JP2001229810A - Electron beam device - Google Patents

Electron beam device

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Publication number
JP2001229810A
JP2001229810A JP2000033574A JP2000033574A JP2001229810A JP 2001229810 A JP2001229810 A JP 2001229810A JP 2000033574 A JP2000033574 A JP 2000033574A JP 2000033574 A JP2000033574 A JP 2000033574A JP 2001229810 A JP2001229810 A JP 2001229810A
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Japan
Prior art keywords
electron
spacer
region
source
film
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Granted
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JP2000033574A
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Japanese (ja)
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JP4481411B2 (en
Inventor
Hisafumi Azuma
Kazuo Kuroda
尚史 東
和生 黒田
Original Assignee
Canon Inc
キヤノン株式会社
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Priority to JP2000033574A priority Critical patent/JP4481411B2/en
Publication of JP2001229810A publication Critical patent/JP2001229810A/en
Application granted granted Critical
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Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a preferable electron beam device which prevents disturbance of an electron beam by the shape of a spacer and the function of an antistatic film. An electron source, an electron beam irradiation member facing the electron source in an envelope sealed in a required atmosphere,
In an electron beam apparatus having a spacer disposed between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member, the spacer may be configured such that an unevenness of an exposed surface rising between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member is increased. The unit real surface along the irregularities in the electron source side region of the exposed surface is smaller than the value obtained by dividing the unit actual surface area along the irregularities in the central region of the exposed surface by the unit area of a straight plane in the central region. The projections and depressions are formed on the exposed surface so that a value obtained by dividing a surface area by a unit area of a straight plane in the electron source side region becomes small.

Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an electron beam apparatus having a support spacer for an envelope arranged inside an envelope sealed in a required atmosphere, and more particularly, to an electron beam apparatus provided inside the envelope. The present invention relates to an electron beam apparatus used as an image forming apparatus, for example, in which a spacer is provided upright between an electron source and an electron beam irradiation member facing the electron source.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art Conventionally, in an electron beam apparatus of this type, two types of a hot cathode element and a cold cathode element are used as an electron emitting portion (electron emitting element) of an electron source. In particular, among these cold cathode devices, for example, a surface conduction type emission device, a field emission type device (hereinafter referred to as FE type),
An insulating layer / metal-type emission device (hereinafter, referred to as an MIM type) and the like are known.

[0003] As a surface conduction electron-emitting device, for example, MI Elinson, Radio Eng. Electron Phys., 10, 12
90 (1965) and other examples described below.

The surface conduction electron-emitting device utilizes the phenomenon that electrons are emitted by flowing a current through a small-area thin film formed on a substrate in parallel with the film surface. Examples of the surface conduction electron-emitting device include a device using an Au thin film in addition to a device using an SnO2 thin film by Elinson or the like.
[G. Dittmer: "Thin Solid Films", 9,317 (1972)]
n 2 O 3 / SnO 2 thin film [M. Hartwell and C.
G. Fonstad: "IEEE Trans. ED Conf.", 519 (1975)]
By carbon thin film [Hisashi Araki, et al .: Vacuum, Vol. 26,
No. 22 (1983)].

As a typical example of the element structure of these surface conduction electron-emitting devices, as shown in FIG. 27, a structure on an electron source substrate (the above-described element structure by M. Hartwell. Et al.) Is known. Have been. That is, in FIG.
Reference numeral 01 denotes an electron source substrate, and reference numeral 3004 denotes a conductive thin film made of a metal oxide formed by a sputtering method (one of film forming methods). The conductive thin film 3004, as shown,
It is formed in an H-shaped planar shape. Then, an electron emitting portion 3005 is formed by performing energization forming (a type of energization process) described later on the conductive thin film 3004.

In the drawing, the interval L is 0.5 to 1 [m
m], and the width: W is set to 0.1 [mm]. For convenience of illustration, the electron-emitting portion 3005 is shown in a rectangular shape at the center of the conductive thin film 3004, but this is a schematic shape, and the position and shape of the actual electron-emitting portion are faithfully represented. Not.

[0007] Starting with the device by M. Hartwell et al.
In the above-described surface conduction electron-emitting device, before the electron emission, the conductive thin film 3004 is generally subjected to energization forming to form the electron emission portion 3005.

That is, the energization forming is performed by applying a constant DC voltage to both ends of the conductive thin film 3004 or by applying a DC voltage that gradually increases at a rate of, for example, about 1 V / min. This means that the conductive thin film 3004 is locally broken, deformed, or deteriorated by energizing to form the electron emitting portion 3005 in an electrically high-resistance state.

As a result, a crack is generated in a part of the conductive thin film 3004 that is locally broken, deformed, or altered. After the energization forming, the conductive thin film 30
When an appropriate voltage is applied to the element 04, electrons are emitted in the vicinity of the crack.

In the case of the FE type, for example,
yke & WW Dolan, "Field emission", Advance in Ele
ctron Physics, 8,89 (1956) or CA Spindt,
"Physical properties of thin-film field emission
cathodes with molybdenium cones ", J. Appl. Phys.,
45, 5248 (1976) and the like are known.

As a typical example of the FE type device configuration,
FIG. 28 shows the above-mentioned device by CA Spindt et al. In the form of a schematic cross section. Here, reference numeral 3010 denotes an electron source substrate, 3011 denotes an emitter wiring made of a conductive material, 3012 denotes an emitter cone, 3013 denotes an insulating layer,
014 is a gate electrode.

This FE type element has an emitter cone 301
2 and a proper voltage is applied between the gate electrode 3014 and
The field emission is caused from the tip of the emitter cone 3012. Further, as another element configuration of the FE type,
In some cases, the emitter and the gate electrode are arranged on the electron source substrate substantially in parallel with the plane of the substrate, instead of the above-described laminated structure.

[0013] Examples of the MIM type include, for example,
CA Mead, "Operation of tunnel-emission Devices,
J. Appl. Phys., 32, 646 (1961) and the like are known. M
A typical example of the IM-type element configuration is shown in a schematic cross section in FIG. Here, reference numeral 3020 denotes an electron source substrate, 3021
Is a lower electrode made of metal, 3022 is a thin insulating layer having a thickness of about 100 Å, and 3023 is a thickness of 80 to 30.
The upper electrode is made of a metal of about 0 Å.

In the MIM type element, the upper electrode 3023
By applying an appropriate voltage between the upper electrode 3023 and the lower electrode 3021, electrons are emitted from the surface of the upper electrode 3023.

The above-described cold cathode device can obtain electrons at a lower temperature than the hot cathode device, and therefore does not require a heater for heating. Therefore, the structure is simpler than that of the hot cathode device, and a fine device can be manufactured. Further, even if a large number of elements are arranged on the substrate at high density, problems such as thermal melting of the substrate hardly occur. The hot cathode element operates by heating the heater, and thus has a low response speed. On the contrary, the cold cathode element has an advantage that the response speed is high. For this reason, research applying cold cathode devices has been actively conducted.

For example, among the cold cathode devices, the surface conduction type emission device has an advantage that a large number of devices can be formed over a large area since it has a particularly simple structure and is easy to manufacture. Accordingly, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 64-31332 by the present applicant has been proposed.
As disclosed in Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication, a method for arranging and driving a large number of electron-emitting devices on a substrate has been studied.

With respect to an electronic device using a surface conduction electron-emitting device, application to, for example, a so-called image forming device such as an image display device and an image recording device, and a charged beam source has been studied. In particular, as an application to an image display device, US Pat. No. 5,066,883, JP-A-2-257551 and JP-A-4-281, filed by the present applicant.
As disclosed in Japanese Patent Publication No. 37-37, there is known a device using a combination of a surface conduction electron-emitting device and a phosphor that emits light when irradiated with an electron beam.

An image display device using a combination of a surface conduction electron-emitting device and a phosphor here is expected to have better characteristics than other conventional image display devices. For example, as compared with a liquid crystal display device that has been widely used in recent years, the liquid crystal display device is superior in that it does not require a backlight because it is a self-luminous type and has a wide viewing angle.

A method of arranging a number of FE elements on an electron source substrate and driving them is disclosed in, for example, US Pat. No. 4,904,895 by the present applicant. Further, as an example of applying an FE element to an image display device, for example, a flat display device reported by R. Meyer et al. Is known [R. Meyer: "Recent Developme
nt on Micro-tips Display at LETI ", Tech. Digest of
4th Int.Vacuum Microelectronics Conf., Nagahama,
pp.6-9 (1991)].

An example in which a number of MIM-type elements are arranged and applied to an image display device is disclosed in, for example, Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No. 3-55738 by the present applicant.

Among the image forming apparatuses using the above-described electron-emitting devices, a flat display device having a small depth has attracted attention as a replacement for a cathode ray tube display device because it is space-saving and lightweight. ing.

FIG. 30 is a perspective view showing an example of a conventional display panel section constituting a flat-panel type image display device. In particular, a part of the panel is cut away to show the internal structure.

In the figure, reference numeral 3115 denotes a rear plate, 31
Reference numeral 16 denotes a side wall (support frame), and 3117 a face plate. An envelope (airtight container) for maintaining the inside of the display panel in a vacuum (required atmosphere) by the rear plate 3115, the side wall 3116, and the fuse plate 3117. ).

The rear plate 3115 has an electron source substrate 31
On the substrate 3111, N × M cold cathode elements 3112 as electron emitting portions are formed (N and M are positive integers of 2 or more, and It is set appropriately according to the number of display pixels to be performed.) The N × M cold cathode elements 3112 are, as shown in FIG.
It is wired by M row direction wirings 3113 and N column direction wirings 3114 extending in a direction intersecting with the row direction wirings 3113. The portion constituted by the substrate 3111, the cold cathode element 3112, the row direction wiring 3113, and the column direction wiring 3114 is generally called a multi electron beam source. In addition,
Naturally, the row direction wiring 3113 and the column direction wiring 3
An insulating layer (not shown) is formed between both wirings at least at a portion where the wiring 114 intersects with the wiring 114, thereby maintaining electrical insulation.

On the lower surface of the face plate 3117, a phosphor film 3118 made of a phosphor is used as an electron beam irradiation member.
Are formed, and three of red (R), green (G), and growing (B)
Primary color phosphors (not shown) are separately applied. A black body (not shown) is provided between the phosphors of each color forming the fluorescent film 3118, and a metal back 3119 of Al or the like is formed on the surface of the fluorescent film 3118 on the rear plate 3115 side. ing.

Symbols Dx1 to Dxm and Dy1 to Dyn
And Hv are the display panel and an electric circuit (not shown)
And an electric connection terminal having an airtight structure with respect to the inside of the envelope, which is provided to electrically connect the terminals. Among them, the terminal Dx
1 to Dxm are the row wirings 3113 of the multi-electron beam source
The terminals Dy1 to Dyn are the column direction wiring 3114 of the multi-electron beam source, the terminal Hv is the metal back 3119,
Each is electrically connected.

The inside of the envelope is 10 minus 6
A means for preventing deformation or destruction of the rear plate 3115 and the face plate 3117 due to a pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the envelope as the display area of the image display device becomes large as the display area of the image display device is increased. Required. Particularly, in order to form a thin and large-area image display unit, prevention of deformation is an important issue.

For this reason, it is conceivable to increase the thickness of the rear plate 3115 and the face plate 3116. However, this method not only increases the weight of the image display device but also distorts the image when viewed from an oblique direction. Or parallax.

Therefore, in the example shown in FIG. 30, a spacer (or a structural support for supporting the atmospheric pressure, such as a rib) 3120 made of a relatively thin glass plate is provided. In this way, the distance between the substrate 3111 on which the multi-beam electron source is formed and the face plate 3116 on which the fluorescent film 3118 is formed is usually kept at a sub-millimeter to several millimeters. The inside of an airtight container) is maintained at a high vacuum.

In the image display apparatus using the display panel described above, when a voltage is applied to each cold cathode element 3112 through terminals Dx1 to Dxm and Dy1 to Dyn outside the container, electrons are emitted from each cold cathode element 3112. Is done. At the same time, a high voltage of several hundred [V] to several [kV] is applied to the metal back 3119 through the external terminal Hv to accelerate the emitted electrons and collide with the inner surface of the face plate 3117. Thereby, the fluorescent film 31
The phosphors of each of the eight colors are excited to emit light, and an image is displayed.

[0031]

However, the above-described display panel used in, for example, an image display device has the following problems.

First, the electrons emitted from the vicinity of the spacer 3120 or a part of the back-reflected electrons elastically scattered by the fluorescent film 3118 or the metal back 3119,
There is a possibility that the spacer 3120 may be charged by hitting the spacer 3120 or by ionized ions attached to the spacer by the action of the emitted electrons.

The charging of the spacer causes the cold cathode element 31
The electron emitted from 12 is distorted in its trajectory and reaches a different position on the phosphor from its normal position.
The image near the spacer is distorted and displayed.

Second, in order to accelerate electrons emitted from the cold cathode device 3112, a high voltage of several hundred V or more (ie, a high voltage of 1 kV / mm or more) is applied between the multi-beam electron source and the face plate 3117. Since an electric field is applied, there is a concern about creeping discharge on the surface of the spacer 3120. In particular, as described above, when the spacer is charged, discharge may be induced.

In order to solve this problem, it has been proposed to remove the charge by making a small current flow through the spacer (Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open Nos. Sho 57-118355 and Sho 61).
-24031). Here, a high-resistance thin film is formed on the surface of an insulating spacer so that a minute current flows on the surface of the spacer.

The antistatic film used here is tin oxide, or a mixed crystal thin film of tin oxide and indium oxide or a metal film. Further, for the purpose of correcting the deviation of the electron beam trajectory, conductive spacer electrodes are provided at the spacer end on the rear plate side and the spacer end on the rear plate side (see JP-A-10-334834). .

The spacer electrode used in the above proposal needs to be formed by a process different from that of the antistatic film.
The dimensional accuracy is severe, and improvement in yield has been desired. In addition, it is necessary to consider that the electric field is disturbed by the occurrence of film peeling of the spacer electrode and the like, and that a discharge is induced.

The present invention has been made based on the above circumstances, and has as its object to realize a more preferable electron beam apparatus by devising the structure of the spacer.

[0039]

In order to achieve this object, the present invention provides an electron source for emitting electrons in an envelope sealed in a required atmosphere, and an electron source in the envelope facing the electron source. In the electron beam device having an electron beam irradiated member provided in the above, and a spacer disposed between the electron source and the electron beam irradiated member, the spacer, the electron source and the electron beam irradiated member, Regarding the unevenness of the exposed surface that stands between
The unit real surface area along the irregularities in the electron source side area of the exposed surface is less than the value obtained by dividing the unit real surface area along the irregularities in the central area of the exposed surface by the unit area of a straight plane in the central area. The unevenness is formed on the exposed surface so that a value obtained by dividing by a unit area of a straight plane in the electron source side region becomes smaller.

Further, according to the present invention, there is provided an electron source for emitting electrons in an envelope sealed in a required atmosphere, an electron beam irradiation member provided in the envelope opposite to the electron source, and
In an electron beam apparatus having a spacer disposed between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member, the spacer may be configured such that an unevenness of an exposed surface rising between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member is increased. Along the irregularities in the electron beam irradiated member-side region of the exposed surface, a value obtained by dividing a unit real surface area along the irregularities in the central region of the exposed surface by a unit area of a straight plane in the central region. The unevenness is formed on the exposed surface so that a value obtained by dividing the unit actual surface area by the unit area of a straight plane in the electron beam irradiation member side region becomes small.

Further, according to the present invention, there is provided an electron source for emitting electrons in an envelope sealed in a required atmosphere, an electron beam irradiation member provided in the envelope opposite to the electron source, and
In an electron beam apparatus having a spacer disposed between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member, the spacer may be configured such that an unevenness of an exposed surface rising between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member is increased. An electron source side region and an electron beam irradiated member side region of the exposed surface, respectively, than a value obtained by dividing a unit real surface area along the irregularities in the central region of the exposed surface by a unit area of a straight plane in the central region. As compared with the exposed surface, the value obtained by dividing the unit real surface area along the irregularities in each of the electron source side region and the unit area of the straight plane in each of the electron beam irradiated member side regions becomes smaller. The unevenness is formed.

With such a configuration, the preferable electronic device expected as described above can be obtained.

[0043]

Embodiments of the present invention will be specifically described below with reference to FIGS. 1 to 26. In addition,
FIG. 1 shows a part of an electron beam apparatus in a cross section. The electron beam apparatus is applied to a structure of a display plate of an image forming apparatus as a first embodiment, and has an electron emission device. Plate 1015 having a portion and a front plate 1 having a phosphor (fluorescent film) as an electron beam irradiated member
A plate-like spacer 1020 is provided between the airtight container 017 and an airtight container (envelope) that seals a required atmosphere (in the embodiment, an atmosphere depressurized by evacuation).

FIG. 2 is a partially cutaway perspective view showing the structure (envelope) of the display plate, FIG. 3 is a plan view showing a matrix arrangement of electron-emitting portions, and FIG. FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along line BB of FIG. Further, FIG.
FIG. 7 is a plan view and a longitudinal sectional side view showing a cold cathode element as the electron emission section. 8 to 12 show steps of forming the cold cathode element by a film forming method in order. FIG. 23 is a perspective view showing the configuration of the spacer in detail.

FIG. 24 shows, as a second embodiment, the main parts of an electron beam apparatus (similarly applied to the structure of a display plate of an image forming apparatus) in a case where the spacer shape is cylindrical. FIG. 25 is a perspective view in which a part of the envelope is cut away.

(First Embodiment) In this embodiment, the electron beam apparatus has, as a basic configuration, an electron source (here, an electron source) that emits electrons in an envelope sealed in a required atmosphere. On a substrate 1011 in a matrix arrangement,
(A negative electrode element 1012 is provided as an electron emission unit.)
A member to be irradiated with an electron beam (here, a fluorescent film 1018) provided in the envelope so as to face the electron source; and a spacer disposed between the electron source and the member to be irradiated with the electron beam. (Constituent members such as plate-like pieces and ribs) 1020. Around the envelope, there is a side wall (supporting frame) 1016 that configures the internal space in a sealed state.

The spacer 1020 is provided in the central region of the exposed surface with respect to the unevenness of the exposed surface (for example, the region of the rising width: h in FIG. 23) standing between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member. Is smaller than a value obtained by dividing a unit real surface area along the irregularities by a unit area of a straight plane (a plane having geometric dimensions ignoring irregularities) in the central area in the electron source side area of the exposed surface ( For example, in FIG. 23, the exposed surface is set so that a value obtained by dividing a unit real surface area along the irregularities at the standing height: h1) by a unit area of a straight plane in the electron source side region becomes small. The irregularities are formed. In addition, the unevenness in this embodiment is, as shown, a concave groove or a convex extending in the horizontal direction with respect to the upright surface of the spacer.

The unit actual surface area along the irregularities is:
For example, the shape is measured with a non-contact type laser surface shape measuring microscope (VF-7500 manufactured by KEYENCE CORPORATION).
Shape measurement is also performed at a position advanced in the depth direction, and the integrated value is used as the surface area. However, in the laser surface shape measuring device, since noise components increase at the time of measurement on the vertical plane, it is desirable to remove the noise components by smoothing processing to make the surface area.

Here, as the smoothing processing, it is preferable to use an op-pass filter method that cuts out a component having an arbitrary frequency or more (cutoff frequency). The cutoff frequency needs to be determined according to the shape of the measurement target,
The frequency (1 / λ) of the component corresponding to the length less than the length λ of the vertical plane projected on the laser profilometer is defined as the cutoff frequency.

In the central region, the unit actual surface area is obtained from the above-described measurement results, and the value obtained by dividing by the unit area of the straight plane is 1 or more. On the other hand, since the electron source side region is a flat surface in this embodiment, the value obtained by dividing the unit real surface area in the measurement result by the unit area of the straight plane is almost 1. Thereby, the features of the present invention are realized.

The electron source side region to be measured is set so as to include a region having irregularities in a part thereof (for example, the upright height: h1 is set so as to include a part of the central region described above). The value obtained by dividing the unit real surface area of this area by the unit area of a straight plane is also smaller than the value related to the central area. This is apparent from the fact that the electron source side area has a flat surface. It is.

Similar results can be obtained by, for example, increasing the distribution density and depth of the unevenness in the central region and decreasing the distribution density and depth of the unevenness in the electron source side region (the present invention). Features can be realized).

Further, in this embodiment, similarly to the above case, the exposed surface (for example, a region having a rising width: h in FIG. 23) standing between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member is formed. Regarding the irregularities, a value obtained by dividing a unit real surface area along the irregularities in the central region of the exposed surface by a unit area of a straight plane (a plane with geometric dimensions ignoring the irregularities) in the central region, The unit real surface area along the irregularities in the region on the electron beam irradiation member side of the exposed surface (for example, the upright height: h3 in FIG. 23) is the unit area of a straight plane in the region on the electron beam irradiation member side. The projections and depressions are formed on the exposed surface so that the value obtained by the division becomes smaller.

The method of measurement and calculation are the same as in the comparison between the central region and the electron source side region.

In the above-described embodiment, in order to accelerate the electrons emitted from the cold cathode element 1012, the spacer 1020 (here, made of an insulating base material) is used.
Has electrodes 21 on its upper and lower edges, that is, on the bonding surface with the electron source substrate 1011 and on the bonding surface with the electron beam irradiated portion (the fluorescent film 1018 or its back metal 1019). The antistatic film 11 is formed on the upright surface (see FIGS. 6 and 23). In the drawings, reference numeral 1041 denotes a bonding material, and reference numeral 40 denotes an insulating layer.

More specifically, the method for forming the antistatic film 11 of the spacer 1020 includes a sputtering method, a reactive sputtering method, an electron beam evaporation method, an ion plating method, an ion-assisted evaporation method, a spray coating method, and the like. Any of the dipping methods or a combination thereof is employed.

In this embodiment, the sheet resistance of the antistatic film in the region on the electron source side of the spacer 1020 and the sheet resistance of the antistatic film in the region on the side of the electron beam irradiating part correspond to the charging of the central region of the spacer. It is configured to be smaller than the sheet resistance of the prevention film. Therefore, if necessary, the average thickness of the antistatic film 11 in the electron source side region of the spacer 1020 and the average thickness of the electron beam irradiated portion side region of the spacer 1020 are larger than the average thickness in the central region. It is effective to configure as follows.

The electron beam apparatus according to the present embodiment preferably has the following configuration. That is, in this electron beam device, the electrode 21 is connected to the electron emitting portion (the cold cathode element 101).
2) an accelerating electrode for accelerating the emitted electrons, and irradiating the fluorescent film 1018 as a target with the electrons emitted from the cold cathode element 1012 according to an input signal,
A required image is formed (a display plate of the image forming apparatus is configured by using the configuration of the electron beam apparatus).

The cold cathode device 1012 includes a conductive film including an electron emitting portion between a pair of electrodes, and is particularly preferably a surface conduction type emitting device as shown in FIGS.

The electron source is an electron source substrate 101.
A plurality of row-direction wirings 1013 and a plurality of column-direction wirings 1014 are arranged in a matrix on one, and each cold cathode element 1012 is connected to them in a simple matrix arrangement. In this embodiment, the column direction wiring 101
Control electrode (grid) above the cold cathode device along 4
By controlling the emitted electrons from the cold cathode device,
A ladder-like arrangement of electron sources is used.

The structure of the electron beam apparatus according to the present invention is not limited to an image forming apparatus suitable for display. For example, a photosensitive drum as an electron beam irradiation member, Configuration with a light emitting diode as an electron source (light emitting source) corresponding to the above (optical printer)
Needless to say, the present invention can be applied to other devices.

At this time, by appropriately selecting the m row-directional wirings and the n column-directional wirings in the above matrix arrangement, not only a linear light emitting source but also a two-dimensional light emitting source can be obtained. Can also be applied. In this case, the image forming member is not limited to a substance that emits light directly, such as a phosphor, which is used in an embodiment described later, and an electron beam irradiating member that forms a latent image by charging of electrons. Can also be used.

Further, in the configuration of the electron beam apparatus of the present invention, for example, as in an electron microscope, an electron beam irradiation member receiving electrons emitted from an electron source is other than an image forming member such as a phosphor. The case is also applicable. In other words,
The configuration of the electron beam apparatus of the present invention can be expanded and used in a form as a general electron beam apparatus that does not specify an electron beam irradiation member. It is not limited to the form.

With such a configuration, the present invention solves the problem of mounting a spacer on an envelope. That is, in the form of a spacer, furthermore, with an antistatic film on the exposed surface,
Since it also serves as a spacer electrode, disturbance of equipotential lines can be eliminated, and the yield after film formation can be improved.

In particular, by exhibiting the function of the spacer electrode by the spacer shape and the antistatic film, unlike the conventional metal spacer electrode, the dimensional accuracy can be relaxed, and the rising surface of the spacer ( By providing the spacer electrodes for ensuring conduction only at the upper and lower edges on the exposed surface), the influence of film peeling can be reduced.

(Second Embodiment) In this embodiment, the shape of the spacer is cylindrical or cylindrical, and its upright surface (the exposed surface that stands up between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member). Are formed with diagonally intersecting grooves or ridges in the central region thereof. The other configuration is the same as that of the first embodiment, and the description is omitted.

[0067]

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS (Characteristics of Spacer) The spacer which is a characteristic part of the present invention will be described below with reference to specific examples.
As shown in FIG. 1, the spacer used in the electron beam apparatus of the present invention has an insulating substrate 1 made of quartz glass, Na
And ceramic members such as glass, soda lime glass, and alumina with reduced impurity content.

The outer surface of the central region of the exposed surface of the spacer is provided with irregularities (this is not limited to the shape of the concave groove or the convex line, but may be a porous structure having irregularities). The electron source side region and / or the electron beam irradiated part is smaller than the value obtained by dividing the unit actual surface area along the irregularities of the unit by the unit area of a straight plane (a surface of geometric dimensions ignoring the irregularities) of the region. The values obtained by dividing the unit actual surface along the irregularities in the side region (including a portion having substantially no irregularities in this embodiment) by the unit area of the straight plane of the region are smaller.

As described above, the unit actual area of the spacer surface is measured by, for example, the BET method or the contact type or non-contact type roughness measuring method.

Here, the electron source side region on the upright surface of the spacer (the upright height of the exposed surface: h) means the electron beam from the electron source substrate 1015 side to 1/3 of the upright height of the spacer. The irradiated member side region is the electron beam irradiated member 1
From the 017 side to 1/3 of the rising height of the spacer.
The central region of the spacer refers to a region sandwiched between the electron source side region and the electron beam irradiation member side region (that is, 1 / of the standing height of the spacer).

The value obtained by dividing the unit real surface area along the unevenness in the spacer central region by the unit area of the straight plane there is as follows:
It is preferably 1.4 to 10 times the value obtained by dividing the unit real surface area along each unevenness of the electron source side area and the electron beam irradiation member side area by the unit area of a straight plane there. Yes, especially 1.4 to 4 times is preferable from the viewpoint of processing cost.

For the concavo-convex processing, a physical method such as mechanical cutting or polishing, or a chemical method such as photolithography or etching is used (here,
The creation method does not matter).

In this embodiment, an end face spacer electrode 1021 is provided on the joint surface between the spacer 1020, the electron source substrate 1015, and the electron beam irradiated portion 1017 to ensure conduction. Note that the end face spacer electrode 1021 is formed due to disturbance to the beam trajectory, induction of discharge due to film peeling, and the like.
It is preferable not to go around the spacer side surface (standing surface) as much as possible. In addition, as a method for forming the same, a sputtering method using a mask, an electron beam evaporation method, or the like can be used (regardless of the forming method).

On the surface of the insulating substrate 1, a high-resistance film 11 for preventing static electricity is formed. High resistance film 1
1 is a sputtering method, a reactive sputtering method, an electron beam evaporation method, an ion plating method, an ion assisted evaporation method,
The film can be formed by any one of the spray coating method and the dipping method, or a combination thereof.

After the high resistance film 11 is formed, the spacer
In accordance with the difference in the surface area, a difference in thickness of the high-resistance film occurs, and a difference in resistance occurs. That is, a portion having a large actual surface area in the central region of the spacer has a large sheet resistance, and a portion having a small actual external surface area (compared to the central region) in the electron source side region and / or the electron beam irradiated member side region is small. Low sheet resistance.

Here, the sheet resistance is defined as the unit surface area along the unevenness (including the porous structure) of the exposed surface of the spacer, defined as the projected (developed) area on a geometric plane ignoring the unevenness. Also, since the difference in resistance varies according to the unit external surface area and the method of forming the thin film on the surface,
It is set as appropriate according to factors such as the charge amount of the spacer, the voltage applied to the face plate, and the gap between the face plate and the rear plate.

In some cases, the average film thickness in the central region of the spacer, in the region on the electron source side or in the region on the side irradiated with the electron beam is not controlled only by the actual external surface area. Fine adjustment is also effective by using a mask with a different aperture ratio.

Note that, depending on the amount of charge of the spacer, the actual external surface area per unit area is smaller than that in the central region of the spacer, and the region is either the electron source side region or the electron beam irradiated portion side region. However, the intention of the present invention is
The above effects can be obtained. It is also possible to actively control the thickness difference of the high resistance film using a mask or the like.

The upper edge of the spacer is
017 and a lower edge connected to a wiring electrode (not shown), as described above, the high-resistance film has a sheet resistance distribution so that an equipotential line is formed. 1
As shown in (b) of FIG. 7, the function of correcting the deviation from the uniform electric field and the deviation of the electron beam trajectory due to charging in the central region of the spacer (attracted to the spacer side) is performed.

The difference between the present invention and the conventional spacer electrode configuration shown in FIG. 31 will be described. The spacer here is formed by coating the surface (flat surface) of the insulating substrate 1 with the high-resistance film 11. Between the fluorescent film 1018 on the face plate 1017 to which a high voltage is applied and the electron source substrate 1011 on the rear plate 1015,
Each is electrically connected by the low resistance film 21.

Here, the deflection of the electron beam trajectory due to the influence of the surface charging of the spacer is corrected by the low-resistance film 21 serving as the spacer electrode, but as shown in FIG. If the film is peeled off here, an undesirable discharge is induced. In addition, when a metal conductor is used for the spacer electrode, a slight dimensional difference greatly affects the electric field, so that extremely strict dimensional accuracy is required. This point has been solved in the present invention described above.

(Application to Image Display Apparatus) Next, the configuration of a display panel in an image display apparatus to which the electron beam apparatus of the present invention is applied and a method for manufacturing the same will be specifically described.

Although the embodiment of the present invention has already been roughly described, here, as shown in FIG.
015, side wall (support frame) 1016, face plate 1
017 constitutes an airtight container (envelope) in which the inside of the display panel is sealed in a predetermined atmosphere (vacuum or reduced pressure to a required thickness), and when assembling the airtight container, a sufficient joint for each member is provided. Sealing is performed to maintain strength and airtightness. For example, first, frit glass is applied to the joint, and baked in air or a nitrogen atmosphere at 400 to 500 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes or more.
Then, the inside of the hermetically sealed container thus sealed is evacuated to a vacuum. This exhaust method will be described later.

Since the inside of the hermetic container is maintained at a vacuum of about 10 −6 [Torr], the inside of the hermetic container is protected against atmospheric pressure in order to prevent destruction of the hermetic container due to atmospheric pressure or unexpected impact. As a structure, a spacer 1020 is provided inside the container.

Next, a substrate (electron source substrate) having an electron-emitting device that can be used in this image forming apparatus will be described. The electron source here is configured by arranging a plurality of cold cathode devices on the substrate.

In the arrangement of the cold cathode devices, a so-called ladder-type arrangement (hereinafter referred to as a ladder-type arrangement electron source substrate) in which the cold cathode devices are arranged in parallel and both ends of each element are connected by required wiring. ) Or a simple matrix arrangement in which a pair of element electrodes constituting a cold cathode element are connected to an X-directional wiring and a Y-directional wiring, respectively (hereinafter, referred to as a matrix-type arrangement electron source substrate).

Note that an image forming apparatus having a ladder-type arranged electron source substrate requires a control electrode (grid electrode) which is an electrode for controlling the flight of electrons from the electron-emitting devices.

The substrate 1011 is provided on the rear plate 1015.
Is fixed, and the cold cathode device 1012
(N and M are positive integers of 2 or more and are appropriately set according to the target number of display pixels. For example, a display for displaying a high-definition television) In the apparatus, it is desirable to set a number of N = 3000 and M = 1000 or more).

The N × M cold cathode elements are arranged in a simple matrix by M row-directional wirings 1013 and N column-directional wirings 1014. Hereinafter, the constituent member 101
The electron source constituted by 1 to 1014 is called a multi-electron beam source.

The multi-electron beam source used in this image display device is not limited in the material, shape, or manufacturing method of the cold cathode device as long as the cold cathode device is a simple matrix wiring or a ladder-shaped electron source. . That is, for example,
A cold cathode device such as a surface conduction type emission device, an FE type, or an MIM type can be used.

Next, a structure of a multi-electron beam source in which a surface conduction electron-emitting device (described later) is arranged on a substrate as a cold cathode device and arranged in a simple matrix will be described.

FIG. 3 is a plan view of the multi-electron beam source used for the display panel of FIG. On the substrate 1011, surface conduction type emission elements similar to those shown in FIG. 7 described later are arranged.
13 and a column-directional wiring 1014 are arranged in a simple matrix. Row direction wiring 1013 and column direction wiring 10
At the intersection of 14, an insulating layer (not shown) between the electrodes
Are formed, and electrical insulation is maintained. FIG. 4 shows a cross section taken along the line BB ′ in FIG.

A multi-electron source having such a structure is provided in advance.
On the substrate 1011, the row direction wiring 1013 and the column direction wiring 10
14. After forming an electrode and a conductive thin film as an inter-electrode insulating layer (not shown) and a surface conduction electron-emitting device 1012, a row direction wiring 1013 and a column direction wiring 101 are formed.
The device is manufactured by supplying power to each element via an element 4 and performing an energization forming process (described later) and an energization activation process (described later).

In this embodiment, the substrate 101 of the multi-electron beam source is mounted on the rear plate 1015 of the airtight container.
1 is fixed, but the substrate 1011 of the multi-electron beam source itself may be used as a rear plate of an airtight container as long as the substrate has sufficient strength.

Further, a fluorescent film 1018 is formed on the lower surface of the face plate 1017. In this embodiment, since a color display device is employed, the fluorescent film 1018 is used in the field of CRT. Phosphors of three primary colors of red, green and blue are separately applied. The phosphor of each color is, for example, separately applied in a stripe shape as shown in FIG. 5A, and a black conductor 1010 is provided between the stripes of the phosphor.

The purpose of providing the black conductor 1010 is to prevent the display color from being shifted even if there is a slight shift in the electron beam irradiation position, and to prevent the reflection of external light to prevent the display. The intention is to prevent a decrease in contrast and to prevent charge-up of the fluorescent film by an electron beam. Although graphite is used as a main component for the black conductor 1010, any other material may be used as long as it is suitable for the above purpose.

The method of applying the phosphors of the three primary colors is not limited to the stripe arrangement shown in FIG. 5A, but may be, for example, a delta arrangement shown in FIG. 5B. It may be an array or another array. When a monochrome display panel is manufactured, a single-color phosphor material may be used for the fluorescent film 1018, and a black conductive material is not necessarily used.

A metal back 1019 known in the field of CRT is provided on the surface of the fluorescent film 1018 on the rear plate side.
Is provided. The purpose of providing the metal back 1019 is
A part of the light emitted from the fluorescent film 1018 is specularly reflected to improve the light utilization rate, and the fluorescent film 1018 is protected from the collision of negative ions.
18 to function as an electrode for applying an electron beam accelerating voltage, and
8 as a conductive path for the excited electrons.

The metal back 1019 is a fluorescent film 1018
Is formed on the face plate substrate 1017, the surface of the fluorescent film is smoothed, and Al is formed thereon by a vacuum deposition method. Note that the fluorescent film 1018
In the case where a low-voltage phosphor material is used, the metal back 1019 is not used.

Although not used in the present embodiment, the gap between the face plate substrate 1017 and the fluorescent film 1018 was used for applying an acceleration voltage and improving the conductivity of the fluorescent film.
For example, a transparent electrode made of ITO may be provided.
FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view taken along the line AA ′ of FIG. 3, and the numbers of the respective parts correspond to those shown in FIG. Spacer 1
020, a high-resistance film 11 for preventing static electricity is formed on the surface of the insulating member 1;
17 (metal back 1019 etc.) and substrate 1
011 (row direction wiring 1013 or column direction wiring 1
014) on the contact surfaces (upper and lower edges) 3 of the spacer,
It is composed of a constituent member on which a low-resistance film 21 as a spacer end face electrode is formed.

The spacers 1020 are arranged in a necessary number and at necessary intervals to achieve the object expected in the present invention.
7 and the surface of the substrate 1011 are fixed by a bonding material 1041.

The high-resistance film 11 is formed on at least the surface of the insulating member 1 that is exposed to the vacuum in the hermetic container.
1 and the bonding material 1041, the face plate 1
017 (metal back 1019 and the like) and the surface of the substrate 1011 (row direction wiring 1013 or column direction wiring 1014).

In the embodiment described here, the shape of the spacer 1020 is a thin plate, is arranged parallel to the row wiring 1013, and is electrically connected to the row wiring 1013. The spacer 1020 has an insulating property enough to withstand a high voltage applied between the row wiring 1013 and the column wiring 1014 on the substrate 1011 and the metal back 1019 on the inner surface of the face plate 1017, and the spacer 1020 It is necessary to have conductivity enough to prevent electrification.

Therefore, the insulating member 1 of the spacer 1020
Examples of the material include quartz glass, glass with reduced impurity content such as Na, soda lime glass, and ceramic members such as alumina. It is preferable that the insulating member 1 has a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of the member forming the airtight container and the substrate 1011. The surface shape is as described above.

High resistance film 11 constituting spacer 1020
Is supplied with a current obtained by dividing the acceleration voltage Va applied to the face plate 1017 (such as the metal back 1019) on the high potential side by the resistance value Rs of the high resistance film 11 as an antistatic film. Therefore, the resistance value Rs of the spacer is set to a desirable range from the viewpoint of antistatic and power consumption.
From the viewpoint of antistatic, the surface resistance R / □ is 10 12 Ω.
The following is preferred. In order to obtain a sufficient antistatic effect, the resistance is more preferably 10 11 Ω or less.
Although the lower limit of the surface resistance depends on the spacer shape and the voltage applied between the spacers, it is preferably 10 5 Ω or more.

The thickness t of the antistatic film formed on the insulating material is preferably in the range of 10 nm to 1 μm. This depends on the surface energy of the material, the adhesion to the substrate, and the substrate temperature. In general, a thin film of 10 nm or less is formed in the shape of an island and has an unstable resistance and poor reproducibility. It is considered that when the thickness t is 1 μm or more, the film stress increases, the risk of film peeling increases, and the film formation time increases, resulting in poor productivity.

Actually, it is desirable that the film thickness is 50 to 500 nm. Here, the surface resistance R / □ is ρ / t
From the preferred range of R and t described above,
The specific resistance ρ of the antistatic film is 0.1 [Ωcm] to 10
Is preferably the eighth power [Ωcm]. Further, in order to realize a more preferable range of the surface resistance and the film thickness, ρ is 10 2
A power of 10 to the sixth power Ωcm may be preferable.

The distribution of the surface resistance changes depending on the actual surface area of the exposed surface of the spacer, as described above. As described above, the temperature of the spacer increases due to current flowing through the antistatic film formed thereon, or due to heat generation during operation of the entire display. Therefore, if the resistance temperature coefficient of the antistatic film is a large negative value, when the temperature increases, the resistance value decreases, the current flowing through the spacer increases, and the temperature further increases. And the current continues to increase until it exceeds the power supply limit. The value of the temperature coefficient of resistance at which such runaway of current occurs is empirically a negative value, and the absolute value is 1% / ° C. or more. For this reason, it is desirable that the temperature coefficient of resistance of the antistatic film be greater than -1% / ° C.

As a material of the high resistance film 11 having the antistatic property, for example, a metal oxide can be used.
Among metal oxides, oxides of chromium, nickel, and copper are preferred materials. The reason is considered to be that these oxides have a relatively low secondary electron emission efficiency, and are difficult to be charged even when electrons emitted from the cold cathode device 1012 hit the spacer 1020.

In addition to metal oxides, carbon is a preferred material for the antistatic film because of its low secondary electron emission efficiency. In particular, since amorphous carbon has high resistance,
It is easy to control the spacer resistance to a desired value.

As another material of the high resistance film 11 having antistatic properties, a nitride of aluminum and a transition metal alloy can be used in a wide range from a good conductor to an insulator by adjusting the composition of the transition metal. Since the resistance value can be controlled, it is a suitable material. Further, it is a stable material in which a change in resistance value is small in a manufacturing process of a display device described later. The material has a temperature coefficient of resistance of more than 1% and is practically easy to use. The transition metal element is T
i, Cr, Ta and the like.

The alloy nitride film is formed on the insulating member by thin film forming means such as sputtering, reactive sputtering in a nitrogen gas atmosphere, electron beam evaporation, ion plating, and ion assisted evaporation. The metal oxide film can be formed by the same thin film forming method, but in this case, oxygen gas is used instead of nitrogen gas. Other, CVD
A metal oxide film can also be formed by a method or an alkoxide coating method.
In addition, the carbon film is formed by vapor deposition, sputtering, CVD,
It can be formed by a plasma CVD method. In particular, when forming amorphous carbon, hydrogen is contained in an atmosphere during film formation, or a hydrocarbon gas is used as a film formation gas.

Low resistance film 21 constituting spacer 1020
A high-resistance side face plate 101
7 (metal back 1019, etc.) and a substrate 1011 (wirings 1013, 1014, etc.) on the low potential side, and are also provided as intermediate electrode layers (intermediate layers) in the following description. . Intermediate electrode layer (intermediate layer)
Has a plurality of functions listed below.

1) Electrical connection of high-resistance film to face plate and substrate: As already described, high-resistance film 11
Is provided for the purpose of preventing electrification on the surface of the spacer 1020. The high-resistance film 11 is provided with a face plate 1017 (such as a metal back 1019) and the substrate 1
In the case where the connection is made directly or via the contact material 1041 to 011 (wirings 1013, 1014, etc.), a large contact resistance is generated at the interface of the connection portion, and there is a possibility that the charge generated on the surface of the spacer cannot be quickly removed. . Therefore, in order to avoid this, here, the face plate 101
7, a low resistance intermediate layer is provided on the contact surface 3 of the spacer 1020 which comes into contact with the substrate 1011 and the contact material 1041.

2) Uniformization of the potential distribution of the high-resistance film 11: Electrons emitted from the cold cathode element 1012 form a certain electron orbit according to the potential distribution formed between the face plate 1017 and the substrate 1011. In the vicinity of the spacer 1020, it is necessary to control the potential distribution of the high-resistance film 11 over the entire region in order to prevent disturbance of the electron orbit. The high-resistance film 11 is coated with a face plate 1017 (metal back 1019 or the like) and a substrate 1011 (wiring 101).
3, 1014, etc.) or the contact material 104
In the case where the connection is made through the connection line 1, the connection state may be uneven due to the contact resistance at the connection interface, and the potential distribution of the high-resistance film 11 may be shifted from a desired value. To avoid this, the spacer 1020 is
A low-resistance intermediate layer is provided over the entire length of the upper edge portion (contact surface 3) of the spacer that contacts the substrate 7 and the substrate 1011. By applying a desired potential to this intermediate layer, the potential of the entire high-resistance film 11 is reduced. Can be controlled.

The function based on the resistance distribution of the high-resistance film 11 includes, first, controlling the trajectory of the emitted electrons. As described above, the electrons emitted from the cold cathode element 1012 form electron orbits in accordance with the potential distribution formed between the face plate 1017 and the substrate 1011. For electrons emitted from the cold cathode device near the spacer,
There are cases where restrictions (such as changes in wiring and element positions) due to the installation of the spacers occur.

In such a case, in order to form an image without distortion or unevenness, the trajectory of the emitted electrons is controlled and
It is necessary to irradiate a desired position on the face plate 1017 with electrons. Therefore, by providing a slight low-resistance portion on the high-resistance film 11 on the surface in contact with the face plate 1017 and the substrate 1011, the potential distribution in the vicinity of the spacer 1020 has desired characteristics, and the trajectory of emitted electrons Can be controlled.

Therefore, in this embodiment, the low resistance film 21
This can be achieved by selecting a material having a sufficiently low resistance value as compared with the high resistance film 11, such as Ni, Cr, Au,
Metals such as Mo, W, Pt, Ti, Al, Cu, Pd or their alloys, and printing composed of metals such as Pd, Ag, Au, RuO2, Pd-Ag, metal oxides and glass It is appropriately selected from a conductor, a transparent conductor such as In 2 O 3 —SnO 2, and a semiconductor material such as polysilicon.

The bonding material 1041 needs to have conductivity so that the spacer 1020 is electrically connected to the row wiring 1013 and the metal back 1019. That is, a frit glass to which a conductive adhesive, metal particles, or a conductive filler is added is suitable for this.

Further, reference numerals Dx1 to Dxm and Dy1
Dyn and Hv are electric connection terminals having an airtight structure with the inside of the envelope provided for electrically connecting the display panel to an electric circuit (not shown). Terminals Dx1 to Dx
xm is the row direction wiring 1013 of the multi electron beam source, and the terminals Dy1 to Dyn are the column direction wiring 1 of the multi electron beam source.
014 and the terminal Hv are electrically connected to the metal back 1019 of the face plate.

In order to evacuate the inside of the hermetic container, after the hermetic container is assembled, an exhaust pipe and a vacuum pump are connected (both are not shown), and the inside of the hermetic container is raised to the power of 10 −7 [ Torr]. Thereafter, the exhaust pipe is sealed, but a getter film (not shown) is formed at a predetermined position in the airtight container immediately before or after the sealing in order to maintain the degree of vacuum in the airtight container. The getter film is formed, for example, by heating a getter material containing Ba as a main component by a heater or high-frequency heating, vapor-depositing the film, and forming the film into a film shape. The degree of vacuum is maintained at 1 × 10−5th power or 1 × 10−7th power [Torr].

In the image display apparatus using the display panel described above, when a voltage is applied to each cold cathode element 1012 through the external terminals Dx1 to Dxm and Dy1 to Dyn, electrons are emitted from each cold cathode element 1012. You. At the same time, a high voltage of several hundred [V] to several [kV] is applied to the metal back 1019 through the external terminal Hv to accelerate the emitted electrons and collide with the inner surface of the face plate 1017. Thereby, the fluorescent film 1
018, the phosphor of each color is excited and emits light, and an image is displayed.

Normally, the voltage applied to the surface conduction electron-emitting device 1012 of the present invention, which is a cold cathode device, is about 12 to 16 [V], and the distance d between the metal back 1019 and the cold cathode device 1012 is 0.1 [mm]. ] To about 8 [mm], and the voltage between the metal back 1019 and the cold cathode element 1012 is 0.1 mm.
It is about 1 [kV] to about 10 [kV].

The basic configuration and manufacturing method of the display panel and the outline of the image display device have been described as the embodiments of the present invention. Next, the multi-electron beam source employed here and the method of manufacturing the same will be described.

(Multi-Electron Beam Source, Manufacturing Method Thereof) The multi-electron beam source used in the image display apparatus of the present invention is a material, a shape, or a manufacturing method of a cold cathode element as long as the cold cathode element is an electron source having a simple matrix wiring. There are no restrictions. Therefore, for example, a surface conduction type emission element, an FE type, or
A cold cathode element such as an MIM type can be used.

However, under the circumstances where a large display screen and an inexpensive display device are required, among these cold cathode devices, a surface conduction type emission device is particularly preferable. In other words, the FE type requires extremely high-precision manufacturing technology because the relative position and shape of the emitter cone and the gate electrode greatly affect the electron emission characteristics. However, this requires a large area and a reduction in manufacturing cost. Achieving is a disadvantageous factor. In the case of the MIM type, it is necessary that the thicknesses of the insulating layer and the upper electrode be thin and uniform, which is a disadvantageous factor in achieving a large area and a reduction in manufacturing cost.

On the other hand, since the surface conduction electron-emitting device is relatively simple in manufacturing method, it is easy to increase the area and reduce the manufacturing cost. In addition, among the surface conduction electron-emitting devices, those in which an electron-emitting portion or a peripheral portion thereof is formed from a fine particle film are particularly excellent in electron-emitting characteristics,
In addition, they have found that manufacturing is easy.

Therefore, this surface conduction electron-emitting device is most suitable for use in a multi-electron beam source of a high-luminance, large-screen image display device. Therefore, in the display panel of the above embodiment, a surface conduction electron-emitting device formed of a fine particle film was used in the electron-emitting portion or its peripheral portion.

Here, the basic structure, manufacturing method and characteristics of the preferred surface conduction electron-emitting device will be described.
After that, the structure of a multi-electron beam source in which many elements are arranged in a simple matrix will be described.

A typical configuration of a surface conduction electron-emitting device in which an electron-emitting portion or its peripheral portion is formed from a fine particle film includes:
There are two types, a flat type and a vertical type. (1) Planar surface conduction electron-emitting device: First, the structure and manufacturing method of a plane surface conduction electron-emitting device will be described. FIG. 7 shows a plan view (a) and a cross-sectional view (b) for describing the configuration of a planar surface conduction electron-emitting device. In the figure, reference numeral 1101 denotes a substrate, 1102 and 1
103, a device electrode; 1104, a conductive thin film; 1105, an electron-emitting portion formed by an energization forming process;
Reference numeral 13 denotes a thin film formed by the activation process.

Here, the substrate 1101 is made of, for example, various glass substrates such as quartz glass or blue plate glass, various ceramics substrates such as alumina, or the above-mentioned various substrates formed of, for example, SiO 2 . A substrate on which an insulating layer is laminated is used.

Further, device electrodes 1102 and 1103 provided on the substrate 1101 so as to be opposed to the substrate surface in parallel.
Is formed of a conductive material. For example, Ni, Cr, Au, Mo, W, Pt, Ti, Cu,
Materials are appropriately selected from metals such as Pd and Ag, alloys of these metals, metal oxides such as In 2 O 3 —SnO 2 , and semiconductors such as polysilicon. It may be used.

The electrodes can be easily formed by using a combination of a film forming technique such as vacuum evaporation and a patterning technique such as photolithography and etching. However, the electrodes can be formed by other methods (for example, printing technique). No problem.

The shapes of the device electrodes 1102 and 1103 are appropriately designed according to the application purpose of the electron-emitting device. In general, the electrode interval L is usually designed in a range of several hundreds of angstroms to several hundred micrometers by selecting an appropriate numerical value. The range is several tens of micrometers from the meter. Further, as for the thickness d of the device electrode, an appropriate numerical value is usually selected in the range of several hundred angstroms to several micrometers.

A fine particle film is used for the conductive thin film 1104. The fine particle film mentioned here refers to a film containing a large number of fine particles (including an island-shaped aggregate) as a constituent element. When the fine particle film is examined microscopically, it is generally recognized that the fine particles have a structure in which the individual fine particles are spaced apart from each other, a structure in which the fine particles are adjacent to each other, or a structure in which the fine particles overlap each other.

The particle size of the fine particles used in the fine particle film is in the range of several Angstroms to several thousand Angstroms, and among them, the preferable one is in the range of 10 Angstroms to 200 Angstroms. Further, the thickness of the fine particle film is appropriately set in consideration of various conditions described below.

That is, the device electrode 1102 or 1103
In addition, there are conditions necessary for good electrical connection, conditions necessary for satisfactorily performing energization forming described later, conditions necessary for setting the electric resistance of the fine particle film itself to an appropriate value described later, and the like. . Specifically, it is set in the range of several Angstroms to several thousand Angstroms, and particularly, it is preferably between 10 Angstroms and 500 Angstroms.

Materials used for forming the fine particle film include, for example, Pd, Pt, Ru, Ag, A
u, Ti, In, Cu, Cr, Fe, Zn, Sn, T
a, W, Pb and other metals, PdO, SnO
Oxides including H 2 , In 2 O 3 , PbO, Sb 2 O 3 , HfB 2 , ZrB 2 , LaB 6 , CeB 6 , YB 4 ,
Borides such as GdB 4 , TiC, ZrC,
Carbides such as HfC, TaC, SiC, WC, etc .; nitrides such as TiN, ZrN, HfN, etc .; semiconductors such as Si, Ge, etc .; and carbon. It is appropriately selected.

As described above, the conductive thin film 1104 is formed of a fine particle film.
It was set so as to be included in the range of 10 3 to 10 7 [Ohm / sq].

The conductive thin film 1104 and the element electrode 1
Since it is desirable that the electrodes 102 and 1103 be electrically connected well, they have a structure in which a part of each overlaps. In the case of FIG. 7,
Although the substrate, the device electrode, and the conductive thin film are stacked in this order from the bottom, in some cases, the substrate, the conductive thin film, and the device electrode may be stacked in this order from the bottom.

The electron-emitting portion 1105 is a crack-like portion formed in a part of the conductive thin film 1104, and has an electrically higher resistance than the surrounding conductive thin film. The crack is formed by performing a later-described energization forming process on the conductive thin film 1104. Fine particles having a particle size of several Angstroms to several hundred Angstroms may be arranged in the crack. It should be noted that the position and shape of the actual electron emitting portion are illustrated precisely and accurately by:
Since it is substantially difficult, it is schematically shown in FIG.

The thin film 1113 is a thin film made of carbon or a carbon compound, and covers the electron emitting portion 1105 and its vicinity. The thin film 1113 is formed by performing an energization activation process described later after the energization forming process. The thin film 1113 is any one of single-crystal graphite, polycrystalline graphite, and amorphous carbon, or a mixture thereof, and has a thickness of 500 Å or less, and further has a thickness of 300 Å or less. Is preferred.

Since it is practically difficult to precisely show the actual position and shape of the thin film 1113, they are schematically shown in FIG. Further, in the plan view (a), an element in which a part of the thin film 1113 is removed is shown.

The basic structure of the preferred element has been described above. In this example, the following element was used.
That is, blue glass is used for the substrate 1101, and the element electrode 1 is used.
Ni thin films were used for 102 and 1103. Device electrode thickness: d is 1000 [angstrom], electrode spacing: L
Was 2 [micrometers].

Pd or PdO was used as the main material of the fine particle film, the thickness of the fine particle film was about 100 [angstrom], and the width W was 100 [micrometers].
Next, a method for manufacturing a suitable planar surface conduction electron-emitting device will be described. 8 to 12 are cross-sectional views for explaining the manufacturing process of the surface conduction electron-emitting device, and the notation of each member is the same as FIG.

Step 1) First, as shown in FIG.
Element electrodes 1102 and 1103 are formed on 101. At the time of formation, the substrate 1101 is sufficiently washed beforehand with a detergent, pure water, and an organic solvent. Thereafter, a material for the device electrode is deposited (for example, a vacuum film forming technique such as a vapor deposition method or a sputtering method may be used). Thereafter, the deposited electrode material is patterned by using a photolithography / etching technique to form a pair of device electrodes (1102 and 1103) shown in FIG.

Step 2) Next, as shown in FIG. 9, a conductive thin film 1104 is formed. In forming a thin film, first, an organic metal solution is applied to the substrate in FIG. 8, dried, and heated and baked to form a fine particle film. afterwards,
It is patterned into a predetermined shape by photolithography and etching. Here, the organometallic solution is a solution of an organometallic compound in which the material of the fine particles used for the conductive thin film is a main element.

In this example, Pd was specifically used as a main element. In this embodiment, the dipping method is used as the coating method, but other methods such as a spinner method and a spray method may be used.

As a method for forming a conductive thin film made of a fine particle film, other than the method of applying the organic metal solution used in this embodiment, for example, a vacuum evaporation method, a sputtering method,
Alternatively, there is a chemical vapor deposition method.

Step 3) Next, as shown in FIG. 10, an appropriate voltage is applied between the device electrodes 1102 and 1103 from the forming power supply 1110, and an energization forming process is performed, so that the electron emitting portion 1105 is turned on. Form. Here, the energization forming treatment is to energize the conductive thin film 1104 made of a fine particle film, and to appropriately break, deform, or alter a part of the conductive thin film 1104 to obtain a structure suitable for performing electron emission. This is the process of changing.

In a portion of the conductive thin film made of the fine particle film which has been changed to a structure suitable for emitting electrons (ie, the electron emitting portion 1105), an appropriate crack is formed in the thin film. Note that, after the electron emission portion 1105 is formed, the device electrode 110 is formed after the electron emission portion 1105 is formed.
The electrical resistance measured between 2 and 1103 increases significantly.

FIG. 13 shows an example of an appropriate voltage waveform when a voltage is applied from the forming power supply 1110 in order to explain the above-described energization method in more detail. When forming a conductive thin film made of a fine particle film,
A pulse-like voltage is preferable. In the case of the present embodiment, a triangular pulse having a pulse width T1 is continuously applied at a pulse interval T2. At that time, the peak value Vpf of the triangular wave pulse
Were sequentially increased in pressure. Further, a monitor pulse Pm for monitoring the formation state of the electron-emitting portion 1105 was inserted at an appropriate interval between the triangular wave pulses, and the current flowing at that time was measured by the ammeter 1111.

In this embodiment, for example, in a vacuum atmosphere of about 10 to the fifth power [torr], for example, the pulse width T1 is set to 1 [millisecond], the pulse interval T2 is set to 10 [millisecond], and the The high value Vpf was increased by 0.1 [V] for each pulse. Then, each time five pulses of the triangular wave were applied, the monitor pulse Pm was inserted once.

It is to be noted that the monitor pulse voltage Vpm is set to 0.1 V so as not to adversely affect the forming process.
It was set to 1 [V]. Then, the device electrodes 1102 and 11
03, when the electric resistance becomes 1 × 10 6 ohms, that is, when the monitor pulse is applied, the ammeter 1111
When the current measured in step 1 became equal to or less than 1 × 10 −7 [A], the energization related to the forming process was terminated.

The above-described energization treatment method is a preferable method for the surface conduction electron-emitting device of this embodiment. For example, the surface conduction electron-emitting device such as the material and thickness of the fine particle film or the distance L between the device electrodes If you change the design of
Accordingly, it is desirable to appropriately change the energization conditions.

Step 4) Next, as shown in FIG. 11, an appropriate voltage is applied between the element electrodes 1102 and 1103 from the activating power supply 1112 to carry out an energizing activation process, and the electron emission characteristic is reduced. Make improvements. Here, the energization activation process is a process of energizing the electron emitting portion 1105 formed by the energization forming process under appropriate conditions and depositing carbon or a carbon compound in the vicinity thereof. Here, a deposit made of carbon or a carbon compound is schematically shown as the member 1113.

As described above, by performing the energization activation process, the emission current at the same applied voltage can be typically increased by a factor of 100 or more compared to before the activation process. Specifically, by applying a voltage pulse periodically in a vacuum atmosphere within a range of 10 −4 to 10 −5 [torr], an organic compound existing in the vacuum atmosphere is removed. The source carbon or carbon compound is deposited. Sediment 1113
Is any of single-crystal graphite, polycrystalline graphite, amorphous carbon, or a mixture thereof,
The film thickness is not more than 500 [angstrom], and more preferably not more than 300 [angstrom].

FIG. 14A shows an example of an appropriate voltage waveform when a voltage is applied from the activation power supply 1112 in order to explain the above-described energization method in more detail. In the present embodiment, the energization activation process is performed by periodically applying a rectangular wave of a constant voltage. Specifically, the voltage Vac of the rectangular wave is 14 [V], and the pulse width T3 is 1 [millisecond], and the pulse interval T4 was 10 [millisecond]. The above-mentioned energization conditions are preferable conditions for the surface conduction electron-emitting device of this embodiment, and when the design of the surface conduction electron-emitting device is changed, it is desirable to appropriately change the conditions accordingly.

Reference numeral 1114 shown in FIG. 11 is an anode electrode for capturing an emission current Ie emitted from the surface conduction electron-emitting device. The anode electrode 1114 is connected to a DC high voltage power supply 1115 and an ammeter 1116. Note that in the case where the activation process is performed after the substrate 1101 is incorporated into a display panel, the phosphor screen of the display panel is used as the anode electrode 1114. In addition, while the voltage is applied from the activation power supply 1112, the emission current Ie is measured by the ammeter 1116 to monitor the progress of the energization activation process.
12 is controlled.

Emission current Ie measured by ammeter 1116
Is shown in FIG. 14 (b). Activation power supply 1112
, The emission current Ie increases with time, but eventually saturates and hardly increases. As described above, when the emission current Ie is substantially saturated, the application of the voltage from the activation power supply 1112 is stopped, and the energization activation process ends.

The above-mentioned energization conditions are preferable conditions for the surface conduction electron-emitting device of this embodiment, and when the design of the surface conduction electron-emitting device is changed, the conditions should be changed accordingly. desirable.

As described above, the planar type surface conduction electron-emitting device shown in FIG. 12 was manufactured. (2) Vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device: Next, another typical configuration of a surface conduction electron-emitting device in which an electron-emitting portion or its periphery is formed of a fine particle film, that is, a vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device. The configuration of the element will be described.

FIG. 15 is a schematic cross-sectional view for explaining the basic structure of a vertical type.
202 and 1203 are device electrodes, 1206 is a step forming member, 1204 is a conductive thin film using a fine particle film, 1202
5 is an electron-emitting portion formed by an energization forming process;
Reference numeral 1213 denotes a thin film formed by the activation process.

The vertical element is different from the planar element described above in that one (1202) of the element electrodes is provided on the step forming member 1206 and the conductive thin film 12
04 covers the side surface of the step forming member 1206. Therefore, in the vertical type, the step height Ls of the step forming member 1206 substantially corresponds to the element electrode interval L in the planar type shown in FIG.

It should be noted that the substrate 1201, the element electrode 1202,
As for the conductive thin film 1204 using the fine particle film 1203, the same materials as those listed in the description of the planar type can be used. Also, the step forming member 120
For 6, an electrically insulating material such as SiO 2 is used, for example.

Next, a method of manufacturing a vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device will be described. 16 to 21 are sectional views for sequentially explaining the manufacturing steps, and the notation of each member is the same as that in FIG.

Step 1) First, as shown in FIG. 16, an element electrode 1203 is formed on a substrate 1201.

Step 2) Next, as shown in FIG. 17, an insulating layer for forming a step forming member is laminated. This insulating layer may be formed by, for example, laminating SiO 2 by a sputtering method, but another film forming method such as a vacuum evaporation method or a printing method may be used.

Step 3) Next, as shown in FIG. 18, an element electrode 1202 is formed on the insulating layer.

Step 4) Next, as shown in FIG. 19, a part of the insulating layer is removed by, for example, an etching method to expose the element electrode 1203.

Step 5) Next, as shown in FIG. 20, a conductive thin film 1204 using a fine particle film is formed. To form this, a film forming technique such as a coating method may be used as in the case of the flat type.

Step 6) Next, in the same manner as in the case of the planar type, the energization forming process is performed to form an electron emission portion (that is, the same process as the planar type energization forming process described with reference to FIG. 10). Just do it.)

Step 7) Next, similarly to the case of the planar type, an activation process is performed to deposit carbon or a carbon compound in the vicinity of the electron emission portion (the planar activation described with reference to FIG. 11). The same processing as the processing may be performed). As described above, a vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device as shown in FIG. 21 was manufactured. (3) Characteristics of surface conduction electron-emitting device used in display device: The element configuration and manufacturing method of the planar and vertical surface conduction electron-emitting devices have been described above. Next, characteristics of the element used in the display device are described. Is described.

FIG. 22 shows the (emission current Ie) versus (element applied voltage Vf) characteristics of the element used in the display device, and
A typical example of (element current If) versus (element applied voltage Vf) characteristics is shown. The emission current Ie is equal to the element current I
f is significantly smaller than f and difficult to display on the same scale, and since these characteristics change by changing design parameters such as the size and shape of the element, the two graphs It should be noted that each is displayed in arbitrary units.

The element used for the display device has the following three characteristics with respect to the emission current Ie. That is,
First, when a voltage higher than a certain voltage (hereinafter referred to as a threshold voltage Vth) is applied to the element, the emission current I
Although e increases, the emission current Ie is hardly detected at a voltage lower than the threshold voltage Vth. In other words, this device has a clear threshold voltage Vt with respect to the emission current Ie.
h is a non-linear element.

Second, since the emission current Ie changes depending on the voltage Vf applied to the element, the magnitude of the emission current Ie can be controlled by the voltage Vf.

Third, since the response speed of the current Ie emitted from the element is faster than the voltage Vf applied to the element, the charge of the electrons emitted from the element depends on the length of time for applying the voltage Vf. You can control the amount.

With the above characteristics, the surface conduction electron-emitting device could be suitably used for a display device. For example, in a display device in which a number of elements are provided corresponding to pixels of a display screen, if the first characteristic is used, display can be performed by sequentially scanning the display screen. That is, the threshold voltage Vt is applied to the element being driven in accordance with the desired light emission luminance.
h or higher, and a voltage lower than the threshold voltage Vth is applied to the non-selected elements. Then, by sequentially switching the elements to be driven, the display screen can be sequentially scanned and displayed.

Further, since the emission luminance can be controlled by using the second characteristic or the third characteristic, gradation display can be performed. (4) Structure of Multi-Electron Beam Source: Next, the structure of a multi-electron beam source in which a large number of the above-described surface conduction electron-emitting devices are arranged on a substrate and arranged in a simple matrix will be described.

FIG. 3 is a plan view of the multi-electron beam source used for the display panel of FIG. On the substrate, surface conduction type emission elements similar to those shown in FIG. 2 are arranged. These elements are wired in a simple matrix by row-direction wiring electrodes 1003 and column-direction wiring electrodes 1004. I have.

An insulating layer (not shown) is formed between the electrodes at the intersections of the row wiring electrodes 1003 and the column wiring electrodes 1004 to maintain electrical insulation. FIG. 4 shows a cross section taken along line BB ′ of FIG.

A multi-electron source having such a structure is provided in advance.
Row direction wiring electrodes 1013, column direction wiring electrodes 10
14. After forming an inter-electrode insulating layer (not shown), an element electrode and a conductive thin film of the surface conduction electron-emitting device, respectively, the row direction wiring electrode 1013 and the column direction wiring electrode 10
The device was manufactured by supplying power to each element via 14 and performing an energization forming process and an energization activation process.

As described above, in the embodiment of the present invention, as the multi-electron beam source, the above-mentioned N × M (N × M) type (N
= 3072, M = 1024).
A matrix wiring (see FIG. 120) of the row-directional wirings and the N column-directional wirings is used. The specific configuration will be described below.

(Example 1) A spacer used in this example was prepared as follows. The plate-like substrate 1 made of blue sheet glass shown in FIG. 23 was provided with rectangular irregularities by cutting. here,
The external dimensions of the plate-like substrate 1 were a length in the longitudinal direction: 40 mm, an upright width in the height direction: 3 mm, and a plate thickness: 0.2 mm. The rectangular irregularities are the face plate 1017 side and the rear plate 1
The respective edges on the 015 side are defined as h1 = 300 μm and h3 =
Processing was performed except for 200 μm. Asperity pitch and depth are 10
The actual surface area per unit area is approximately 0 μm and 25 μm, and the surface area on the face plate 1017 side (electron beam irradiated member side area) and the rear plate 1015 side (electron source side area) are both approximately based on the central area of the spacer 1020. , 2 /
It is three times.

Also, a Ti-Al alloy nitride film was formed by simultaneously sputtering Ti and Al targets on the plate-like substrate 1 by using a high-frequency power source as an antistatic film, thereby forming a spacer. At this time, the surface resistance of the high resistance film 11 in the central region of the spacer is about 2 × 10 9
Power [Ω / □], and the surface resistance at the periphery of each spacer on the face plate side and the rear plate side is approximately 1 × 10 9 [Ω]
/ □], which is almost equal to the outer surface area ratio per unit area.

As a result of measuring the thickness of the antistatic film, an average of 200 nm was obtained at the periphery of the spacer on the face plate side and the rear plate side, and several tens to 200 nm in the central region.
m. Further, here, a low-resistance film 21 was formed on the upper and lower edges of the spacer 1020 by vacuum evaporation to form an Al thin film. The low resistance film 21 is formed by the spacer 102
0 was masked, and wraparound was used to create only the margins. The low-resistance films 21 at the upper and lower peripheral portions are for ensuring electrical connection in the longitudinal direction between the face plate side 1017 and the rear plate side 1015.

Face Plate 101 in Spacer
The lengths h1 and h3 of the flat portions at the side edges on the 7th side and the rear plate 1015 side are determined by the high voltage applied to the face plate 1017 and the gap length h between the face plate 1017 and the rear plate 1015. Approximately h1, h3 = 0.01 h to h / 3, preferably, h1, h3 =
0.05 h to 0.1 h.

The spacer is connected to the metal back on the X-direction wiring and the face plate using conductive frit glass. As the conductive frit glass, a mixture of fused frit glass and conductive fine particles coated on the surface with gold is used. The conductive frit glass is used for the antistatic film on the spacer surface and the X-directional wiring or the face plate. Connected.

In this example, a display panel having spacers 1020 as shown in FIG. 2 was manufactured. Hereinafter, this will be described in detail with reference to FIGS. First,
A row-direction wiring electrode 1013, a column-direction wiring electrode 1014, an interelectrode insulating layer (not shown), and a device electrode and a conductive thin film of a surface conduction electron-emitting device are previously formed on a substrate, respectively.
The substrate is formed on a substrate 1011, and this substrate is
It was fixed to 15.

Next, among the surfaces of the insulating member 1 made of soda-lime glass, a high-resistance film 11 described later is formed on four surfaces exposed in the hermetic container, and a low-resistance film (see FIG. The spacer 1020 (height: 3 [mm], plate thickness: 200 [micrometer], length: 40 mm) on which a film (not shown) is formed
11 row-directional wirings 1013 at regular intervals on the row-directional wirings 1013.
013 was fixed in parallel.

Thereafter, a face plate 1017 (having a fluorescent film 1018 and a metal back 1019 attached to the inner surface) is disposed 3 mm above the substrate 1011 via a side wall 1016, and the rear plate 1015 and the face plate 1017 are disposed. , Side wall 1016 and spacer 1020 were fixed. Substrate 1011 and rear plate 10
15, the joint between the rear plate 1015 and the side wall 1016, and the joint between the face plate 1017 and the side wall 1016.
The 16 joints have frit glass (not shown) on them
Was applied, and baked in the air at a temperature of 400 ° C. to 500 ° C. for 10 minutes or more to seal. The spacer 10
Reference numeral 20 denotes a conductive material such as a conductive filler or metal mixed on the row wiring 1013 (line width: 300 [micrometer]) on the substrate 1011 side and on the metal back 1019 surface on the face plate 1017 side. It is arranged via a conductive frit glass (not shown), and is bonded by firing at a temperature of 400 ° C. to 500 ° C. for 10 minutes or more in the air at the same time as sealing the airtight container. Electrical connections were also made.

Note that, in this embodiment, the fluorescent film 101
As shown in FIG. 26, in FIG. 8, a stripe shape in which each color phosphor 21a extends in the column direction (Y direction) is adopted, and a black conductor 21b is provided only between each color phosphor (R, G, B) 21a. However, they are arranged so as to separate each pixel in the Y direction. The spacer 1020 is disposed via a metal back 1019 in a black conductor 21b region (line width: 300 [micrometers]) parallel to the row direction (X direction). When performing the above-mentioned sealing, the phosphors 21a of each color are used.
Since the elements must correspond to the elements arranged on the substrate 1011, the rear plate 1015, the face plate 1017, and the spacer 1020 are sufficiently aligned.

In the airtight container completed as described above,
After evacuating by a vacuum pump through an exhaust pipe (not shown) and reaching a sufficient degree of vacuum, through the external terminals Dx1 to Dxm and Dy1 to Dyn, via the row direction wiring electrode 1013 and the column direction wiring electrode 1014. Then, power was supplied to each element, and the above-described energization forming process and energization activation process were performed. This produced a multi-electron beam source.

Next, an exhaust pipe (not shown) is heated by a gas burner at a degree of vacuum of about 10 −6 [Torr], thereby welding and sealing the envelope (airtight container). went. Finally, gettering was performed to maintain the degree of vacuum after sealing.

In the image display device using the display panel as shown in FIGS. 2 and 6 completed as described above, each cold cathode element (surface conduction type emission element) 1012 has an external terminal Dx1. Through Dxm and Dy1 to Dyn, a scanning signal and a modulation signal are applied from signal generation means (not shown), respectively. Thereby, electrons are emitted.

Further, by applying a high voltage to the metal back 1019 through the high voltage terminal Hv, the emitted electron beam is accelerated, and the electrons collide with the fluorescent film 1018, so that each color phosphor 21a (R, G, The image was displayed by exciting and emitting B). The voltage Va applied to the high-voltage terminal Hv is 3 kV to 10 kV, and each wiring 101
The applied voltage Vf between 3, 1014 was 14 [V].

At this time, a two-dimensional array of light emitting spots is formed at equal intervals, including light emitting spots generated by electrons emitted from the cold cathode element 1012 located near the spacer 1020, so that a clear color image with good color reproducibility can be obtained. Display was completed. This indicates that even when the spacer 1020 was provided, no electric field disturbance that would affect the electron trajectory occurred.

As a comparative example, an image display device was prepared by using the conventional spacer shown in the embodiment.
A color image was displayed. As a result of a comparative study with the conventional example, it has been confirmed that the image forming apparatus of the present invention has obtained a color image which is not inferior to the conventional one.

Further, in the antistatic film of the spacer shown in FIG. 23, the Ti-Al alloy was formed by a reactive sputtering method, an electron beam evaporation method, an ion plating method, or an ion assisted evaporation method instead of the sputtering method. An image display device was formed by forming a nitride film, but a color image having good characteristics was obtained regardless of the method of forming the antistatic film.

(Example 2) A spacer used in this example was prepared as follows. By polishing the surface of the columnar fiber glass 1 shown in FIG. 24, irregularities (concave grooves or convex lines) that cross each other at an angle were provided. The external dimensions of the cylindrical glass 1 are a diameter: φ0.2 mm and an upright height in the height direction: 3 mm. The unevenness is a face plate 10
17 (Electron beam irradiated member side area) and rear plate 10
The end areas on the 15th side (electron source side area) are respectively h1 = 1
Processing was performed except for 00 μm and h3 = 100 μm. The actual external surface area per unit area is approximately 1/6 times as large as the end regions on the face plate 1017 side and the rear plate 1015 side based on the central region of the spacer 1020.

Then, as a result of measuring the thickness of the antistatic film, the end region of the spacer on the face plate side and the rear plate side was 200 nm on average, and several tens of
nm to 200 nm. In this embodiment, the first embodiment
A low-resistance film (not shown) was formed in the end region of the spacer in the same manner as described above.

Also, a Ti-Al alloy nitride film was formed by simultaneously sputtering Ti and Al targets on the fiber glass 1 using a high-frequency power source as an antistatic film to form a spacer. At this time, the surface resistance of the high resistance film 11 in the central region of the spacer is about 1 × 10 10 [Ω].
/ □], the surface resistance in the end region of the spacer on the face plate side and the rear plate side is approximately 1 × 10 9.
[Ω / □]. Note that the lengths of the flat portions h1 and h3 of the end regions on the face plate 1017 side and the rear plate 1015 side of the spacer: the face plate 10
17, and is determined by the gap length h between the face plate 1017 and the rear plate 1015, and is approximately h1, h3 = 0.01h to h / 3, preferably h1, h3 = 0.05h to 0.1 h.

The spacer is connected to the metal back on the X-direction wiring and the face plate using conductive frit glass. As the conductive frit glass, a mixture of molten frit glass and conductive fine particles coated on the surface with gold is used, and is electrically connected to the antistatic film on the spacer surface and the X-direction wiring or face plate. .

In this example, a display panel having spacers 1020 as shown in FIG. 25 was manufactured. Less than,
This will be described in detail with reference to FIGS. First, a row direction wiring electrode 1013 and a column direction wiring electrode 101 are previously formed on a substrate.
4. An electrode-to-electrode insulating layer (not shown), an element electrode of a surface conduction electron-emitting device, and a conductive thin film
The substrate 1011 is formed on the rear plate 10.
It was fixed to 15.

Next, among the surfaces of the insulating member 1 made of soda lime glass, a high-resistance film 11 described later is formed on four surfaces exposed in the airtight container, and a conductive film 11 is formed on the contact surface. The filmed spacer 1020 (height: 3 [mm], diameter φ200 [micrometer]) is connected to the row-direction wiring 1013 of the substrate 1011.
Above, it was fixed at equal intervals in parallel with the row direction wiring 1013.

Thereafter, a face plate 1017 (provided with a fluorescent film 1018 and a metal back 1019 on the inner surface) is disposed 3 mm above the substrate 1011 via a side wall 1016, and the rear plate 1015, the face plate 1017, Each joint between the side wall 1016 and the spacer 1020 was fixed.

Note that the substrate 1011 and the rear plate 101
5, the joint between the rear plate 1015 and the side wall 1016, and the face plate 1017 and the side wall 1
The joint of No. 016 was sealed by applying frit glass (not shown) and baking it at a temperature of 400 ° C. to 500 ° C. for 10 minutes or more in the atmosphere.

Further, the spacer 1020 is formed on the substrate 1011.
The conductive frit glass mixed with a conductive material such as a conductive filler or metal (see FIG. 4) is on the row wiring 1013 (line width: 300 [micrometer]) on the side and on the metal back 1019 on the face plate 1017 side. (Not shown), and at the same time as the sealing of the hermetic container, sintering was performed at a temperature of 400 ° C. to 500 ° C. for 10 minutes or more in the air, so that bonding and electrical connection were performed.

In the present embodiment, the fluorescent film 1018
As shown in FIG. 26, each of the color phosphors 21a adopts a stripe shape extending in the column direction (Y direction), and the black conductor 21b is formed not only between the color phosphors (R, G, B) 21a. ,
A pixel arranged so as to separate each pixel in the Y direction is also used. In addition, the spacer 1020 is disposed in the black conductor 21b region (line width 300 [micrometer]) parallel to the row direction (X direction) via the metal back 1019.
Was placed.

When the above-described sealing is performed, each color phosphor 21a must correspond to each element arranged on the substrate 1011. Therefore, the rear plate 1015, the face plate 1017, and the spacer 1020 On the other hand, sufficient alignment was performed.

In the airtight container completed as described above,
After exhausting by a vacuum pump through an exhaust pipe (not shown) and reaching a sufficient degree of vacuum, the outer terminals Dx1 to Dxm and Dy
Through 1 to Dyn, power was supplied to each element via the row wiring electrode 1013 and the column wiring electrode 1014, and the above-described energization forming process and energization activation process were performed. Thus, a multi-electron beam source was manufactured.

Next, an exhaust pipe (not shown) is welded by heating with a gas burner at a degree of vacuum of about 10 −6 [Torr] to seal the envelope (airtight container). Was. Finally, gettering was performed to maintain the degree of vacuum after sealing.

FIGS. 24 and 2 completed as described above.
In an image display device using a display panel as shown in FIG. 5, each cold cathode element (surface conduction type emission element) 101
In No. 2, electrons were emitted by applying a scanning signal and a modulation signal from signal generation means (not shown) through external terminals Dx1 to Dxm and Dy1 to Dyn, respectively. Further, by applying a high voltage to the metal back 1019 through the high voltage terminal Hv, the emitted electron beam is accelerated, and the electrons collide with the fluorescent film 1018, so that each color phosphor 21a (FIG. 24)
R, G, and B) were excited and emitted to display an image. The applied voltage Va to the high voltage terminal Hv is 3 [kV]
To 10 [kV], and the applied voltage Vf between the wirings 1013 and 1014 was 14 [V].

At this time, a two-dimensional array of light-emitting spots including light-emitting spots generated by electrons emitted from the cold cathode elements 1012 located near the spacer 1020 is formed at two-dimensional intervals, and a clear color image with good color reproducibility is obtained. Display was completed. This indicates that even when the spacer 1020 was provided, the disturbance of the electric field affecting the electron trajectory did not occur.

As a comparative example with respect to the present invention, an image display device was prepared using the conventional spacer shown in the above embodiment, and a color image was displayed. As a result of a comparative study with the conventional example, it was confirmed that the image forming apparatus of the present invention can obtain a color image which is not inferior to that of the image forming apparatus.

Further, in the antistatic film 11 of the spacer shown in FIG. 24, the Ti-Al alloy was formed by a reactive sputtering method, an electron beam evaporation method, an ion plating method, an ion assisted evaporation method, etc., instead of the sputtering method. An image display device was formed by forming a nitride film, but a color image having good characteristics was obtained without being concerned with the method of forming the antistatic film.

[0219]

As described in detail above, the present invention provides an electron source for emitting electrons in an envelope sealed in a required atmosphere, and an electron source provided in the envelope facing the electron source. An electron beam irradiation member, and a spacer disposed between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member, wherein the spacer is disposed between the electron source and the electron beam irradiation member. Regarding the unevenness of the exposed surface rising, the value of the unit real surface area along the unevenness in the central area of the exposed surface divided by the unit area of the straight plane in the central area is more than the value of the electron source side area of the exposed surface. Alternatively, the value obtained by dividing the unit actual surface area along the irregularities in the electron beam irradiation member side region by the straight plane unit area in the electron source side region and / or the electron beam irradiation member side region may be reduced. 2, the exposed surface To form the irregularities for.

Therefore, it is possible to prevent the disturbance of the electron beam near the spacer, and to configure an electron beam apparatus with good performance. Furthermore, since the spacer shape and the antistatic film also serve as the spacer electrode, the production yield is good, and unlike conventional metal, the dimensional accuracy can be relaxed, and a spacer electrode is provided on the end face of the spacer. Then, the influence of film peeling can be reduced.

[Brief description of the drawings]

FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view schematically showing a spacer according to an embodiment of the present invention and equipotential lines on the periphery thereof.

FIG. 2 is a partially broken perspective view in which a spacer according to the present invention is employed in an image display device.

FIG. 3 is a plan view showing an arrangement of electron emission portions on a substrate.

FIG. 4 is a partial cross-sectional view of a substrate of a multi-electron beam source employed in the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a plan view illustrating a phosphor array of a face plate of a display panel in the image display device.

FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the display panel along AA ′ in FIG. 2;

FIGS. 7A and 7B are a plan view and a cross-sectional view of a planar surface conduction electron-emitting device employed in the present invention.

FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view illustrating a step (1) of manufacturing the flat surface-conduction emission type electron-emitting device.

FIG. 9 is a cross-sectional view showing a step (2) of manufacturing the planar type surface conduction electron-emitting device.

FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view showing a step (3) of manufacturing the flat surface-conduction emission type electron-emitting device.

FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view showing a step (4) of manufacturing the flat surface-conduction emission type electron-emitting device.

FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view showing a step (5) of manufacturing the planar type surface conduction electron-emitting device.

FIG. 13 is an applied voltage waveform at the time of energization forming processing in an electron emission unit.

FIG. 14 is a graph showing an applied voltage waveform (a) and a change (b) of an emission current Ie in the activation process.

FIG. 15 is a sectional view of a vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device employed in the present invention.

FIG. 16 is a sectional view showing a manufacturing step (1) of the vertical type surface conduction electron-emitting device.

FIG. 17 is a sectional view showing a manufacturing step (2) of the vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device.

FIG. 18 is a cross-sectional view showing a step (3) of manufacturing the vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device.

FIG. 19 is a sectional view showing a manufacturing step (4) of the vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device.

FIG. 20 is a cross-sectional view showing a step (5) of manufacturing the vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device.

FIG. 21 is a sectional view showing a step (6) of manufacturing the vertical surface conduction electron-emitting device.

FIG. 22 is a graph showing typical characteristics of the surface conduction electron-emitting device according to the present invention.

FIG. 23 is a schematic perspective view of a spacer showing an embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 24 is a schematic perspective view of a spacer showing another embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 25 illustrates an image display device employing the configuration of FIG.
FIG. 3 is a partially broken perspective view showing the display panel.

FIG. 26 is a diagram showing another configuration example of the phosphor in the display panel according to the present invention.

FIG. 27 is a plan view showing a conventional surface conduction electron-emitting device (electron source).

FIG. 28 is a schematic sectional view showing a conventional FE element.

FIG. 29 is a schematic cross-sectional view showing a conventional MIM element.

FIG. 30 shows a display panel of a conventional image display device.
It is the perspective view which fractured partially.

FIG. 31 is a sectional view showing a conventional spacer.

[Explanation of symbols]

 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Insulating base material 11 High resistance film 21 Low resistance film 1003 Row direction wiring electrode 1004 Column direction wiring electrode 1011 Electron source substrate 1012 Cold cathode element (electron discharge part) 1013 Row direction wiring (electrode) 1014 Column direction wiring (electrode) 1015 Rear plate 1016 Side wall (support frame) 1017 Face plate 1018 Electron beam irradiated member (fluorescent film) 1019 Back metal 1020 Spacer 1101 Substrate 1102, 1103 Element electrode 1104 Conductive thin film 1105 Electron emitting section 1110 Power supply for forming 1111 Ammeter 1112 Power supply for activation 1113 Thin film 1201 Substrate 1202, 1203 Device electrode 1204 Conductive thin film 1205 Electron emission section 1206 Step forming member

 ──────────────────────────────────────────────────続 き Continued on the front page F term (reference) 5C012 AA05 BB07 5C032 CC10 5C036 EE09 EE14 EF01 EF06 EF09 EG01 EH01

Claims (13)

[Claims]
1. An electron source for emitting electrons in an envelope sealed in a required atmosphere, an electron beam irradiation member provided in the envelope opposite to the electron source, and An electron beam device having a spacer disposed between the electron beam irradiation member and the electron beam irradiation member; The unit real surface area along the irregularities in the electron source side region of the exposed surface is determined by dividing the unit actual surface area along the irregularities in the central region by the unit area of a straight plane in the central region. An electron beam apparatus, wherein the unevenness is formed on the exposed surface so that a value obtained by dividing the value by a unit area of a straight plane in a source side region becomes small.
2. An electron source for emitting electrons in an envelope sealed in a required atmosphere, an electron beam irradiated member provided in the envelope opposite to the electron source, and An electron beam device having a spacer disposed between the electron beam irradiation member and the electron beam irradiation member; The unit actual surface area along the irregularities in the electron beam irradiated member side area of the exposed surface is smaller than the value obtained by dividing the unit actual surface area along the irregularities in the central area by the unit area of the straight plane in the central area. The electron beam apparatus is characterized in that the irregularities are formed on the exposed surface so that a value obtained by dividing by a unit area of a straight plane in the electron beam irradiation member side region becomes smaller.
3. An electron source for emitting electrons in an envelope sealed in a required atmosphere, an electron beam irradiated member provided in the envelope opposite to the electron source, and the electron source. An electron beam device having a spacer disposed between the electron beam irradiation member and the electron beam irradiation member; Than the value obtained by dividing the unit real surface area along the irregularities in the central region by the unit area of the straight plane in the central region, in each of the electron source side region and the electron beam irradiated member side region of the exposed surface. The irregularities are formed on the exposed surface so that a value obtained by dividing a unit real surface area along the irregularities by a unit area of a straight plane in each of the electron source side region and the electron beam irradiation member side region is small. What you do Characteristic electron beam device.
4. The electron beam apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the unevenness on the exposed surface of the spacer is formed by a horizontal or oblique concave groove or a convex groove.
5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the spacer has conductivity, and electrically connects the electron source side and the electron beam irradiated member side. Characteristic electron beam device.
6. The device according to claim 5, wherein the spacer has an electrode for electrically connecting the electron source side and the electron beam irradiation member side, and an antistatic film is formed on the exposed surface. An electron beam apparatus characterized by the above-mentioned.
7. The antistatic film according to claim 6, wherein:
An electron beam apparatus, wherein, with respect to an exposed surface of the spacer, a sheet resistance in an electron source side region and / or a sheet resistance in an electron beam irradiation member side region is smaller than a sheet resistance in a central region of the spacer.
8. The method according to claim 7, wherein the difference in sheet resistance is such that the thickness of the antistatic film in the electron source side region and / or the electron beam irradiated member side region of the spacer is determined in the central region of the spacer. An electron beam device obtained by making the antistatic film thicker than the above.
9. The method according to claim 6, wherein the antistatic film is formed by a sputtering method, a reactive sputtering method, an electron beam evaporation method, an ion plating method, an ion assist method, a spray coating method, a dipping method. An electron beam apparatus formed by any one of the film forming methods, or a combination thereof.
10. The electron source according to claim 1, wherein the electron source is a cold cathode device, preferably a surface conduction type emission device, arranged on an electron source substrate. An electron beam apparatus characterized by the above-mentioned.
11. The electron source according to claim 10, wherein:
On the electron source substrate, a plurality of row-direction wirings and a plurality of column-direction wirings are arranged in a matrix, and a plurality of cold cathode devices, preferably surface conduction type emission devices are arranged in a simple matrix arrangement corresponding to these. Characteristic electron beam device.
12. The electron source according to claim 10, wherein:
A plurality of cold cathode devices arranged in parallel on the electron source substrate are provided with row direction wiring connected at both ends thereof, and are arranged above the cold cathode devices along a direction orthogonal to the wiring. An electron beam apparatus having a ladder-like arrangement in which electrons from the cold cathode element are controlled by electrodes.
13. The electron beam apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the irradiated member is a phosphor for forming an image.
JP2000033574A 2000-02-10 2000-02-10 Electron beam equipment Expired - Fee Related JP4481411B2 (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2002170491A (en) * 2000-09-19 2002-06-14 Canon Inc Manufacturing method for spacer used for electron beam generator, electron beam generator and image formation device using it
US7459841B2 (en) 2004-01-22 2008-12-02 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Electron beam apparatus, display apparatus, television apparatus, and spacer

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1999050881A1 (en) * 1998-03-31 1999-10-07 Candescent Technologies Corporation Structure and fabrication of flat-panel display having spacer with laterally segmented face electrode
JPH11329216A (en) * 1998-05-07 1999-11-30 Canon Inc Electron beam generating device, image forming device, and manufacture thereof
JPH11354012A (en) * 1998-06-08 1999-12-24 Canon Inc Spacer for electron beam device, spacer for image forming device, electron beam device, the image forming device, and manufacture of them

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO1999050881A1 (en) * 1998-03-31 1999-10-07 Candescent Technologies Corporation Structure and fabrication of flat-panel display having spacer with laterally segmented face electrode
JPH11329216A (en) * 1998-05-07 1999-11-30 Canon Inc Electron beam generating device, image forming device, and manufacture thereof
JPH11354012A (en) * 1998-06-08 1999-12-24 Canon Inc Spacer for electron beam device, spacer for image forming device, electron beam device, the image forming device, and manufacture of them

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2002170491A (en) * 2000-09-19 2002-06-14 Canon Inc Manufacturing method for spacer used for electron beam generator, electron beam generator and image formation device using it
US7459841B2 (en) 2004-01-22 2008-12-02 Canon Kabushiki Kaisha Electron beam apparatus, display apparatus, television apparatus, and spacer

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