駆動電圧の上昇を招くことなく反射板の変位量を増加させることができ、あるいは、反射板の変位量を減少させることなく低電圧で駆動できる光変調装置を提供することにある。 [0008] Therefore, one object of the present invention, the increase in driving voltage displacement amount of the reflector can be increased without incurring, or can be driven at a low voltage without reducing the amount of displacement of the reflection plate to provide an optical modulation device. 本発明のもう1つの目的は、エアダンパ効果を低減し、低電圧駆動が可能で、かつ、応答性の良い光変調装置を提供することにある。 Another object of the present invention is to reduce the air damper effect, can be driven at low voltage, and to provide a good responsive optical modulator. 本発明のもう1つの目的は、 Another object of the present invention,
駆動回路又は駆動方法の単純化が可能な光変調装置を提供することにある。 Simplification of the drive circuit or driving method is to provide an optical modulator capable. これ以外の本発明の目的は以下の説明から明らかになろう。 Other object of the present invention will become apparent from the following description.

【0009】 [0009]

【課題を解決するための手段】本発明による光変調装置の基本的な特徴は、請求項1記載のように、第1の電極を兼ねる変位可能な反射板と、前記反射板に対向して配設された変位不可能な第2の電極と、前記反射板と前記第2の電極の間に配設された、少なくとも1つの変位可能な中間電極とを有し、前記各電極間に作用する静電気力により前記中間電極及び前記反射板を変位させる構成にある。 Means for Solving the Problems] The basic characteristics of the optical modulator device according to the invention, as claimed in claim 1, and displaceable reflector serving as a first electrode, facing the reflector a second electrode of which disposed displacement impossible, disposed between the second electrode and the reflective plate, and at least one displaceable intermediate electrode, acting between the respective electrodes by the electrostatic force in the configuration for displacing the intermediate electrode and the reflector.

【0010】本発明による光変調装置のもう1つの特徴は、請求項2記載のように、少なくとも反射板に最も近い中間電極は、反射板に対向する面が導電性材料で形成される構成にある。 [0010] Another feature of the optical modulation apparatus according to the present invention, as claimed in claim 2, wherein, the closest intermediate electrode on at least the reflection plate, the configuration of the surface facing the reflecting plate is formed of a conductive material is there. もう1つの特徴は、請求項3記載のように、中間電極が誘電体からなることである。 Another feature, as according to claim 3, is that the intermediate electrode is made of a dielectric material. もう1 Another 1
つの特徴は、請求項4記載のように、中間電極が前記反射板より低い剛性を有することである。 One of the features, as according to claim 4 is that the intermediate electrode has a stiffness lower than the reflecting plate. もう1つの特徴は、請求項5記載のように、中間電極がその両面に貫通する穴を有することである。 Another feature, as according to claim 5, is to have a hole intermediate electrode penetrates both sides thereof.

【0011】また、本発明により提供される光変調装置駆動方法は、請求項6記載のように、請求項1、2、4 Further, the light modulation device driving method provided by the invention, as claimed in claim 6, claim 1,2,4
又は5記載の光変調装置において、前記反射板の変位開始が、少なくとも前記反射板に最も近い前記中間電極の変位開始より遅れないように前記各電極への駆動電圧の印加タイミングを制御することである。 Or in the light modulating device according 5, the displacement start of the reflector, by controlling the application timing of the drive voltage to at least said abreast than the displacement start of the nearest the intermediate electrode to the reflective plate each electrode is there. もう1つの特徴は、請求項7記載のように、請求項3記載の光変調装置において、第1の電極と第2の電極に対してのみ駆動電圧を印加することである。 Another feature, as according to claim 7, wherein, in the optical modulator device according to claim 3, is that only applies the drive voltage to the first electrode and the second electrode.

【0012】以上に述べた本発明の目的及び特徴と、その他の本発明の目的及び特徴について、実施の形態に関連して以下に具体的に説明する。 [0012] and objects and features of the present invention described above, the objects and features of the other present invention will be specifically described below with reference to the embodiments.

【0013】 [0013]

【発明の実施の形態】本発明の理解を容易にするため、 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION To facilitate understanding of the present invention,
まず、本発明を適用し得る光変調装置の基本構成の一例を図1を参照して説明する。 First, an example of a basic configuration of the optical modulator to which the present invention can be applied with reference to FIG.

【0014】図1は光変調装置の概略断面図である。 [0014] Figure 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the optical modulator. 図1において、反射板1は固定支持部9で電極基板3に固定され、電極基板3の凹部を塞ぐ状態に保持される。 In Figure 1, the reflecting plate 1 is fixed to the electrode board 3 with a fixed support 9, it is held in a state of closing the recess of the electrode substrate 3. 反射板1は電極も兼ねるもので、例えば薄い梁の上面に反射面と電極として作用する金属層を形成したものであったり、導電性を有する材質で一体的に形成されるものである。 Reflecting plate 1 intended doubling as electrode, or be those obtained by forming a metal layer which acts as a reflective surface and the electrode on the upper surface of the example thin beam, in which are integrally formed of a material having conductivity. 電極基板3の凹部の底には、反射板1と対向する対向電極2が設けられ、対向電極2と反射板1の間にギャップ8が形成される。 The bottoms of the recesses of the electrode substrate 3, the reflecting plate 1 and the counter the counter electrode 2 is provided with a gap 8 between the opposing electrode 2 and the reflector 1 is formed. 対向電極2と反射板1は静電アクチュエータを構成する。 Counter electrode 2 and the reflector 1 constitute an electrostatic actuator.

【0015】反射板1は、電極基板3とは別個に作られ、後で電極基板3と接合される場合と、製膜プロセスや犠牲層プロセス等によって電極基板3に反射板1が積層される場合とがある。 [0015] reflecting plate 1 is made separate from the electrode substrate 3, the reflecting plate 1 is stacked on the electrode substrate 3 by case and, film process or the sacrificial layer process or the like which is bonded to the electrode substrate 3 later If there is a.

【0016】反射板1と対向電極2の間に電圧が印加されない時(電圧OFF時)には、図1(a)に示すように、反射板1は対向電極2とほぼ平行な状態であり、入射光4は反射板1により反射光5のように反射される。 [0016] When the voltage between the reflecting plate 1 and the counter electrode 2 is not applied (when the voltage OFF), as shown in FIG. 1 (a), the reflecting plate 1 is almost parallel with the counter electrode 2 , the incident light 4 is reflected as reflected light 5 by the reflecting plate 1.

【0017】一方、図示しない駆動回路から反射板1と対向電極2の間に電圧が印加された時(電圧ON時)には、反射板1と対向電極2の間に静電気による吸引力が作用する。 Meanwhile, in the case a voltage is applied between a drive circuit (not shown) of the reflecting plate 1 and the counter electrode 2 (when a voltage is ON), the suction force acting due to the static electricity between the reflecting plate 1 and the counter electrode 2 to. 反射板1は薄く作られているので、その静電気力によって反射板1は対向電極2側へ変位し、図1 Since the reflecting plate 1 is made thinner, the reflecting plate 1 by the electrostatic force is displaced to the counter electrode 2 side, FIG. 1
(b)に示すような状態になる。 It becomes the state shown in (b). この状態では、入射光6は反射板1で反射光7のように反射される。 In this state, the incident light 6 is reflected as reflected light 7 by the reflecting plate 1. なお、図示していないが、反射板1が対向電極2と接触した場合に両者の電気的短絡を防ぐため、反射板1と対向電極2 Although not shown, to prevent electrical shorting therebetween in the case where the reflecting plate 1 is in contact with the counter electrode 2, the reflecting plate 1 and the counter electrode 2
の一方又は両方の接触する側の面に絶縁膜が形成される。 One or both insulating film on the surface on the side in contact with is formed of.

【0018】以上に述べたように、反射板1と対向電極2との間の電圧のON、OFFによって光の反射方向を切り替えて光を変調することができる。 [0018] As described above, ON voltage between the reflecting plate 1 and the counter electrode 2, it is possible to modulate the light by switching the direction of reflection of light by OFF. 光の反射方向に、図示しない色フィルタやレンズなどを設けることで表示装置を構成することができる。 The reflection direction of light, it is possible to construct a display device by providing such color filters and lenses, not shown. また、電子写真装置の光書込み系への応用も可能である。 Also, application to optical writing system of the electrophotographic apparatus are also possible.

【0019】さて、図1に示したような基本構成の光変調装置においては、反射板1の変位量を大きくするために反射板1と対向電極2の距離を大きくとると、前述のように反射板1と対向電極2の間に非常に大きな駆動電圧を印加しなければならなくなる。 [0019] Now, in the optical modulator of the basic configuration as shown in FIG. 1, when a large distance of the reflecting plate 1 and the counter electrode 2 in order to increase the amount of displacement of the reflecting plate 1, as described above very large drive voltage between the reflecting plate 1 and the counter electrode 2 would have to apply the. 本発明によれば、駆動電圧を増大させることなく反射板1の変位量を増加させ、あるいは、反射板1の所定の変位量を確保して駆動電圧の低電圧化を図ることができる。 According to the present invention, the driving voltage increases the amount of displacement of the reflecting plate 1 without increasing the or can be lowered the drive voltage to ensure a predetermined amount of displacement of the reflecting plate 1.

【0020】以下、図1に示したような基本構成の光変調装置に本発明を適用した実施例を、図2及び図3を参照して説明する。 [0020] Hereinafter, an embodiment of the present invention is applied to an optical modulation apparatus in the basic configuration as shown in FIG. 1, it will be described with reference to FIGS.

【0021】図2は、本発明による光変調装置の一実施例を示す概略断面図である。 [0021] FIG. 2 is a schematic sectional view showing an embodiment of a spatial light modulator device of the present invention. 図2において、図1と同一の参照番号は同様の要素を示す。 2, the same reference numbers as in FIG. 1 indicate like elements. 図2(a)は非駆動状態(電圧OFF時)を示し、図2(b)は駆動状態(電圧ON時)を示す。 2 (a) shows the non-driven state (when a voltage is OFF), 2 (b) shows the operating state (when a voltage is ON).

【0022】本実施例では、電極基板3の凹部の内部に、反射板1と対向電極2との間のギャップ8を上下2 [0022] In this embodiment, the inside of the recess of the electrode substrate 3, the upper and lower gaps 8 between the reflecting plate 1 and the counter electrode 2 2
つのギャップに仕切るように、薄い中間電極10が設けられる。 One of such partitions in the gap, the intermediate electrode 10 are provided thin. この中間電極10は、例えば、その全体を金属のような導電性材料で形成してもよいし、絶縁性材料や半導体材料などで作られた薄い板もしくは膜の表面に金属などの導電性材料で電極を形成した構成としてもよい。 The intermediate electrode 10 is, for example, may be formed generally by a conductive material such as a metal, a conductive material such as metal to the surface of the thin plate or film made of an insulating material or a semiconductor material in may be configured to form an electrode. また、中間電極10は、電極基板3と独立した部品として作成し、それを電極基板3の凹部の途中に設けた段部に接合してもよいが、電極基板3の製作過程で一般的な犠牲層プロセスなどを用いて中間電極10を形成してもよい。 The intermediate electrode 10 is created as an independent part and the electrode substrate 3, but it may be joined to the stepped portion midway provided in the recess of the electrode substrate 3, common in manufacturing process of the electrode substrate 3 such as sacrificial layer processes may form the intermediate electrode 10 with.

【0023】以上のような構成において、反射板1、中間電極10、対向電極2のいずれの間にも駆動電圧を印加しない時(電圧OFF時)には、図2(a)に示すように、各電極は平行な状態であり、反射板1によって入射光4は反射光5のように反射される。 [0023] In the above configuration, the reflecting plate 1, the intermediate electrode 10, when no drive voltage is applied to between any of the counter electrode 2 (when the voltage OFF), as shown in FIG. 2 (a) each electrode is a parallel state, the incident light 4 by the reflection plate 1 is reflected as reflected light 5.

【0024】一方、対向電極2と中間電極10の間に、 On the other hand, between the counter electrode 2 and the intermediate electrode 10,
図示しない駆動回路から電圧を印加すると、静電気力によって中間電極10は対向電極2に向かって変位する。 When a voltage is applied from a driving circuit (not shown), the intermediate electrode 10 by an electrostatic force is displaced toward the counter electrode 2.
同様に、反射板1と中間電極10の間に、図示しない駆動回路から電圧を印加すると、静電気力によって反射板1は中間電極10に向かって変位する。 Similarly, between the reflecting plate 1 and the intermediate electrode 10, when a voltage is applied from a driving circuit (not shown), the reflecting plate 1 by an electrostatic force is displaced toward the intermediate electrode 10. 中間電極10と対向電極2との間及び中間電極10と反射板1との間に静電気力は同等に作用するが、反射板1も中間電極10 Electrostatic force and between the intermediate electrode 10 between the intermediate electrode 10 and the counter electrode 2 and the reflector 1 acts equally, the reflecting plate 1 is also the intermediate electrode 10
も薄く作られているので、中間電極10は変位しない対向電極2側に引き寄せられる結果、図2(b)に示すような状態となる。 Because it is made thinner, results intermediate electrode 10 are attracted to the counter electrode 2 side is not displaced, the state shown in FIG. 2 (b). したがって、反射板1は入射光6を反射光7のように反射する。 Therefore, the reflecting plate 1 is reflected as reflected light 7 incident light 6.

【0025】本実施例の光変調装置における反射板1の絶対的変位量が図1の場合と等しいとすると、その絶対的変位量に比べ、中間電極10の変位量も、反射板1の中間電極10に対する相対的変位量も小さいため、電極間に印加する駆動電圧を図1の場合よりも下げることができる。 [0025] The absolute amount of displacement of the reflecting plate 1 in the optical modulator device of the present embodiment is equal to that of FIG. 1, compared with the absolute displacement amount, the displacement amount of the intermediate electrode 10 is also of the reflecting plate 1 intermediate since the relative displacement of the electrode 10 is small, the driving voltage applied between the electrodes can be reduced than the case of FIG. 逆に、図1の場合と同じ駆動電圧で駆動すれば、反射板1をより大きく変位させることができる。 Conversely, if driven at the same drive voltage as in FIG. 1, it can be more largely displaced a reflector 1.

【0026】本実施例では、反射板1と対向電極2の間に中間電極10が1つだけ設けられた。 [0026] In this embodiment, the intermediate electrode 10 is provided only one between the reflecting plate 1 and the counter electrode 2. 図示しないが、 Although not shown,
本発明の他の実施例によれば、反射板1と対向電極10 According to another embodiment of the present invention, the reflecting plate 1 and the counter electrode 10
の間のギャップ8を3つ以上に仕切るように、中間電極10と同様の中間電極が複数個設けられる。 The gap 8 between the to partition three or more, the same intermediate electrode and the intermediate electrode 10 are provided a plurality. このように中間電極を複数個設けた構成によれば、電極間距離を短縮し、駆動電圧のさらなる低電圧化が可能であることは明白である。 According to the structure in which a plurality of intermediate electrodes, shortens the distance between the electrodes, it is evident that it is capable of further lower the driving voltage.

【0027】なお、中間電極10と、反射板1又は対向電極2との接触による電気的短絡を防ぐために(中間電極を複数設ける場合には他の中間電極との接触による電気的短絡も防ぐために)、図示しないが、接触が想定される部分には少なくとも絶縁保護膜を形成するなどの絶縁手段が講じられる。 [0027] Note that the intermediate electrode 10, when providing a plurality of (intermediate electrode to prevent electrical shorts due to contact between the reflecting plate 1 or the counter electrode 2 is to prevent the electrical shorting due to contact with other intermediate electrodes ), although not shown, an insulating means such as forming at least an insulating protective film is taken in a portion where the contact is assumed.

【0028】また、中間電極10を2つ以上設けた場合、反射板1と、それに最も近い中間電極10とからなる静電アクチュエータの特性が、反射板1の変位特性に最も大きな影響を与える。 Further, when an intermediate electrode 10 two or more, the reflecting plate 1, it is characteristic of the electrostatic actuator consisting of the nearest intermediate electrode 10 Prefecture, the greatest effect on the displacement characteristics of the reflector 1. 中間電極10を、絶縁性材料や半導体材料で作られた薄い板もしくは膜の表面に電極としての導電性材料の膜を形成した構成とする場合には、少なくとも反射板1に最も近い中間電極10については、その反射板1に対向する側の面に、電極としての導電性材料の膜を形成するのが好ましい。 The intermediate electrode 10, in the case of a configuration in which a film was formed of a conductive material as an electrode on the surface of the thin plate or film made of an insulating material or a semiconductor material, the closest intermediate electrode at least on the reflecting plate 1 10 for, the surface on the side facing the reflector 1, is to form a film of conductive material as electrodes preferred. このようにすると、電極としての導電性材料の膜を反対側の面に形成した場合に比べ、反射板1とそれに最も近い中間電極1 In this way, compared with the case of forming a film of a conductive material as an electrode on the opposite side, the reflecting plate 1 and the nearest intermediate electrode 1
0との距離を短くできる分、それらによって構成される静電アクチュエータの駆動電圧の低電圧化、駆動特性の向上を図ることができる。 0 and minute that distance can be shortened, it is possible to achieve lower the driving voltage of the electrostatic actuator constituted by them, the improvement of the driving characteristics.

【0029】さて、図2(b)においては、中間電極1 [0029] Now, in FIG. 2 (b), the intermediate electrode 1
0と反射板1は、ともに静電気力を生じている相手方の電極に非接触であった(非当接駆動)が、さらに印加する駆動電圧を上げると相手方の電極に当接することになる(当接駆動)。 0 and the reflector 1, were both non-contact with the electrode of the other party that produce electrostatic forces (noncontact drive) is, comes into contact with the electrodes of raising the driving voltage party further applied (those contact drive). 当接駆動の場合、設計パラメータのバラツキや駆動電圧の変動、その他の外部要因によって、 If the contact drive, variations in dispersion and driving voltage of the design parameters, the other external factors,
反射板1が中間電極10に当接するよりも早く、中間電極10が対向電極2に当接してしまうことがある。 Faster than the reflecting plate 1 is brought into contact with the intermediate electrode 10, there is the intermediate electrode 10 will be in contact with the counter electrode 2. その様子を図3に示す。 This is shown in Figure 3.

【0030】図3(a)では、反射板1が中間電極10 [0030] In FIG. 3 (a), the reflecting plate 1 is intermediate electrode 10
に当接している様子を示している。 Shows a state in which contact with. この場合、その後に中間電極10を対向電極2側に変位させることになるが、中間電極10と対向電極2の距離は、初期状態(電圧OFF時)と同じであるので、駆動に不都合はない。 In this case, then become the intermediate electrode 10 to be displaced to the counter electrode 2 side, the distance of the intermediate electrode 10 and the counter electrode 2 are the same as the initial state (when voltage OFF), there is no inconvenience to the drive .

【0031】これに対し、図3(b)では、中間電極1 [0031] In contrast, in FIG. 3 (b), the intermediate electrode 1
0が対向電極2に当接している様子を示している。 0 indicates a state in which contact with the counter electrode 2. この場合、その後に反射板1を中間電極10側に変位させることになるが、反射板1と中間電極10の距離は初期状態よりも大きくなっている。 In this case, although the cause subsequently displacing the reflecting plate 1 to the intermediate electrode 10 side, the distance of the reflecting plate 1 and the intermediate electrode 10 is larger than the initial state. 前述したように、静電気力は電極間の距離の2乗に反比例するので、図3(b)の状態では、図3(a)の状態に比較して、反射板1の駆動には大きな駆動電圧が必要になるという不都合がある。 As described above, since the electrostatic force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the electrodes, in the state in FIG. 3 (b), as compared to the state of FIG. 3 (a), a large driving to drive the reflecting plate 1 there is a disadvantage that the voltage becomes necessary.

【0032】このような不都合な状態を回避するために、本発明の光変調装置駆動方法によれば、反射板1の変位開始が、中間電極10の変位開始より遅れないように各電極への駆動電圧の印加タイミングを制御する。 [0032] To avoid such an undesirable state, according to the optical modulation device driving method of the present invention, the displacement start of the reflecting plate 1, to each electrode so as not later than the displacement start of the intermediate electrode 10 It controls the application timing of the drive voltage. このような駆動方法によって、図3(b)のような不都合な状態を確実に回避し、低電圧による安定な駆動が可能となる。 Such a driving method avoids reliably adverse conditions, such as in FIG. 3 (b), it is possible to stable driving by a low voltage.

【0033】本発明の光変調装置駆動方法は、反射板1 The light modulation device driving method of the present invention, the reflecting plate 1
と対向電極2の間に中間電極10が複数設けられた場合にも同様に適用できる。 And equally applicable to the case where the intermediate electrode 10 between the opposing electrode 2 is provided with a plurality. すなわち、反射板1の変形開始が、少なくとも反射板1に最も近い中間電極10の変形開始より遅れないように、各電極への駆動電圧の印加タイミングを制御することによって、図3(b)のような不都合を回避する。 That is, deformation starting of the reflector 1, so as not later than the start of deformation of the intermediate electrode 10 closest least the reflecting plate 1, by controlling the application timing of the drive voltage to each electrode, Figure 3 (b) to avoid a disadvantage, such as.

【0034】このような駆動方法は、反射板や中間電極を当接駆動する場合に限らず、非当接駆動する場合にも適用できる。 [0034] Such a driving method is not limited to the case of contact driving a reflecting plate and the intermediate electrode can also be applied to the non-contact driving. なお、反射板1や中間電極10の剛性に応じて、各電極への駆動電圧の印加タイミングを適切に調整するのが望ましい。 Incidentally, depending on the rigidity of the reflecting plate 1 and the intermediate electrode 10, it is desirable to appropriately adjust the timing for applying the driving voltage to each electrode.

【0035】前述のように、中間電極10によって駆動電圧の低電圧化を図ることができるが、中間電極10の剛性が高く、その変形のために必要なエネルギーが大きいと、その駆動電圧の上昇を招く恐れがある。 [0035] As described above, it is possible to reduce the voltage of the drive voltage by an intermediate electrode 10, a high rigidity of the intermediate electrode 10, the energy required for its deformation is large, increase of the driving voltage which may lead to. そこで、 there,
本発明の一実施例によれば、中間電極10の剛性が少なくとも反射板1の剛性よりも低くなるように中間電極1 According to one embodiment of the present invention, the intermediate electrode 1 as the stiffness of the intermediate electrode 10 becomes lower than at least the rigidity of the reflecting plate 1
0が形成される。 0 is formed. このようにすれば、中間電極10の駆動電圧の低電圧化に有利であり、また、中間電極10で構成される静電アクチュエータの応答性も良好になる。 In this way, it is advantageous to lower the driving voltage of the intermediate electrode 10, also the response of the electrostatic actuator composed of the intermediate electrode 10 is also improved.

【0036】図示しないが、本発明の他の実施例によれば、中間電極10は誘電体で形成される。 [0036] Although not shown, according to another embodiment of the present invention, the intermediate electrode 10 is formed of a dielectric. このような構成において、対向電極2と反射板1の間に電圧を印加すると、中間電極10の対向電極2側には対向電極2に引かれる形で電荷が誘起し、電気双極子の働きによって、 In such a configuration, when a voltage is applied between the counter electrode 2 and the reflector 1, the counter electrode 2 side of the intermediate electrode 10 to induce charges in the form of being pulled in the counter electrode 2, by the action of the electric dipole ,
中間電極10の対向電極2と反対側にも逆極性の電荷が誘起することになり、したがって、反射板1と中間電極10との間にも電圧が発生するため、中間電極10に外部より電圧を印加したと同様の反射板1の駆動が可能となる。 It will be charge also of opposite polarity to the counter electrode 2 opposite to the intermediate electrode 10 is induced, therefore, the voltage is also generated between the reflecting plate 1 and the intermediate electrode 10, a voltage from the outside to the intermediate electrode 10 it is possible to drive the same reflector 1 and was applied. このように中間電極10は静電気力を発生するための電極として作用するが、それ自体に外部より電圧を印加するための電極を設ける必要がなくなるため、中間電極10の構造が非常に単純になり、光変調装置の生産性、信頼性の向上に有利である。 Thus the intermediate electrode 10 serves as an electrode for generating an electrostatic force, but by itself it is not necessary to provide an electrode for applying a voltage from the outside is eliminated, the structure of the intermediate electrode 10 becomes very simply , the productivity of the optical modulator, which is advantageous in improving the reliability. また、反射板1と対向電極2のみに駆動電圧を印加するだけでよいため、駆動のための回路を単純化することができる。 Further, since it is only necessary to apply a driving voltage only to the reflection plate 1 and the counter electrode 2, it is possible to simplify the circuit for the drive. このように反射板1と対向電極2にのみ駆動電圧を印加することによって光変調装置を駆動する方法も本発明に包含される。 Method of driving a light modulation apparatus by applying such a reflecting plate 1 and only the driving voltage to the common electrode 2 are also encompassed by the present invention.

【0037】さて、反射板1を変位駆動する場合、ギャップ8内部の空気が反射板1の変位に伴って圧縮され圧力が上昇し、反射板1がギャップ8内部の圧力で押し戻されるため、ギャップ8内部に空気がない条件で静的に計算して求めた反射板1の変位量よりも実際の変位量が小さくなってしまう。 [0037] Now, when the displacement drive the reflector 1, because the air inside the gap 8 increases the pressure is compressed in accordance with the displacement of the reflecting plate 1, the reflecting plate 1 is pushed back by the pressure inside the gap 8, Gap 8 actual displacement amount than the amount of displacement of the reflector 1 obtained by statically calculated in no air condition inside is reduced. その圧力の上昇ΔPは次式で示される。 Increase ΔP of the pressure is shown by the following equation.

【0038】 ΔP=Po・ΔV/(V−ΔV) (1) ここで、Poはギャップ8内の初期圧力、Vはギャップの初期容積、ΔVは反射板1の変位による容積変化量である。 [0038] ΔP = Po · ΔV / (V-ΔV) (1) where, Po is the initial pressure in the gap 8, V is the initial volume, [Delta] V is the volumetric change due to displacement of the reflecting plate 1 of the gap.

【0039】このような反射板1の変位に伴うギャップ8内の圧力上昇、すなわちエアダンパ効果を低減し、駆動電圧の低電圧化と応答性の向上を達成するためには、 The pressure increase in the gap 8 with the displacement of such a reflection plate 1, i.e. to reduce air damper effect, to achieve improved low voltage and responsiveness of the driving voltage,
ギャップ8の初期容積Vを増加させることが効果的である。 It is effective to increase the initial volume V of the gap 8.

【0040】図2においては、中間電極10によりギャップ8は上下の2つのギャップに分割されている。 [0040] In Figure 2, the gap 8 by the intermediate electrode 10 is divided into two gaps of the upper and lower. 分割された各々のギャップの合計容積が図1の場合のギャップ容積と同じであるとすると、分割された各々のギャップの容積は図1の場合よりも小さくなっており、前記(1)式で示したギャップの初期容積Vが小さくなってしまう。 If the total volume of the gap of the split, each assumed to be the same as the gap volume in the case of FIG. 1, the volume of the gap of each divided is smaller than the case of FIG. 1, in the formula (1) the initial volume V of the gap shown becomes smaller.

【0041】そこで、本発明の一実施例によれば、図2 [0041] Therefore, according to one embodiment of the present invention, FIG. 2
に示すように、中間電極10に貫通穴12が設けられる。 As shown in, the through hole 12 is provided in the intermediate electrode 10. 中間電極10が対向電極2側に変形した場合、変形に伴って圧縮された中間電極10と対向電極2の間のギャップ内の空気は貫通穴12を通って反射板1側のギャップに移動するため、対向電極2側のギャップ内の圧力上昇を抑えることができる。 If the intermediate electrode 10 is deformed into the counter electrode 2 side, the air in the gap between the intermediate electrode 10 is compressed with the deformation counter electrode 2 is moved to the gap between the reflecting plate 1 side through the through hole 12 Therefore, it is possible to suppress the pressure increase in the gap of the counter electrode 2 side. この反作用によって、反射板1側のギャップ内の圧力が上昇してしまうが、各々のギャップが貫通穴12により連通することによってギャップ8内の圧力が平均化され、全体としてエアダンパ効果の増大を抑制することができるため、低電圧駆動が可能である。 This reaction, the pressure in the gap of the reflector 1 side rises, the pressure in the gap 8 by the respective gap communicates with the through hole 12 are averaged, suppress the increase of the air damper effect as a whole it is possible to, can be driven at a lower voltage.

【0042】なお、ギャップ8の内部に高誘電率の物質、例えばグリセリンや強誘電性液晶などを充填すると、静電アクチュエータの低電圧化には好ましいが、そのような物質は体積圧縮率が極めて小さいのでダンパ効果が顕著になる。 [0042] Incidentally, material with a high dielectric constant inside the gap 8, for example, filling and glycerin or ferroelectric liquid crystal, but preferably the low voltage of the electrostatic actuator, such materials volume compressibility is extremely damper effect becomes significant because small. したがって、ギャップ8には、体積圧縮率の小さな物質、例えば空気や不活性ガスなどの気体を充填するのが一般に好ましい。 Thus, the gap 8, it is generally preferred to fill a material having a small volume compressibility, e.g. a gas such as air or an inert gas.

【0043】また、図示しないが、本発明の他の実施例によれば、反射板1の少なくとも1辺は解放され、ギャップ8は反射板1によっては完全には封止されない。 [0043] Although not shown, according to another embodiment of the present invention, at least one side of the reflecting plate 1 is released, the gap 8 is not sealed completely sealing is by the reflecting plate 1. 例えば、反射板1は、その一端のみで電極基板3に片持ち保持される構成とされる。 For example, the reflecting plate 1 is configured to be cantilevered holding the electrode substrate 3 only at one end. このような構成においても、 In such a configuration,
エアダンパ効果は存在するため、中間電極10に貫通穴を設けることによるエアダンパ効果の低減に有効である。 Since air damper effect is present, it is effective in reducing the air damper effect by providing the through hole in the intermediate electrode 10.

【0044】また、図示しないが、本発明による他の実施例によれば、中間電極10も少なくとも1辺が解放される構成とされる。 [0044] Although not shown, according to another embodiment of the present invention, at least one side also the intermediate electrode 10 is configured to be released. 例えば、中間電極10は、その一端のみで電極基板3の凹部に片持ち保持される構成とされる。 For example, the intermediate electrode 10 is configured to be cantilevered held in a recess of the electrode substrate 3 only at one end. 中間電極10の解放部分が前記貫通穴12と同様の作用をするため、格別の貫通穴を設けることなくエアダンパ効果の低減が可能である。 Since the release portion of the intermediate electrode 10 is the same action as the through hole 12, it is possible to reduce the air damper effect without providing a special through-hole.

【0045】また、図示しないが、本発明の他の実施例によれば、中間電極10は多数の貫通穴を持つ網目状の構成とされる。 Further, although not shown, according to another embodiment of the present invention, the intermediate electrode 10 is a mesh-like structure with a large number of through holes.

【0046】なお、前記各実施例の光変調装置を1つの素子として、複数の素子を1次元又は2次元に配列した装置も本発明に包含されることは当然である。 [0046] Incidentally, the optical modulation device of each embodiment as a single element, it is naturally also apparatus in which a plurality of elements in one or two dimensions are encompassed by the present invention.

【0047】 [0047]

【発明の効果】以上の説明から明らかなように、(1) As apparent from the above description, (1)
請求項1乃至5記載の発明によれば、反射板の変位量を減らすことなく駆動電圧を下げることができ、あるいは、駆動電圧を上げることなく反射板の変位量を増大させることができる。 According to the invention of claims 1 to 5, wherein the driving voltage without reducing the displacement of the reflecting plate can be lowered, or it is possible to increase the displacement of the reflector without increasing the driving voltage. (2)請求項2記載の発明は、反射板の変位特性に最も影響のある、反射板と、それに最も近い中間電極とで構成される静電アクチュエータの駆動電圧の低電圧化、駆動特性の向上を図ることができる。 (2) According to a second aspect of the invention, the most influence on the displacement characteristics of the reflector a lower drive voltage of the electrostatic actuator composed of a reflection plate, it closest the intermediate electrode, the driving characteristics it can be improved.
(3)請求項3記載の発明によれば、中間電極そのものに外部から駆動電圧を印加するための電極を設ける必要がなくなり、中間電極の構造が非常に単純になるため、 (3) According to the third aspect of the present invention, it is not necessary to provide an electrode for applying a driving voltage to the intermediate electrode itself from the outside, since the structure of the intermediate electrode becomes very simple,
光変調装置の生産性、信頼性の向上に有利であり、また、中間電極に外部から駆動電圧を印加する必要がなくなるため、光変調装置の駆動回路を単純化することができる。 Productivity of the light modulating device is advantageous in improving the reliability, also, it is not necessary to apply a drive voltage to the intermediate electrode from the outside, so that it is possible to simplify the driving circuit of the optical modulator. (4)請求項4記載の発明によれば、中間電極の変形に要するエネルギーが小さくなるため、その駆動電圧の低電圧化に有利であり、また中間電極で構成される静電アクチュエータの応答性も良好にできる。 (4) According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, since the energy required for deformation of the intermediate electrode is reduced, it is advantageous to lower the voltage of the driving voltage and response of the electrostatic actuator composed of the intermediate electrode it is also good. また、 Also,
(5)請求項5記載の発明によれば、中間電極を設けたことによるエアダンパ効果の増大を抑えることができる。 (5) According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, it is possible to suppress the increase of the air damper effect obtained by providing the intermediate electrode. (6)請求項6記載の発明によれば、反射板とそれに対向する中間電極との距離が広がる現象を防止し、低電圧で安定な駆動が可能となる。 (6) According to the sixth aspect of the present invention, to prevent the phenomenon that the distance between the intermediate electrode spreads to reflector and opposed thereto, a stable drive becomes possible at a low voltage. (7)請求項7記載の発明によれば、第1の電極と第2の電極の間にのみ駆動電圧を印加するだけでよいため、光変調装置の駆動回路を単純化できる、等々の効果を得られる。 (7) According to the seventh aspect of the present invention, since it is only only the drive voltage is applied between the first electrode and the second electrode, can be simplified driving circuit of the optical modulator, so the effect the resulting.

【図面の簡単な説明】 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

【図1】本発明を適用し得る光変調装置の基本構成の一例を示す概略断面図である。 It is a schematic cross-sectional view illustrating a basic configuration of an optical modulation device can be applied to the present invention; FIG.

【図2】本発明による光変調装置の一例を示す概略断面図である。 Is a schematic sectional view showing an example of an optical modulator according to the invention, FIG.

【図3】本発明による光変調装置の駆動方法を説明するための概略断面図である。 It is a schematic sectional view for explaining a driving method of the optical modulator according to the present invention; FIG.

【符号の説明】 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS

1 反射板(第1の電極) 2 対向電極(第2の電極) 3 電極基板 8 ギャップ 10 中間電極 12 貫通穴 1 reflector (first electrode) 2 opposing electrode (second electrode) 3 electrode substrate 8 gap 10 intermediate electrode 12 through hole

Claims (7)

    【特許請求の範囲】 [The claims]
  1. 【請求項1】 第1の電極を兼ねる変位可能な反射板と、 前記反射板に対向して配設された変位不可能な第2の電極と、 前記反射板と前記第2の電極の間に配設された、少なくとも1つの変位可能な中間電極とを有し、 前記各電極間に作用する静電気力により前記中間電極及び前記反射板を変位させることを特徴する光変調装置。 1. A and displaceable reflector serving as a first electrode, a second electrode that arranged displacement impossible to face the reflecting plate, between the reflector plate and the second electrode disposed, and at least one displaceable intermediate electrode, said intermediate electrode and the light modulator that, characterized in that to displace the reflecting plate by electrostatic force acting between the electrodes.
  2. 【請求項2】 少なくとも前記反射板に最も近い前記中間電極は、前記反射板に対向する面が導電性材料で形成されることを特徴とする請求項1記載の光変調装置。 The intermediate electrode 2. A nearest to at least the reflector, the light modulation apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a surface facing the reflection plate is formed of a conductive material.
  3. 【請求項3】 前記中間電極は誘電体からなることを特徴とする請求項1記載の光変調装置。 Wherein the intermediate electrode optical modulator according to claim 1, characterized in that it consists of a dielectric.
  4. 【請求項4】 前記中間電極は前記反射板より低い剛性を有することを特徴とする請求項1記載の光変調装置。 Wherein said intermediate electrode optical modulator according to claim 1, wherein the rigid lower than the reflecting plate.
  5. 【請求項5】 前記中間電極はその両面に貫通する穴を有することを特徴とする請求項1記載の光変調装置。 Wherein said intermediate electrode optical modulator according to claim 1, characterized in that it has a hole through both sides thereof.
  6. 【請求項6】 請求項1、2、4又は5記載の光変調装置の駆動方法であって、前記反射板の変位開始が、少なくとも前記反射板に最も近い前記中間電極の変位開始より遅れないように前記各電極への駆動電圧の印加タイミングを制御することを特徴とする光変調装置駆動方法。 6. A method of driving a light modulation apparatus according to claim 1, 2, 4 or 5, wherein the displacement start of the reflector, not later than the displacement start of the nearest said intermediate electrode on at least the reflection plate light modulation device driving method characterized by controlling the application timing of the drive voltage to each electrode so.
  7. 【請求項7】 請求項3記載の光変調装置の駆動方法であって、前記第1の電極と前記第2の電極に対してのみ駆動電圧を印加することを特徴とする光変調装置駆動方法。 7. A method of driving a light modulation apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the light modulation device driving method characterized by only applying a driving voltage to the second electrode and the first electrode .
JP2001080542A 2001-03-21 2001-03-21 Optical modulator Pending JP2002277771A (en)

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WO2006036392A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-04-06 Idc, Llc Analog interferometric modulator device
US7649671B2 (en) 2006-06-01 2010-01-19 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Analog interferometric modulator device with electrostatic actuation and release
US7719500B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2010-05-18 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Reflective display pixels arranged in non-rectangular arrays
US7830586B2 (en) 1999-10-05 2010-11-09 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Transparent thin films
US7835061B2 (en) 2006-06-28 2010-11-16 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Support structures for free-standing electromechanical devices
US7893919B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2011-02-22 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Display region architectures
US7916980B2 (en) 2006-01-13 2011-03-29 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Interconnect structure for MEMS device
US7936497B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2011-05-03 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. MEMS device having deformable membrane characterized by mechanical persistence
US8638491B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2014-01-28 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Device having a conductive light absorbing mask and method for fabricating same
US8659816B2 (en) 2011-04-25 2014-02-25 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Mechanical layer and methods of making the same
US8830557B2 (en) 2007-05-11 2014-09-09 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Methods of fabricating MEMS with spacers between plates and devices formed by same
US8928967B2 (en) 1998-04-08 2015-01-06 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and device for modulating light
US8963159B2 (en) 2011-04-04 2015-02-24 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Pixel via and methods of forming the same
US8964280B2 (en) 2006-06-30 2015-02-24 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method of manufacturing MEMS devices providing air gap control
US8970939B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2015-03-03 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and device for multistate interferometric light modulation
US9001412B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2015-04-07 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Electromechanical device with optical function separated from mechanical and electrical function
US9086564B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2015-07-21 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Conductive bus structure for interferometric modulator array
US9110289B2 (en) 1998-04-08 2015-08-18 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Device for modulating light with multiple electrodes
US9134527B2 (en) 2011-04-04 2015-09-15 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Pixel via and methods of forming the same

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US8928967B2 (en) 1998-04-08 2015-01-06 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and device for modulating light
US9110289B2 (en) 1998-04-08 2015-08-18 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Device for modulating light with multiple electrodes
US7830586B2 (en) 1999-10-05 2010-11-09 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Transparent thin films
US8970939B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2015-03-03 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method and device for multistate interferometric light modulation
US7719500B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2010-05-18 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Reflective display pixels arranged in non-rectangular arrays
US7893919B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2011-02-22 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Display region architectures
WO2006036392A1 (en) * 2004-09-27 2006-04-06 Idc, Llc Analog interferometric modulator device
US7936497B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2011-05-03 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. MEMS device having deformable membrane characterized by mechanical persistence
US8008736B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2011-08-30 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Analog interferometric modulator device
US8638491B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2014-01-28 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Device having a conductive light absorbing mask and method for fabricating same
US9097885B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2015-08-04 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Device having a conductive light absorbing mask and method for fabricating same
US9086564B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2015-07-21 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Conductive bus structure for interferometric modulator array
US9001412B2 (en) 2004-09-27 2015-04-07 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Electromechanical device with optical function separated from mechanical and electrical function
US7916980B2 (en) 2006-01-13 2011-03-29 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Interconnect structure for MEMS device
US8971675B2 (en) 2006-01-13 2015-03-03 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Interconnect structure for MEMS device
US7649671B2 (en) 2006-06-01 2010-01-19 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Analog interferometric modulator device with electrostatic actuation and release
US7835061B2 (en) 2006-06-28 2010-11-16 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Support structures for free-standing electromechanical devices
US8964280B2 (en) 2006-06-30 2015-02-24 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Method of manufacturing MEMS devices providing air gap control
US8830557B2 (en) 2007-05-11 2014-09-09 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Methods of fabricating MEMS with spacers between plates and devices formed by same
US8963159B2 (en) 2011-04-04 2015-02-24 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Pixel via and methods of forming the same
US9134527B2 (en) 2011-04-04 2015-09-15 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Pixel via and methods of forming the same
US8659816B2 (en) 2011-04-25 2014-02-25 Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc. Mechanical layer and methods of making the same

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