JP2000024121A - Electrode structure - Google Patents

Electrode structure

Info

Publication number
JP2000024121A
JP2000024121A JP10193387A JP19338798A JP2000024121A JP 2000024121 A JP2000024121 A JP 2000024121A JP 10193387 A JP10193387 A JP 10193387A JP 19338798 A JP19338798 A JP 19338798A JP 2000024121 A JP2000024121 A JP 2000024121A
Authority
JP
Japan
Prior art keywords
electrode
divided
electrodes
current
partition
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
JP10193387A
Other languages
Japanese (ja)
Inventor
Matsuro Kanehara
Koji Maruyama
幸治 丸山
松郎 金原
Original Assignee
Nitto Denko Corp
日東電工株式会社
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Nitto Denko Corp, 日東電工株式会社 filed Critical Nitto Denko Corp
Priority to JP10193387A priority Critical patent/JP2000024121A/en
Priority claimed from EP99113028A external-priority patent/EP0970719A3/en
Publication of JP2000024121A publication Critical patent/JP2000024121A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Abstract

(57) [Summary] [Problem] To provide an electrode structure capable of easily equalizing current density and reducing energization irrespective of the energization method. An electrode structure in which an electrode divided into two or more on a base material, and an electrolyte layer separated by an insulating partition are sequentially laminated, and each of the divided conductive electrodes has a current-limiting resistor. is there.

Description

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0001]

The present invention relates to an electrode structure, and more particularly, to an electrode structure used for iontophoresis and a high-frequency electric knife.

[0002]

2. Description of the Related Art In general, an electrode structure for a living body used for iontophoresis or a high-frequency electric scalpel has an electrode and an electrolyte layer (which may contain a drug) sequentially laminated on a polymer base material. The electrode is generally a single electrode.

[0003] However, in the case of such an electrode structure for a living body, there is a problem that, when energized in a state of being attached to a living body, a portion having a high current density is locally formed, causing burns and damage to skin tissue. . Also, if there is a wound on the skin,
Since the resistance value at that portion is low, the current tends to concentrate and there is also a problem that the risk of burns is high.

To solve such a problem, Japanese Patent Publication No. 2-35584 discloses a device for holding ions to be implanted on a surface of skin or tissue in a bioelectrode for ion mobility limited ionization therapy. Japanese Patent Publication No. 4-74030 discloses an electrode device used for iontophoresis, in which ions are formed so as not to move in a direction parallel to the whole. Have been proposed, respectively.

However, in these inventions, since a single electrode is used, there is a problem that the current density cannot be sufficiently made uniform.

Further, Japanese Patent Publication No. 7-507951 proposes a drug delivery device using iontophoresis and a circuit thereof provided with a constant current circuit for each of a plurality of divided electrodes.

However, according to the present invention, it is necessary to provide a constant current circuit for each of the divided electrodes, so that there is a problem in terms of cost, and there is a problem that the method of energization is limited.

[0008]

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to solve the above-mentioned problems, and to provide an electrode structure which can easily make the current density uniform and reduce the energization stimulus irrespective of the type of energization. To provide.

[0009]

Means for Solving the Problems The present inventors have made intensive studies to solve the above-mentioned problems, and as a result, completed the following invention. That is, the present invention is as follows. Electrodes divided into two or more on a polymer base material, and an electrolyte layer separated by an insulating partition are sequentially laminated, and each of the divided conductive electrodes is 1/5 times the skin impedance to
An electrode structure provided with a current limiting resistor that is five times as large. The electrode structure according to the above paragraph, wherein each of the divided electrodes has a circular or polygonal shape and an area not exceeding 1 cm 2 . The electrode structure according to above, wherein each of the divided electrodes is a square having a side of 1 to 10 mm. The electrode structure according to the above, wherein each of the divided electrodes is separated by an insulating partition. The electrode structure according to the aspect, wherein the insulating partition is a grid-shaped partition, an open container having each split electrode on the inner bottom surface is formed with the grid-shaped partition as a side wall, and the container is filled with an electrolyte. body. The electrode structure according to any one of-, further comprising means for measuring a current of each of the divided electrodes.

[0010]

According to the present invention, the above-described means are employed, so that the current density can be easily made uniform and the current-carrying stimulus can be reduced irrespective of the current-carrying method.

[0011]

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail.
FIG. 1A is a plan view showing an example of an electrode pattern of an electrode structure according to the present invention, and FIG. 1B is a cross-sectional view along XX 'in FIG. 1A. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the electrode 2 laminated on the polymer substrate 1 is divided into 16 electrodes. In addition, as can be seen from FIG. 1B, in the electrode structure of the present invention, not only the divided electrodes 2 but also the electrolyte layer 3 is divided by the insulating partition walls 4. As a result, there is no conduction between the electrodes 2 and between the electrolyte layers 3, so that the current density is made uniform. In this specification, the divided electrode may be referred to as a divided electrode.

The polymer substrate used in the polymer substrate of the present invention is not particularly limited as long as it has insulating properties. Specifically, a film of polyimide, polyethylene terephthalate, polypropylene, polyamide or the like can be used. Preferred polymer substrates are polyimide or polyethylene terephthalate films in view of heat resistance, moisture resistance and dimensional stability. The size and shape of the electrode pattern portion are not particularly limited and can be appropriately selected according to the target living body and purpose, but the total area of the divided electrodes is usually 2 to 400 cm 2 , preferably 4 to 200 cm 2 . Preferably,

In the present invention, the material of the electrode is not particularly limited as long as it has conductivity, and examples thereof include a resin film coated with a conductive paint and a metal foil.

As the conductive paint, for example, a silver paint (for example, Dortite FA-353 manufactured by Fujikura Kasei Co., Ltd.) and a carbon paint (for example, a carbon conductive paint MRX-713J manufactured by Tamura Corporation) can be used. The resin film is not particularly limited, and a polyethylene terephthalate film or the like can be used. The resin film coated with the conductive paint can be used as it is, but may be further plated with silver (Ag), gold (Au), or the like.

As the metal foil, for example, a foil of aluminum, copper, silver or the like can be used. Also, when using copper foil,
It may be plated with silver or the like.

The shape of the divided electrodes is not particularly limited, but is preferably a circle or a polygon, and the area is preferably not more than 1 cm 2 from the viewpoint of preventing current concentration. Since the split electrode is small, it is preferable that the split electrode is a square having a side of 1 to 10 mm in terms of workability and handleability. If one side is smaller than 1 mm, processing becomes difficult, and if one side is larger than 10 mm, it is difficult to make the current density of the skin uniform, which is not preferable.

The thickness of the electrode is not particularly limited, but is usually about 10 to 100 μm, preferably about 20 to 50 μm.

The method for arranging the divided electrodes on the polymer substrate is not particularly limited. For example, a method of laminating a plurality of small electrodes on a polymer base material, or laminating one large conductive base material on a polymer base material, and then dividing it into a desired size by etching. Any method such as a method may be used.

The electrode must be divided into at least two parts. This is because the current density can be made uniform by dividing into a plurality of electrodes. Preferably, the electrodes are divided into at least ten. This is because the greater the number of divided electrodes, the more uniform the current density can be.

In the present invention, the electrolyte layer is preferably a conductive gel. Examples of the conductive gel include starch, karaya gum, tragacanth gum, natural polysaccharides such as xanthan gum, partially saponified polyvinyl alcohol,
Various natural materials having hydrophilic properties such as polyvinyl resins such as polyvinyl formal, polyvinyl methyl ether and copolymers thereof, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and polyvinyl methacrylate, or acrylic resins such as partially saponified polyacrylate and poly (acrylic acid-acrylamide). Polysaccharides or synthetic resins obtained by soft plasticizing with water and / or an alcohol such as ethylene glycol or glycerin to form a flexible sheet-like gel having self-retention and skin contact.

The thickness of the electrolyte layer is usually 0.2 to 10 mm
And preferably about 1 to 5 mm.

It is necessary to provide an insulating partition in the electrolyte layer to isolate it from the adjacent electrolyte layer. Thus, the diffusion of current in the electrolyte layer in the lateral direction can be prevented. The insulating partition is preferably a grid-shaped partition, and in particular, an open container having each split electrode on the inner bottom surface is formed with the grid-shaped partition as a side wall, and an electrolyte is filled in the container. Is preferred.

As the material used for the partition walls, for example, the same material as the polymer base material, a soft silicone resin, a styrene-based thermoplastic elastomer, an olefin-based thermoplastic elastomer, a propylene-based copolymer soft resin, and the like can be used. Preferably, a styrene-based thermoplastic elastomer (for example, Lavalon SJ-44 manufactured by Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation) is used.
00 etc.).

The method of providing the partition is not particularly limited, and may be any of a method of shaving the electrode and the electrolyte layer from a thick polymer base material by the thickness of the electrode and an electrolyte layer, and a method of forming and molding a mold. It may be a method. The height of the partition wall may be any height as long as the electrolyte layer is not exposed to the outside than the partition wall so that current does not diffuse in the lateral direction.

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram showing an example of a mode of use of the electrode structure of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 2, a current limiting resistor 5 is provided between each of the polarization electrodes 2 and the constant current source 6. Although only one resistor is shown in FIG. 2, it is actually better to provide a collective resistor composed of a plurality of resistors so that it can be replaced with a connector (not shown) or the like. By providing such a collective resistor, the resistance value can be easily changed according to the target living body or purpose.

The current limiting resistance value may be 1/5 to 5 times the skin impedance. If the current limiting resistance value is smaller than 1/5 times the skin impedance, there is a problem that the current density locally becomes too large and the risk of burns increases. Also, the resistance value for current limiting is
If it is larger than five times the skin impedance, there is a problem that an excessive voltage is required to obtain a current necessary for iontophoresis and a high-frequency electric scalpel. In addition, human skin impedance is generally 5 to 100 Hz or less.
100 K.OMEGA / cm is about 2, it becomes in the order of hundreds of Omega / cm 2 becomes more than 100KHz decreases with frequency rise (T.Yamamoto, Y.Yamamoto: Electrical p
roperties of the epidermal stratum corneum: Medica
l and Biological Engineering, March 1976, P.151 〜
158).

In the present invention, a voltage measuring device or the like for measuring the current density of each of the divided electrodes may be provided (not shown). By measuring the current density of each conductive substrate, it is possible to predict the danger of burns, etc., and to search for the conditions required for iontophoresis and high-frequency electric scalpel.

The energization is performed using the constant current source 6. The method of energization is not particularly limited, and may be any of a method using a DC constant current, a pulse, a high frequency, and the like.

The electrode structure of the present invention is used by bringing the surface of the electrolyte layer 3 into direct contact with the skin or the sample 7 as shown in FIG. Since not only between the electrodes 2 but also between the electrolyte layers 3 are completely separated by the partition walls, the current can be prevented from spreading laterally from each of the divided electrodes, so that the variation in the current density can be reduced to about ± 10%. As a result, the current density can be made uniform.

When the electrode structure of the present invention is used for iontophoresis, a drug may be contained in the electrolyte layer of one of the electrodes shown in FIG.

[0031]

EXAMPLES The present invention will be specifically described below based on examples, but the present invention is not limited to these examples.

Electrodes Used An electrode structure having 16 divided electrodes as shown in FIG. 1 was used. On a polyimide film, silver was applied to a square copper foil having a thickness of 17 μm and a side of 2.5 mm as a divided electrode.
It was plated with μm. The wiring portion is wired with copper and coated with an insulating paint. Furthermore, a styrene-based thermoplastic elastomer (Lavalon S manufactured by Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation)
J-4400), the distance between each of the divided electrodes is 1.5 m.
A grid-shaped partition (width of partition 1.5 mm, height 2 mm) separated by m was prepared and laminated on a polyimide film.
As the electrolyte layer, a conductive gel in which 0.9% by weight of NaCl physiological saline was added to an oblate (drug oblate manufactured by Niigata Oblate Co., Ltd.) at 90% by weight was used.

The current limiting resistors 1 KΩ, 10 KΩ, 22 KΩ, 50 KΩ, and 100 KΩ were used as a set, and each resistor was replaced by a connector.

Power Supply Means A DC constant current source utilizes the constant current characteristics of a transistor.
A self-made simple constant current source circuit was used. As the pulse and high frequency power supply, a multi-function synthesizer 1930 of NF Corporation was used.

Current measurement condition of each divided electrode The voltage of each current limiting resistor of the positive electrode and the negative electrode is determined by KEYENC.
The measurement was performed using an NR-110 type data acquisition system manufactured by E Corporation. Data collection was performed at intervals of 50 seconds, and the current was converted to current from the measured data 5 minutes after energization.

Example 1 Left forearm of an adult male (actual resistance in the DC range is about 7 KΩ / c
In m 2 ), the divided electrodes (the size of each electrode was 2.5 mm □) divided into 16 for both the positive and negative electrodes were arranged at an interval of 20 mm between the positive and negative electrodes, and electricity was supplied. The resistance connected to each split electrode is 100
KΩ (6.25KΩ in terms of resistance per unit area)
/ Cm 2 ) from the voltage applied to both ends.

Example 2 The resistance connected to each divided electrode is 50 KΩ (converted to resistance per unit area is 3.125 KΩ / cm 2 ).
The procedure was the same as in Example 1 except for the above.

Embodiment 3 The resistance connected to each divided electrode is 22 KΩ (converted to resistance per unit area is 1.375 KΩ / cm 2 ).
The procedure was the same as in Example 1 except for the above.

Comparative Example 1 The procedure of Example 1 was repeated except that the resistance connected to each divided electrode was 10 KΩ (converted to 625 Ω / cm 2 in resistance per unit area).

Comparative Example 2 The procedure of Example 1 was repeated, except that the resistance connected to each of the divided electrodes was changed to 1 KΩ (converted to a resistance per unit area of 62.5 Ω / cm 2 ).

Table 1 shows the maximum value, the minimum value, and the average value of the current density per divided electrode obtained in Examples 1 to 3 and Comparative Examples 1 and 2.

[0042]

[Table 1]

As shown in Table 1, the current limiting resistor 1K
In the case of Ω, the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value of the current density is
When the resistance value for current limiting is set to 22 KΩ, the variation of the current density is about ± 2.5%.
Can be suppressed within 10%, and the resistance value for current limiting is 50K
When Ω and 100 KΩ were used, the variation was further reduced.

Example 4 A 5-month-old female skin (measured resistance value in a DC range of about 5 KΩ / cm 2 ) of Yucatan mini-pig purchased from Charles River Japan was cut into 5 cm × 10 cm, and raw food was cut into 1 cm.
% Agar gel and placed on top. The electrodes and electrode arrangement were the same as in Example 1.

Comparative Example 3 The procedure of Example 4 was repeated except that the resistance connected to each of the divided electrodes was changed to 1 KΩ (converted to a resistance per unit area of 62.5 Ω / cm 2 ).

Table 2 shows the maximum, minimum, and average values of the current density for each divided electrode obtained in Example 4 and Comparative Example 3.
Shown in

[0047]

[Table 2]

As shown in Table 2, in the case of the current limiting resistor of 1 KΩ as in Comparative Example 3, the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value of the current density was observed about twice. When the current limiting resistor was set to 100 KΩ as in Example 4, the variation in current density could be suppressed to an average value of about ± 10%.

Example 5 A Yucatan mini-pig purchased from Charles River Japan Co., Ltd. had a diameter of 0.8 mm at one location on the skin of a 5-month-old female.
The procedure was the same as in Example 4 except that a hole was made using a small amount of injection needle.

Comparative Example 4 The procedure of Example 5 was repeated except that the resistance connected to each of the divided electrodes was changed to 1 KΩ (converted to a resistance per unit area of 62.5 Ω / cm 2 ).

Table 3 shows the maximum, minimum, and average values of the current density per each divided electrode obtained in Example 5 and Comparative Example 4.
Shown in

[0052]

[Table 3]

As shown in Table 3, the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value of the current density was observed about twice in the case of the skin having a wound, in the case of the current limiting resistor 1 KΩ shown in Comparative Example 4. Was done. The current limiting resistor is 100K as in the fifth embodiment.
When the resistance is set to Ω, the variation in the current density can be suppressed to an average value of about ± 10%, and even if there is a wound on the skin, a decrease in the resistance value of that part is suppressed as in the case of no damage. We were able to.

[0054]

According to the electrode structure of the present invention, the electrode and the electrolyte layer are divided, a partition is provided between each conductive base material and the electrolyte layer, and a current limiting resistor is provided on each conductive base material. Thereby, the current density can be made uniform, and the conduction stimulus can be reduced.

[Brief description of the drawings]

FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing an example of an electrode pattern of an electrode structure according to the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a schematic view showing an example of a usage mode of the electrode structure of the present invention.

[Explanation of symbols]

 DESCRIPTION OF SYMBOLS 1 Polymer base material 2 Electrode 3 Electrolyte layer 4 Partition wall 5 Current limiting resistance 6 Constant current source 7 Skin

Claims (6)

    [Claims]
  1. An electrode divided into two or more and an electrolyte layer separated by an insulating partition are sequentially laminated on a polymer base material, and each of the divided conductive electrodes has 1/5 times the skin impedance. An electrode structure provided with a current limiting resistor of up to 5 times.
  2. 2. The electrode structure according to claim 1, wherein each of the divided electrodes has a circular or polygonal shape and an area not exceeding 1 cm 2 .
  3. 3. Each of the divided electrodes has a side of 1 to 10 mm.
    3. The electrode structure according to claim 2, wherein the electrode structure has a square shape.
  4. 4. The electrode structure according to claim 1, wherein each of the divided electrodes is separated by an insulating partition.
  5. 5. An embodiment in which an insulating partition is a grid-shaped partition, an open container having each split electrode on an inner bottom surface is formed with the grid-shaped partition as a side wall, and the container is filled with an electrolyte. The electrode structure according to claim 1.
  6. 6. The electrode structure according to claim 1, further comprising means for measuring currents of the divided electrodes.
JP10193387A 1998-07-08 1998-07-08 Electrode structure Pending JP2000024121A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP10193387A JP2000024121A (en) 1998-07-08 1998-07-08 Electrode structure

Applications Claiming Priority (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP10193387A JP2000024121A (en) 1998-07-08 1998-07-08 Electrode structure
EP99113028A EP0970719A3 (en) 1998-07-08 1999-07-06 Electrode structure
US09/348,756 US6336049B1 (en) 1998-07-08 1999-07-07 Electrode structure for reducing irritation to the skin

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
JP2000024121A true JP2000024121A (en) 2000-01-25

Family

ID=16307098

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
JP10193387A Pending JP2000024121A (en) 1998-07-08 1998-07-08 Electrode structure

Country Status (1)

Country Link
JP (1) JP2000024121A (en)

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2007244551A (en) * 2006-03-15 2007-09-27 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc Iontophoresis apparatus
JP2008529563A (en) * 2005-02-01 2008-08-07 ウーンド ソリューションズ リミテッド Electrode configuration for applying electrical signals to animal skin
JP2009508595A (en) * 2005-09-19 2009-03-05 トランスポート・ファーマシューティカルズ・インコーポレーテッド Electrokinetic delivery system and method
JP2010529897A (en) * 2007-06-15 2010-09-02 ニトリツク・バイオ・セラピユーテイクス・インコーポレーテツド Current concentration mitigation method and system for electrokinetic drug delivery
WO2012086700A1 (en) 2010-12-22 2012-06-28 帝國製薬株式会社 Electrode pad for iontophoresis

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP2008529563A (en) * 2005-02-01 2008-08-07 ウーンド ソリューションズ リミテッド Electrode configuration for applying electrical signals to animal skin
JP2009508595A (en) * 2005-09-19 2009-03-05 トランスポート・ファーマシューティカルズ・インコーポレーテッド Electrokinetic delivery system and method
JP2007244551A (en) * 2006-03-15 2007-09-27 Transcutaneous Technologies Inc Iontophoresis apparatus
JP2010529897A (en) * 2007-06-15 2010-09-02 ニトリツク・バイオ・セラピユーテイクス・インコーポレーテツド Current concentration mitigation method and system for electrokinetic drug delivery
WO2012086700A1 (en) 2010-12-22 2012-06-28 帝國製薬株式会社 Electrode pad for iontophoresis
EP3378527A1 (en) 2010-12-22 2018-09-26 Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd. Electrode pad used for iontophoresis treatment
KR20190021499A (en) 2010-12-22 2019-03-05 데이고꾸세이약꾸가부시끼가이샤 Electrode pad used for iontophoresis treatment
US10342968B2 (en) 2010-12-22 2019-07-09 Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd. Electrode pad used for iontophoresis treatment

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