JP2001514453A - A method and apparatus for attaching a watermark to the video image - Google Patents

A method and apparatus for attaching a watermark to the video image

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Publication number
JP2001514453A
JP2001514453A JP2000508081A JP2000508081A JP2001514453A JP 2001514453 A JP2001514453 A JP 2001514453A JP 2000508081 A JP2000508081 A JP 2000508081A JP 2000508081 A JP2000508081 A JP 2000508081A JP 2001514453 A JP2001514453 A JP 2001514453A
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JP2000508081A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP4068301B2 (en )
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ロドリゲス アンソニー
デヴィッドソン クレイ
ビー ローズ ジョフリー
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ディジマーク コーポレイション
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    • G06T1/0021Image watermarking
    • G06T1/0028Adaptive watermarking, e.g. Human Visual System [HVS]-based watermarking
    • G06T1/0035Output size adaptive watermarking
    • GPHYSICS
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    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
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    • G06T1/0064Geometric transfor invariant watermarking, e.g. affine transform invariant
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    • G10L19/00Speech or audio signals analysis-synthesis techniques for redundancy reduction, e.g. in vocoders; Coding or decoding of speech or audio signals, using source filter models or psychoacoustic analysis
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    • H04N21/238Interfacing the downstream path of the transmission network, e.g. adapting the transmission rate of a video stream to network bandwidth; Processing of multiplex streams
    • H04N21/2389Multiplex stream processing, e.g. multiplex stream encrypting
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Abstract

(57)【要約】 ブロック及びイメージを表す係数のマクロブロックの選択したDCT係数(301)を変更することによってイメージに透かしを嵌め込む。 (57) Abstract: fitting a watermark in an image by changing the selected DCT coefficients of the macroblocks of coefficients representing blocks and image (301). 各マクロブロックを具えるブロックの変更は、透かし信号の位相をブロック境界間で保持するように調整して行われる。 Changing blocks comprising each macro block is performed by adjusting the phase of the watermark signal to hold between block boundaries. イメージ信号のビットレートは、係数変化によるビットレートの減少量より少ない係数変化によるビットレートの増加量を表す係数を維持することによって保持される。 Bit rate of the image signal is held by maintaining the coefficient representing the increase in bit rate by decreasing the amount less than the coefficient changes in bit rate by the factor changes.

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

【0001】 [0001]

【技術の分野】 FIELD OF ART

本発明は、ステノグラフィ(stenography)、コピー保護並びにビデオイメージ への電子透かしの付加及びその検出に関するものである。 The present invention Steno graphics (stenography), relates to the addition and detection of the watermark to the copy protection and video images.

【0002】 [0002]

【背景技術】 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

デジタル媒体上にイメージを記憶させる技術の到来によって、著作権侵害に対する保護方法の必要性が増大している。 The advent of techniques for storing images on a digital medium, the need for protection method against piracy is increasing. 従来の媒体(例えば、VHS、ベータ、 Conventional media (for example, VHS, Beta,
オーディオテープ等)の形態で記憶されたイメージは、その性質上コピーの際に劣化される。 Images stored in the form of an audio tape, etc.) are degraded during its nature copy. デジタル符号化媒体上に記憶されたイメージを、劣化することなくコピーすることができる。 The images stored on the digital encoding medium, can be copied without degradation. したがって、コピーのコピーを完全な形で繰り返し行うことができる。 Therefore, it is possible to perform repeatedly a copy of the copy in a complete form.

【0003】 映画を有するデジタル多目的ディスク(DVD)の導入によって、一般の及び専門的な不許可コピーを誘発する要因が増大している。 [0003] The introduction of the digital versatile disc (DVD) with a movie, factors that induce general and specialized unauthorized copy is increasing. 映画産業の要望によって、正真正銘の消費者に利用される装置を用いたDVDディスクの簡単な複製に対して保護する技術が必要とされている。 By the desire of the film industry, technology to protect against simple copy of the DVD disc using the apparatus to be used for bona fide consumer there is a need. これは、二つの市販されているVCRを相互接続することによってVCRテープの複製を防止する保護と同様である。 This is similar to the protection that prevents replication of the VCR tape by interconnecting the VCR which are two commercially available.

【0004】 そのような保護機構は一部のテープに対する保護を行うが、DVD装置に接続したパーソナルコンピュータは、一層複雑な問題を発生させる。 [0004] Such a protection mechanism is to protect against some of the tape, a personal computer connected to the DVD apparatus generates a more complex problem. パーソナルコンピュータのようなオープンアーキテクチャ装置は、「クリア」の信号を再生し、 Open architecture device, such as a personal computer reproduces the signal of the "clear",
そのような装置は、一度「クリア」になるとマテリアルを複製するのに使用することができる複数のエントリポイントを有する。 Such a device has a plurality of entry points that can be used to reproduce materials Once in "clear". 本発明は、上記問題を解決する電子透かしを用いる。 The present invention uses an electronic watermark to solve the above problems. 本発明は他のアプリケーションも有する。 The present invention also has other applications.

【0005】 電子透かしの検出を容易にするために、グリッドを形成する透かし信号を挿入できることは既知である。 [0005] In order to facilitate detection of the digital watermark, it is known to be able to insert a watermark signal to form a grid. グリッドを用いて、向き及びスケールを決定することができる。 With grid, it is possible to determine the orientation and scale. 本発明によれば、データ信号及びグリッド信号を単一の透かし信号に統合して、透かしによって導入される視覚的なアーティファクトを最小にする。 According to the present invention, by integrating the data signal and the grid signal into a single watermark signal, to minimize the visual artifacts introduced by the watermark.

【0006】 DVDのような用途において、考察する必要がある重要な要素はビットストリームのビットレートである。 [0006] In applications such as DVD, important factors that must be considered is the bit rate of the bit stream. 透かしをビットストリームに導入することによってビットレートが変化する場合、不都合が生じる。 If the bit rate is changed by introducing a watermark into the bitstream, resulting inconvenience. 例えば、イメージをDVDディスクのような媒体に記録しようとする場合、ビットストリームのビット数が増大すると、単一ディスク上に記録できるイメージ数が減少する。 For example, when trying to record an image on a medium such as a DVD disc, the number of bits of the bit stream is increased, the number of images that can be recorded on a single disk is reduced. 一般に、イメージのストリームに透かしを付加すると、ビットストリームのビット数が増大する。 In general, adding a watermark to the stream of images, the number of bits of the bit stream is increased.
本発明は、イメージに透かしを導入してもビットレートを維持する方法及び装置を提供する。 The present invention provides a method and apparatus for maintaining the bit rate be introduced a watermark to the image.

【0007】 [0007]

【発明の開示】 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

既知のJPEG及びMPEGデータ圧縮技術は、DCT係数のマトリックスを発生させる離散余弦変換(DCT)を利用してイメージを変換する。 Known JPEG and MPEG data compression techniques, converts the image using a discrete cosine transform to generate a matrix of DCT coefficients (DCT). これら係数をブロック(例えば、8×8の係数ブロック)に配置する。 These coefficient block (e.g., the coefficient block of 8 × 8) is disposed. DCT係数のブロックを、マクロブロック(例えば、4個の8×8のブロックを有する16×16のアレイ)に配置する。 A block of DCT coefficients, are arranged in macroblocks (e.g., 16 array of × 16 having a block of four 8 × 8). 本発明によれば、各ブロックの選択したDCT係数を、透かし信号に応答して僅かに増大させ又は僅かに減少させる。 According to the present invention, the selected DCT coefficients of each block, slightly increased in response to the watermark signal, or slightly reducing. 各マクロブロックを具えるブロックの変更を、透かし信号の位相がブロック境界間で保持されるように調整する。 Change the block comprising each macroblock, the phase of the watermark signal is adjusted so as to be held between the block boundaries. ブロック境界間の位相を保持することによって、方向及びスケーリンググリッドとして使用することができる検出可能なグリッドを形成する。 By holding the phase between block boundaries, to form a detectable grid that can be used as direction and scaling grid.

【0008】 本発明は、イメージ信号のビットレートも維持する。 [0008] The present invention also maintains the bit rate of the image signal. 信号のビットレートは、 Signal of the bit rate,
(累積変化計数と称される)計数を維持することによって保持され、その計数は、計数変化によるビットレート減少量より少ない計数変化によるビットレート増加量を表す。 Held by maintaining the (cumulative change count referred) count, the count represents the bit rate increase due to the bit rate reduction amount less counting change due to count change. 累積変化計数が予め設定された制限を超える場合、累積変化計数を減少させる計数変化が続く。 If it exceeds the limit cumulative change count is set in advance, counting the change is followed to reduce the cumulative change count. しかしながら、累積変化計数を増大させる計数変化は停止される。 However, counting the change to increase the cumulative change count is stopped. 累積変化計数を増大させる係数変化の停止は、累積変化係数が予め設定された制限より下になるまで続く。 Stop coefficient change to increase the cumulative change count continues until below the limit cumulative change coefficient is set in advance. 上記プロセスを、組合わせ信号のエントロピーが予め設定された制限を超えないようにビットストリーム中の透かし信号の強度を選択的に変更するように説明することができる。 The above process can be entropy of combinatorial signal will be explained to selectively vary the intensity of the watermark signal in the bit stream so as not to exceed the limit set in advance.

【0009】 [0009]

【発明を実施するための最良の形態】 BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

周知のMPEG(エムペグ)及びJPEG(ジェイペグ)イメージ圧縮技術は、係数のマトリックスを発生させるためにDCT(離散余弦変換)を用いる。 Known MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) and JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) image compression techniques use DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) to generate a matrix of coefficients. ここに示す本発明の好適な実施の形態は、DCT係数を僅かに変更し(係数の値を僅かに増大し又は僅かに減少させ)て、イメージの電子透かしを実施する。 Preferred embodiments of the present invention shown here, the DCT coefficients slightly changed Te (value slightly increased or slightly decreased the coefficient), to implement the watermark image. そのような電子透かしを、通常の相互相関技術によって後に検出することができる。 Such watermarking can be detected after the normal cross-correlation techniques.

【0010】 図1に示すように、MPEG技術及びJPEG技術は、8×8の画素ブロックに分割する。 [0010] As shown in FIG. 1, MPEG technology and JPEG technique may divide into pixel blocks of 8 × 8. 各画素ブロックを用いて、8×8のDCT係数ブロックを発生させる。 With each pixel block to generate DCT coefficient block of 8 × 8. 8×8の係数ブロックを、各々が4個のオリジナルブロックからなる「マクロブロック」に分割する。 The coefficient block of 8 × 8, is divided into each of four original blocks "macroblock". これを図2に示す。 This is shown in Figure 2. 各ブロックのDCT係数の行列に、図1に示すようにして上から下及び左から右に番号を付す。 The matrix of DCT coefficients of each block are numbered from the bottom and left to right from top as shown in FIG. 第1行及び第1列を、“0”行及び“0”列として示す。 The first row and the first column, shown as "0" line and "0" column.

【0011】 各ブロックの所定のDCT係数を、電子透かし信号の選択したビットを保持する係数として選択する。 [0011] The predetermined DCT coefficients of each block is selected as the coefficient to hold the selected bits of the watermark signal. 好適な実施の形態において、図1において丸で囲んだ3 In a preferred embodiment, the encircled 1 3
個の係数を、電子透かしデータ信号の最初のすなわち“0”ビットを保持するのに用いる。 The number of coefficients, is used to hold the first or "0" bit of the digital watermark data signal. これら3個の係数を、透かしデータの“0”ビットの値に応じて変更、すなわち、僅かに増大し又は僅かに減少させる。 These three factors, changes in accordance with the "0" bit value of the watermark data, i.e., slightly increased or slightly decreased. 同様にして、他の係数を僅かに変更して、透かし信号のたきビットを保持する。 Similarly, slightly changing other factors, to hold the waterfall bits of the watermark signal.

【0012】 本発明の他の態様は、DCT係数への変更によって発生した正弦曲線の連続性を保証すること、すなわち、各マクロブロックを構成する4ブロック間の同相を保証することを意図する。 Another aspect of the present invention is to guarantee the continuity of the sinusoid generated by the change to the DCT coefficients, i.e., intended to ensure the phase between 4 blocks constituting each macroblock. 第1に、透かしを保持する正弦曲線が各マクロブロック間で連続である場合、エッジの影響(edge effect)が小さくなり、透かしが見 えにくくなる。 First, if a sinusoidal curve that holds the watermark is continuous between each macroblock, the influence of the edge (edge ​​effect) is reduced, so Enikuku seen watermark. 第2に、各マクロブロックの4ブロック全体に亘って連続する正弦曲線は、ローレベル方位すなわちグリッド信号を発生させる。 Second, sinusoidal continuous over the 4 entire block of each macro block, it generates a low level orientation i.e. grid signal. このローレベルグリッド信号を検出して、透かしの向き及びスケールを決定することができる。 Detects this low level grid signal, it is possible to determine the watermark orientation and scale.
グリッド信号を、相互相関技術を用いて検出することができる。 The grid signal, can be detected using a cross-correlation technique. 相互相関検出技術は、例えば、1996年5月16日に出願された同時係属出願08/649, Cross-correlation detection technology, for example, co-pending application filed on May 16, 1996 08/649,
149号及び発行された特許番号第5,748,763号及び第5,748,7 No. 149, and issued patents No. 5,748,763 and EP 5,748,7
83号に示される。 It is shown in 83 issue.

【0013】 隣接するブロックの所定のDCT係数が同一方向に変更された場合、結果的に得られる正弦曲線は、ブロック境界間で連続でない。 [0013] If the predetermined DCT coefficients of adjacent blocks are changed in the same direction, a sinusoidal curve that is eventually obtained, not continuous across the block boundary. 本発明によれば、マクロブロック中の4ブロックの各々の係数への変化は、結果的に得られる正弦曲線が各マクロブロック内のブロック境界間で連続するように調整される。 According to the present invention, the change to each of the coefficients of the four blocks in the macroblock, a sine curve is consequently obtained is adjusted so as to be continuous across the block boundary in each macroblock. その変化は、 The change,
後に説明する規則を用いて調整される。 It is adjusted using the rules described later.

【0014】 各マクロブロックのブロックに対して、図2に示すようにして番号を付す。 [0014] For blocks of each macroblock are numbered as shown in Figure 2. ブロック1を基本ブロックと考える。 The block 1 think the basic block. このブロックの係数を、透かし信号の関連のビットによって通常のようにして変化させる。 The coefficients of this block, the associated bit of the watermark signal is varied in the conventional manner. 以下の段落は、図1で丸を付けた係数を透かしの“0”ビットに応答して変更する方法に関連するものである。 The following paragraphs are related to the method of changing in response to "0" bits of the watermark coefficients circled in FIG. 透かしデータの他のビットを保持するために他の係数も同様に変更する必要があることを理解すべきである。 Other factors to hold the other bits of the watermark data is also to be understood that there is a need to change as well.

【0015】 ブロック1において、図1で丸を付けた係数を、透かしデータの“0”ビットに応答して僅かに増大させ又は減少させる。 [0015] In block 1, the coefficients circled in Figure 1, slightly increase or decrease in response to "0" bit of the watermark data. ブロック2,3及び4において、図1に示す丸を付けた係数を、以下の規則に従う透かしの0ビットに応答して変更する。 In block 2, 3 and 4, the coefficients with a circle shown in FIG. 1, to change in response to a 0 bit of the watermark according to the following rules. ブロック2:係数が奇数行である場合、変更の方向を転換。 Block 2: If the coefficient is odd rows, change direction changes. ブロック3:係数が奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換。 Block 3: If the coefficient is an odd number column, change direction changes. ブロック4:係数が奇数行である又は奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換するが、係数が奇数行かつ奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換しない。 Block 4: If the coefficients are located or odd columns in odd rows, but to convert the direction of the change, if the coefficient is an odd number columns One go odd, no change direction changes.

【0016】 上記規則に従う場合、DCT係数の変化によって発生した正弦曲線は、各マクロブロックを形成する4ブロックの境界間で連続する。 [0016] When according to the above rules, sinusoid generated by the change of the DCT coefficient is continuous between the boundaries of four blocks forming each macroblock. その正弦曲線を、通常の相互相関技術を用いて検出することができ、イメージのスケール及び回転を決定するグリッドとして用いることができる。 The sinusoidal, can be detected using conventional correlation techniques, it can be used as a grid to determine the scale and rotation of the image. 透かしのデータビットを、通常の透かし検出技術を用いて検出することもできる。 The data bits of the watermark can also be detected using conventional watermark detection technique. したがって、透かしデータそれ自体は、スケール及び回転を決定するために用いることができるグリッドを形成するのに使用する。 Thus, the watermark data itself is used to form a grid that can be used to determine the scale and rotation.

【0017】 図3は、好適な実施の形態の上記態様の全体に亘るプログラム流れ図である。 [0017] FIG. 3 is a program flow diagram over the entire preferred embodiment of the above aspects.
装置は、イメージを表すデータストリームを受け入れる。 Device, accept the data stream representing the image. ブロック301は、データストリームのイメージに対するDCT係数を発生させる通常の装置又はプログラムモジュールとする。 Block 301 is a conventional device or program modules for generating DCT coefficients for the image data stream. その係数は決定ユニット302に供給され、その決定ユニット302は、データをマクロブロックに分離するととともに、データがマクロブロックのブロック1,2,3,4のうちのいずれを表すかに依存してそれをユニット311,312,313及び314に供給する。 Its coefficients are supplied to the decision unit 302, the determination unit 302, together with the separated data into macroblocks, which depending on whether the data represents any of the blocks 1, 2, 3, 4 macro-blocks the supply to the unit 311, 312, 313 and 314. ユニット311−3 Unit 311-3
13は、DCT係数を変更して、透かし信号を以下の規則に従って嵌め込む。 13 changes the DCT coefficients is fitted according to the following rules watermark signal. ユニット311:係数を通常の方法で変更して、透かしを嵌め込む。 Unit 311: Change the coefficients in the normal way, fitting the watermark. ユニット312:係数が奇数行である場合、変更の方向を転換。 Unit 312: If the coefficient is odd rows, change direction changes. ユニット313:係数が奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換。 Unit 313: If the coefficient is an odd number column, change direction changes. ユニット314:係数が奇数行である又は奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換するが、係数が奇数行かつ奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換しない。 Unit 314: If the coefficients are located or odd columns in odd rows, but to convert the direction of the change, if the coefficient is an odd number columns One go odd, no change direction changes.

【0018】 ユニット311−314の出力がユニット320によって結合されて、単一データストリームに戻される。 The output of the unit 311-314 is coupled by unit 320, it is returned to a single data stream. 図3に示すユニットの各々を、特定の機能を実行するためにプログラムされ又はハードワイヤードした個別のユニットとすることができる。 Each of the units shown in FIG. 3, it can be a separate unit that is programmed or hardwired to perform a specific function. また、全ての機能を、時分割に基づいてプログラムした単一のコンピュータで実行することができる。 Also, all functions can be performed on a single computer programmed based on time division. DCT係数を発生させるユニットは通常のものであり、そのようなユニットは既知のものであり、本発明の一部ではない。 Unit for generating DCT coefficients are conventional, such units are known and are not part of the present invention.

【0019】 上記説明は、透かしをDCT領域に導入できる方法を記載する。 [0019] The above description describes a method that can introduce a watermark in the DCT domain. 全体に亘る透かし入れの耐久性を、2個の透かしを用いることによって増強することかできる。 The durability of the watermarking throughout, can either be enhanced by the use of two watermarks. 第1の透かしを、米国特許番号第5,748,763号又は第5,748,7 The first watermark, U.S. Patent No. 5,748,763 or the 5,748,7
83号に記載された方法で元のイメージの画素の変更によって追加することができ、第2の透かしを、ここで説明するようにDCT領域の係数の変更によって追加することができる。 Can be added by changing the pixel of the original image by the method of 83 items, a second watermark, it can now be added by changing the coefficients of the DCT domain as described.

【0020】 本発明によって指摘される他の問題は、透かしをイメージに追加した場合でも一連のイメージを表すビットストリームのビットレートを一定に維持する必要があることである。 [0020] Another problem that is pointed out by the present invention is that it is necessary to keep the bit rate of the bit stream representing a sequence of images, even if you add a watermark to the image constant. MPEGシステム及びJPEGシステムは、データを表す可変長コードを使用し、したがって、透かしを追加すると、一般にデータストリームのビットレートが増大する。 MPEG system and JPEG system uses a variable length code representing the data, therefore, when you add a watermark bit rate of general data stream is increased. 典型的には、透かしは、透かしを嵌め込んだイメージとは相関がなく、したがって、イメージに透かしを嵌め込むと、元のイメージよりも高いエントロピーを有するイメージを発生させる。 Typically, the watermark has no correlation with images that fitting the watermark, thus, when fitting the watermark in the image to generate an image having a higher entropy than the original image. イメージを転送するデータストリームのビットレートは、イメージのエントロピーと直接相関する。 Bit rate of the data stream for transferring images correlates directly with the entropy of the image.

【0021】 典型的には、イメージを符号化するのに使用されるコード数、すなわち、符号化イメージのハフマンテーブルのエントリー数は、比較的多い(例えば、500 [0021] Typically, the number of codes to be used for image to encode, i.e., the number of entries in the Huffman table coding image is relatively large (e.g., 500
)。 ). しかしながら、透かしがイメージに導入されるときに発生する変化を、以下の簡単な例によって示すことができる。 However, the changes that occur when the watermark is introduced into the image may indicate simple examples below. 4個の記号s1,s2,s3及びs4のみを有するデータストリームを考え、それは、以下のように符号化される。 Consider the data stream having only four symbols s1, s2, s3 and s4, it is encoded as follows.

【0022】 この場合、データストリームは次のように考えられる。 [0022] In this case, the data stream is considered to be as follows. ビットストリーム 0011010111010 復号化ストリーム 0/0/110/10/111/0/10 復号化メッセージ s1,s2,s3,s2,s4,s1,s2 Bitstream 0011010111010 decoded stream 0/0/110/10/111/0/10 decoded messages s1, s2, s3, s2, s4, s1, s2

【0023】 透かしをイメージに付加する場合、イメージ中のビットを僅かに変更する。 [0023] In the case of adding a watermark to the image, to slightly change the bit in the image. 既に説明した簡単に図示した例において、ある解決では、記号s2を記号s3に変更し、したがって、イメージを転送するビットストリームのビット数を増大させる。 In the example already briefly illustrated described, in some resolution to change the symbol s2 to the symbol s3, thus increasing the number of bits of the bit stream to transfer the image. 実際には、正規分布した透かし(すなわち、ガウス分布を有する透かし)をイメージに付加するとともに、可変長ハフマンコードを用いてイメージが転送される際に、ビットストリームの長さが、増大するのに必要なものとなることを示す(ここで説明しない)数学的な原理がある。 In practice, normal distribution watermark (i.e., the watermark having a Gaussian distribution) with the addition of the image, when the image is transferred using a variable length Huffman code length of the bit stream, to increase indicates that a necessary (not described here) there is a mathematical principles.

【0024】 本発明は、透かしをデータストリームに付加するときにビットレートを一定に維持することを保証する技術を提供する。 [0024] The present invention provides a technique to ensure that maintaining the bit rate constant when adding a watermark to the data stream. 本発明は、上記数学的原理を妨げるものではない。 The present invention does not interfere with the mathematical principles. その理由は、本発明によれば、透かしイメージに対して通常用いられる冗長の一部は、所定の状況下では減少するからである。 This is because, according to the present invention, is part of a redundant commonly used with respect to the watermark image, because reduced under certain circumstances. すなわち、所定の状況において、透かしの強さが減少する。 That is, in certain situations, the strength of the watermark is reduced.

【0025】 本発明によれば、透かしは、イメージの特徴に応じて変更される。 According to the present invention, the watermark is changed in accordance with the characteristics of the image. したがって、透かしは、透かしが嵌め込められるイメージに対してある程度相関される。 Thus, the watermark is correlated to some extent with respect to the image in which the watermark is fitted into. このようにして、透かしをイメージに嵌め込むことができ、組み合わされたイメージ及び透かしのエントロピーは、透かしのみのエントロピーにほぼ等しくなる。 In this way, it is possible to fit the watermark image, entropy of the combined image and watermark becomes substantially equal to the entropy of the watermark only.

【0026】 本発明によれば、系は、係数を任意の時間点に変更する量の累積係数を維持する。 According to the invention, the system maintains a cumulative coefficient of the amount of change coefficients at any time point. すなわち、ビットストリームの開始からの負の変化量より小さい正の変化量を計測する。 That is, it measures the negative change amount is smaller than a positive variation from the start of the bit stream. この量を、ここでは累積変化係数と称する。 The amount, referred to herein as cumulative change coefficient. 累積変化係数が予め設定された正の制限を超える場合、それ以上の正の変化はない。 The cumulative change coefficient exceeds a set positive limits previously, more positive change is not.

【0027】 通常、変化によってビットレートを不当に増大させないことを保証するだけでよい。 [0027] Normally, it is only necessary to ensure that no increase bit rate unduly by variation. しかしながら、所定の場合には、変化によってビットレートを不当に増大させないことを保証するのが好ましい。 However, in a predetermined case, it is preferable to ensure that no increase bit rate unduly by variation. このようなことが所望される場合、既に説明したのと同一の技術を用いて、累積変化量が予め設定された負の制限を超えないことを保証することができる。 If such is desired, it can already using the same techniques as described, to ensure that the cumulative change amount does not exceed the negative limit set in advance. すなわち、累積変化量が、予め設定された負の値を超える場合、正の変化は通常どおり連続するが、更なる負の変化が生じない。 That is, the cumulative amount of change, if it exceeds a preset negative value, but positive change is continuous normal, negative change does not occur further.

【0028】 (正及び負方向の)予め確立された最大の目安は、特定の系において許容しうるビットレートの変化を構成する値で確立される。 [0028] (positive and negative) pre-established maximum guideline was is established at a value which constitutes the change of the bit rate that can be tolerated in a particular system.

【0029】 図4は、透かしがデータストリーム中のイメージに付加されるにもかかわらずデータレートを一定に維持する方法を示すプログラム流れ図である。 FIG. 4, the watermark is a program flow diagram illustrating a method for maintaining constant despite data rate is added to the image in the data stream. ブロック4 Block 4
03Aは、DCT係数にすることができる正の変化量に対する制限を確立し及び格納することを示す。 03A shows that establishes a limit on the positive variation that may be to the DCT coefficients and stored. ブロック403Cは、累積変化量が格納されることを示す。 Block 403C shows that the cumulative change amount is stored. 累積変化量は、データストリームの開始からの係数に対する負の変化量より小さい正の変化量である。 Cumulative change amount is negative variation is smaller than a positive variation for the coefficients from the start of the data stream.

【0030】 DCT係数は、ブロック401に示すように通常の方法で計算される。 The DCT coefficients are calculated in the usual manner as shown in block 401. 同様に、透かしを嵌め込むのに必要とされるDCT係数の各々の変化も、ブロック40 Similarly, each of the changes in the DCT coefficients required to fit a watermark, the block 40
5に示すように通常の方法で計算される。 It is calculated in the usual manner as shown in 5. ブロック405は、特定のDCT係数の必要な変化が正であるか負であるかを決定する検査を示す。 Block 405 represents a test to determine whether a negative or require changes in the specific DCT coefficients is positive. ブロック409は、変化が正である場合において、ブロック403Aに格納された最大の許容しうる累積変化量が、変化が行われた場合を超えているか否かを決定する、検査を表す。 Block 409, when the change is positive, the cumulative amount of change that can be allowed maximum stored in block 403A determines whether exceeds the case where the change was made, representing the examination.

【0031】 ブロック415及び417は、変化によって累積変化量が403Aの制限を超えない場合にのみ係数を変更することを表す。 [0031] Block 415 and 417, the cumulative amount of change by the change indicates that changing the coefficient only if it does not exceed the limit of 403A. 最後に、ブロック425及び42 Finally, block 425 and 42
7において、レジスタ403Cの累積変化量を、係数に対する変化が実際に生じる場合に増分し又は減少させる。 In 7, the cumulative amount of change in the register 403C, incremented when a change for the coefficient actually occurs or decrease. ブロック431は、係数をこのプロセスの出力部に供給するとともに係数を通常の方法で送信し及び処理することを示す。 Block 431 indicates that the transmitted coefficients in the usual manner and process supplies the coefficient to the output of this process.

【0032】 本発明は、イメージへの透かしの嵌め込みに関するものである。 [0032] The present invention relates to fitting of the watermark to the image. 種々の既知の技術を用いて、本発明を利用してイメージに嵌め込んだ透かしを検出することができる。 Using a variety of known techniques, it is possible to detect the watermark is fitted to the image by using the present invention. 例えば、米国特許番号第5,748,763号及び第5,748,78 For example, U.S. Patent No. 5,748,763 and No. 5,748,78
3号、“Communications of the ACM”July 1998/vol. 41, No. 7、又は199 6年11月12日に出願された係続米国出願番号08/746,613号及び1 No. 3, "Communications of the ACM" July 1998 / vol. 41, No. 7, or 199 6 November 12 which was filed engaged continued US application number 08 / 746,613 Patent and 1
998年5月16日に出願された出願番号08/649,419号(ここに参照することによってこれらを組み込む)のような技術を用いることができる。 Techniques can be used, such as (these incorporated by reference herein) which was filed Application No. 08 / 649,419 on May 16, 998.

【0033】 プロセスを、変化を行ったか否かのプロセスとして説明したが、累積変化値の制限に到達した場合に変化量を減少させることもできる。 [0033] The process has been described as whether the process was changed, it is also possible to reduce the amount of change when it reaches the limit of the cumulative variation value. 図4に示した装置は、 The apparatus shown in FIG. 4,
累積変化値が予め設定された制限を超えるのを防止する。 To prevent exceeding the limit cumulative change value is set in advance. イメージに透かしを付加することによって一般的にイメージのエントロピーが増大し、かつ、通常はエントロピーが増大するとビットレートが増大するようにハフマンコードテーブルが構成されているので、正の制限のみを用いるのが通常適切である。 Entropy generally image is increased by adding a watermark to the image, and the normally because Huffman code table is configured to increase the bit rate when entropy increases, using only positive limit There is usually appropriate. しかしながら、ある状況において、累積変化量が正の方向と負の方向の両方の制限を超えたか否かを計測するのが適切である。 However, in some circumstances, it is appropriate to measure whether the accumulated variation amount exceeds the positive direction and both negative direction limit. このような検査を、図4のブロック427の前に追加することができる。 Such inspection can be added before block 427 of FIG.

【0034】 本発明を実現することによって、透かしの強度を場合によっては減少させることができる。 [0034] By implementing the present invention can be reduced in some cases the strength of the watermark. しかしながら、減少は、透かしの検出を防止するのに十分でない。 However, the reduction is not sufficient to prevent the detection of the watermark.
本発明に伴う変化は単に選択的な方法で透かしの強度を弱めるだけであり、ある場合には、透かしを検出するために更なる処理が要求される。 Changes associated with the present invention is merely weaken the strength of the watermark in a selective manner, in some cases, further processing is required to detect the watermark.

【0035】 複数の装置において、各ハフマンコードは複数の記号をカバーする。 [0035] In a plurality of devices, each Huffman code covers a plurality of symbols. そのような装置において、ブロック405で表された計算は、イメージへの透かしの付加に起因する単一記号の変化ではない。 In such a device, the calculations represented by block 405 is not a change in a single symbol due to watermark addition of the image. そのような装置において、ブロック405 In such a device, block 405
で表された計算は、記号を表すためにハフマンコードで用いられた記号のあらゆる組合わせのビット列となる変化の計算となる。 In the represented computing is a calculation of the changes to represent the symbol as a bit string of any combination of symbols used in the Huffman code. ある場合において、計算を、記号の複数の組合わせに亘って行う必要がある。 In some cases, calculating a should be performed over a plurality of combinations of symbols.

【0036】 本発明の種々の態様を、ここでは単一の好適な実施の形態で示す。 [0036] Various aspects of the present invention, is shown here in a single preferred embodiment. 他の実施の形態は、本発明の全てではなく一つの態様を用いる。 Other embodiments, using one embodiment, but not all of the present invention. 例えば、ビットレートの維持に関する本発明の一部を、方向グリッドを確立するためにマクロブロックを使用しない実施の形態において用いることができる。 For example, a part of the present invention relates to the maintenance of the bit rate can be used in embodiments that do not use macro blocks in order to establish the direction the grid. 同様に、マクロブロックの使用に関連する本発明の態様を、一定のビットレートの維持に関する本発明の一部を用いることなく使用することができる。 Similarly, aspects of the present invention related to the use of the macro block can be used without using a part of the present invention relates to the maintenance of a constant bit rate. 最後に、本発明を、DCT領域に透かしを挿入する実施の形態において示したが、本発明を、透かしを他の領域に挿入するアプリケーションに用いることができる。 Finally, the present invention has been illustrated in the embodiment of inserting a watermark in the DCT domain, the present invention can be used in applications that insert a watermark to other areas.

【0037】 本発明は、上記実施の形態に限定されるものではなく、幾多の変更及び変形が可能である。 The present invention is not intended to be limited to the above embodiment, it is possible to numerous modifications and variations.

【図面の簡単な説明】 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

【図1】 イメージ中の画素をブロックに配置する方法及び結果的に得られるD [1] Method for arranging pixels in the image into blocks and consequently obtain D
CT係数に番号を付す方法を示す図である。 The CT coefficient is a diagram illustrating a method of numbered.

【図2】 DCT係数のブロックをマクロブロックに配置する方法を示す図である。 Figure 2 illustrates a method of placing the block of DCT coefficients in the macroblock.

【図3】 各マクロブロックの透かし信号の位相を保持するようにマクロブロックの各ブロックの係数を処理する方法を示すプログラム流れ図である。 3 is a program flow diagram illustrating a method of processing coefficients of each block of the macroblock to hold the phase of the watermark signal of each macroblock.

【図4】 データストリームのビットレートを一定に維持する方法を示すプログラム流れ図である。 4 is a program flow diagram illustrating a method of maintaining the bit rate of the data stream to be constant.

───────────────────────────────────────────────────── フロントページの続き (81)指定国 EP(AT,BE,CH,CY, DE,DK,ES,FI,FR,GB,GR,IE,I T,LU,MC,NL,PT,SE),AU,CA,F I,JP,MX (72)発明者 アンソニー ロドリゲス アメリカ合衆国 オレゴン州 97212 ポ ートランド ノース イースト サーティ ワンス アヴェニュー 3104 Fターム(参考) 5B057 AA11 CA08 CA12 CA16 CB08 CB12 CB16 CB19 CE08 CG05 5C059 KK43 MA00 MA23 ME02 RC35 SS11 TA41 TA60 TB07 TB08 TC36 TD05 5C076 AA14 BA06 5J104 AA13 AA14 NA15 9A001 BB03 EE03 EE04 GZ17 JJ71 KK54 LL03 ────────────────────────────────────────────────── ─── of the front page continued (81) designated States EP (AT, BE, CH, CY, DE, DK, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, IE, I T, LU, MC, NL, PT, SE ), AU, CA, F I, JP, MX (72) inventor Anthony Rodriguez United States, Oregon 97212 Po Torando Northeast Thirty once Avenue 3104 F-term (reference) 5B057 AA11 CA08 CA12 CA16 CB08 CB12 CB16 CB19 CE08 CG05 5C059 KK43 MA00 MA23 ME02 RC35 SS11 TA41 TA60 TB07 TB08 TC36 TD05 5C076 AA14 BA06 5J104 AA13 AA14 NA15 9A001 BB03 EE03 EE04 GZ17 JJ71 KK54 LL03

Claims (18)

    【特許請求の範囲】 [The claims]
  1. 【請求項1】 イメージに複数ビットの透かしを付加する方法であって、 前記イメージを表すDCT(離散余弦変換)係数を発生させ、その係数を、ブロックに配置し、そのブロックを、マクロブロックに配置するステップと、 前記透かしのビットに従って前記係数を調整して、前記イメージに前記透かしを嵌め込み、そのような調整を、調整によって発生した正弦曲線が各マクロブロックのブロック境界間で同相になる方向で行うステップとを具えることを特徴とする方法。 1. A method of adding a watermark of a plurality of bits in the image, the DCT representing images (Discrete Cosine Transform) to generate coefficients, the coefficients are arranged in blocks, the block, the macro block placing, by adjusting the coefficients according to the bit of the watermark, fitted the watermark in the image, such adjustments, sinusoid generated by adjustment in phase between the block boundaries of each macroblock direction method characterized by comprising the steps of performing at.
  2. 【請求項2】 前記マクロブロックの各々が4個のブロックを有することを特徴とする請求項1記載の方法。 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein each of said macro-block has four blocks.
  3. 【請求項3】 各マクロブロックのブロックに1,2,3及び4の番号を付し、 3. A are numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the block of each macro block,
    各ブロックの係数を行列配置し、その行及び列が、交互に偶数及び奇数行及び列を示し、 ブロック1の係数を、前記透かしのビットに直接応答して変更し、ブロック2 Place the coefficient matrix for each block, the row and column, alternately shows the even and odd rows and columns, the coefficients of the block 1, and change in direct response to a bit of the watermark, block 2
    ,3及び4のビットを、以下の規則に従って変更することを特徴とする請求項2 , The bits of 3 and 4, and changes according to the following rules claim 2
    記載の方法。 The method described. ブロック2:係数が奇数行である場合、変更の方向を転換。 Block 2: If the coefficient is odd rows, change direction changes. ブロック3:係数が奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換。 Block 3: If the coefficient is an odd number column, change direction changes. ブロック4:係数が奇数行である又は奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換するが、係数が奇数行かつ奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換しない。 Block 4: If the coefficients are located or odd columns in odd rows, but to convert the direction of the change, if the coefficient is an odd number columns One go odd, no change direction changes.
  4. 【請求項4】 イメージに複数ビットの透かしを付加する装置であって、 前記イメージを表すDCT(離散余弦変換)係数を発生させ、その係数を、ブロックに配置し、そのブロックを、マクロブロックに配置する手段と、 前記透かしのビットに従って前記係数を調整して、前記イメージに前記透かしを嵌め込み、そのような調整を、調整によって発生した正弦曲線が各マクロブロックのブロック境界間で同相になる方向で行う手段とを具え、 前記透かしを表す同一変化が、前記透かしのスケール及び向きを検出するのに使用することができるグリッドを形成するように構成したことを特徴とする装置。 4. A device for adding a watermark of a plurality of bits in the image, the DCT representing images (Discrete Cosine Transform) to generate coefficients, the coefficients are arranged in blocks, the block, the macro block means for arranging, by adjusting the coefficients according to the bit of the watermark, fitted the watermark in the image, such adjustments, sinusoid generated by adjustment in phase between the block boundaries of each macroblock direction and means for performing at the same change representing the watermark, characterized by being configured so as to form a grid that can be used to detect the scale and orientation of the watermark device.
  5. 【請求項5】 前記マクロブロックの各々が4個のブロックを有することを特徴とする請求項4記載の装置。 5. The apparatus of claim 4, wherein each of said macro-block has four blocks.
  6. 【請求項6】 各マクロブロックのブロックに1,2,3及び4の番号を付し、 6. Block are numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4 to each macroblock,
    各ブロックの係数を行列配置し、その行及び列が、交互に偶数及び奇数行及び列を示し、 ブロック1の係数を、前記透かしのビットに直接応答して変更し、ブロック2 Place the coefficient matrix for each block, the row and column, alternately shows the even and odd rows and columns, the coefficients of the block 1, and change in direct response to a bit of the watermark, block 2
    ,3及び4のビットを、以下の規則に従って変更するように構成したことを特徴とする請求項5記載の装置。 , 3 and 4 bits of apparatus according to claim 5, characterized by being configured so as to change according to the following rules. ブロック2:係数が奇数行である場合、変更の方向を転換。 Block 2: If the coefficient is odd rows, change direction changes. ブロック3:係数が奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換。 Block 3: If the coefficient is an odd number column, change direction changes. ブロック4:係数が奇数行である又は奇数列である場合、変更の方向を転換するが、係数が奇数行かつ奇数列である場合゛変更の方向を転換しない。 Block 4: If the coefficients are located or odd columns in odd rows, but to convert the direction of the change, not change direction when Bu change coefficient is an odd number columns One go odd.
  7. 【請求項7】 透かしをイメージに嵌め込む方法であって、 前記イメージを形成する要素をブロックに分割するとともにそのブロックをマクロブロックに配置するステップと、 前記透かしを、結果的に生じる正弦曲線が各マクロブロックのブロック境界間で同相となる方向に各マクロブロックのブロックに導入するステップとを具え、 7. A method of fitting a watermark to an image, placing the block in a macroblock with dividing elements forming the image into blocks, the watermark is the resulting sinusoidal comprising the step of introducing the block of each macro block in a direction that is common mode between block boundaries of each macro block,
    これによって、前記データを用いてデータを保持するとともに、前記透かしの方向を示すように検出できるグリッドを形成できることを特徴とする方法。 Thus, a method which is characterized in that holds data by using the data to form a grid that can be detected to indicate the direction of the watermark.
  8. 【請求項8】 可変長コードを表すビットストリームのビットレートを変更することなく透かしをそのビットストリームに導入する方法であって、 前記コードに対する正の変化及び負の変化の量を表す累積変化量を維持するステップと、 前記累積変化量が予め設定された制限を超える場合に任意の正の変化を停止するステップとを具え、 これによって、前記ビットストリームのビットレートを一定に維持することを特徴とする方法。 8. The watermark without changing the bit rate of the bit stream representing the variable length code to a method of introducing into the bit stream, the accumulated variation amount representing the amount of positive change and negative change to the code comprising the step of maintaining a; and stopping any positive change when it exceeds the limit the cumulative change amount is set in advance, thereby, characterized in that to maintain the bit rate of the bit stream at a constant how to with.
  9. 【請求項9】 可変長コードを表すビットストリームのビットレートを変更することなく透かしをそのビットストリームに導入する装置であって、 前記コードに対する正の変化及び負の変化の量を表す累積変化量を維持する手段と、 前記累積変化量が予め設定された制限を超える場合に任意の正の変化を停止する手段とを具えることを特徴とする装置。 9. A device for introducing a watermark into the bitstream without altering the bit rate of the bit stream representing the variable length code, the cumulative change amount representing the amount of positive change and negative change to the code and wherein the means for maintaining the, in that it comprises a means for stopping any positive change when it exceeds the limit the cumulative change amount is set in advance.
  10. 【請求項10】 イメージに複数ビットの透かしを付加する方法であって、 前記イメージを表すDCT(離散余弦変換)係数を発生させ、その係数を、ブロックに配置し、そのブロックを、マクロブロックに配置するステップと、 前記透かしのビットに従って前記係数を調整して、前記イメージに前記透かしを嵌め込み、そのような調整を、調整によって発生した正弦曲線が各マクロブロックのブロック境界間で同相になる方向で行うステップと、 前記コードに対する正の変化及び負の変化の量を表す累積変化量を維持するステップと、 前記累積変化量が予め設定された制限を超える場合に任意の正の変化を停止するステップとを具え、 これによって、前記透かしが、前記透かしの向き及びスケールを決定するために検出することができる 10. A method for adding a watermark of a plurality of bits in the image, the DCT representing images (Discrete Cosine Transform) to generate coefficients, the coefficients are arranged in blocks, the block, the macro block placing, by adjusting the coefficients according to the bit of the watermark, fitted the watermark in the image, such adjustments, sinusoid generated by adjustment in phase between the block boundaries of each macroblock direction stopping the step, maintaining a cumulative change amount representing the amount of positive change and negative change to the code, any positive change when it exceeds the limit the cumulative change amount is set in advance to perform in comprising the steps, whereby, the watermark can be detected in order to determine the orientation and scale of the watermark リッドを形成するとともに、前記ビットストリームのビットレートを一定に維持することを特徴とする方法。 Method characterized in that to form the lid, maintaining the bit rate of the bit stream constant.
  11. 【請求項11】 複数ビットコードを嵌め込むための入力イメージのステガノグラフィック的な(steganographically)符号化を有するイメージ処理方法であって、 前記イメージを表すDCT(離散余弦変換)係数を発生させ、その係数を、基本サイズのブロックに配置するステップと、 前記DCT係数を、各々が4個の前記基本サイズのブロックを有するマクロブロックに配置するステップと、 各ブロックの係数を変更して、前記イメージの透かしを符号化するステップと、 その変更によって生じた正弦曲線が前記マクロブロックの基本ブロック間で連続するように、前記係数の変更の方向を決定するステップとを具え、 前記透かし信号を用いて、データを保持するとともに方向及び計測グリッドを形成することを特徴とするイメージ処理方法。 11. A image processing method having a plurality of bits code steganographic manner the input image to fit the (Steganographically) coding, to generate a DCT (discrete cosine transform) coefficients representing said image, the coefficients, placing the blocks of basic size, the DCT coefficients by changing placing the macro blocks each having a block of four of the basic size, the coefficients of each block, the image a step of encoding the watermark, as sinusoid generated by the change is continuous between basic blocks of the macroblock, comprising the steps of determining the direction of change of the coefficients, using the watermark signal, image processing method characterized by forming the direction and measuring grids holds the data.
  12. 【請求項12】 前記基本ブロックの各々が64個のDCT係数を有し、各マクロブロックが4個の前記基本ブロックを有することを特徴とする請求項11記載のイメージ処理方法。 Each 12. The basic block comprises a 64 DCT coefficients, an image processing method according to claim 11, wherein the each macroblock has four of the basic block.
  13. 【請求項13】 前記累積変化量が予め設定された負の量を超える場合、負の変化を停止することを特徴とする請求項8記載の方法。 13. If it exceeds a negative amount of the cumulative change amount is set in advance, the method of claim 8, wherein the stop negative change.
  14. 【請求項14】 前記計数が予め設定された負の制限を超える場合、任意の負の変化を停止する手段を有することを特徴とする請求項8記載の装置。 14. The method of claim 13, wherein when the count exceeds a negative limit set in advance, according to claim 8, wherein further comprising means for stopping any negative changes.
  15. 【請求項15】 前記累積変化量が予め設定された負の量を超える場合、負の変化を停止することを特徴とする請求項10記載の方法。 15. If it exceeds a negative amount of the cumulative change amount is set in advance, the method of claim 10, wherein the stop negative change.
  16. 【請求項16】 一連のイメージを表す符号化記号のストリームの透かしを、その記号の値を選択的に増大し又は減少させることによって嵌め込む方法であって、 ビットストリームの許容しうるエントロピーの制限を確立するステップと、 その制限を超える場合、選択的な増大を停止するステップとを具えることを特徴とする方法。 Watermark stream 16. The encoding symbol representing a sequence of images, a method of fitting by selectively increase or decrease the value of the symbol, limit entropy acceptable bitstream establishing a, if it exceeds the limit, method characterized by comprising the step of stopping the selective increase.
  17. 【請求項17】 イメージを表す一連のビットの透かしを、予め確立した制限を超えて前記イメージのエントロピーを増大させることなく嵌め込む方法であって、 前記透かしを嵌め込むために前記イメージの選択ビットを変更するステップと、 前記イメージに前記透かしを嵌め込むために前記変化の累積変化計数を維持するステップと、 前記累積変化計数が予め確立した制限を超える変化を停止するステップとを具えることを特徴とする方法。 The 17. series of bits representing the image watermark, a method of fitting without increasing the entropy of the image beyond the limits pre-established selection bits of the image to fit the watermark and changing the steps of: maintaining a cumulative change count of the changes in order to fit the watermark in the image, in that it comprises the steps of stopping the change exceeding the limit the cumulative change count is established in advance wherein.
  18. 【請求項18】 イメージを表す一連のビットの透かしを、予め確立した制限を超えて前記イメージのエントロピーを増大させることなく嵌め込む方法であって、 前記透かしを前記イメージに嵌め込む際に、エントロピーの変化を表す計数を維持するステップと、 前記計数が特定の制限を超えるときに前記イメージの変化を停止するステップとを具えることを特徴とする方法。 The 18. series of bits representing the image watermark, a method of fitting without increasing the entropy of the image beyond the limits established in advance, when fitting the watermark in the image, entropy method characterized by comprising the step of maintaining a count representative of the change, and a step of stopping the change of the image when the counting exceeds a certain limit.
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