JP2000348730A - Nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery - Google Patents

Nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery

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Publication number
JP2000348730A
JP2000348730A JP2000149606A JP2000149606A JP2000348730A JP 2000348730 A JP2000348730 A JP 2000348730A JP 2000149606 A JP2000149606 A JP 2000149606A JP 2000149606 A JP2000149606 A JP 2000149606A JP 2000348730 A JP2000348730 A JP 2000348730A
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
negative electrode
mixture
aqueous electrolyte
non
secondary battery
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP2000149606A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Fumiharu Iwasaki
Tsugio Sakai
Hideo Sakamoto
Shinichi Takasugi
Tsuneaki Tamachi
Kensuke Tawara
秀夫 坂本
文晴 岩崎
恒昭 玉地
謙介 田原
次夫 酒井
信一 高杉
Original Assignee
Seiko Instruments Inc
セイコーインスツルメンツ株式会社
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Seiko Instruments Inc, セイコーインスツルメンツ株式会社 filed Critical Seiko Instruments Inc
Priority to JP2000149606A priority Critical patent/JP2000348730A/en
Publication of JP2000348730A publication Critical patent/JP2000348730A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/12Battery technologies with an indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/122Lithium-ion batteries

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide a positive electrode and / or a negative electrode in a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising at least a positive electrode and a negative electrode capable of inserting and extracting lithium ions and a lithium ion conductive non-aqueous electrolyte. It is possible to improve the shortage of the binding property between fluorocarbon resin-based materials, which are widely used as a binder in the mixture, and between the mixture and the current collector. Further, the point that the resin and the solvent thereof are expensive and the battery manufacturing cost is increased is improved. SOLUTION: In a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising at least a positive electrode and a negative electrode capable of inserting and extracting lithium ions and a non-aqueous electrolyte having lithium ion conductivity, aqueous solution is contained in an electrode mixture of the positive electrode and / or the negative electrode. Contains a conductive polymer.

Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery using a material capable of inserting and extracting lithium as a positive electrode active material and a negative electrode active material, and using a lithium ion conductive non-aqueous electrolyte. The present invention relates to a configuration of an electrode having high energy density, excellent high-rate charge / discharge characteristics, and good long-term cycle characteristics.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art A nonaqueous electrolyte battery using lithium as a negative electrode active material has advantages such as high voltage, high energy density, small self-discharge, and excellent long-term reliability. It is already widely used as a power source for cameras and the like. With the remarkable development of portable electronic devices and communication devices in recent years, a variety of devices that require a large current output for batteries as power sources have appeared,
From the viewpoints of economy, reduction in size and weight of equipment, and consideration for the environment, there is a strong demand for a rechargeable and dischargeable secondary battery having a high energy density.

Therefore, a material capable of inserting and extracting lithium ions represented by a carbon material was used as a negative electrode active material.
Research and development to promote the non-aqueous electrolyte battery having a high energy density into a secondary battery have been actively conducted, and some of them have been put into practical use as "lithium ion secondary batteries".
-Density, charge / discharge cycle life, reliability, etc. are still insufficient.

[0004] The non-aqueous electrolyte used for the "lithium ion secondary battery" has a lower ionic conductivity than the aqueous electrolyte used for nickel-cadmium batteries and nickel-hydrogen batteries. For this reason, in order to obtain a high energy density, a structure is used in which an electrode sheet provided with a thin mixture layer on both sides of a current collector such as a metal foil is spirally wound several times to increase the area of the battery reaction surface. General.

[0005] The mixture is composed of an active material, if necessary, a conductive aid and a binder. The characteristics required of the binder are to securely bind and hold the components of the mixture. To bind the mixture to the current collector. To be chemically stable to the electrolytic solution (electrolyte). There are some things. In particular, when the above conditions are not satisfied, battery performance such as high rate performance and cycle characteristics due to repetition of charge / discharge are reduced.

Conventionally, as a binder for a mixture used for a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery, a dispersion of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or a fluorine resin such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) has been used. Many have been used. Fluororesin is stable against electrolyte,
Excellent heat resistance.

[0007] In particular, among the fluororesins, PVDF, which can only be made into a solution, has good coatability and is widely used in the production process of an electrode sheet in which a mixture slurry is applied on a current collector. (For example, see Japanese Patent Application Laid-Open No.
No. 4872, JP-A-5-290854, JP-A-6-1
No. 11823, JP-A-6-349482).

[0008]

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION As described above, PTFE dispersion and PV which have been frequently used as a binder
DF and the like are good binders for binding the constituents in the mixture, but have a problem that they are not optimal for binding with a current collector such as a metal foil. Also, the high cost due to the fluororesin is a problem in battery manufacturing cost. In addition, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and dimethylformamide (DMF), which are PVDF solvents, also have the following problems.

[0009] The organic solvent is expensive and increases the cost of the product. The organic solvent is likely to affect the human body in the manufacturing process. If the solvent is dried at a high temperature due to the high boiling point solvent, the thermal decomposition of PVDF occurs and the binding property is reduced.

[0010]

To solve the above problems, the present invention provides a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising at least a positive electrode and a negative electrode capable of inserting and extracting lithium ions, and a lithium ion conductive non-aqueous electrolyte. In a secondary battery, a water-soluble polymer is contained in the electrode mixture of the positive electrode and / or the negative electrode.

[0011] For this reason, since the binding property to the current collector is good and the solvent is water, it is possible to solve the above-mentioned problems such as the cost and the effect on the human body in the manufacturing process.
Further, since drying can be performed at a relatively low temperature, thermal damage to the mixture and the material constituting the sheet electrode can be minimized.

[0012]

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION As the water-soluble polymer used in the present invention, various polymers such as natural polymer and synthetic resin can be used. Examples of natural products include starch starch, modified starch, dextrin, cellulose methylcellulose, ethylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), rubber gum arabic, tragacanth gum, karaya gum, locust bean gum, guar gum and the like. can give.

In the synthetic resin system, polyvinyl alcohols, polyacrylamide, polyethylene oxide,
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, vinyl acetate copolymer, acrylic acid polymer and the like can be used.

Above all, acrylic acid polymers and CMC are preferable because they have good binding properties to current collectors of metals such as aluminum and copper.

It is effective to use a crosslinked acrylic acid polymer to further enhance the binding property. In particular, the carboxyl group content in the crosslinked acrylic acid polymer is 50 to 7
It is preferably 0%.

One of these water-soluble polymers sufficiently functions, but two or more of them may be used in combination.

The composition of the water-soluble polymer of the present invention in the mixture should be kept to the minimum amount that can maintain the binding property of the mixture and the binding property to the current collector. If the amount is excessive, problems such as a decrease in battery capacity and an increase in impedance occur. If the amount is too small, the binding property cannot be maintained. In view of these, the water-soluble polymer composition in the mixture is 0.1% (w /
w) and 20% (w / w) or less.

The positive electrode active material used in the present invention includes:
Metal chalcogenides such as TiS 2 , MoS 2 , NbSe 3 , MnO 2 , M
oO 3, V 2 O 5, Li x CoO 2, Li x NiO 2, Li x Mn 2 O metal oxides such as 4, polyaniline, polypyrrole, polyparaphenylene, conductive polymers such as polyacene, and graphite intercalation compounds For example, various substances capable of inserting and extracting lithium ions and / or anions can be used.

In particular, the electrode potential with respect to lithium metal such as metal chalcogenides and metal oxides is 2 V or more, more preferably V 2 O 5 , MnO 2 , Li x CoO 2 , Li x NiO 2 , Li x Mn 2 O 4
Combining a (noble) active material having a high potential of 3 V to 4 V or more and a negative electrode using a (base) active material having a low potential of 1 V or less with respect to metallic lithium as described later. Thereby, a secondary battery having a high energy density can be obtained, which is more preferable.

[0020] As the negative electrode active material, metallic lithium, carbonaceous materials, Li x Si, metal oxides, nitrides, silicides, carbides, Li x M y Si 1- y M y O z (0 <x ≦ 6 , 0 ≦ y <1,0 <z <2, M is a metal other than an alkali metal or a metal other than silicon), and various types of lithium ions and / or anions capable of inserting and extracting lithium ions such as silicon oxides represented by Substances can be used.

[0021] In particular, Li x M y Si 1- y M y O z (0 <x ≦ 6,0 ≦ y <
1,0 <z <2, M is a metal oxide excluding an alkali metal or a similar metal excluding silicon), and a silicon oxide or the like having a large charge / discharge capacity in a region where the electrode potential with respect to lithium metal is 1 V or less. Therefore, by combining with a positive electrode using the above-described positive electrode active material, a secondary battery with high voltage and high energy density can be obtained, which is more preferable.

As the electrolyte, γ-butyrolactone, propylene carbonate, ethylene carbonate (E
C), butylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate,
Diethyl carbonate, methylformate, 1,2-
LiClO 4 , LiP as a supporting electrolyte in a single or mixed nonaqueous organic solvent such as dimethoxyethane, tetrahydrofuran, dioxolan, dimethylformamide, etc.
An organic non-aqueous electrolyte in which lithium ion dissociable salts such as F 6 , LiBF 4 , LiCF 3 SO 3 , LiC (SO 2 CF 3 ) 3 and LiN (SO 2 CF 3 ) 2 are dissolved,
It is possible to use a non-aqueous electrolyte having lithium ion conductivity such as a solid polymer electrolyte in which the lithium salt is dissolved in a polymer such as polyethylene oxide or a crosslinked polyphosphazene or an inorganic solid electrolyte such as Li 3 N or LiI. it can.

[0023] In particular, Li x M y S described above as a negative electrode active material
a silicon oxide represented by i 1-y M y O z (0 <x ≦ 6,0 ≦ y <1,0 <z <2, and M is a metal excluding an alkali metal or a similar metal excluding silicon) When used, it is preferable to use a mixed solvent of an alkyl carbonate represented by Chemical Formula 2, such as dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate, and EC. More preferably, the volume mixing ratio of EC and R 1 R 2 type alkyl carbonate is in the range of about 3: 1 to about 1: 3.

[0024]

Embedded image The positive electrode current collector may be any material that is stable to the potential of the positive electrode active material, such as aluminum and its alloys, titanium and its alloys, and stainless steel. Examples of the form include foil, expanded metal, and the like.

The negative electrode current collector may be any material that is stable with respect to the potential of the negative electrode active material, such as copper and its alloys, nickel and its alloys, and stainless steel. Examples of the form include foil, expanded metal, and the like.

As a method of manufacturing the sheet electrode, a mixture slurry in which a mixture component such as an active material is mixed and dispersed in a solution of the water-soluble polymer of the present invention is prepared, and the mixture slurry is placed on a current collector. There is a method of coating and drying and, if necessary, rolling and fixing by a roll press or the like. In addition, various methods such as a method in which the mixture layer formed into a sheet shape is pressure-bonded to the current collector or bonded to the current collector can be used. At this time, a conductive layer using a carbon material or metal powder as a conductive filler may be provided between the current collector and the mixture layer. The electronic conductivity between the current collector and the mixture layer is improved, and an even higher performance battery is realized.

As a method of manufacturing a coin type or button type electrode, a wet method in which a mixture slurry is prepared and dried in the same manner as described above, and then crushed and granulated to form a predetermined size,
It can be produced by various methods such as a dry method in which the mixture component material containing the water-soluble polymer of the present invention is uniformly mixed and then molded.

[0028]

The present invention will be described below by way of examples. The present invention is not limited to this.

A prismatic battery was prepared as described below, and the charge / discharge characteristics were measured.

(Example 1) LiB 0.03 Co as a positive electrode active material
85 parts by weight of a composite oxide of lithium, cobalt and boron represented by 0.97 O 2 and 8 parts by weight of graphite as a conductive agent were ground and mixed in a mortar, and 7 parts by weight of PVDF as a binder were 51.3 parts by weight of NMP. Mixed and dispersed in a solution dissolved in
The positive electrode mixture slurry was prepared. This positive electrode mixture slurry is applied to both sides of a 20 μm-thick aluminum foil so that the mixture density after drying and rolling is 3.3 g / cm 3 , and the mixture thickness on one side is 60 μm. The positive electrode sheet was produced by rolling using a press. The thus prepared positive electrode sheet was
The positive electrode plate was cut into a size of 7.5 mm and 39 mm.

A negative electrode was produced in the same manner. A mixture of 45 parts by weight of commercially available silicon monoxide (SiO) as a negative electrode active material and 40 parts by weight of graphite as a conductive agent was crushed and mixed in a mortar, and 15 parts by weight of a crosslinkable acrylic acid polymer as a binder was mixed with 300 parts by weight of water. The mixture was dispersed in a solution dissolved in the mixture to prepare a negative electrode mixture slurry. This negative electrode material mixture slurry having a thickness of 1
The mixture density after drying and rolling on both sides of a 0 μm copper foil is 1.
The mixture was applied so as to have a thickness of 6 g / cm 3 and the thickness of the mixture on one side was 27 μm. After drying, the mixture was rolled using a roll press. The negative electrode sheet thus produced was cut into a size of 27.5 × 39 mm to obtain a negative electrode plate.

Fifteen positive plates and sixteen negative plates were alternately overlapped with a lithium ion permeable porous film separator interposed therebetween (the outermost electrode was a negative electrode coated with a mixture only on one side), and was made of stainless steel. Was inserted into the battery case, the lead was taken out, an electrolytic solution was injected and sealed, and a prismatic battery was produced.

The battery thus produced was subjected to three charge / discharge cycles at a constant current of 20 mA, a charge end voltage of 4.2 V and a discharge end voltage of 2.7 V. Thereafter, the battery was charged at a constant voltage and a constant current at a charging voltage of 4.2 V and a maximum charging current of 400 mA for 2.5 hours, and a discharging current of 400 mA and 600 mA
At a constant current of 2.7 V and a discharge end voltage of 2.7 V at each current value.
The charge and discharge characteristics were measured for each cycle. This discharge current 4
Discharge current 600 mA with respect to discharge capacity in the case of 00 mA
FIG. 1 shows the ratio of the discharge capacity in the case of (1). Furthermore, with a charging voltage of 4.2 V and a maximum charging current of 400 mA, a constant current and constant voltage of 2.
The battery was charged for 5 hours, and a charge / discharge cycle was performed at a constant discharge current of 400 mA and a discharge end voltage of 2.7 V. FIG. 2 shows the cycle characteristics of this charge / discharge cycle.

(Example 2) In Example 1, 45 parts by weight of commercially available silicon monoxide (SiO) was used as the negative electrode active material.
40 parts by weight of graphite as a conductive agent was crushed and mixed in a mortar, and 15 parts by weight of PVDF as a binder were mixed with NMP110.
A prismatic battery was prepared in the same manner except that the mixture was dispersed in a solution dissolved in parts by weight to prepare a negative electrode mixture slurry, and a similar charge / discharge test was performed. The resulting discharge current of 600 m with respect to the discharge capacity at a discharge current of 400 mA
FIG. 1 shows the ratio of the discharge capacity in the case of A, and FIG. 2 shows the cycle characteristics.

As is clear from FIGS. 1 and 2, by using the water-soluble polymer of the present invention as a binder, the capacity decrease during high-rate discharge was reduced. This is presumably because the impedance was reduced due to the improvement in the adhesion between the mixture and the adhesion between the mixture and the current collector. In addition, since the cycle characteristics are remarkably improved, by using the water-soluble polymer of the present invention as a binder, the adhesion between the mixture and between the mixture and the current collector is maintained even after the charge and discharge cycle. It is a result that reflects what can be done.

Further, needless to say, the performance as a battery is further improved by containing a water-soluble polymer as a binder of the positive electrode mixture.

[0037]

As described above, the present invention provides a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising at least a positive electrode and a negative electrode capable of inserting and extracting lithium ions, and a non-aqueous electrolyte having lithium ion conductivity. Or, by adopting a configuration in which a water-soluble polymer is contained in the negative electrode mixture, the battery impedance is reduced and high-rate discharge is possible. Adhesion between the mixture after the charge / discharge cycle or between the mixture and the current collector Performance can be maintained, and battery deterioration can be significantly suppressed.

[0038] The drying temperature of the mixture slurry can be lowered, and thermal damage to active materials and the like can be suppressed.

Since the solvent is water, there is little effect on the human body in the battery manufacturing process. And the like. As a result, a high quality secondary battery with high energy density and good cycle characteristics can be obtained.

[Brief description of the drawings]

FIG. 1 is an explanatory diagram comparing the ratio of the discharge capacity at a discharge current of 600 mA to the discharge capacity at a discharge current of 400 mA of the prismatic batteries manufactured in Examples 1 and 2 implemented in the present invention. .

FIG. 2 is an explanatory diagram comparing charge / discharge cycle characteristics of the prismatic batteries manufactured in Example 1 and Example 2 implemented in the present invention.

 ──────────────────────────────────────────────────続 き Continuing from the front page (72) Inventor Kensuke Tahara 1-8-8 Nakase, Mihama-ku, Chiba-city Inside Seiko Instruments Inc. (72) Inventor Hideo Sakamoto 1-8-8 Nakase, Mihama-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba Inside Iko Instruments Co., Ltd. (72) Shinichi Takasugi 45-1 Matsubara Kamiaiko, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture Inside SII Microparts Co., Ltd. (72) Tsuneaki Tamachi Aiko Kamiba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 45-1 Matsubara Inside SII Micro Parts Co., Ltd.

Claims (4)

[Claims]
1. A non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising a positive electrode capable of inserting and extracting lithium ions, a negative electrode having SiO as a negative electrode active material of a negative electrode mixture, and a non-aqueous electrolyte having lithium ion conductivity. A nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising an acrylic acid polymer in a mixture.
2. The non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to claim 1, wherein the acrylic acid polymer is a cross-linked type.
3. The non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery according to claim 1, wherein the carboxyl group content in the acrylic acid polymer is 50 to 70%.
4. A non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising a positive electrode capable of inserting and extracting lithium ions, a negative electrode having SiO as a negative electrode active material of a negative electrode mixture, and a lithium ion conductive non-aqueous electrolyte, Alternatively, a non-aqueous electrolyte secondary battery comprising polyvinyl alcohol or carboxymethyl cellulose in the negative electrode mixture.
JP2000149606A 2000-01-01 2000-05-22 Nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery Pending JP2000348730A (en)

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