JP2000073804A - Internal combustion engine and control device therefor - Google Patents

Internal combustion engine and control device therefor

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Publication number
JP2000073804A
JP2000073804A JP10247472A JP24747298A JP2000073804A JP 2000073804 A JP2000073804 A JP 2000073804A JP 10247472 A JP10247472 A JP 10247472A JP 24747298 A JP24747298 A JP 24747298A JP 2000073804 A JP2000073804 A JP 2000073804A
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JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
cylinder
compression ratio
internal combustion
combustion engine
engine
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP10247472A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Masahiko Kanehara
雅彦 金原
Original Assignee
Toyota Autom Loom Works Ltd
株式会社豊田自動織機製作所
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Toyota Autom Loom Works Ltd, 株式会社豊田自動織機製作所 filed Critical Toyota Autom Loom Works Ltd
Priority to JP10247472A priority Critical patent/JP2000073804A/en
Publication of JP2000073804A publication Critical patent/JP2000073804A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/04Engines with variable distances between pistons at top dead-centre positions and cylinder heads
    • F02B75/048Engines with variable distances between pistons at top dead-centre positions and cylinder heads by means of a variable crank stroke length
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B1/00Engines characterised by fuel-air mixture compression
    • F02B1/02Engines characterised by fuel-air mixture compression with positive ignition
    • F02B1/04Engines characterised by fuel-air mixture compression with positive ignition with fuel-air mixture admission into cylinder
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/16Engines characterised by number of cylinders, e.g. single-cylinder engines
    • F02B75/18Multi-cylinder engines
    • F02B2075/1804Number of cylinders
    • F02B2075/1816Number of cylinders four
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B2275/00Other engines, components or details, not provided for in other groups of this subclass
    • F02B2275/18DOHC [Double overhead camshaft]
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02FCYLINDERS, PISTONS OR CASINGS, FOR COMBUSTION ENGINES; ARRANGEMENTS OF SEALINGS IN COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02F1/00Cylinders; Cylinder heads
    • F02F1/24Cylinder heads
    • F02F2001/244Arrangement of valve stems in cylinder heads
    • F02F2001/245Arrangement of valve stems in cylinder heads the valve stems being orientated at an angle with the cylinder axis

Abstract

PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an internal combustion engine and a control device therefore that can change a relative position of a piston to a cylinder so that a compression ratio can be changed. SOLUTION: A floating lever 30 is connected to a first connecting rod 31 and a crank pin 23a of a crankshaft 23 so that the floating lever 30 rotates around the crank pin 23a. A piston 3 reciprocates in a cylinder 4, and a reciprocating motion of the piston 3 is taken out as a rotating motion of the crankshaft 23 through the first connecting rod 31 and the floating lever 30. A motor 37 rotates an eccentric shaft 38, through a second connecting rod 36 connected with the eccentric shaft 38, the floating lever 30 is rotated around the eccentric shaft 38 of the crank shaft 23. By changing a relative position of an upper dead center position of piston 3 to the cylinder 4 to change the compression ratio.

Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0001]

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an internal combustion engine having a variable compression ratio in a combustion chamber of a reciprocating internal combustion engine, and a control device therefor.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art In a conventional reciprocating internal combustion engine (reciprocating engine), as shown in FIG. 16, fuel is burned in a cylinder 101, heat energy is changed into reciprocating motion of a piston 102, and further, through a connecting rod 103. As a power for the rotational movement of the crankshaft 104, it is taken out. In such an engine, fuel efficiency and output are improved by increasing the thermal efficiency. As a method of increasing the thermal efficiency of the engine, the amount of air taken into the cylinder 101 is increased,
There is a method of increasing the thermal efficiency by compressing the sucked air as much as possible. That is, the thermal efficiency of the engine is improved by increasing the compression ratio.

[0003] In a gasoline engine, knocking occurs when the compression ratio is too high, and there is a limit to increasing the compression ratio. Specifically, in an engine having a supercharger such as a turbocharger, knocking is likely to occur in a high-load region, and when knocking is detected, a valve called a wastegate is opened to release exhaust energy to the atmosphere and reduce the supercharging pressure. We are dealing with it. For this reason, energy loss increases and thermal efficiency decreases.

[0004] On the other hand, in a diesel engine, the optimum compression ratio differs between when the engine is started and when it is in a steady operation.
In general, the compression ratio required to ensure low-temperature startability is higher than the compression ratio required during steady-state operation, and low-temperature startability is an essential condition. Therefore, the compression ratio is determined by low-temperature startability.

[0005] When an engine is manufactured at a compression ratio determined by the low-temperature startability and a steady operation is performed, the combustion temperature and pressure are increased due to the high compression ratio in an attempt to burn near top dead center (TDC), which is the most efficient. Rises and the NOx (nitrogen oxide) concentration in the combustion gas increases. As a countermeasure, the injection timing is controlled so as to ignite under the conditions that the temperature and pressure decrease and the generation of NOx decreases after passing TDC. are doing. For this reason, in the steady operation state, not only pumping loss and friction loss due to unnecessary extra compression, but also the period of combustion pressure acting on the piston is shortened, so that combustion energy cannot be sufficiently utilized as mechanical power, and thermal efficiency decreases. Was invited. In order to reduce the generation of NOx and increase the efficiency in the steady operation, the compression ratio may be reduced so as to perform ignition near TDC.

That is, in a reciprocating engine, if the compression ratio can be made variable according to the operating state of the engine, it becomes possible to more efficiently convert heat energy into kinetic energy. U.S. Pat. No. 2,433,639, U.S. Pat. No. 5,562,068, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,562,069 have been proposed as engines capable of changing the compression ratio.

[0007]

In U.S. Pat. No. 2,433,639, a lever member having a bearing for supporting a crank journal of a crankshaft is provided, and the crankshaft is moved by operating the lever member. The compression ratio is changed by moving the top dead center position of the piston. In this configuration, a large alternating load acts on the lever member, and it is necessary to secure the concentricity of the bearing and to secure the rigidity of the lever member. Also,
In the engine, the timing of the combustion stroke is controlled by a camshaft that rotates in synchronization with the crankshaft. However, since the relative distance between the crankshaft and the camshaft changes, it is difficult to achieve the timing of the rotation of the camshaft from the crankshaft. Become. Further, since a special joint member is used to obtain a rotational output from a moving crankshaft, it is difficult to use the same as an automobile engine due to the dimensions of the joint member itself and restrictions on use.

In US Pat. No. 5,562,068, an eccentric ring is interposed at a connection between a crankpin and a connecting rod, and the eccentric ring is selectively connected to a large end of the crankpin or the connecting rod by a connecting pin. Changing the piston stroke. In this configuration, the compression ratio is selected in two stages, and the compression ratio cannot be set arbitrarily. Further, since the switching of the connection pin is performed at the timing of the bottom dead center of the piston that operates at a high speed, it is difficult to switch the connection pin.

In US Pat. No. 5,562,069, a crankcase integrally formed with an ordinary engine and a divided cylinder block are rotatably connected. Then, by rotating the cylinder block with respect to the crankcase, the relative position between the crankshaft and the cylinder is changed, and the compression ratio is changed. In this configuration, since a portion that needs to be strictly sealed is divided in order to prevent splashing of oil and leakage of blow-by gas, the production becomes difficult. Further, since the distance between the crankshaft and the camshaft changes, it is difficult to determine the rotation timing of the camshaft from the crankshaft.

As described above, it is difficult to put any variable compression ratio engine into practical use, and it is difficult to make the compression ratio variable. Also, the efficiency of the conventional reciprocating engine is
As shown in Table 1 (quoted from the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, “Mechanical Engineering Handbook, Basic Edition / Application Edition, 1987 Edition”, B7-7), 25% to 30% for spark ignition engines and 35% to 40% for compression ignition engines.
%, But the mechanical losses are 5-6% and 5-7%, respectively.
Fig. 17 (edited by the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, “Basic
In another engine example shown in “Applied Edition 1987 Edition” B7-8), the piston and ring,
It can be seen that the loss of the piston pin and the crank pin portion accounts for about 1/3 of the mechanical loss.

[0011]

[Table 1] The cause of the friction between the piston and the cylinder side wall is that the combustion pressure and the inertial force of the piston and the connecting rod are converted into the force that pushes the cylinder side wall by the inclination of the connecting rod due to the crank motion, and the inclination of the connecting rod is reduced. It will improve.

However, if the angle is reduced without changing the crank radius, the connecting rod becomes longer, which increases the inertia force and the engine size. If the crank radius is reduced without changing the length of the connecting rod, the cylinder becomes smaller. It is necessary to make the bore large and use a short stroke combustion chamber, which greatly affects engine performance. Under such circumstances, in an automobile engine, the ratio of the piston stroke S to the crank radius R is generally selected to be around S / R = 3.2.

The present invention has been made in view of such circumstances, and a first object of the present invention is to reduce the inclination of a connecting rod without significantly changing the length of the connecting rod or the engine. . A second object is to provide an internal combustion engine capable of changing a relative position of a piston with respect to a cylinder to make a compression ratio variable, and a control device therefor.

[0014]

According to a first aspect of the present invention, there is provided an internal combustion engine for converting a reciprocating motion of a piston in a cylinder into a rotary motion of a crankshaft. The internal combustion engine is rotatably supported by an eccentric rotary portion of the crankshaft. A floating rod, a connecting rod for connecting a piston and the floating lever, and a connecting body for connecting a fulcrum provided on an internal combustion engine body to the floating lever.

According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided an internal combustion engine for converting reciprocating motion of a piston in a cylinder into rotational motion of a crankshaft, a floating lever rotatably supported by an eccentric rotating portion of the crankshaft, and a piston. And a connecting rod connecting the floating lever and the floating lever, and a rotating mechanism provided between the floating lever and the internal combustion engine main body and configured to rotate the floating lever about an eccentric rotating portion of the crankshaft. A ratio mechanism is provided, and the top dead center position of the piston can be changed by the variable compression ratio mechanism.

According to a third aspect of the present invention, in the internal combustion engine according to the second aspect, the connecting rod is swingably connected to one end of the floating lever, and the rotating mechanism is connected to the other end of the floating lever. Are swingably connected to each other.

According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, in the internal combustion engine according to any one of the second and third aspects, the rotation mechanism is rotated by the rotation drive unit and the rotation drive unit. An eccentric shaft and a connecting body having one end connected to the eccentric rotating part of the eccentric shaft and the other end connected to the other end of the floating lever.

According to a fifth aspect of the present invention, in the internal combustion engine according to any one of the second to fourth aspects, the invention is applied to a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, and the rotating mechanism and the floating lever are connected to each cylinder. Each cylinder is characterized in that the compression ratio can be changed independently.

According to a sixth aspect of the present invention, in the internal combustion engine according to any one of the second to fourth aspects, the invention is applied to a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, and one rotating mechanism common to each cylinder is provided. Thus, the floating lever provided for each cylinder can be simultaneously rotated to change the compression ratio of each cylinder at the same time.

According to a seventh aspect of the present invention, in the internal combustion engine according to the fifth or sixth aspect, in the multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, each cylinder is arranged symmetrically about the crankshaft. And

An eighth aspect of the present invention is the control apparatus for an internal combustion engine for controlling the compression ratio of the internal combustion engine according to the fifth aspect, wherein the sensor detects knocking or a precursor of knocking for each cylinder. Control means for driving a rotating mechanism to change a compression ratio for each cylinder, wherein the control means comprises:
The compression ratio of a cylinder in which knocking or a sign of knocking is detected by the sensor is reduced.

According to a ninth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a control device for an internal combustion engine for controlling a compression ratio of the internal combustion engine according to the sixth aspect, wherein knocking or knocking is performed for each cylinder or for each cylinder in common. A sensor for detecting a precursor, and control means for driving the rotating mechanism to simultaneously change the compression ratio of each cylinder, wherein the control means detects knocking of any of the cylinders or a precursor of knocking by the sensor In this case, the compression ratio of each cylinder is reduced at the same time.

According to a tenth aspect of the present invention, in the control apparatus for an internal combustion engine according to the eighth or ninth aspect, the control means is arranged to start the internal combustion engine prior to starting the internal combustion engine in order to ensure startability at low temperatures. Alternatively, at substantially the same time, the compression ratio is controlled based on at least information on the temperature of the internal combustion engine.

According to the eleventh aspect of the present invention, the piston injects fuel into the cylinder in the middle of the intake stroke or the compression stroke before reaching the ignition condition, and after the diffusion and evaporation progresses, the temperature of the cylinder due to compression is reduced. The control device for controlling a compression ratio of an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 2 to 7, which is applied to a premixed diesel engine that is ignited by rising, wherein ignition timing determining means for determining an ignition timing. And control means for driving the rotating mechanism to change the compression ratio,
The compression ratio is changed by the control means to control the ignition timing to be appropriate.

According to a twelfth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a control apparatus for controlling a compression ratio of an internal combustion engine according to any one of the second to seventh aspects, wherein the brake determines whether or not an engine brake is required. Determining means, and control means for driving the rotating mechanism to change the compression ratio, wherein the control means controls the compression ratio if engine braking is necessary based on the determination result by the brake determining means It is.

According to a thirteenth aspect of the present invention, there is provided a control device for controlling a compression ratio of an internal combustion engine according to any one of the second to seventh aspects, wherein the load determining the load state of the internal combustion engine is performed. State determination means, and control means for driving the rotating mechanism to change a compression ratio, wherein the control means determines whether the load of the internal combustion engine is low based on a result of the determination by the load state determination means. It reduces the ratio.

(Function) In the first aspect of the present invention,
Rather than connecting the connecting rod directly to the crankshaft as in the past, the floating lever is rotatably connected to the eccentric rotating part of the crankshaft, the connecting rod is connected to the floating lever, and the floating lever is connected By connecting to the body, it is possible to change the rotation radius of the eccentric rotating part of the crankshaft to a desired length without changing the stroke of the piston. That is, it is possible to change the ratio between the stroke and the crank radius (the turning radius of the eccentric rotating portion of the crankshaft) without significantly changing the length of the connecting rod or the length of the internal combustion engine body. If the crank radius is reduced without changing the stroke, the swing angle of the connecting rod is reduced as compared with the related art. Therefore, friction loss between the piston and the cylinder side wall is reduced. Reciprocation of piston (up and down)
During exercise, the piston that was pressed against one cylinder wall surface during the ascent is moved to the opposite wall surface when descending and is prevented from colliding.

According to the invention described in claim 2, when the piston reciprocates, the movement is transmitted to the floating lever connected via the connecting rod. Then, the crankshaft is rotated by the floating lever supported by the eccentric rotating part of the crankshaft rotating about the axis of the crankshaft,
It is taken out as power for the internal combustion engine. In this configuration, a rotating mechanism provided between the floating lever and the internal combustion engine body rotates the floating lever about the eccentric rotating portion of the crankshaft. Then, the relative position between the top dead center position of the piston connected to the floating lever via the connecting rod and the cylinder is moved in the movement direction of the piston. That is, the compression ratio is changed by changing the combustion chamber volume and the cylinder volume.

According to the invention described in claim 3, according to claim 2
In addition to the operation of the invention described in the above, the connecting rod is swingably connected to one end of the floating lever, and the other end of the floating lever is swingably connected to the rotating mechanism. That is, instead of connecting the connecting rod directly to the crankshaft as in the prior art, the floating lever is rotatably connected to the eccentric rotating part of the crankshaft, and the connecting rod is swingably connected to one end of the floating lever. Further, if the other end of the floating lever is swingably connected to the rotating mechanism,
The rotation radius of the eccentric rotating part of the crankshaft, that is, the crank radius can be changed to a desired length without changing the stroke of the piston. Then, if the crank radius is reduced without changing the stroke, when the piston reciprocates, the connecting end with the rotating mechanism swings to rotate the eccentric rotating portion of the crankshaft, and the connecting end with the connecting rod is rotated. The movement path of the connection end is substantially elliptical in the direction of movement of the piston.

Therefore, when the crank radius is reduced, the swinging angle of the connecting rod is reduced as compared with the prior art.
Therefore, friction loss between the piston and the cylinder side wall is reduced. In addition, during reciprocating (up and down) movements of the piston, the piston that is pressed against one cylinder wall surface during ascent is prevented from moving and colliding with the opposite wall surface when descending.

According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, when the rotary drive section drives the eccentric shaft to rotate, the floating lever connected to the eccentric rotary section via the connecting member connected to the eccentric rotary section rotates the eccentric shaft. The eccentric rotating part is rotated about a fulcrum. As a result, the compression ratio is changed by changing the relative position between the top dead center position of the piston and the cylinder.

According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, each rotating mechanism rotates a floating lever provided for each cylinder. As a result, the compression ratio of each cylinder is individually changed by each rotating mechanism.

According to the invention described in claim 6, the floating lever provided for each cylinder is simultaneously rotated by one rotation mechanism common to each cylinder. Therefore, the compression ratio of each cylinder is simultaneously changed by the rotating mechanism.

According to the seventh aspect of the present invention, in the multi-cylinder internal combustion engine in which the respective cylinders are symmetrically arranged about the crankshaft, the floating lever and the rotating mechanism are symmetrically arranged about the crankshaft. . As a result, the reciprocating motion of each piston is changed to the rotational motion of the crankshaft in a well-balanced manner.

According to the present invention, knocking or a sign of knocking for each cylinder is detected by the sensor, and the control means drives the rotating mechanism to detect the knocking or the sign of knocking. Lower. That is, the compression ratio of each cylinder is changed according to the presence or absence of knocking for each cylinder. As a result, the internal combustion engine is driven at an accurate compression ratio in which knocking is prevented, and the thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine can be improved.

According to the ninth aspect of the present invention, knocking or a precursor of knocking is detected for each cylinder or for each cylinder in common by the sensor, and the control means drives the rotating mechanism to perform knocking or knocking. When a precursor is detected, the compression ratio of each cylinder is reduced at the same time. That is, the compression ratio of each cylinder is simultaneously changed depending on the presence or absence of knocking. As a result, the internal combustion engine is driven at an accurate compression ratio in which knocking is prevented, and the thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine can be improved.

According to the tenth aspect, the compression ratio is controlled by the control means based on at least information on the temperature of the internal combustion engine prior to or almost simultaneously with the start of the internal combustion engine. As a result, startability at low temperatures is ensured, and thermal efficiency during normal operation is improved. .

According to the eleventh aspect, in the premixed diesel engine, the ignition timing is determined by the ignition timing determination means, and the compression ratio is controlled by the control means based on the ignition timing. That is, the compression ratio is changed so that the ignition timing becomes optimum, and the emission in the exhaust gas can be reduced. Specifically, the piston injects fuel into the cylinder before reaching the ignition condition in the middle of the intake stroke or the compression stroke, and the timing suitable for the temperature rise in the cylinder due to compression after the diffusion and evaporation of the fuel proceeds. It is possible to cause self-ignition.

According to the twelfth aspect of the present invention, the brake determining means determines whether or not the engine brake is necessary, and when it is determined that the engine brake is necessary based on the determination result by the brake determining means, the control means Control the compression ratio so that appropriate engine braking works. In other words, the amount of friction loss and the amount of pumping loss of the piston are changed, and the degree of use of the engine brake during traveling is adjusted.

According to the thirteenth aspect, when the load state of the internal combustion engine is determined to be a low load state based on the determination result by the load state determination means, the control means reduces the compression ratio. As a result, the friction loss and the pumping loss of the piston are reduced by lowering the compression ratio. Specifically, in a low load state, if the compression ratio of the cylinder to which the supply of fuel is stopped is reduced, the friction loss and the pumping loss of the piston can be reduced.

[0041]

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS (First Embodiment) An embodiment in which the present invention is applied to an in-line four-cylinder gasoline engine mounted on an automobile will be described in detail with reference to FIGS.

FIG. 1 is a schematic sectional view of a gasoline engine 1 as a variable compression ratio engine according to the present embodiment, and FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of a main part of the present invention in FIG. FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the floating lever 31 in the present embodiment.

As shown in FIG. 1, a cylinder block 2 of an engine 1 as an internal combustion engine is formed with a cylindrical cylinder 4 in which a piston 3 reciprocates (up and down), and the inner wall of the cylinder 4 reciprocates the piston 3. A cylinder liner 5 is provided to withstand wear due to movement. Piston 3
There are provided three piston rings 6 on the upper side, the piston rings 6 seal the gap between the piston 3 and the cylinder 4 to prevent gas leakage, and leave the lubricating oil on the wall of the cylinder 4 in the combustion chamber. It plays the role of scraping it off.

A water jacket 7 is formed around the cylinder 4.
Cooling water for maintaining the temperature of the engine 1 at a temperature suitable for operation is circulated, and the cylinder 4 and the cylinder head 8 heated by combustion are cooled.

The cylinder head 8 is provided above the cylinder block 2, and a combustion chamber 9 is formed between the cylinder head 8 and the piston 3. The cylinder head 8 is provided with an intake port 10 and an exhaust port 11 that communicate with the combustion chamber 9.
1 is provided with an intake valve 12 and an exhaust valve 13 respectively. More specifically, the intake valve 12 is constantly urged in the closing direction by the valve spring 14, and the cam 16 of the intake camshaft 15 is pushed and opened by pressing the arm 17. That is, the intake valve 12
The communication between the intake port 10 and the combustion chamber 9 in the cylinder 4 is interrupted by the opening and closing drive of the cylinder. On the other hand, the exhaust valve 13 is constantly urged in the closing direction by the valve spring 18, and the cam 20 of the cam shaft 19 for exhaust is pressed and opened by pressing the arm 21. That is, the exhaust valve 1
The exhaust port 11 and the combustion chamber 9 in the cylinder 4 are communicated and shut off by the opening / closing drive of the cylinder 3. Further, an electrode of the ignition plug 22 is provided between the intake valve 12 and the exhaust valve 13 so as to be exposed to the combustion chamber 9. The camshaft 1
5, 19 make one rotation while the crankshaft 23 makes two rotations.

The crankshaft 23 is rotatably mounted on the lower part of the cylinder block 2, that is, by using a slide bearing (not shown) provided on the crankcase 24. The lower part of the crankcase 24 is for storing lubricating oil. An oil pan 25 is provided.

Note that the engine 1 of the present embodiment is provided with a turbocharger (turbocharger) 26. The turbocharger 26 includes a turbine 27 that is rotated by exhaust gas discharged from the exhaust port 11 and a compressor (not shown) provided coaxially with the turbine 27. Then, the intake air pressurized by the rotation of the compressor is supplied from the intake port 10 to each cylinder 4.
The exhaust gas passing through the turbine 27 is sent to an exhaust pipe (not shown). That is, by compressing the air supplied to the cylinder 4 by the supercharger 26, the actual compression ratio is increased to increase the output.

Here, the combustion chamber 9 of the gasoline engine 1
The four strokes of intake, compression, combustion / expansion, and exhaust will be briefly described. As described above, the rotation of the camshafts 15 and 19 in synchronization with the rotation of the crankshaft 23 causes the intake valve 12 and the exhaust valve 13 to be opened and closed at a predetermined timing, so that the intake stroke, the compression stroke, the expansion stroke, and the exhaust stroke are performed. Done.

First, in the intake stroke, the intake valve 12 is opened from the state where the intake valve 12 and the exhaust valve 13 are closed, and the air-fuel mixture is reduced by the inertia force from the top dead center to the bottom dead center. And the intake valve 12 is closed. In the subsequent compression stroke, the piston 3 rises and the air-fuel mixture is compressed. Next, in the expansion stroke, when the piston 3 rises near the top dead center, the ignition plug 22
As a result, the compressed air-fuel mixture is blown off and the compressed air-fuel mixture is burned. In the subsequent exhaust stroke, the exhaust valve 13 is opened when the piston 3 falls near the bottom dead center, and the combustion gas is discharged from the exhaust port 11 by the piston 3 rising to the top dead center. The ignition timing of the ignition plug 22 is determined by a known method according to parameters such as the engine speed and the engine load at that time by electronic control.

As described above, the air-fuel mixture of each cylinder is sequentially burned, the piston 3 is reciprocated by the expansion force of the combustion gas, and this is taken out as the power of the rotational movement of the crankshaft 23.

In this embodiment, as shown in FIG. 1, a first connecting rod 30 and a floating lever 31 are used to change the reciprocating motion of the piston 3 into the rotating motion of the crankshaft 23. More specifically, as shown in FIG.
The end 30a of the connecting rod 30 is rotatably coupled to the piston 3 by a piston pin 32, and the end 30b of the first connecting rod 30
2 is rotatably connected to a forked connecting end 31a of the floating lever 31 via a support pin 33, as shown in FIGS.

A circular bearing 31b is formed at the center of the floating lever 31. The floating lever 31 is attached to the crankshaft 23 with the crankpin 23a of the crankshaft 23 inserted into the bearing 31b. Can be Specifically, the cap portion 31c is rotatably connected by the bolt 35 with the crank pin 23a of the crank shaft 23 sandwiched therebetween, and the floating lever 31 is formed.

Further, the bifurcated connection end 31d of the floating lever 31 is rotatably connected to the small end 36a of the second connecting rod 36 via the support pin 34.
Of the connecting rod 36 of the motor 3
7 rotatably connected to an eccentric shaft 38 driven to rotate. That is, the second connecting rod 36
As shown by a two-dot chain line in FIG. 2, the floating lever 31 is pivotable with the small end 36 a swinging about the large end 36 b as a fulcrum.
Is connected to the connection end 31d. The motor 37 is fixed to the cylinder block 2 by bolts 39 and is electrically connected to a battery (not shown).

In the present embodiment, the first connecting rod 30 is used as the connecting rod. The rotating mechanism includes a second connecting rod 36 as a connecting body and a motor 37 as a rotation driving unit.
And an eccentric shaft 38. Further, the rotation mechanism, the floating lever 31 and the first connecting rod 30 constitute a variable compression ratio mechanism.

The floating lever 31 described above is provided for each cylinder as shown in FIG. FIG. 4 shows each of the pistons 3 as a starting point, the piston 3 -the first connecting rod 30 -the floating lever 31 -the second connecting rod 3
6 shows a schematic configuration diagram of the gasoline engine 1 deployed along 6. Further, in the present embodiment, for convenience, each of the pistons 3 is connected to the crank pin 23a of the crankshaft 23 by pairing the cylinder # 1 and the cylinder # 3, and the cylinder # 2 and the cylinder # 4, and the cylinder # 1 → the cylinder # The ignition is performed in the order of 2 → cylinder # 3 → cylinder # 4. Specifically, the cylinder # 1 is in an intake TDC (top dead center) state immediately before the intake valve 12 is opened, and the cylinder # 2 is in an exhaust BDC (bottom dead center) state. Cylinder # 3 is in an expanded intake TDC state, and cylinder # 4 is in a compressed BDC state immediately before intake valve 12 is closed.

As shown in FIGS. 4 and 6, a drive shaft 37a of a motor 37 is connected to the eccentric shaft 38.
As shown in the figure, the large end 36b of the second connecting rod 36 is rotatably connected to the eccentric rotating part 38a of the eccentric shaft 38. When the drive shaft 37a of the motor 37 is driven to rotate, the eccentric shaft 38 rotates about the axis A shown in FIG. That is, the eccentric rotation part 38a (center point B) rotates about the axis A of the eccentric shaft 38. The eccentric shaft 3
Reference numeral 8 is rotatably supported by a bearing 39a (see FIG. 3) fixed to the cylinder block 2.

The motor 37 is connected to a controller 40 as shown in FIG. 4, and is driven and controlled by a control signal from the controller 40. Further, the controller 40 includes a knock sensor 41, a rotation speed sensor 42, an intake pressure sensor 4
3, each sensor 4 is connected to a water temperature sensor 44, an accelerator sensor 45, a shift position sensor 46, a vehicle speed sensor 47, and the like.
1, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47 detect the engine state.

More specifically, knock sensor 41 is connected to cylinder 4
And detects a vibration based on knocking generated in the engine 1 and outputs a knock signal. The rotation speed sensor 42 is provided, for example, so as to be able to detect the rotation of the crankshaft 23, and detects the engine rotation speed from the rotation of the crankshaft 23. The intake pressure sensor 43 detects the pressure in the intake pipe,
The water temperature sensor 44 detects the temperature of the cooling water. The accelerator sensor 45 detects the amount of depression of the accelerator, and the shift position sensor 46 detects the shift position of the transmission. The vehicle speed sensor 47 is provided near the transmission and detects the vehicle speed.

The controller 40 includes a central processing unit (CPU), a read-only memory (ROM) storing a control program, a readable and writable memory (RAM) for temporarily recording data, an I / O interface, and the like. , Each sensor 41, 42, 43, 44, 4
5, 46, and 47, that is, a knock signal, an engine speed, an intake pressure, a water temperature, an accelerator pedal depression amount, a shift position, a vehicle speed, and the like are read. As described above, in the present embodiment, as the control device of the engine 1, the controller 40, the knock sensor 41, the rotation speed sensor 42, the intake pressure sensor 43, the water temperature sensor 44,
An accelerator sensor 45, a shift position sensor 46, and a vehicle speed sensor 47 are used.

Next, the piston 3, the first and second connecting rods 3 when the crankshaft 23 makes one rotation,
0, 36 and the movement of the floating lever 31 are shown in FIGS.
This will be described in detail with reference to FIG. As shown in FIGS. 5A to 5D, when the center point C of the piston pin 32 moves up and down the movement path R1, the center point D of the support pin 33 moves clockwise along the substantially elliptical movement path R2. Move in the direction. At this time,
The center point E of the crankpin 23a rotates clockwise in a circular movement path R3 around the axis F of the crankshaft 23, and the center point G of the support pin 34 is
8 oscillates along an arc-shaped movement path R4 about the center point B of the eccentric rotation part 38a.

More specifically, as shown in FIGS. 5 (a) and 5 (c), the vertical distance (the piston 3
Of the moving path R2 is substantially equal to the length of the moving path R2 in the major axis direction, and as shown in FIGS. 5B and 5D, the diameter of the moving path R3 is longer than the length of the moving path R2 in the short axis direction. It is almost equal to. 5B and FIG.
As shown in (d), the diameter of the moving route R3 and the moving route R
4, the distance between both ends is almost equal.

As described above, if the reciprocating motion of the piston 3 is changed to the rotational motion of the crankshaft 23 using the floating lever 31, the crankpin 23a of the crankshaft 23
Can have a desired turning radius. That is, as in the present embodiment, the rotation radius of the crank pin 23a of the crank shaft 23 (the radius of the movement path R3) is determined by the stroke S of the piston 3.
The crank journal 23b and the crankpin 23, which are the main shafts of the crankshaft 23,
a is close to each other, and the rigidity of the crankshaft 23 can be maintained.

Further, as shown in FIG. 1, the end 30b of the first connecting rod 30 performs a substantially elliptical movement having its major axis in the movement direction of the piston 3, so that the swing angle θ1 of the first connecting rod 30 Is smaller than the swing angle θ2 of the conventional connecting rod 103 directly connected to the crankshaft 104 shown in FIG. 16, and the friction loss and the pumping loss between the piston 3 and the cylinder 4 can be reduced.

Here, the operation of varying the compression ratio in the engine 1 of the present embodiment will be described in detail with reference to FIG. In FIG.
The movement of the points A to G and the movement paths R2 to R4 described above when the motor 37 is rotationally driven to change the compression ratio is shown.

When the eccentric shaft 38 is driven to rotate by the motor 37 and the center point B of the eccentric rotating portion 38a moves to B1 about the axis A of the eccentric shaft 38 as shown in FIGS. Is moved to G1. That is, the movement route R4 moves. Then, the center point D of the support pin 33 moves to D1. That is, the movement path R2 at the end of the floating lever 31 moves downward. As described above, the floating lever 31 rotates about the crank pin 23a as the eccentric rotating part of the crank shaft 23, and the movement moves the center point C of the piston pin 32 to C1. That is, the relative position between the top dead center and the bottom dead center of the piston 3 and the cylinder 4 moves downward, and the compression ratio decreases.

As shown in FIG. 7, even when the motor 37 is operated to change the compression ratio, the movement path R3 of the center point E of the crank pin 23a does not change, and the stroke of the piston 3 is further reduced. S is kept almost constant. As shown in FIG. 2, in the floating lever 31 of the present embodiment, the center point D of the support pin 33, the center point E of the bearing 31b (crank pin 23a), and the center point G of the support pin 34 are on a straight line. The distance between the point D and the point E and the distance between the point G and the point E are designed to be equal.
When the center point B of a moves upward by the distance x as shown in FIG. 7, the center point C of the piston pin 32 moves downward by the distance x. That is, the top dead center position and the bottom dead center position of the piston 3 are moved downward by the distance x, and the compression ratio is reduced. In the present embodiment, the distance between the point D and the point E and the distance between the point G and the point E are equal, but the present invention is not limited to this.

Next, the change of the compression ratio will be described in more detail. The displacement was 1800 cc (4 per cylinder).
The case where the cross-sectional area obtained from the inner diameter (bore) of the cylinder 4 is 50 cm @ 2, the stroke S is 90 mm, and the compression ratio is changed from 10 to 8 will be described as an example.

Assuming that the displacement between the axis A of the eccentric shaft 38 and the center point B of the eccentric rotating part 38a is the amount of eccentricity e, the motor 37
Accordingly, the point B can be moved by the distance 2e. In this embodiment, the distance between the points D and E and the distance between the points G and E are designed to be equal to each other, as described above. The top dead center and the bottom dead center can be moved by 2e. The compression ratio is obtained from the cylinder capacity / combustion chamber capacity. When the compression ratio = 10, the capacity of the combustion chamber 9 is 50 cc.
Becomes

The eccentricity e of the eccentric shaft 38 for changing the compression ratio from 10 to 8 can be obtained by the following equation. 8 = (500 + 2e × 50) / (50 + 2e × 50) e = 0.143 (cm) = 1.43 (mm) As described above, the eccentric shaft 38 having the eccentric amount e = 1.43 mm is rotationally driven to compress. The ratio can be changed to 10-8. That is, it can be seen that a large change in the compression ratio is possible with a small amount of eccentricity. In addition, the eccentric shaft 3
8 can be arbitrarily changed steplessly within the range of the compression ratio. The range of the compression ratio can be set to a practically preferable value by changing the shape of the floating lever 31 and the amount of eccentricity of the eccentric shaft 38.

Next, the operation of the controller 40 for controlling the gasoline engine 1 thus configured will be described with reference to FIG.
This will be described with reference to FIG. FIG. 8 is a flowchart showing the processing executed by the controller 40. First, step 10
At 0, the controller 40 detects the engine state. Specifically, knock sensor 41, rotation speed sensor 42,
Intake pressure sensor 43, water temperature sensor 44, accelerator sensor 4
5. Each signal detected from the shift position sensor 46 and the vehicle speed sensor 47, that is, a knock signal, an engine speed, an intake pressure, a water temperature, an accelerator depression amount, a shift position, and a vehicle speed are read. Here, for example, when it is determined that the vehicle is traveling under a medium load state, the controller 40 determines that there is no knocking in step 101, and proceeds to step 10
In step 2, it is determined that the engine brake is unnecessary. Further, in step 103, the load of the engine 1 is determined, and the process proceeds to step 104 as normal control. Then, in step 104, the controller 4 as a control means
A value of 0 calculates a compression ratio with the highest thermal efficiency based on each signal, that is, the engine speed, intake pressure, water temperature, accelerator depression amount, and the like, and drives the motor 37 to achieve the compression ratio. More specifically, the operating state of the engine 1 is detected by each of the sensors 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47 and the like, and data obtained in advance such as an output, a fuel consumption rate, and a level of an exhaust gas pollutant, or Each sensor 41, 42,
The optimum compression ratio is selected according to the operating data obtained directly or by the substitute characteristics by 43, 44, 45, 46, 47 and the like.

On the other hand, if it is determined in step 101 that knocking has occurred, the routine proceeds to step 110, where the controller 40 as a control means drives the motor 37 as control during knocking, and as described above, 3
Lowering the top dead center and the bottom dead center of the lower compression ratio. Abnormal combustion which causes knocking due to the reduction of the compression ratio is prevented.

When the controller 40 as the brake determining means determines in step 102 that engine braking is necessary, for example, the vehicle speed is not less than a predetermined vehicle speed determined for each shift position based on the shift position sensor 46, and If it is determined from the detection signal of the accelerator sensor 45 that the accelerator pedal has not been depressed, the process proceeds to step 120 to perform engine brake control. Specifically, first, as a normal engine brake control, for example, the fuel injection of each cylinder of the engine 1 is stopped. (However, the fuel may be cut off only for a part of the cylinders, or the fuel injection amount may be corrected to a reduced side. In short, the fuel injection amount may be reduced as long as the output torque is reduced.) The controller 40 calculates a suitable compression ratio based on the engine state based on the engine speed, the accelerator depression amount, the vehicle speed, and the like, and drives the motor 37 to achieve this compression ratio. That is, by changing the compression ratio, the friction loss and the pumping loss of the piston 3 are changed, and the degree of engine braking is adjusted.

Further, when the controller 40 as the load state determining means determines in step 103 that the load of the engine 1 is in a low load state, that is, at the time of low output of the engine 1 such as at the time of idling, the controller 40 determines the friction loss. The motor 37 is driven to reduce the pumping loss and the compression ratio.

In this embodiment, the engine 1
The motor 37 is driven at an appropriate timing before, during, and after the operation of the motor, and the compression ratio is arbitrarily selected within a certain range.

Here, an example of a specific operation will be described.
When the rotation speed of the engine 1 becomes high, the supercharging pressure is increased by the supercharger 26 and the actual compression ratio is increased. Therefore, the air-fuel mixture burns in a short time, the combustion pressure is increased, and the torque and output are increased. Furthermore, if the supercharging pressure by the supercharger 26 is increased due to high rotation, the air-fuel mixture becomes high temperature and high pressure, and knocking easily occurs. However, the controller 40 drives the motor 37 to reduce the compression ratio to an appropriate compression ratio. By setting the temperature and pressure of the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder 4 to appropriate values, knocking is prevented and the thermal efficiency of the engine 1 is improved. Even if knocking occurs, step 1
If the controller 40 stores the compression ratio in the engine state in which knocking has occurred in the knocking control 10 and controls the compression ratio based on the stored compression ratio in the engine state, the middle / high Since it becomes possible to drive the engine 1 in a state immediately before knocking occurs at the time of load, the output can be significantly improved. Further, in the low load state, the compression ratio is reduced to reduce the friction loss and the pumping loss so as to improve the fuel efficiency, so that the optimum output state of the engine 1 is maintained.

As described above, the present embodiment has the following features. (1) When the piston 3 shown in FIG. 1 reciprocates, the motion is transmitted to the floating lever 31 connected via the first connecting rod 30. When the floating lever 31 attached to the crank pin 23a of the crank shaft 23 rotates about the axis F of the crank shaft 23, the crank shaft 23 is rotated, and is taken out as engine power. In this configuration, the motor 37 is operated and the eccentric shaft 3
7, the eccentric rotating portion 38a (center point B) of the eccentric shaft 38 rotates around the axis A of the eccentric shaft 38, and the second eccentric rotating portion 38a connected to the eccentric rotating portion 38a as shown in FIG. The connecting rod 36 moves. as a result,
The connecting end 31d (the center point G of the support pin 34) of the floating lever 31 connected to the small end 36a of the second connecting rod 36 moves in the movement direction of the piston 3. Then, the connecting end 31a (the center point D of the support pin 33) of the floating lever 31 rotates about the crank pin 23a (the center point E) of the crankshaft 23, and the floating lever 31 and the first
The relative position between the top dead center position of the piston 3 and the cylinder 4 connected via the connecting rod 30 of the piston 3
Move in the direction of motion. That is, the compression ratio is changed by changing the combustion chamber volume and the cylinder volume.

Therefore, without changing the relative position of the crankshaft 23 with respect to the camshafts 15 and 19 as in US Pat. Nos. 2,433,639 and 5,562,069.
The compression ratio can be made variable. In the present embodiment, the floating lever 31 can be used without using a large-scale device.
The compression ratio can be changed using the second connecting rod 36, the motor 37, and the eccentric shaft 38, and the rigidity of the engine can be maintained as usual. Further, it is not necessary to divide the crankcase 24 and the cylinder block 2 as in U.S. Pat. No. 5,562,069, and oil and blow-by gas can be hermetically sealed as in the prior art. Further, as in U.S. Pat. No. 5,562,068, the compression ratio is not changed in two steps, but the compression ratio can be arbitrarily changed according to the displacement of the eccentric rotating part 38a of the eccentric shaft 38 (for example, x in FIG. 7). it can.

Further, a floating lever 31 for transmitting a force by bending stress during transmission of the combustion pressure to the crankshaft 23.
As a result, vibration accompanying combustion is absorbed, and noise can be reduced.

(2) Conventionally, as shown in FIG. 16, the connecting rod 103 is directly connected to the crankshaft 104 to change the reciprocating motion of the piston 102 into the rotating motion of the crankshaft 104. The stroke causes the crankpin 1 on the crankshaft 104 to move.
The turning radius (crank radius) of 04a was determined.
However, by newly providing the floating lever 31 between the first connecting rod 30 and the crankshaft 23, the turning radius of the crankpin 23a can be set to a desired length. Specifically, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, the bearing 31 b of the floating lever 31 is rotatably attached to the crank pin 23 a of the crankshaft 23, and the first end 31 a of the floating lever 31 is attached to the first end 31 a of the floating lever 31. In a state in which the other end 31d of the floating lever 31 can swing in a direction substantially perpendicular to the direction of movement of the piston 3, that is, on the movement path R4 shown in FIG. The small end portion 36a of the second connecting rod 36 is movable.
Is connected to the crank pin 23 of the crank shaft 23 without changing the stroke S of the piston 3.
The turning radius of a can be changed to a desired length.

Then, as in the present embodiment, the crankshaft 2
If the rotation radius of the third crank pin 23a is reduced, when the piston 3 reciprocates, the movement path R2 of the connecting end 31a of the floating lever 31 connected to the first connecting rod 30 moves along the movement path R2 of the piston 3. It can be substantially elliptical in the direction. For details, see Piston 3
2 is changed to the rotational movement of the crank pin 23a of the crank shaft 23, that is, the crank pin 23a is
The connecting end 31d of the floating lever 31 swings in a direction approaching and separating from the axis F of the crankshaft 23 so as to rotate on the circular movement path R3 around the axis F of the crankshaft 23 shown in FIG. . That is, the connection end 31d is
Swings in a direction substantially perpendicular to the movement direction of the piston 3, and the movement path R2 has a substantially elliptical shape long in the movement direction of the piston 3.

Therefore, the crankpin 2 of the crankshaft 23
If the turning radius of 3a is reduced, the swing angle θ1 of the first connecting rod 30 shown in FIG. 1 becomes the swing angle θ2 of the connecting rod 103 of FIG.
Therefore, the friction loss between the piston 3 and the cylinder 4 can be reduced. Further, since the swing angle θ1 of the first connecting rod 30 is reduced, the piston slap (side knock) in which the piston 3 collides with the side wall of the cylinder 4 can be reduced. As a result, wear of the cylinder 4 and the piston ring 6 can be reduced,
The durability of the engine 1 can be improved.

Further, the crankpin 2 of the crankshaft 23
3a, the radius of rotation of the crank pin 23a can be reduced.
a and the crank journal 23b as the main shaft can be largely overlapped, so that the rigidity of the crank shaft 23 can be improved. Further, the height dimension of the engine 1 can be reduced by an amount corresponding to the reduced crank radius.

(3) The eccentric shaft 38 is rotationally driven by the motor 37, so that the floating lever 31 provided for each cylinder can be simultaneously rotated, and the compression ratio of each cylinder can be simultaneously changed. As a result, the motor 37 and the eccentric shaft 38 can be used in common, so that the number of parts is reduced, and the engine 1 is made compact, and both output and fuel efficiency can be improved.

(4) In the engine without the supercharger 26, knocking can be suppressed by delaying the ignition timing by using the retarding device, but in the engine with the supercharger 26, However, because of the influence of the supercharging pressure, it was not possible to control knocking sufficiently with the ignition timing control by the retarding device, and to cope with the problem by lowering the supercharging pressure using the wastegate, the energy loss increased, In this embodiment, when knocking is detected, knocking can be prevented by controlling the combustion pressure and temperature by reducing the compression ratio without using a wastegate. Therefore, the engine 1 is driven at an accurate compression ratio in which knocking is prevented, and the thermal efficiency can be improved. In order to bring out the low rotation characteristics of the engine 1, the turbocharger 26 tends to be of a small size and small capacity, and cannot exhaust the entire amount of exhaust gas at high load and high rotation, so that excess exhaust gas is released. Although it is often not possible to abolish the wastegate because of necessity, it is not necessary to open the wastegate in order to prevent knocking caused by excessive intake air supply, and an engine system utilizing the performance of the supercharger 26 can be realized.

(5) The controller 40 determines whether or not the engine brake is required. When the controller 40 determines that the engine brake is required, the controller 40 drives the motor 37 to control the compression ratio, whereby the friction loss amount of the piston 3 and the By changing the amount of pumping loss, the degree of engine braking can be adjusted.

(6) When the controller 40 determines that the engine load is low, the motor 3
7 to lower the compression ratio. That is, the friction loss and the pumping loss of the piston 3 are reduced by the reduction of the compression ratio.

(7) By using together with a supercharger (turbocharger) 26 that regenerates exhaust energy, a large amount of air is taken in, and the compression ratio is controlled to be low in a high load state where the supercharging pressure becomes higher than necessary. As a result, the same amount of fuel is consumed as in a large displacement engine. Therefore, since the amount of exhausted energy can be used as a force to regenerate and compress intake air by using the supercharger 26, the same output as the large displacement engine can be realized by the small engine 1. In other words, high power that makes full use of the maximum intake amount can be realized. The effect is particularly large in engines such as ships and generators that are operated at a constant speed under a high load.

(8) Since the motor 37 is driven by a battery irrespective of whether the engine 1 is driven or not, the compression ratio should be changed at any timing including before, during and after the operation of the engine 1. Can be.

(9) As shown in FIG. 1, the end 30b of the first connecting rod 30 can be connected to the connecting end 31a of the floating lever 31 without being divided, as shown in FIG. The advantages such as cost and manufacturing accuracy are greater than the connecting rod 83 in which the large end portion 83a is divided.

(Second Embodiment) Next, a second embodiment in which the present invention is embodied in a four-cylinder direct injection diesel engine mounted on an automobile will be described with reference to FIGS. 9 and 10. . The same components as those in the first embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and description thereof will be omitted.

FIG. 9 shows that the pistons 51 of the diesel engine 50 of this embodiment
-1st connecting rod 30-floating lever 31-
FIG. 4 shows a schematic configuration diagram developed along a second connecting rod 36.

[0092] As shown in FIG.
A piston 51 having a concave portion (cavity) 51a is provided in a cylinder 52 constituting each cylinder. An injector 54 is mounted on the combustion chamber 53 with its tip exposed.
3 is directly injected with fuel. To be more precise, the fuel is injected in a concave portion (cavity) 51a formed on the upper surface of the piston 51. The injector 54 is connected to a fuel injection pump (not shown). And the piston 51
A first connecting rod 30, a floating lever 31, and a second connecting rod 36 having the same shape as those of the first embodiment are used to change the reciprocating movement of the crankshaft 23 into the rotational movement of the crankshaft 23.

In this embodiment, an eccentric shaft 55 and a motor 56 are provided for each cylinder, and each motor 56 is connected to a controller 57 so that the compression ratio of each cylinder is individually controlled. The eccentric shaft 55 has the same eccentric amount e as the eccentric shaft 38 of the first embodiment.
a is formed and connected to the large end 36b of the second connecting rod 36.

The controller 57 controls each injector 54
And the fuel injection timing is controlled. Further, the controller 57 is connected to the rotation speed sensor 42, the water temperature sensor 44, the accelerator sensor 45, the vehicle speed sensor 47, the vibration sensor 58, and the torque sensor 59, and detects an engine state. The vibration sensor 58 is provided in each cylinder head and detects vibration during combustion. Torque sensor 59
Is provided on the crankshaft 23 and detects an output torque.

In this embodiment, the rotating mechanism is
It is composed of a second connecting rod 36 as a connecting body, an eccentric shaft 55 and a motor 56 as a rotation drive unit. Also, in the present embodiment, as described with reference to FIG. 7 in the first embodiment, the compression ratio is changed by the controller 57 driving each motor 56 to rotate. That is, when the floating lever 31 rotates about the crankpin 23a of the crankshaft 23, the top dead center position and the bottom dead center position of the piston 51 are changed, and the compression ratio is changed in accordance with the change.

The four strokes of intake, compression, combustion / expansion, and exhaust in the combustion chamber 53 of the diesel engine 50 are almost the same as those of the gasoline engine described above, except that the ignition in the gasoline engine ignites the compressed air-fuel mixture. On the other hand, in the diesel engine 50, the cylinder # in FIG.
The fuel is spontaneously ignited by injecting fuel from the injector 54 into the high-temperature and high-pressure air compressed by the piston 51 as shown in FIG. That is, the air sucked from the intake port is compressed, and when the piston 51 is near the top dead center (TDC), the fuel is injected from the injector 54 and spontaneously ignites to perform combustion. The timing of fuel injection by the injector 54 is obtained by the controller 57 according to parameters such as the engine speed and the engine load at that time.

Next, the operation of the controller 57 for controlling the diesel engine 50 configured as described above will be described with reference to FIG.
This will be described with reference to FIG. First, in step 200, the controller 57 detects an engine state. Specifically, the rotation speed sensor 42, the water temperature sensor 44, the accelerator sensor 4
5, vehicle speed sensor 47, vibration sensor 58, torque sensor 5
9. The respective signals detected from 9 are read, that is, the engine speed, water temperature, accelerator depression amount, vehicle speed, combustion vibration and output torque. Then, when the controller 57 as the start-time determination means determines in step 201 that the engine is to be started based on the temperature of the cooling water by the water temperature sensor 44, the process proceeds to step 210 to increase the compression ratio of each cylinder. 56 is driven. That is, by setting the compression ratio high, the startability of the engine 50 is ensured.

Thereafter, the controller 57 sets the engine 50
When it is determined that the temperature of the cooling water has risen, the routine proceeds to step 202, where the controller 57 as ignition timing determination means is determined.
Determines the ignition timing for each cylinder based on the detection signal of the vibration sensor 58 or the torque sensor 59 provided for each cylinder.

Then, the controller 57 determines in step 20
The control is shifted to the normal control of No. 3, and each motor 56 is driven so as to lower the compression ratio so that NOx is not generated in the combustion gas. In recent years, in order to reduce the emission of diesel engines, research has been conducted in which fuel injection is performed earlier than the self-ignition condition, fuel is sufficiently diffused into the intake air, compressed with accelerated vaporization, and burned near TDC Is being actively conducted. In particular, a large emission reduction effect has been reported in the lean fuel region, but there is no idea of a control method for igniting near TDC, which hinders realization. In the present invention, in order to solve this problem, the controller 57 injects the fuel based on the ignition timing determined in step 202 before the timing of the self-ignition condition, promotes the diffusion and vaporization of the fuel, and then performs the compression. Self-ignition is caused by the rise in temperature of the combustion chamber 53. That is, in the present embodiment, the controller 57 as the control means drives the motor 56 to lower the compression ratio if the ignition timing is early and increases the compression ratio if the ignition timing is late, and also controls the injection timing.

Specifically, the controller 57 operates the combustion chamber 5
3, the ignition timing of each cylinder is determined by detecting the fluctuation of the output torque, and based on data based on experimental values and real-time detection values from the sensors 42, 44, 45, 47, 58, 59, etc. Each motor 56 is driven by the controller 57 so that a proper ignition timing is obtained, and the compression ratio of each cylinder is individually changed.

As described above, the diesel engine 50 according to the present embodiment has an optimum compression ratio in contrast to the gasoline engine 1 according to the first embodiment, in which high efficiency is achieved by adjusting the compression ratio to just before knocking. The generation of NOx is reduced by the conversion.

As described above, the present embodiment has the following features. (1) The controller 57 determines the ignition timing of each cylinder using the detection signals of the vibration sensor 58 and the torque sensor 59 provided for each cylinder, and the controller 57 drives each motor 56 based on the ignition timing. The ignition timing of each cylinder is controlled by changing the compression ratio of each cylinder. That is, the compression ratio is controlled so that the optimal ignition timing is obtained, and the emission in the exhaust gas, that is, the nitrogen oxide (N
Ox) and the like can be reduced. Specifically, the controller 57 injects fuel before the auto-ignition condition is reached,
Combustion chamber 53 by compression after promoting diffusion and vaporization of fuel
The self-ignition can be performed at a suitable timing by the temperature rise of the fuel cell. However, the control of the combustion injection timing based on the ignition timing is applied to a premixed diesel engine, and is not applied to a diesel engine in which self-ignition is performed at the timing of fuel injection.

(2) In the diesel engine 50, the optimum compression ratio differs between the start and the steady operation. Conventionally, the engine was generally manufactured with the compression ratio determined by the low temperature startability. Therefore, during steady operation, combustion is performed after passing TDC in order to reduce generation of NOx. However, in the present embodiment, startability is ensured by increasing the compression ratio at low temperature start, and TD while lowering NOx by lowering the compression ratio during steady operation
It can be burned near C. Therefore, the pumping loss and the friction loss in the steady operation state can be reduced, and the combustion pressure can be efficiently used as the mechanical power, and the thermal efficiency can be improved. As described above, since a suitable compression ratio according to the engine output can be set, the pressure resistance of the engine 50 is also suitable, and the size of the engine 50 can be reduced. (3) The combustion state in each cylinder 52 of the engine 50 is not necessarily constant due to a difference in cooling between the cylinders 52, a difference in the amount of fuel, and the like.
As a means for controlling each time, there is a method for individually controlling the fuel injection amount. According to the present embodiment, a means for separately controlling the compression ratio can be obtained, and the cylinder can be individually controlled. By controlling the compression ratio of 52, it is possible to reduce emissions and improve fuel efficiency by improving combustion. (Third Embodiment) Hereinafter, a third embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG.

In this embodiment, a six-cylinder V-type engine 6
This embodiment is different from the first embodiment in that it is embodied as 0.
Therefore, the same components as those of the first embodiment are denoted by the same reference numerals, and description thereof will be omitted.

As shown in FIG. 11, the V-type engine 60
The left and right cylinders 4 are arranged symmetrically about the crankshaft 61 and have two superchargers 26.
The floating lever 62 is connected to each piston 3 in the cylinder 4.
Is provided for each cylinder so as to change the reciprocating motion of the crankshaft 61 into the rotational motion of the crankshaft 61, and are arranged symmetrically about the crankshaft 61.

The end 36 b of the second connecting rod 36 is connected to the eccentric shaft 38 via the connecting member 63. When the eccentric shaft 38 is rotationally driven by the motor 64, the end 36 b of the second connecting rod 36 is linearly moved via the connecting member 63. That is, by the rotation of the eccentric shaft 38, the end 36b of the second connecting rod 36 provided for each cylinder is linearly moved by the same distance (in the vertical direction in the drawing).
And the compression ratio of each cylinder is simultaneously changed. Thus, the motor 64 and the eccentric shaft 38 are commonly used.

In the present embodiment, the inclined cylinder 4
In order to change the reciprocating motion of the piston 3 in the inside into the rotational motion of the crankshaft 61, the first connecting rod 3
The movement path R2 of the center point D at the connection between the zero and the floating lever 62 has a substantially elliptical shape that is inclined left and right, respectively.
The connecting rods 36 swing in an inclined state. That is, the center point G at the connecting portion between the second connecting rod 36 and the floating lever 62 swings on the movement route R4. Further, in the present embodiment, the center point D of the connecting portion between the first connecting rod 30 and the floating lever 62, the center point E of the crank pin 61a, and the connecting point between the second connecting rod 36 and the floating lever 62 The center point G is not located on a straight line, and the distance between the points D and E is longer than the distance between the points E and G.

As described above, the shape of the floating lever 62 is set according to the shape of the engine 60 and the amount of change in the compression ratio, and the reciprocating motion of the piston 3 is changed to the rotational motion of the crankshaft 61 using the floating lever 62. Can be changed.

As described above, this embodiment has the following features in addition to the features of the above-described embodiment. (1) In the V-type engine 60 in which each cylinder is symmetrically arranged around the crankshaft 61, the floating lever 62 and the second
Are symmetrically arranged about the crankshaft 61. As a result, the reciprocating motion of each piston 3 can be changed to the rotational motion of the crankshaft 61 in a well-balanced manner.

(2) The common use of the motor 64 and the eccentric shaft 38 becomes possible, which is practically preferable. That is, the number of parts can be reduced, and the engine 60 can be made compact to achieve both output and fuel efficiency. (Fourth Embodiment) FIGS. 12 and 13 show a fourth embodiment in which the present invention is embodied in a six-cylinder V-type engine.
This will be described with reference to FIG. Note that the V-type engine 70 of the present embodiment is different only in that the crankshaft 61 and the floating lever 62 of the third embodiment are replaced with a crankshaft 71 and a floating lever 72. Therefore, the description of the same configuration as that of the third embodiment is omitted.

In the present embodiment, the crankshaft 71 uses an eccentric (eccentric) shaft composed of an eccentric rotating portion 71a and a shaft center portion 71b as a main shaft. As shown in FIG. The outer diameter of the shaft center portion 71b is accommodated within the diameter. The eccentric rotating part 71a of the crankshaft 71 is inserted into the bearing part 72a of the floating lever 72 via a bearing. When the piston 3 reciprocates, the eccentric rotating part 71a of the crankshaft 71
The center point E moves along a circular movement path R3 around the axis F of the crankshaft 71.

Conventionally, the large end 103a of the connecting rod 103 is directly connected to the crankshaft 104 as shown in FIG.
When the eccentric shaft 75 is used as a crankshaft as shown in FIG. Although it is necessary to increase the outer diameter of the eccentric shaft 75 itself, as in the present embodiment shown in FIG. 12, the floating lever 72 is used to rotate the crankshaft 71 indirectly. If the crankshaft 71
Since the rotation radius of the eccentric rotating portion 71a can be reduced, the eccentric shaft 71 having a small outer diameter can be used.

Thus, the present embodiment has the following features. (1) When the connecting rod 77 is directly connected to the crankshaft 75 using the crankshaft 75 as an eccentric (eccentric) shaft as shown in FIG. However, if the floating lever 72 is used as in this embodiment shown in FIG. 12, the rotation radius of the eccentric rotating portion 71a of the crankshaft 71 can be reduced, so that the eccentric shaft 71 is used as the crankshaft. It can be used.

(2) If the eccentric shaft 71 is used, the floating lever 72 is connected to the eccentric rotating portion 71 of the crank shaft 71.
1, it is not necessary to break the bearing portion 31b unlike the floating lever 31 shown in FIG. 1, and the weight of the floating lever 71 can be reduced. (Fifth Embodiment) Next, a fifth embodiment in which the present invention is embodied in an in-line four-cylinder engine will be described with reference to FIG. Note that the engine 80 of the present embodiment is different only in that the crankshaft 23 of the first embodiment is replaced with a crankshaft 81. Therefore, the description of the same configuration as that of the first embodiment is omitted.

In this embodiment, the crankshaft 81 uses an eccentric (eccentric) shaft composed of an eccentric rotating part 81a and a shaft part 81b as a main shaft.
The outer diameter of the eccentric rotating part 81a is accommodated within the outer diameter of b. The shaft portion 81b of the crankshaft 81 is inserted into the bearing portion 31b of the floating lever 31 via a bearing. When the piston 3 reciprocates, the center point of the eccentric rotating part 81a of the crankshaft 81 moves along a circular movement path R3 around the axis of the crankshaft 81.

Thus, the present embodiment has the following features. (1) If the eccentric shaft 81 is used, the crankshaft 81 can be inserted into the through hole formed in the cylinder block 2, so that it is not necessary to adopt a structure in which the cylinder block 2 is divided, and the rigidity of the cylinder block 2 is improved. (Sixth Embodiment) Next, a sixth embodiment in which the present invention is embodied in an in-line four-cylinder engine will be described with reference to FIG. The description of the same configuration as in the first embodiment is omitted.

As shown in FIG. 15, a support shaft 91 is fixed to the main body of the engine 90, and the large end 36b of the second connecting rod 36 is rotatably connected to the support shaft 91. That is, the engine 90 of the present embodiment is different from the motor 3 that constitutes the rotation mechanism of the first embodiment.
7 and an eccentric shaft 38, and is an internal combustion engine that does not perform variable compression.

In this configuration, when the piston 3 reciprocates, the floating lever 31 swings to rotate the crankshaft 23 as in the first embodiment. Specifically, when the piston 32 reciprocates up and down, the connection end between the floating lever 31 and the first connecting rod 30 moves on a substantially elliptical movement path R2. At this time, the crank pin 23a moves on a circular movement path R3 around the axis of the crank shaft 23, and the connection end between the floating lever 31 and the second connecting rod 36 is connected to the axis of the support shaft 91. Oscillates along an arc-shaped movement path R4 centered at. That is, the axis H of the support shaft 91 connected to the large end portion 36b of the second connecting rod 36 becomes a fulcrum.

In the present embodiment, the second member is used as the link.
Is used, but the shape, the connection method, and the like are not limited to this. That is, the connecting body connects the floating lever 31 and the engine 90 main body,
What is necessary is just to be able to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston 3 into the rotational motion of the crankshaft 23 by making the connecting portion with the floating lever 31 swingable.

As described above, this embodiment has the following features. (1) Rather than connecting the connecting rod 103 directly to the crankshaft 104 as in the prior art shown in FIG. 16, the floating lever 31 is connected to the crankshaft 2 as shown in FIG.
3 so that the first connecting rod 30 is connected to one end of the floating lever 31, and the other end of the floating lever 31 is connected to the second connecting rod 36. If you do, piston 3
Of the crank pin 23a of the crank shaft 23, that is, the crank radius can be set to a desired length without changing the stroke S of the crank shaft 23. When the crank radius is reduced, the swing angle θ1 of the first connecting rod 30 is reduced as compared with the related art. Therefore, friction loss between the piston 3 and the cylinder 4 is reduced. In addition, when the piston 3 is reciprocating (up and down), the piston 3 that has been pressed against one of the cylinder walls during the ascent is prevented from moving and colliding with the opposite wall when descending.
Therefore, wear of the cylinder 4 and the piston ring 6 can be reduced, and the durability of the engine 90 can be improved.

(2) Crank pin 23 of crankshaft 23
a can be reduced, so that the crank pin 23a
Therefore, the rigidity of the crankshaft 23 can be improved. In addition, the height dimension of the engine 90 can be reduced by the reduced crank radius.

The embodiments of the present invention are not limited to the above embodiments, but may be implemented as follows. In the first embodiment, the knock sensor 41 shown in FIG.
When knocking is detected by
By operating the rotation mechanism to lower the compression ratio to prevent knocking, an independent motor is provided for each cylinder, and an independent knock sensor is used for each cylinder to detect knocking of each cylinder. The controller may control the compression ratio of each cylinder. In this way, in a normal engine, the combustion conditions cannot be said to be the same due to differences in fuel supply conditions for each cylinder, that is, differences in temperature conditions, supply air amount, and the like, and knocking occurrence frequencies also differ for each cylinder. However, according to this example, it is possible to reduce the compression ratio of a cylinder that detects knocking or a sign of knocking by a knocking sensor or the like, that is, the compression ratio of each cylinder is changed depending on whether or not knocking is performed for each cylinder, and knocking is reduced. The engine is driven at the precise compression ratio that is prevented, and the thermal efficiency of the engine can be further improved.

In the V-type engines of the third and fourth embodiments, the motor 64 and the eccentric shaft 38 are commonly used. However, the motor 64 and the eccentric shaft 38 are provided independently for the left and right banks. Alternatively, the compression ratios of the cylinders in the left and right banks may be changed. This configuration, for example,
It is practically preferable to provide independent knock sensors 41 in the left and right banks and use the V-type engine in which the ignition timing is controlled separately for the cylinders in the left and right banks.

In the above embodiment, the knock sensor 41, the rotation speed sensor 42, the intake pressure sensor 43, the water temperature sensor 44, the accelerator sensor 45, the shift position sensor 46, and the vehicle speed sensor 4 are used as sensors for detecting the engine state.
7. Although the vibration sensor 58 and the torque sensor 59 are used, the present invention is not limited to this, and may be implemented using a known sensor used for controlling a conventional engine, for example, an intake air temperature sensor or a throttle sensor. . Further, a sign of knocking may be detected using these sensors.

In the second embodiment, the ignition timing is detected by detecting the fluctuation of the vibration of the combustion chamber 53 and the output shaft torque. However, the ignition timing is detected.
A pressure sensor for detecting the pressure of each combustion chamber and a temperature sensor for detecting the temperature of each combustion chamber, and the controller 57 may determine the ignition timing of each cylinder based on the output of each sensor.

In a multi-cylinder engine configured to control the compression ratio of each cylinder as in the second embodiment, if the compression ratio of a cylinder whose fuel supply is stopped during idling or low output is reduced, friction can be reduced. Loss and pumping loss are reduced, and fuel efficiency can be improved.

Since the knocking condition differs depending on the octane number of the fuel used for the gasoline engine, the compression ratio may be changed based on the octane number.

Also in the gasoline engine, as in the second embodiment, both the low-temperature startability by adjusting the compression ratio and the efficiency at the time of normal operation may be compatible. By doing so, the generation of NOx can be reduced.

In the first and second embodiments, the four pistons 3 and 51 are connected to each other in the order of cylinder # 1 → cylinder # 2 → cylinder # 3 → cylinder # 4 as shown in FIGS.
, Cylinder # 1 and cylinder # 3, cylinder # 2 and cylinder # 4
Are paired with each other and provided on the crank pin 23a of the crankshaft 23. However, the order of ignition is not limited to this. For example, cylinder # 1 → cylinder # 2 → cylinder # 4 → cylinder # 3 or cylinder Cylinder # 1 and cylinder # 4, cylinder # 2 and cylinder # so as to ignite in order of # 1 → cylinder # 3 → cylinder # 4 → cylinder # 2
3 so that the crankpin 2 of the crankshaft 23 is
3a may be arranged. According to this configuration,
When the crankshaft 23 rotates, the balance of the inertial forces can be maintained, which is practically preferable.

The variable compression ratio engine 1,
In 50, 60, 70, and 80, if the compression ratio is lowered, the top dead center of the pistons 3 and 51 is lowered. Therefore, even if the intake valve 12 and the exhaust valve 13 are fully opened, the valves 12, 13
And top land of pistons 3 and 51 (piston head)
Can be avoided. Therefore, if the intake valve 12 and the exhaust valve 13 are configured to be greatly opened with the decrease in the compression ratio, the pumping loss can be further reduced. That is, near the top dead center, the valves 12 and 13 interfered with the pistons 3 and 51, so that the valves 12 and 13 could not be opened greatly. Since the dead center is lowered and the pistons 3 and 51 do not interfere with the valves 12 and 13, the valves 12 and 13 can be opened greatly. In particular, if this configuration is used for a diesel engine having a high compression ratio and a large pumping loss as compared with a gasoline engine, it becomes more preferable.

In the above embodiment, the floating levers 31, 6
Motors 37, 56, 64 and eccentric shafts 38, 5
Although the fifth and second connecting rods 36 are used, the present invention is not limited to this. For example, a configuration using only a single hydraulic cylinder, a manual configuration, or a configuration using a pinion gear may be used. In short, the rotating mechanism is a floating lever 31,
What is necessary is just to change the top dead center position of the pistons 3 and 51 by rotating 62 and 72.

The gasoline engine 1 having the turbocharger 26 as the supercharger as in the first embodiment.
However, the present invention is not limited to this, and may be embodied as a naturally aspirated engine, for example. Further, the present invention may be applied to an engine having an EGR control function of circulating exhaust gas to intake air for purifying exhaust gas.

In the above embodiment, the in-line four-cylinder engines 1, 50, 80, 90 and the V-type six-cylinder engines 60, 7
Although it was embodied to 0, without being limited to this, for example,
It may be embodied as an in-line six-cylinder, V-type eight-cylinder engine or a horizontally opposed engine.

The control device for the variable compression ratio engine includes the variable compression ratio engines 1 and 2 of the first to fifth embodiments.
The present invention is not limited to the control of 50, 60, 70, and 80. For example, it controls an engine that makes the compression ratio variable as proposed in U.S. Pat. No. 2,433,639, U.S. Pat. No. 5,562,068, and U.S. Pat. May be used. In other words, any type may be used as long as it is applied to an engine that can change the compression ratio.

The technical idea grasped from the embodiment and not described in the claims will be described below together with its effects. (A) In the control device for an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 2 to 7, a load state determination means for determining a load state of the internal combustion engine and a compression ratio are changed by driving the rotating mechanism. Control means for controlling a rotation mechanism to change a compression ratio based on the load state of the load state determination means. According to this configuration, the compression ratio can be changed according to the load state of the internal combustion engine, and the output and fuel efficiency of the internal combustion engine can be improved.

(B) In the internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 2 to 7, the crankshaft is connected to the eccentric rotary part or the eccentric rotary part within the outer diameter of the main shaft connected to the lever. An internal combustion engine having an eccentric shaft on which is formed. According to this configuration, if the rotation radius of the eccentric rotating portion of the crankshaft is reduced by using the lever, and the eccentric shaft having the main shaft or the eccentric rotating portion formed within the outer diameter of the eccentric rotating portion or the main shaft, practical use is possible. It becomes more preferable. (C) In the control device for an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 2 to 7, a start time determining means for determining a start time and a control means for driving the rotating mechanism to change a compression ratio. A control device for the internal combustion engine that drives a rotating mechanism to increase the compression ratio when the starting determination unit determines that the engine is at a low temperature. According to this configuration, the startability of the internal combustion engine can be improved.

(D) A control device for an engine that makes the compression ratio variable, comprising: a sensor for detecting knocking or a sign of knocking for each cylinder; a rotating mechanism for changing the compression ratio of each cylinder; Control means for driving a rotation mechanism, wherein the control means drives the rotation mechanism to reduce the compression ratio of a cylinder in which knocking or a sign of knocking is detected by the sensor. According to this configuration, the compression ratio of each cylinder is changed depending on the presence or absence of knocking for each cylinder, and the engine is driven at an accurate compression ratio that prevents knocking, thereby improving the thermal efficiency of the engine. It becomes possible.

(E) The piston injects fuel into the cylinder before reaching the ignition condition during the intake stroke or the compression stroke,
After the diffusion and evaporation has progressed, a control device for an engine applied to a premixed diesel engine that ignites by an increase in cylinder temperature due to compression and that varies the compression ratio, and ignition timing determination means for determining ignition timing, A control device for a diesel engine, comprising: a rotating mechanism for changing a compression ratio; and control means for driving the rotating mechanism, wherein the control means controls a compression ratio based on an ignition timing by the ignition timing determination means. . According to this configuration, the compression ratio is controlled so that the ignition timing is optimal, and the emission in the exhaust gas can be reduced.

(F) An engine control device for making the compression ratio variable, comprising: brake determining means for determining whether or not an engine brake is required; a rotating mechanism for changing the compression ratio; and driving the rotating mechanism. An engine control device comprising: a control unit, wherein the control unit changes a compression ratio if engine braking is necessary based on a determination result by the brake determination unit. According to this configuration, the control means changes the compression ratio so as to use the appropriate engine brake to change the amount of friction loss and the amount of pumping loss of the piston, thereby adjusting the degree of use of the engine brake during traveling.

(G) A control device for an engine that makes the compression ratio variable, comprising: a load state determining means for determining the load state of the engine; a rotating mechanism for changing the compression ratio; and driving the rotating mechanism. Control means, the control means comprising:
An engine control device that drives a rotating mechanism to reduce the compression ratio if the result of determination by the load state determination means is a low load state of the engine. According to this configuration, the friction loss and the pumping loss of the piston are reduced by lowering the compression ratio.

[0141]

According to the first aspect of the present invention, the inclination of the connecting rod can be reduced without significantly changing the length of the connecting rod or the length of the internal combustion engine body.

According to the second aspect of the present invention, the compression ratio can be varied by changing the relative position of the piston with respect to the cylinder. According to the third aspect of the present invention, the rotation radius of the eccentric portion of the crankshaft can be reduced to reduce the inclination of the connecting rod.

According to the fourth aspect of the present invention, since the rotary drive unit, the eccentric shaft and the connecting body are used as the rotating mechanism, it is practically preferable. According to the fifth aspect of the invention, the compression ratio of each cylinder can be individually changed, which is practically preferable.

According to the invention described in claim 6, the compression ratio of each cylinder can be changed at the same time, which is practically preferable.
According to the seventh aspect of the invention, the reciprocating motion of each piston can be changed in a well-balanced manner to the rotational motion of the crankshaft, which is practically preferable.

According to the eighth or ninth aspect of the present invention, the engine can be driven at an accurate compression ratio in which knocking is prevented, so that thermal efficiency can be improved. Claim 1
According to the invention described in No. 0, the compression ratio is controlled based on the internal combustion engine temperature information, so that the startability at a low temperature is ensured, and the thermal efficiency during a normal operation can be improved.

According to the eleventh aspect, in the premixed diesel engine, the ignition timing can be controlled by changing the compression ratio. Claim 12
According to the invention described in (1), the working condition of the engine brake during traveling is adjusted, which is practically preferable.

According to the thirteenth aspect, since the friction loss and the pumping loss of the piston can be reduced, the thermal efficiency can be improved.

[Brief description of the drawings]

FIG. 1 is a schematic sectional view of a gasoline engine according to a first embodiment.

FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of a main part of the gasoline engine of the first embodiment.

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a floating lever according to the first embodiment.

FIG. 4 is a schematic configuration diagram of the gasoline engine of the first embodiment.

FIG. 5 is a view for explaining movements of a floating lever and a piston.

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of an eccentric shaft and a motor.

FIG. 7 is a diagram for explaining the movement of each point when the motor is driven to rotate.

FIG. 8 is a flowchart for explaining the operation of the first embodiment.

FIG. 9 is a schematic configuration diagram of a diesel engine according to a second embodiment.

FIG. 10 is a flowchart for explaining the operation of the second embodiment.

FIG. 11 is a schematic sectional view of a V-type engine according to a third embodiment.

FIG. 12 is a schematic sectional view of a V-type engine according to a fourth embodiment.

FIG. 13 is a diagram showing a conventional crankshaft as an eccentric shaft.

FIG. 14 is a schematic sectional view of an engine according to a fifth embodiment.

FIG. 15 is a schematic sectional view of an engine according to a sixth embodiment.

FIG. 16 is a view for explaining the movement of a conventional piston.

FIG. 17 is a view for explaining mechanical loss in a conventional engine.

[Explanation of symbols]

DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 ... Gasoline engine as an internal combustion engine, 3 ... Piston, 4 ... Cylinder, 23 ... Crank shaft, 23a ... Crank pin as an eccentric rotation part of a crank shaft, 30 ... 1st connecting rod as a connecting rod,
31: floating lever, 36: second connecting rod as a connecting body, 37: motor as a rotation drive unit, 3
8 eccentric shaft, 38a eccentric rotating part of eccentric shaft, 40 controller as brake determining means and load state determining means and control means, 41 knock sensor, 50 diesel engine as internal combustion engine, 51 piston, 52 ... Cylinder, 55 ... Eccentric shaft, 56 ... Motor as rotary drive unit, 57 ... Controller as ignition timing determination means and control means, 60 ... V-type engine as internal combustion engine, 61
... Crank shaft, 61a ... Crank pin as an eccentric rotating part of the crank shaft, 62 ... Floating lever, 64 ... Motor as a rotation drive unit, 70 ... V-type engine as an internal combustion engine, 71 ... Crank shaft, 71a ... Crank shaft Eccentric rotating part, 72 ... floating lever, 80 ... engine as internal combustion engine, 81 ... crankshaft, 81a ... eccentric rotating part of crankshaft, 90 ... engine as internal combustion engine.

──────────────────────────────────────────────────続 き Continued on the front page (51) Int.Cl. 7 Identification symbol FI Theme coat ゛ (Reference) F02D 45/00 368 F02D 45/00 368A F16C 7/00 F16C 7/00 F-term (Reference) 3G084 AA00 AA03 BA22 DA09 DA10 DA28 DA38 DA39 FA05 FA10 FA11 FA12 FA20 FA25 FA32. EA10

Claims (13)

[Claims]
1. An internal combustion engine for converting a reciprocating motion of a piston in a cylinder into a rotary motion of a crankshaft, wherein a floating lever rotatably supported by an eccentric rotating portion of the crankshaft is connected to the piston and the floating lever. An internal combustion engine comprising: a connecting rod that connects the floating lever; and a connecting body that connects a fulcrum provided on the internal combustion engine body and the floating lever.
2. An internal combustion engine for converting a reciprocating motion of a piston in a cylinder into a rotary motion of a crankshaft, wherein a floating lever rotatably supported by an eccentric rotating portion of the crankshaft is connected to the piston and the floating lever. A variable compression ratio mechanism provided between the floating lever and the internal combustion engine body, the rotating mechanism being configured to rotate the floating lever about an eccentric rotating portion of the crankshaft. An internal combustion engine capable of changing a top dead center position of the piston by a compression ratio mechanism.
3. The internal combustion engine according to claim 2, wherein the connecting rod is swingably connected to one end of the floating lever, and the rotating mechanism is swingably connected to the other end of the floating lever.
4. The rotation mechanism includes a rotation drive unit, an eccentric shaft rotated by the rotation drive unit, one end connected to the eccentric rotation unit of the eccentric shaft, and the other end connected to the other end of the floating lever. 4. The connector according to claim 2, further comprising:
An internal combustion engine according to any one of the preceding claims.
5. The multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, wherein the rotating mechanism and the floating lever are provided for each cylinder, and each cylinder can independently change a compression ratio. An internal combustion engine according to claim 1.
6. Applied to a multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, one floating mechanism provided for each cylinder can be simultaneously rotated by one rotating mechanism common to each cylinder, and a compression ratio of each cylinder can be simultaneously changed. The internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 2 to 4.
7. The internal combustion engine according to claim 5, wherein in the multi-cylinder internal combustion engine, each cylinder is symmetrically arranged about the crankshaft.
8. A control device for an internal combustion engine for controlling a compression ratio of the internal combustion engine according to claim 5, wherein: a sensor for detecting knocking or a precursor of knocking for each cylinder; and the rotating mechanism are driven. A control device for an internal combustion engine, comprising: control means for changing a compression ratio for each cylinder, wherein the control means reduces the compression ratio of a cylinder in which knocking or a sign of knocking is detected by the sensor.
9. A control device for an internal combustion engine for controlling a compression ratio of an internal combustion engine according to claim 6, wherein: a sensor for detecting knocking or a precursor of knocking for each cylinder or for each cylinder in common; Control means for driving the rotation mechanism and simultaneously changing the compression ratio of each cylinder, wherein the control means detects knocking of each cylinder or a precursor of knocking by the sensor, A control device for an internal combustion engine that simultaneously reduces the compression ratio.
10. The control unit according to claim 8, wherein the control means controls the compression ratio based on at least information on the internal combustion engine temperature before or almost simultaneously with the start of the internal combustion engine in order to ensure the startability at a low temperature. Internal combustion engine control device.
11. A premixed diesel fuel in which a piston injects fuel into a cylinder during an intake stroke or a compression stroke before reaching ignition conditions, and after diffusion and evaporation progresses, is ignited by a rise in cylinder temperature due to compression. A control device for controlling a compression ratio of an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 2 to 7, which is applied to an engine, comprising: ignition timing determination means for determining an ignition timing; and the rotating mechanism. A control device for an internal combustion engine, comprising: control means for driving to change the compression ratio, wherein the control means changes the compression ratio and controls the ignition timing to be appropriate.
12. A control device for controlling a compression ratio of an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 2 to 7, wherein a brake determining means for determining whether an engine brake is required, and A control unit for driving a mechanism to change a compression ratio, wherein the control unit controls the compression ratio if engine braking is necessary based on a determination result by a brake determination unit.
13. A control device for controlling a compression ratio of an internal combustion engine according to any one of claims 2 to 7, wherein a load state determination means for determining a load state of the internal combustion engine; Control means for driving a dynamic mechanism to change the compression ratio, wherein the control means reduces the compression ratio if the load of the internal combustion engine is in a low load state based on the determination result by the load state determination means. Control device.
JP10247472A 1998-09-01 1998-09-01 Internal combustion engine and control device therefor Pending JP2000073804A (en)

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