JP2001210315A - Electrode for lithium secondary battery and lithium secondary battery using it - Google Patents

Electrode for lithium secondary battery and lithium secondary battery using it

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Publication number
JP2001210315A
JP2001210315A JP2000015295A JP2000015295A JP2001210315A JP 2001210315 A JP2001210315 A JP 2001210315A JP 2000015295 A JP2000015295 A JP 2000015295A JP 2000015295 A JP2000015295 A JP 2000015295A JP 2001210315 A JP2001210315 A JP 2001210315A
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thin film
silicon thin
secondary battery
lithium secondary
electrode
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Japanese (ja)
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Masao Isomura
雅夫 磯村
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Sanyo Electric Co Ltd
三洋電機株式会社
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Priority to JP2000015295A priority Critical patent/JP2001210315A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/12Battery technologies with an indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/122Lithium-ion batteries

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To obtain an electrode for a lithium secondary battery wherein charges are carried out by enhancing a current density, wherein charge and discharge capacities are high, and wherein discharge and charge cycle properties are superior.
SOLUTION: Fine crystallite silicon thin film or amorphous silicon thin film containing at least one kind of impurity selected from phosphorus, oxygen and nitrogen is used as an active substance.
COPYRIGHT: (C)2001,JPO

Description

【発明の詳細な説明】 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

【0001】 [0001]

【発明の属する技術分野】本発明は、リチウムを吸蔵・ BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention is, absorbing and lithium
放出する活物質を含むリチウム二次電池用電極に関するものである。 Active material which releases relates electrode for a lithium secondary battery comprising a.

【0002】 [0002]

【従来の技術】近年、研究開発が盛んに行われているリチウム二次電池は、用いられる電極により充放電電圧、 In recent years, lithium secondary battery research and development have been extensively conducted, due electrodes used charging and discharging voltage,
充放電サイクル寿命特性、保存特性などの電池特性が大きく左右される。 Charge-discharge cycle life characteristics, the battery characteristics such as storage characteristics greatly affected. このことから、電極活物質を改善することにより、電池特性の向上が図られている。 Therefore, by improving an electrode active material, the improvement of the battery characteristics are achieved.

【0003】負極活物質としてリチウム金属を用いると、重量当り及び体積当りともに高いエネルギー密度の電池を構成することができるが、充電時にリチウムがデンドライト状に析出し、内部短絡を引き起こすという問題があった。 [0003] The use of lithium metal as an anode active material, can be a battery of both high energy density per and volume per weight, lithium is precipitated in a dendrite form at the time of charging, there is a problem that causes an internal short circuit It was.

【0004】これに対し、充電の際に電気化学的にリチウムと合金化するアルミニウム、シリコン、錫などを電極として用いるリチウム二次電池が報告されている(So [0004] In contrast, aluminum electrochemically alloyed with lithium upon charging, silicon, lithium secondary batteries and the like as an electrode of tin has been reported (So
lidState Ionics, 113-115, p57(1998))。 lidState Ionics, 113-115, p57 (1998)). これらのうち、特にシリコンは理論容量が大きく、高い容量を示す電池用負極として有望であり、これを負極とする種々の二次電池が提案されている(特開平10−255768 Among these, silicon has a large theoretical capacity, a promising as a negative electrode for a battery exhibiting a high capacity, various secondary battery using this negative electrode has been proposed (JP-A-10-255768
号公報)。 JP). しかしながら、この種の合金負極は、電極活物質である合金自体が充放電により微粉化し集電特性が悪化することから、十分なサイクル特性は得られていない。 However, this type of alloy negative electrode, since the alloy itself is an electrode active material finely divided collector characteristics are deteriorated by charge and discharge, sufficient cycle characteristics are not obtained.

【0005】 [0005]

【発明が解決しようとする課題】本出願人は、プラズマCVD法等により、銅箔等の金属箔上に形成したシリコン薄膜をリチウム二次電池用負極として用いることにより、充放電容量が高く、かつ充放電サイクル特性に優れたリチウム二次電池とすることができることを見出した(特願平11−301679号)。 The Applicant The object of the invention is to solve the above-by a plasma CVD method or the like, by using a silicon thin film formed on a metal foil such as copper foil as a negative electrode for a lithium secondary battery, charge and discharge capacity is high, and we found that it is possible to a rechargeable lithium battery exhibiting good charge-discharge cycle characteristics (Japanese Patent Application No. 11-301679).

【0006】ところで、リチウム二次電池においては、 [0006] By the way, in the lithium secondary battery,
その他の二次電池と同様に、急速充電が可能であることが望まれており、このため高い電流密度で充電できることが求められている。 Like other rechargeable batteries, has been desired to be capable of rapid charging, it is required to be charged Thus at high current densities.

【0007】本発明の目的は、高い電流密度で充電することができ、かつ充放電容量が高く、充放電サイクル特性に優れたリチウム二次電池用電極及びこれを用いたリチウム二次電池を提供することにある。 An object of the present invention can be charged with a high current density, and charging and discharging capacity is high, a lithium secondary battery using superior electrode and this for a lithium secondary battery in the charge-discharge cycle characteristics It is to.

【0008】 [0008]

【課題を解決するための手段】本発明のリチウム二次電池用電極は、リチウムを吸蔵・放出する活物質を含むリチウム二次電池用電極であり、リン、酸素、及び窒素から選ばれる少なくとも1種の不純物を含有する微結晶シリコン薄膜または非晶質シリコン薄膜を前記活物質として用いたことを特徴としている。 The electrode for a lithium secondary battery of the present invention, in order to solve the problem] is an electrode for a lithium secondary battery comprising an active material capable of absorbing and releasing lithium, phosphorus, oxygen, and at least selected from nitrogen 1 It is characterized by using a microcrystalline silicon thin film or amorphous silicon thin film containing species impurity as the active material.

【0009】微結晶シリコン薄膜は、ラマン分光分析において、結晶領域に対応する520cm -1近傍のピークと、非晶質領域に対応する480cm -1近傍のピークの両方が実質的に検出されるシリコン薄膜である。 [0009] microcrystalline silicon thin film, in Raman spectroscopic analysis, silicon and peaks of 520 cm -1 vicinity corresponding to the crystal region, both the peak of 480 cm -1 vicinity corresponding to the amorphous region is substantially detected it is a thin film. また、 Also,
非晶質シリコン薄膜は、ラマン分光分析において、結晶領域に対応する520cm -1近傍のピークが実質的に検出されず、非晶質領域に対応する480cm -1近傍のピークが実質的に検出されるシリコン薄膜である。 Amorphous silicon thin film, in Raman spectroscopic analysis, a peak of 520 cm -1 vicinity corresponding to the crystal region is not substantially detected, the peak near 480 cm -1 corresponding to the amorphous region is substantially detected a silicon thin film that.

【0010】本発明において、上記シリコン薄膜に含まれるリンの濃度は、1×10 17 〜1×10 22 cm -3であることが好ましい。 [0010] In the present invention, the concentration of phosphorus contained in the silicon thin film is preferably 1 × 10 17 ~1 × 10 22 cm -3. また、上記シリコン薄膜に含まれる酸素の濃度は、1×10 18 〜1×10 22 cm -3であることが好ましい。 The concentration of oxygen contained in the silicon thin film is preferably 1 × 10 18 ~1 × 10 22 cm -3. また、上記シリコン薄膜に含まれる窒素の濃度は、1×10 18 〜1×10 22 cm -3であることが好ましい。 The concentration of nitrogen contained in the silicon thin film is preferably 1 × 10 18 ~1 × 10 22 cm -3. なお、リン、酸素、及び窒素のシリコン薄膜中の濃度は、二次イオン質量分析(SIMS)より測定することができる。 Incidentally, phosphorus, oxygen, and concentration in the silicon thin film of nitrogen can be measured from the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

【0011】本発明において、リン、酸素、及び窒素から選ばれる少なくとも1種の不純物(ドーパント)は、 [0011] In the present invention, phosphorus, oxygen, and at least one impurity selected from nitrogen (dopant) is
一般的な半導体薄膜への不純物のドーピングと同様の方法によりシリコン薄膜中に含有させることができる。 It can be contained in the silicon thin film by the same method as the doping of impurities into the common semiconductor thin film. 例えば、シランガスなどのシリコン薄膜原料ガス中に不純物の原料ガスを混合し、プラズマCVD法などのCVD For example, a raw material gas of impurities mixed in the silicon thin film raw material gas such as silane gas, CVD, such as plasma CVD method
法によりシリコン薄膜を形成し、シリコン薄膜中に不純物を含有させてもよい。 The silicon thin film is formed by law, it may contain impurities in the silicon thin film. また、シリコン薄膜形成後、イオン注入法などの方法により不純物を含有させてもよい。 Further, after forming a silicon thin film may contain an impurity by a process such as ion implantation. また、予め不純物を含有させたシリコンをターゲットなどとして用いて、スパッタリング法などにより、不純物を含有したシリコン薄膜を形成してもよい。 Further, by using a silicon which contains a pre impurities as such a target, by sputtering or the like, it may be formed a silicon thin film containing an impurity.

【0012】本発明においては、微結晶シリコン薄膜または非晶質シリコン薄膜を集電体上に設けることが好ましい。 In the present invention, it is preferable to provide a microcrystalline silicon thin film or amorphous silicon thin film on a current collector. シリコン薄膜を集電体上に設ける方法としては、 The silicon thin film as a method of providing on a current collector is,
集電体を基板として用い、この上にCVD法、スパッタリング法、真空蒸着法などの薄膜形成方法によりシリコン薄膜を形成する方法が挙げられる。 Using the current collector as a substrate, CVD method on this, a sputtering method, a method of forming a silicon thin film by the thin film forming method such as vacuum deposition. 集電体としては、 As the current collector,
好ましくは銅箔などの金属箔が用いられる。 Preferably a metal foil such as copper foil is used. 銅箔としては、圧延銅箔及び電解銅箔などを用いることができる。 The copper foil, or the like can be used rolled copper foil and electrolytic copper foil.
集電体に対するシリコン薄膜の密着性を高める観点からは、表面粗さRaの大きい銅箔である電解銅箔が好ましく用いられる。 From the viewpoint of enhancing the adhesion of the silicon thin film for the collector, an electrolytic copper foil is larger copper foil surface roughness Ra is preferably used.

【0013】本発明のリチウム二次電池は、上記本発明のリチウム二次電池用電極からなる負極と、正極と、非水電解質とを備えるリチウム二次電池である。 [0013] The lithium secondary battery of the present invention is a lithium secondary battery comprising a negative electrode consisting of a lithium secondary battery electrode of the present invention, a positive electrode, and a non-aqueous electrolyte. 本発明のリチウム二次電池に用いる電解質の溶媒は、特に限定されるものではないが、エチレンカーボネート、プロピレンカーボネート、ブチレンカーボネートなどの環状カーボネートと、ジメチルカーボネート、メチルエチルカーボネート、ジエチルカーボネートなどの鎖状カーボネートとの混合溶媒が例示される。 The solvent of the electrolyte used in the lithium secondary battery of the present invention include, but are not limited to, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, a cyclic carbonate such as butylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, methyl ethyl carbonate, like chain such as diethyl carbonate a mixed solvent of a carbonate are exemplified. また、前記環状カーボネートと1,2−ジメトキシエタン、1,2−ジエトキシエタンなどのエーテル系溶媒との混合溶媒も例示される。 Moreover, the cyclic carbonate and 1,2-dimethoxyethane, is also illustrated a mixed solvent of an ether solvent such as 1,2-diethoxyethane. また、電解質の溶質としては、LiPF 6 、LiB As the solute of the electrolyte, LiPF 6, LiB
4 、LiCF 3 SO 3 、LiN(CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 、Li F 4, LiCF 3 SO 3, LiN (CF 3 SO 2) 2, Li
N(C 25 SO 2 ) 2 、LiN(CF 3 SO 2 )(C 49 SO N (C 2 F 5 SO 2 ) 2, LiN (CF 3 SO 2) (C 4 F 9 SO
2 )、LiC(CF 3 SO 2 ) 3 、LiC(C 25 SO 2 ) 3 2), LiC (CF 3 SO 2) 3, LiC (C 2 F 5 SO 2) 3
など及びそれらの混合物が例示される。 Etc. and mixtures thereof are exemplified. さらに電解質として、ポリエチレンオキシド、ポリアクリロニトリルなどのポリマー電解質に電解液を含浸したゲル状ポリマー電解質や、LiI、Li 3 Nなどの無機固体電解質が例示される。 Furthermore as an electrolyte, polyethylene oxide, a polymer electrolyte such as polyacrylonitrile gel polymer electrolyte and impregnated with an electrolytic solution, LiI, inorganic solid electrolytes such as Li 3 N and the like. 本発明のリチウム二次電池の電解質は、イオン導電性を発現させる溶媒としてのLi化合物とこれを溶解・保持する溶媒が電池の充電時や放電時あるいは保存時の電圧で分解しない限り、制約なく用いることができる。 The electrolyte of a lithium secondary battery of the present invention, so long as the solvent for dissolving and holding this with Li compound as a solvent to express ionic conductivity is not decomposed by the charging or discharging time or voltage during storage of the battery, without limitation it can be used.

【0014】本発明のリチウム二次電池の正極活物質としては、LiCoO 2 、LiNiO [0014] as a positive electrode active material of a lithium secondary battery of the present invention, LiCoO 2, LiNiO 2 、LiMn 2, LiMn
24 、LiMnO 2 、LiCo 0.5 Ni 0.52 、Li 2 O 4, LiMnO 2, LiCo 0.5 Ni 0.5 O 2, Li
Ni 0.7 Co Ni 0.7 Co 0.2 Mn 0.12などのリチウム含有遷移金属酸化物や、MnO 2などのリチウムを含有していない金属酸化物が例示される。 0.2 Mn 0.1 O 2 lithium-containing transition metal oxides such as or a metal oxide not containing lithium such as MnO 2 is illustrated. また、この他にも、リチウムを電気化学的に挿入・脱離する物質であれば、制限なく用いることができる。 Also, In addition to these, if lithium is electrochemically inserted and desorbed substances, it can be used without limitation.

【0015】 [0015]

【発明の実施の形態】以下、本発明を実施例に基づいてさらに詳細に説明するが、本発明は下記の実施例の何ら限定されるものではなく、その要旨を変更しない範囲において適宜変更して実施することが可能なものである。 DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Hereinafter, will be explained in more detail with reference to the present invention embodiment, the present invention is not intended to be limited to the following examples, appropriately changed within a scope not changing the gist thereof those that can be implemented Te.

【0016】〔電極の作製〕基板として電解銅箔(厚み17μm)を用い、この銅箔の上にプラズマCVD法により微結晶シリコン薄膜を形成した。 [0016] Using the electrolytic copper foil as the substrate Preparation of Electrode] (thickness 17 .mu.m), to form a microcrystalline silicon thin film by a plasma CVD method on the copper foil. シリコン薄膜形成の原料ガスとしては、シラン(SiH 4 )ガスを用い、 As a raw material gas of the silicon thin film forming, using silane (SiH 4) gas,
キャリアガスとしては水素ガスを用いた。 As the carrier gas using a hydrogen gas. 実施例1では、シランガスに対し0.1%のPH 3ガスを混入し、 In Example 1, mixed with 0.1% of PH 3 gas to silane gas,
P(リン)ドープシリコン薄膜を形成した。 P (phosphorus) doped silicon thin film was formed. 実施例2では、シランガスに対し1%のN 2ガスを混入し、N(窒素)ドープシリコン薄膜を形成した。 In Example 2, mixed with 1% of N 2 gas to silane gas to form a N (nitrogen) -doped silicon film. 実施例3では、シランガスに対し0.3%のCO 2ガスを混入し、O(酸素)ドープシリコン薄膜を形成した。 In Example 3, mixed with 0.3% of CO 2 gas to silane gas, to form a O (oxygen) doped silicon thin film. 薄膜形成条件は、 Thin film formation conditions,
原料ガス流量:10sccm、キャリアガス流量:20 The raw material gas flow rate: 10sccm, carrier gas flow rate: 20
0sccm、基板温度:180℃、反応圧力:40P 0 sccm, substrate temperature: 180 ° C., a reaction pressure: 40P
a、高周波電力:555Wとした。 a, high-frequency power: it was 555W. 比較例1では、シランガスに不純物の原料ガスを混入させずにノンドープシリコン薄膜を形成した。 In Comparative Example 1 to form a non-doped silicon thin film without mixing the raw material gas impurities silane gas.

【0017】膜厚が2μmになるまで上記の条件で微結晶シリコン薄膜を銅箔上に堆積させた。 The thickness and the microcrystalline silicon thin film deposited on the copper foil under the above conditions until 2 [mu] m. 得られたシリコン薄膜の伝導度を測定したところ、実施例1のPドープシリコン薄膜においては10 0 cm -1 Ω -1であり、実施例2及び実施例3のNドープシリコン薄膜及びOドープシリコン薄膜においては10 -4 cm -1 Ω -1であり、比較例1のノンドープシリコン薄膜においては10 -6 cm -1 The conductivity of the resulting silicon thin film was measured, in the P-doped silicon thin film of Example 1 was 10 0 cm -1 Ω -1, N-doped silicon thin film and O-doped silicon of Example 2 and Example 3 in the thin film was 10 -4 cm -1 Ω -1, 10 -6 in the non-doped silicon thin film of Comparative example 1 cm -1
Ω -1以下であった。 Was Ω -1 or less. また、不純物含有量をSIMSにより測定したところ、実施例1〜3のいずれのシリコン薄膜においても、不純物の含有率はシリコンに対し0.1 The measured by SIMS impurity content, in any of the silicon thin film of Example 1-3, the content of impurities to silicon 0.1
%であり、その濃度は5×10 20 cm -3であった。 A%, its concentration was 5 × 10 20 cm -3. 以上のようにして微結晶シリコン薄膜を形成した各電解銅箔を2cm×2cmの大きさに切り出し、実施例1〜3及び比較例1の電極を作製した。 Cut out the electrolytic copper foil to form a microcrystalline silicon thin film as described above to a size of 2 cm × 2 cm, were produced electrodes of Examples 1 to 3 and Comparative Example 1.

【0018】〔充放電特性の測定〕上記で得られた実施例1〜3及び比較例1の電極を作用極として用い、対極及び参照極を金属リチウムとした試験セルを作製した。 [0018] Using a Charge-discharge characteristics of the measurement] obtained above Examples 1 to 3 and the working electrode of the electrode of Comparative Example 1, to produce a test cell in which a metal lithium counter electrode and a reference electrode.
電解液としては、エチレンカーボネートとジエチルカーボネートとの等体積混合溶媒に、LiPF 6を1モル/ As an electrolytic solution, an equal volume mixed solvent of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate, a LiPF 6 1 mol /
リットル溶解したものを用いた。 Used was l dissolved. なお、単極の試験セルでは作用極の還元を充電とし、酸化を放電としている。 Incidentally, in the test cells of monopolar and charge reduction of the working electrode, and the oxidized discharge.

【0019】上記各試験セルを、25℃にて、表1に示す一定の電流密度で参照極を基準とする電位が0Vに達するまで充電した後、2Vに達するまで放電を行った。 [0019] The above test cell, at 25 ° C., after the potential relative to the reference electrode at a constant current density shown in Table 1 were charged until reaching to 0V, and was discharged until reaching 2V.
この1サイクル目の充電容量及び充放電効率を測定し、 The charge capacity and charge-discharge efficiency of the first cycle was measured,
その結果を表1に示した。 The results are shown in Table 1.

【0020】 [0020]

【表1】 [Table 1]

【0021】表1に示す結果から明らかなように、本発明に従い、リン、酸素、または窒素の不純物を含有させた微結晶シリコン薄膜を活物質として用いた実施例1〜 The table from the results shown in 1 as apparent, in accordance with the present invention, phosphorus, oxygen or Example 1 using the impurity microcrystalline silicon thin film which contains a nitrogen as the active material,
3においては、充電電流密度を高くした場合にも、高い充電容量が得られている。 In 3, even when the high charging current density, high charge capacity is obtained. 特に、リンをドープした実施例1においては、良好な結果が得られている。 Particularly, in Example 1, doped with phosphorus, good results have been obtained.

【0022】上記実施例では、微結晶シリコン薄膜を活物質として用いているが、非晶質シリコン薄膜を活物質として用いた場合にも同様の効果が得られることが確認されている。 [0022] In the above embodiment uses the microcrystalline silicon thin film as an active material, the same effect in the case of using an amorphous silicon thin film as an active material is obtained has been confirmed.

【0023】 [0023]

【発明の効果】本発明によれば、高い電流密度で充電することができ、かつ充放電容量が高く、充放電サイクル特性に優れたリチウム二次電池とすることができる。 According to the present invention, can be charged at a high current density, and charging and discharging capacity is high, it can be an excellent lithium secondary battery charge-discharge cycle characteristics.

Claims (7)

    【特許請求の範囲】 [The claims]
  1. 【請求項1】 リチウムを吸蔵・放出する活物質を含むリチウム二次電池用電極において、リン、酸素、及び窒素から選ばれる少なくとも1種の不純物を含有する微結晶シリコン薄膜または非晶質シリコン薄膜を前記活物質として用いたことを特徴とするリチウム二次電池用電極。 1. A electrode for a lithium secondary battery comprising an active material for the lithium absorbing and desorbing, phosphorus, oxygen, and microcrystalline silicon thin film or amorphous silicon thin film containing at least one impurity selected from nitrogen the electrode for a lithium secondary battery, characterized by using as the active material.
  2. 【請求項2】 前記微結晶シリコン薄膜または非晶質シリコン薄膜に含まれるリンの濃度が1×10 17 〜1×1 Wherein said concentration of phosphorus in the microcrystalline silicon thin film or amorphous silicon thin film is 1 × 10 17 ~1 × 1
    22 cm -3であることを特徴とする請求項1に記載のリチウム二次電池用電極。 The electrode for a lithium secondary battery according to claim 1, characterized in that a 0 22 cm -3.
  3. 【請求項3】 前記微結晶シリコン薄膜または非晶質シリコン薄膜に含まれる酸素の濃度が1×10 18 〜1×1 Wherein the concentration of oxygen contained in the microcrystalline silicon thin film or amorphous silicon thin film is 1 × 10 18 ~1 × 1
    22 cm -3であることを特徴とする請求項1または2に記載のリチウム二次電池用電極。 The electrode for a lithium secondary battery according to claim 1 or 2 characterized in that it is a 0 22 cm -3.
  4. 【請求項4】 前記微結晶シリコン薄膜または非晶質シリコン薄膜に含まれる窒素の濃度が1×10 18 〜1×1 Wherein said concentration of nitrogen contained in the microcrystalline silicon thin film or amorphous silicon thin film is 1 × 10 18 ~1 × 1
    22 cm -3であることを特徴とする請求項1〜3のいずれか1項に記載のリチウム二次電池用電極。 0 22 cm -3 and a lithium secondary battery electrode according to claim 1, characterized in that.
  5. 【請求項5】 前記微結晶シリコン薄膜または非晶質シリコン薄膜が集電体上に設けられていることを特徴とする請求項1〜4のいずれか1項に記載のリチウム二次電池用電極。 Wherein said microcrystalline silicon thin film or a lithium secondary battery electrode according to any one of claims 1 to 4, an amorphous silicon thin film is characterized in that provided on the current collector .
  6. 【請求項6】 前記集電体が銅箔であることを特徴とする請求項5に記載のリチウム二次電池用電極。 6. The electrode for a lithium secondary battery according to claim 5, wherein the current collector is a copper foil.
  7. 【請求項7】 請求項1〜6のいずれか1項に記載の電極からなる負極と、正極と、非水電解質とを備えることを特徴とするリチウム二次電池。 7. A negative electrode made of the electrode according to any one of claims 1 to 6, a lithium secondary battery characterized by comprising a positive electrode, and a non-aqueous electrolyte.
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