IL273703D0 - A system for producing driving force to multiple power consumers and management thereof - Google Patents

A system for producing driving force to multiple power consumers and management thereof

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Publication number
IL273703D0
IL273703D0 IL273703A IL27370320A IL273703D0 IL 273703 D0 IL273703 D0 IL 273703D0 IL 273703 A IL273703 A IL 273703A IL 27370320 A IL27370320 A IL 27370320A IL 273703 D0 IL273703 D0 IL 273703D0
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IL
Israel
Prior art keywords
driving
units
power consuming
steam
unit
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IL273703A
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Hebrew (he)
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Hutchison Water Israel E P C Ltd
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Priority to US201962827101P priority Critical
Priority to US201962827846P priority
Application filed by Hutchison Water Israel E P C Ltd filed Critical Hutchison Water Israel E P C Ltd
Publication of IL273703D0 publication Critical patent/IL273703D0/en

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Description

A SYSTEM FOR PRODUCING DRIVING FORCE TO MULTIPLE POWER CONSUMERS AND MANAGEMENT THEREOF TECHNOLOGICAL FIELD The present disclosure is in the field of large energy producing-management systems, such as desalination plants.
BACKGROUND Desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline water.
More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance (namely, water). Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation.
Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost-effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.
Desalination became a reliable source of potable water for arid areas.
Currently, approximately 1% of the world's population is dependent on desalinated water to meet daily needs. According to the International Desalination Association, in June 2015, 18,426 desalination plants operated worldwide, producing 86.8 million cubic meters per day, providing water for 300 million people (Henthorne, Lisa (June 2012). "The Current State of Desalination". International Desalination Association. Retrieved September 5, 2016). This number increased from 78.4 million cubic meters in 2013, a 10.71% increase in 2 years.
There are different methods for desalinating water: • Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF); • Multiple-effect distillation (MED); • Vapor-compression (VC); • Freezing desalination; • Solar desalination; • Wave-powered desalination; and, • Membrane processes which includes: • Electrodialysis reversal (EDR); • Reverse osmosis (RO); • Nanofiltration (NF); • Membrane distillation (MD); and, • Forward osmosis (FO).
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a partially permeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property, that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent and a thermodynamic parameter.
Reverse osmosis can remove many types of dissolved and suspended chemical species as well as biological ones (principally bacteria and viruses) from water, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side.
In natural occurring osmosis process, the solvent moves from an area of low solute concentration (high water potential), through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration (low water potential). The driving force for the movement of the solvent is the reduction in the free energy of the system when the difference in solvent concentration on either side of a membrane is reduced then generating osmotic pressure due to the solvent moving into the more concentrated solution. Applying an external pressure to reverse the natural flow of pure solvent, is called reverse osmosis. The process is similar between different membrane technology applications.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a rapid increasingly method of desalination due to its wide applicability to different water sources and it is a rapid increasingly method of desalination today.
Sea water desalination requires higher energy than other lower salinity water and its one of the most important factors within the total product costs of desalinated water.
Sea water RO based desalination plants require a large number of electrically powered pumps, especially the main high pressure pumps which pass the sea water through the membranes.
In recent years, the electricity cost has been increasing; thus, the dependency of the pumps on electricity is a big disadvantage.
While the costs of electricity is increasing, it is desired to find different energy sources for driving the desalination process.
In light of the above it is still a long felt need to find efficient method to operate an RO based desalination plant.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION The present disclosure provides a system for generating power, i.e. driving force, for multi-level power consuming units. For example, the system may be utilized in a desalination plant that the primary power generating unit drives high-pressure pumps that participate in a reverse osmosis desalination process and secondary power generating units supply power to low-pressure pumps, electricity generators and/or cooling units. It is to be noted that the terms "power generating unit" and "driving unit" are used interchangeably throughout the application. Each power generating unit in the system may operate for generation of a driving force for power consuming units in response to energy source input, such as fuel or electricity, and/or may generate electricity by being driven by a driving force.
The system is adaptive so it can adjust the power generation at each level and it can control the power consumption profile of each power consuming unit at any time, i.e. between a non-consuming state and full consumption state. The system includes a plurality of primary power generating units, e.g. gas turbines, that supply the majority of the power to the system from a feed of an energy source, e.g. a fuel source such as gas.
The plurality of primary power generating units are configured for driving first, primary power consuming units. Excess heat, i.e. hot exhaust, from the power generation of the primary power generating units is tunneled to one or more exhaust boilers that use the hot exhaust to generate steam at a desired pressure. The exhaust boilers may receive additional flow of air and/or additional energy source to increase the steam power of the generated steam. The generated steam is controllably tunneled and allocated to secondary power generating units, each is configured for driving secondary power consuming units.
Steam residues from the power generation of the secondary power generating units is controllably tunneled and allocated to tertiary power generating units that are configured for generating and supplying power to tertiary power consuming units.
Each level of the system is controlled in at least two aspects: (i) the power generating profile of each power generating unit, i.e. the amount of power generation per time unit; and (ii) the power consuming profile of each power consuming unit, namely the production yield of the power consuming unit per time unit, which can vary between non-yielding state and full yielding state.
The system is substantially self-sustained, namely it is independent of an external energy source other than the fuel source, that may be stored in suitable reservoirs that are in fluid communication with the first or second driving units.
A first aspect of the present disclosure provides a system for generating energy and managing the use thereof. The system includes M first driving units, e.g. gas turbines, configured to receiving a feed of a fuel source, such as natural gas, fuel, LPG, CNG, diesel, condensate, for (i) driving one or more first power consuming units, e.g. pumps, generators, coupled thereto and (ii) generating exhaust gas. The system further includes N first exhaust gas boilers, namely, heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) that in fluid communication with the first driving unit. At least one of the N first exhaust gas boilers is configured to receive at least some of the exhaust gas of at least one of the M first driving units and generate steam at a desired pressure. The system further includes L second, steam based, driving units, e.g. back pressure steam turbine, in fluid communication with the one or more exhaust gas boilers. Each of the second driving units is configured for receiving steam, on demand, from at least one of the N exhaust boilers and for driving one or more second power consuming units coupled thereto, e.g. pumps, generators. The system includes one or more first processing circuitries, i.e. control units capable of process data and execute commands, each is configured for controlling the feed of the fuel source to a respective first driving unit in response to a respective first input data. Furthermore, the system includes one or more second processing circuitries, each is configured for controlling the feed of steam from at least one of the N exhaust gas boilers to one or more of the L second driving units in response to second input data.
It is to be noted that any reference to number of N, L, M, O, K, R or any other letter indicating a number, defines a range of optional numbers between 1 and 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,100, etc. For example the system may include M first driving units, wherein M represents 1 or 10 first driving units.
In some embodiments of the system, the first input data is being indicative of at least partial first energetic status in the system. The energetic status of the system refers to the amount of power required in the system at real-time or a predicted amount of power that is required at a future period of time, e.g. seconds, minutes, hours, etc. The energetic status further includes the amount of power already included in the system, i.e. amount of steam power in the system, amount of stored energy, amount of real-time driving power in the system or any combination thereof.
In some embodiments of the system, the first energetic status is formed of or depends on at least one parameter selected from a group consisting of: the total energy in the system, number of available first and/or second driving units, production requirements, amount of water to be desalinated in a period of time, available first and/or second power consuming units and their functionalities, amount of seawater to be pumped, electricity production requirements or any other energetic data in the system.
In some embodiments of the system, the second input data is being indicative of second energetic status of at least one of: at least one of the second driving units, at least one of the second power consuming units and at least one of the N exhaust boilers.
In some embodiments of the system, the second energetic status is formed of or depends on at least one parameter selected from a group consisting of: number of available second driving units, production requirements, amount of water to be desalinated in a period of time, available second power consuming units and their functionalities, amount of seawater to be pumped, electricity production requirements or any other energetic data that is related to the second energetic level of the system or lower energetic level.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the first driving units is a gas turbine and the fuel source is gas, e.g. natural gas.
In some embodiments of the system, one or more first power consuming units are the primary power consuming components in the system. The primary consuming component is typically the most power consuming component in the system.
In some embodiments of the system or the method, at least one of the first power consuming unit is a high-pressure water pump participating in a desalination process.
In some embodiments of the system, the desalination process is a reverse osmosis desalination process. In some other embodiments, the desalination process is multi-stage flash distillation (MSF), multiple-effect distillation (MED) or vapor-compression (VC).
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the first driving units is coupled to the one or more first power consuming units via a gear box for controlling the power transfer from the first driving units to the first power consuming units.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the first driving units is coupled to the one or more first power consuming units via a first clutch element configured for controllably switching between a coupled state and decoupled state between the first power consuming units and the first driving units.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the first processing circuitries is configured for controlling the clutch element, thereby controlling the coupling of the one or more first power consuming units to the first driving units.
In some embodiments, the system further includes at least one first electric driving unit, i.e. an electric motor operated by electricity, gas engine or steam engine, that is couplable to the first driving unit, typically via a second clutch element, and configured for producing electricity upon coupling to the first driving unit. The electricity being produced by the first electric driving unit is an alternating current (AC) power that may be used in the system or may be exported for external uses, such as the external main electric grid. The first electric driving unit and any other electric driving unit is capable to work in one or both of the following modes: (a) driven by a mechanical driving force to generate electricity and/or (b) fed by an energy source, such as a fuel source or electricity and generating mechanical driving force from the energy source.
In some embodiments, the system further includes a first variable-frequency drive (VFD) configured to receive the generated electricity from the first electric driving unit and adjust or convert the frequency thereof to a desired frequency, e.g. to 60 or 50 Hz.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the first electric driving units is couplable, via a respective clutch element, to at least one first power consuming unit, in addition to the first driving unit that is coupled to the first power consuming unit, for driving the at least one first power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto. In other words, the first electric driving unit functions alternately (i) as an auxiliary driving unit to the first driving unit and (ii) as an electricity generator for generation of electricity to the system.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the first driving units, at least one of the first power consuming units and at least one of the first electric driving units are operatively linked by a single shaft. Namely, all the units are connected to a single shaft that transmit the driving force originating from the driving units and operates the power consuming unit.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the first exhaust gas boilers is further configured to receive a feed of fuel source and/or air for generating additional heat to increase steam production. The fuel source may be similar to that received by the first driving unit receives or different.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the one or more second processing circuitries is configured to control the feed of fuel source to the first exhaust gas boilers according to the second input data.
In some embodiments of the system and the method, at least one of the second driving units is back-pressure steam turbine, i.e. high pressure steam turbines.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the N first exhaust gas boilers is coupled to and in fluid communication with an absorbing chiller that is configured to receive steam, to thereby drain heat from at least one of: components of the first driving units to maintain them under a selected temperature threshold, water in the system and/or an air inlet of a first or second driving unit.
In some embodiments, the system further includes O chillers, in fluid communication with at least one selected from a group consisting of said M first driving units, said L second, steam based, driving units and any combination thereof, adapted to, independently from the temperature in the environment, remove heat therefrom to maintain them under a selected temperature threshold to maximize the efficiency thereof, typically between 10-15°C.
In some embodiments of the system and method, the at least one of the first power consuming units is one of the following: water pumps for pumping water to be desalinated, first electric driving unit and any combination thereof.
In some embodiments of the system and method, at least one of the second power consuming units is one of the following: second water pumps for pumping water to be desalinated, typically relatively low-pressure water pumps with respect to the pumps being the first power consuming units, second electricity generator and chillers.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the second driving units is coupled to the second power consuming units via a gear box for controlling the power transfer from the second driving units to the second power consuming units.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the second driving units is coupled to the second power consuming units via a second clutch element for controllably switch between a coupled state and decoupled state between the second power consuming units and the second driving units.
In some embodiments, the system further includes at least one second electric driving unit, i.e. an electric motor operated by electricity, gas engine or steam engine, that is couplable to the second driving unit, via a respective clutch element, and configured for producing electricity, i.e. AC power, upon coupling to the second driving unit.
In some embodiments, the system further includes a second variable-frequency drive (VFD) configured to receive the generated electricity from the second electricity generator and adjust the frequency thereof to a desired frequency.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the second electric driving units is couplable, via a respective clutch element, to at least one second power consuming unit, in addition to the second driving unit that is coupled to the second power consuming unit, for driving the at least one second power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto. In other words, the second electric driving unit functions alternately (i) as an auxiliary driving unit to the second driving unit and (ii) as an electricity generator for generation of electricity to the system.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the second electric driving unit is configured for driving the at least one second power consuming unit together with the respective second driving unit.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the second electric driving unit is selected from a group consisting of electric motor, gas engine, steam engine and any combination thereof.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the second electric driving unit is configured for coupling to the at least one second power consuming unit upon or during decoupling process of the respective second driving unit from the at least one second power consuming unit.
In some embodiments of the system, the one or more second processing circuitries are configured for controlling the coupling profile between the first electric driving unit and the at least one second power consuming unit, namely controlling when the electric driving unit is coupled and when is uncoupled to the second power consuming unit. The electric driving unit may operate the second power consuming unit, e.g. a water pump, while the steam turbine reaches its operation mode, i.e. when it is being heated and receives sufficient steam power. Once the steam turbine is operative, the electric driving unit typically seizes its operation and the pumps continue to work based on the power provided by the steam turbine.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the second driving units, at least one of the second power consuming units and at least one of the second electric driving units are operatively linked by a single shaft. In other words, all the units are connected to a single shaft that transmit the driving force and operates the power consuming unit.
In some embodiments, the system further includes at least one condensing unit for receiving residual steam from at least one of the second driving units, condensing the residual steam and tunnel it to at least one exhaust boiler for being reused in generation of steam in another cycle.
In some embodiments, the system includes at least one flow meter disposed between at least one second driving unit and at least one first exhaust boiler for measuring the surplus steam from the respective second driving unit. In some embodiments, the system includes a plurality of flow meters for measuring the surplus steam from each second driving unit in the system to thereby provide, with the measurements of all the flow meters, a real-time status of the steam power in the system.
In some embodiments of the system, the N exhaust gas boilers and/or to at least one of the second driving units are configured to receive residual steam from at least one of the second driving units to be reused as an energy source for an additional energetic cycle.
In some embodiments of the system or the method, the first input data includes at least one of: the total energy in the system, namely the steam power in the system and the power produced by the gas turbine, number of available first and/or second driving units, production needs, amount of water to be desalinated in a period of time, e.g. per hour, per day or any other period of time, available first and/or second power consuming units and their functionalities, i.e. available pumps to be operated and their functional status, amount of seawater to be pumped, electricity production needs, i.e. the amount of electricity that is required to be produced by the system.
In some embodiments of the system or the method, the second input data includes at least one of: number of available second driving units, production needs, amount of water to be desalinated in a period of time, e.g. per hour, per day or any other period of time, available second power consuming units and their functionalities, i.e. available pumps to be operated and their functional status, amount of seawater to be pumped, electricity production needs, i.e. the amount of electricity to be produced by the system.
In some embodiments, the system further includes R second exhaust boilers configured for receiving residual steam from at least one of the M second driving units, namely relatively low pressure steam that is discharged from the back pressure turbines, and for generating steam at a desired pressure therefrom. The system further includes K third driving units, each is configured for receiving residual steam from at least one of the R second exhaust boilers and for driving one or more third power consuming units coupled thereto. The system further includes one or more third processing circuitries configured for controlling the feed of steam from the R second exhaust boilers to the K third driving units in response to third input data.
In some embodiments of the system or the method, at least one of the third driving units is condensing steam turbines.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the second exhaust gas boilers is further configured to receive a feed of fuel and/or air for generating additional heat to increase steam production.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the one or more third processing circuitries is configured to control the feed of fuel source to the second exhaust gas boilers.
In some embodiments of the system or method, at least one of the third power consuming units is one of the following: third water pumps for pumping water to be desalinated, typically relatively low-pressure water pumps, third electricity generator and chillers.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the third driving units is coupled to the third power consuming units via a gear box for controlling the power transfer from the third driving units to the third power consuming units.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the third driving units is coupled to the third power consuming units via a third clutch element for controllably switch between a coupled state and decoupled state between the third power consuming units and the third driving units.
In some embodiments, the system includes a third electric driving unit, i.e. an electric motor operated by electricity or a fuel source, that is couplable via a respective clutch element to at least one third driving unit and configured for generating and producing electricity upon coupling to the third driving unit.
In some embodiments, the system includes a third variable-frequency drive (VFD) configured to receive the generated electricity from the third electric driving unit and adjust/convert the frequency thereof to a desired frequency.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the third electric driving units is couplable via a respective clutch element to at least one third power consuming unit, in addition to the third driving unit that is coupled to the third power consuming unit, for driving the at least one third power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto. Namely, the third electric driving unit functions alternately (i) as an auxiliary driving unit to the third driving unit and (ii) as an electricity generator for generation of electricity to the system.
In some embodiments of the system, the third electric driving unit is configured for driving the at least one third power consuming unit together with the respective third driving unit.
In some embodiments of the system, the third electric driving unit is configured for coupling to the at least one third power consuming unit upon or during decoupling process of the respective third driving unit from the at least one third power consuming unit.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the one or more third processing circuitries are configured for controlling the coupling profile between the second electric driving unit and the at least one third power consuming unit, namely controlling when the electric driving unit is coupled and when is uncoupled to the third power consuming unit.
In some embodiments of the system, at least one of the third driving units, at least one of the third power consuming units and at least one of the third electric driving units are operatively linked by a single shaft. In other words, all the units are connected to a single shaft that transmit the driving force and operates the power consuming unit.
In some embodiments of the system or the method, the third input data includes at least one of: number of available third driving units, production needs, amount of water to be desalinated in a period of time, e.g. per hour, per day or any other period of time, available third power consuming units and their functionalities, i.e. available pumps to be operated and their functional status, amount of seawater to be pumped, electricity production needs, i.e. the amount of electricity to be produced by the system.
In some embodiments, the system further includes one or more electric power meters for measuring the consumption and generation of electricity by the system and generating electricity data based thereon. The electricity data includes the balance of the electricity consumption vs electricity production of the system and it may be used by any one of the processing circuitries of the system to adjust power generation and/or consumption.
In some embodiments of the system, the electricity data further includes electricity costs profile, i.e. the electricity cost over different times, e.g. the electricity costs during different times of the day for consumption and for selling to an external electricity provider.
Power management resource system for selective governing said power resources between self-consumption of the entire system or a part thereof, external delivery and storage.
In some embodiments, the system further includes an electricity resources management sub-system, i.e. one or more fourth processing circuitries in the system that is configured for selective governing the power resources between self, internal consumption of the entire system or a part thereof, external delivery and storage. The fourth processing circuitry is configured for receiving the electricity data and control the allocation of the electricity in the system between at least the following: power consuming units (any of the power consuming unit, namely a first, second or third power consuming unit), external source, namely selling the surplus electricity power and electricity storage units. The electricity resources management system is configured to receive the electricity data that includes data indicative of the electricity balance in the system. The electricity resources management system may execute commands to increase or reduce electricity generation in the system in response to production yield of power consuming units in the system, in particular the production yields of the water pumps and their expected production profile. The electricity resources management system controls the utilization of the surplus generated electricity between exporting of the electricity and storing the electricity in electricity storing units, such as batteries. The electricity resources management system determines the utilization profile in response to an input of the export costs profile of electricity, typically storing it for later use when the export costs are low and exporting it when the export costs are high.
In some embodiments, the system is an operative system in a desalination plant.
In some embodiments, the system is an operative system in mining facility.
In some embodiments, the system is a self-operated system, namely a self- sustained system without any external power provision, with an optional exception of the primary initiation of the system.
Another aspect of the present disclosure provides a system that includes N exhaust gas boilers, i.e. steam generators, such as HRSG in fluid communication with an exhaust gas source being originated by a first driving unit, each is configured to receive (i) exhaust gas from the exhaust gas source and/or (ii) fuel source, such as natural gas, LPG, CNG, diesel, condensate, and air for generating steam at a desired pressure therefrom. The system further includes L steam-based, driving units, e.g. back pressure steam turbine in fluid communication with one or more of the N exhaust gas boilers, each is configured for receiving steam from at least one of said N exhaust boilers and for driving one or more second power consuming units coupled thereto. The system further includes one or more processing circuitries, each is configured for controlling the feed of steam from at least one of the N exhaust gas boilers to one or more of the L steam-based driving units in response to a second input data.
This aspect may be configured according to any one of the embodiments of the system that is described above with respect to the previous system aspect of the present disclosure.
Yet another aspect of the present disclosure provides a method for energy production and management for driving a plurality of power consuming units. The method includes (i) receiving a first input data and controllably feeding a first driving unit with a fuel source, based on the first input data, to thereby generating first driving force and exhaust gas from the fuel source; (ii) driving one or more first power consuming units ,e.g. pumps and/or electricity generators, by the generated first driving force; (iii) generating steam at a desired pressure from the exhaust gas of the first driving unit; (iv) receiving a second input data and controllably feeding at least one second, steam-based driving units with the generated steam to thereby generating second driving force; and (v) driving one or more second power consuming units, e.g. pumps and/or generators, by the generated second driving force.
In some embodiments, the method further includes controllably coupling and decoupling the first driving unit from at least one first power consuming units.
In some embodiments, the method further includes controllably coupling and decoupling the second driving unit from at least one second power consuming units.
In some embodiments, the method further includes controllably coupling at least one first electricity driving unit to the first driving unit for producing electricity.
In some embodiments, the method further includes controllably coupling at least one of the first electricity driving unit to at least one first power consuming unit for driving the at least one first power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto.
In some embodiments, the method further includes controllably coupling at least one second electricity driving unit to the second driving unit for producing electricity.
In some embodiments, the method further includes adjusting/converting the frequency of the produced electricity to a desired frequency.
In some embodiments, the method includes controllably coupling at least one of the first electricity driving unit to at least one first power consuming unit for driving the at least one first power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto.
In some embodiments, the method includes controllably feeding, based on the first or second input data, fuel source and/or air to increase steam production in addition to the exhaust gas.
In some embodiments, the method further includes tunneling at least a portion of the generated steam to an absorbing chiller to thereby generate cooled coolant suitable for cooling desired components, e.g. an inlet of a gas turbine.
In some embodiments, the method further includes condensing residual steam from at least one of said second driving units and reusing the condensed steam to generate additional steam, thereby maintaining a closed system.
In some embodiments, the method further includes tunneling residual steam from at least one of the second driving units to be reused in generation of desired steam pressure.
In some embodiments, the method further includes tunneling residual steam from at least one second driving unit for producing second steam force at a desired pressure therefrom and utilizing the generated second steam force to operate at least one third driving unit to thereby driving one or more third power consuming units.
In some embodiments, the method further includes feeding fuel and/or air for generating additional heat to increase the second steam force production.
In some embodiments, the method further includes controllably coupling at least one third electricity driving unit to the third driving unit for producing electricity.
In some embodiments, the method further includes adjusting the frequency of the produced electricity by the at least one of the third electric driving unit to a desired frequency.
In some embodiments, the method further includes controllably coupling at least one of the third electricity driving unit to at least one third power consuming unit for driving the at least one third power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In order to better understand the subject matter that is disclosed herein and to exemplify how it may be carried out in practice, embodiments will now be described, by way of non-limiting example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: Figs. 1A-1B are block diagrams of non-limiting example of different embodiments of the primary energy level of the system of the present disclosure.
Fig. 2 is a block diagram of a non-limiting example of an embodiment of the secondary energy level of the system of the present disclosure.
Fig. 3 is a block diagram of a non-limiting example of an embodiment of the tertiary energy level of the system of the present disclosure.
Figs. 4A-4B are flow diagrams of non-limiting examples of embodiments of the method of the present disclosure.
Fig. 5 is a block diagram of a non-limiting example showing an entire configuration of the system.
Fig. 6 is a block diagram of a non-limiting example of a sub-system for managing the electricity resources of the system.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS Figs. 1A-1B are block diagrams exemplifying embodiments of the primary energy level of the system. The figures mainly exemplify the configuration of the first driving unit, the first power consuming and the heat flow in the level. Fig. 1A-1B show a first driving unit in a form of a gas turbine/engine 102 that receives a feed of fuel to generate driving force for driving a first power consuming unit 104, e.g. a high-pressure pumps.
The first power consuming unit 104 is a relatively high-power consumer that requires a relatively high driving force being supplied by the gas engine 102. The gas engine is coupled to the first power consuming unit 104 via a gearbox 106 that is configured to adapt the rotational speed of the gas engine 102 to the requirements of the first power consuming unit 104. The hot exhaust that is discharged from the gas engine 102 is tunneled to a first heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) 108, which is configured to generate steam from the hot exhaust. The HRSG 108 may receive additional fuel feed and/or air flow to increase the production of the steam. The HRSG 108 generates steam that is tunneled to the secondary energy level of the system, namely energy level of the system that receives some heat residues, i.e. hot exhaust from the first driving unit 102 that is transformed to steam. A first processing circuitry 110 is configured to receive first input data ID that may comprise any of the following: hot exhauster requirements in the i HRSG, yield requirements of the first power consuming units, fuel requirements in the gas engine or any combination thereof. The first processing unit 110 is configured to control the feed of the fuel to the gas engine, by executing feeding commands FC, in response to the first input data to fulfill the energy requirements of the system.
Processing circuits that are described with respect to the system throughout the application are presented separately or united for purposes of ease of description. It is to be noted that the processing in the system may be either performed by a central processor and control unit or may be separated to many sub-processors and control units that together perform the processing and controlling of the processing circuitries that are described with respect to the system.
Fig. 1A further exemplifies a chiller 112 that is configured to cool one or more components of the gas engine, typically the air inlet thereof. The chiller is optional in the system (encircled by a dashed line). The chiller 112 is driven by steam it receives from a HRSG 108 and it is typically an absorbing chiller. Therefore, the chiller is a component of the secondary energy level, which is exemplified in Fig. 2. The chiller 112 may discharge residual steam, e.g. low pressure steam, that may be further utilized by the tertiary energy level of the system.
Fig. 1B shows a different embodiment of the primary energy level in which the gas engine 102 is couplable to an electric driving unit 114, i.e. an electric motor / generator, via a clutch element 116 that is configured to switch between a coupled state and decoupled state between the gas engine 102 and the electric driving unit 114. When the gas engine 102 is coupled to the electric driving unit 114 and driving it, electricity is generated and transferred to a variable-frequency drive (VFD) 118 that converts the frequency of the generated electricity, which depends on the rotational speed of the gas engine 102, to a desired AC frequency to be supplied to other components in the system or exported to external consumers (e.g. the national power grid). The electric driving unit 114 may function in a different mode, in which it receives power from a power source, such as an external electricity source from the national grid or may be powered by a fuel source, to drive the first power consuming unit 104 alone or together with the gas engine 102. Therefore, in case of malfunction or maintenance period of the gas engine 102, the electric driving unit 114 serves as a backup driving force for driving the first power consuming unit 104. It is noted that typically, the electric driving unit is coupled to the water pumps via a respective clutch element.
It is to be noted that in Figs. 1A-1B and other figures throughout the application, each component may by multiplied many times and the figures show single or minimal number of components only for ease of description.
Fig. 2 exemplifies the secondary energy level of the system, i.e. the energy level that is operated, at least partially, based on residual heat/energy from the primary energy level. In particular, the hot exhaust that is discharged from the first driving units is tunneled to gas boilers, which generate steam from the hot exhaust and controllably allocating the generated steam to one or more second, steam-based, driving units, to be driven thereby. The gas boilers may be fed with fuel source and/or additional air flow to increase the steam generation to be used by the second driving units. The figure exemplifies a stream of steam that derives from the first gas boilers (shown in Fig. 1) and is fed to steam turbines 220 of different energy branches, each energy branch includes at i least one driving unit and at least one power consuming unit. The steam turbines 220 are i coupled, on a single shaft 222 , to second power consuming units 228 via one or more 1 i gearboxes 224 and one or more clutch elements 226 . In a first energy branch, the steam i i turbine 220 is couplable to two pumps 228 and 228 via gearboxes 224 , 224 and 224 , 1 1 2 1 2 3 gearboxes 224 and 224 are associated with the pumps 228 and 228 , respectively. The 2 3 1 2 coupling between the steam turbine 220 and the two pumps 228 and 228 is controlled 1 1 2 by two clutch elements 226 and 226 , respectively. An electric motor 230 is disposed 1 2 1 on another end of the shaft of the steam turbine 220 and the two pumps 228 . The electric 1 1 motor 230 is couplable to pump 228 via a clutch element 226 and the respective gearbox 1 2 3 224 . Clutch element 226 controllably couples the electric motor 230 to pump 228 . 3 2 1 1 Therefore, the electric motor 230 may function as a backup driving unit to the steam 1 turbine 220 so it is operated when the steam turbine 220 is not operated, due to 1 1 malfunction or maintenance for example, to thereby maintain continuous operation of the one or both of the pumps 228 and 228 . The electric motor 230 may also operate together 1 2 1 with the steam turbine 220 to either increase the productivity of the pumps 228 and 228 1 1 2 or to maintain steady or any desired productivity of the pumps 228 and 228 during 1 2 shutdown process or initiation process of the steam turbine 220 . 1 Typically, steam turbines of the second energy level are back-pressure turbines and their surplus low pressure steam LP steam is tunneled to second HSRGs (not shown) to generate steam for the third energy level of the system. Similar to the first HSRGs, they can be fed with additional fuel source and/or air flow to increase the steam production to be used by the steam turbines. Some of the generated steam by the second HRSGs may be tunneled back to the secondary energy level to be used by the second, steam based driving units.
The second energy branch in Fig. 2 exemplifies another configuration of a branch of the second energy level of the system. In this configuration, the steam turbines 220 is 2 disposed at a middle portion of the driving shaft 222 and at each side thereof there is a 2 single pump 228 , 228 and a single electric motor 230 , 230 (similar to the first branch, 3 4 2 3 only with a single pump at each side and not two pumps between the steam turbine and the electric motor). Therefore, in a standard operation of the steam turbine 220 it can 2 drive one or both of pumps 228 , 228 , each disposed on one of its sides. At one side of 3 4 the steam turbine, the electric motor 230 is couplable via a clutch element to an 2 additional, standby, pump 228 that is disposed at a different side of the electric motor 230 than pump 228 , which is disposed between the electric motor 230 and the steam 2 3 2 turbine 220 . The standby pump 228 operates by demand according to the control of the 2 5 second processing circuitry 232 in response to second input data that may be obtained from either one of the steam turbines or from one of the second power consuming devices.
The third energy branch in Fig. 2 exemplifies another configuration of a branch of the second energy level of the system. This configuration differs from the configuration of the second energy branch that other than the side that includes the standby pump, it includes, on the other side, an electricity generator 234 couplable to the steam turbine 220 and is configured to produce electricity. The electricity generator 234 is connected 3 to a VFD 236 to vary the produced electricity to the desired AC frequency to either be utilized for system needs or for being exported to external consumers, e.g. national or regional power grid. Furthermore, this configuration exemplifies that the steam turbine 220 utilizes some of the low pressure steam LP steam that is tunneled from the second 3 HRSGs and is originally discharged by one or more second, steam based driving units.
The surplus steam discharged from the steam turbine 220 is tunneled to operate a cooling 3 unit 238, typically a brine water cooling condenser, i.e. an absorbing chiller. The cooled product of the cooling unit may be used to cool any desired component in the system.
The second processing circuitry 232 controls the allocation of the feed of steam from the first HRSGs to the plurality of steam turbines of the secondary energy level in response to second input data that includes pumping demands, pump functionality status, amount of available steam in the HRSGs, functionality status of the steam turbines, cooling demands (relevant to the cooling units), etc. The second processing circuitry 232 is further configured to control the clutch elements in the system to thereby control the coupling profile between the second driving units and the second power consuming units or between the electric motors and the second power consuming units.
Fig. 3 exemplifies the tertiary energy level of the system, i.e. the energy level that is operated, at least partially, based on residual heat/energy from the secondary energy level. Low pressure steam LP steam that is discharged from the second, steam-based driving units of the secondary energy level is tunneled to one or more HSRGs (not shown) to generate steam and the generated steam is then tunneled to the steam turbines 340 of i the tertiary level to thereby produce driving force. The driving force is utilized to drive third power consuming units 342 , such as low-pressure pumps, absorbing chillers or i electricity generators.
Each energy branch of the tertiary energy level may be configured according to any one of the energy branches described with respect to the secondary energy level.
The steam turbines of the tertiary energy level are typically condensing turbines, namely turbines that utilizes relatively low steam pressure and the steam that passes through the steam turbines is then condensed to liquid phase and may be collected to be reused for generating additional steam at any desire pressure.
Although, in some embodiments, some of the turbines of the tertiary energy level may be back pressure turbines, namely turbines that utilizes relatively high pressure steam, which maintains in gas phase after passing through the steam turbines, only with lower pressure than entered into the turbine.
The tertiary energy level is also controlled by a third processing circuitry 344 similar to the described above with respect to the secondary energy level.
Fig. 6 is a block diagram of a non-limiting example of a sub-system for managing the electricity resources of the system. The electricity resources management system 660 is configured to receive input data of (i) internal electricity demand IED of internal components of the system 662 and (ii) electricity cost profile ECP over time for exporting electricity to and/or purchasing electricity from external electricity provider. The electricity resources management system 660 is configured to manage the electricity in the system of the present disclosure and execute commands to provide the internal electricity consumption units of the system with the required generated electricity GE that is generated in the system. By executing these commands, the electricity generated by electricity generators in the system is transmitted to electricity consuming units to operate them with electricity. The electricity surplus ES from the entire generated electricity in the system, i.e. electricity that is not required for operating any electricity consuming unit is controllably allocated between internal storage 664 and external electricity provider 666.
Figs. 4A-4B are flow diagrams exemplifying non-limiting embodiments of the method according to an aspect of the present disclosure. Fig. 4A exemplifies a method that includes receiving a first input data 450 indicative of energy requirements and consumption. In response to the first input data, the method includes feeding a first driving unit with a fuel source, e.g. natural gas, fuel, giLPG, CNG, diesel, condensate 452. The fuel source is being utilized for generating first driving force and byproduct of exhaust gas, the driving force is utilized for driving first power consuming units 454. The exhaust gas is exploited to generate steam 456 to be fed to at least one second, steam- based, driving unit in response to received second input data 458. The second input data is indicative of (i) the productivity requirements of the second power consuming units together or each alone; (ii) the available steam power that is generated; (iii) electricity generation requirement; (iv) the functionality and availability status of the second driving units; and/or (v) the functionality status of each of the second power consuming units.
Thus, the steam is allocated to one or more second power consuming units for driving one or more second power consuming units 460.
Fig. 4B exemplifies another embodiment of the method. Fig. 4B differs from Fig. 4A by including receiving residual steam from the second driving units, e.g. back- pressure turbines, and generating second steam power at a desired pressure therefrom 462. The steam that is discharged from the turbines is either relatively low pressure steam that or condensed steam, and in both cases the residual steam or condensed steam is tunneled for generating additional steam power therefrom to be used for driving third power consuming units 464 by third driving units, e.g. condensing turbines.
Fig. 5 is a block diagram of a non-limiting example of the entire configuration of the system. The figure does not show interactions between different operating blocks of the system for the ease of presentation. The figure shows the optional configurations for each energetic level and each component in the system is labeled. The figure represents a configuration of a desalination plant, wherein the first level is energized by energy produced by a gas turbine, the second level is energized by, at least partially, steam produced by hot flue gases of the gas turbine that operates back pressure steam turbines and the third level is energized by, at least partially, surplus steam from the back pressure steam turbines that operates condensing turbines. Each level drives power consuming units selected from: water pumps, electricity generators and/or cooling units.

Claims (77)

- 22 - CLAIMS:
1. A system comprising, M first driving units configured to receiving a feed of a fuel source for (i) driving one or more first power consuming units coupled thereto and (ii) generating exhaust gas; 5 N first exhaust gas boilers, at least one of which is configured to receive at least some of said exhaust gas of at least one of the M first driving units and generate steam at a desired pressure; L second, steam based, driving units, each is configured for receiving steam from at least one of said N exhaust boilers and for driving one or more second power 10 consuming units coupled thereto; one or more first processing circuitries, each is configured for controlling the feed of the fuel source to a respective first driving unit in response to a respective first input data; one or more second processing circuitries, each is configured for controlling the 15 feed of steam from at least one of the N exhaust gas boilers to one or more of the L second driving units in response to second input data.
2. The system of claim 1 or 57, wherein at least one of the first driving units is a gas turbine and the fuel source is gas.
3. The system of claim 1 or 2, wherein the one or more first power consuming units 20 are the primary power consuming components in the system.
4. The system or method of any one of claims 1-3 or 59, wherein at least one of the first power consuming unit is a high-pressure water pump participating in a desalination process.
5. The system of claim 4, wherein the desalination process is a reverse osmosis 25 desalination process.
6. The system of any one of claims 1-5, wherein at least one of the first driving units is coupled to the one or more first power consuming units via a gear box for controlling the power transfer from the first driving units to the first power consuming units.
7. The system of any one of claims 1-6, wherein at least one of the first driving units 30 is coupled to the one or more first power consuming units via a first clutch element configured for controllably switching between a coupled state and decoupled state between the first power consuming units and the first driving units. - 23 -
8. The system of claim 7, wherein at least one of the first processing circuitries is configured for controlling the clutch element thereby controlling the coupling of the one or more first power consuming units to the first driving units.
9. The system of any one of claims 1-8, comprising at least one first electric driving 5 unit couplable to the first driving unit and configured for producing electricity upon coupling to the first driving unit.
10. The system of claim 9, comprising a first variable-frequency drive (VFD) configured to receive the generated electricity from the first electric driving unit and adjust the frequency thereof to a desired frequency. 10
11. The system of claim 9 or 10, wherein at least one of the first electric driving units is couplable to at least one first power consuming unit for driving said at least one first power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto.
12. The system of any one of claims 9-11, wherein at least one of the first driving units, at least one of the first power consuming units and at least one of the first electric 15 driving units are operatively linked by a single shaft.
13. The system of any one of claims 1-12 or 55, wherein at least one of the first exhaust gas boilers is further configured to receive a feed of fuel source and/or air for generating additional heat to increase steam production.
14. The system of claim 13, wherein at least one of the one or more second processing 20 circuitries is configured to control said feed of fuel source to the first exhaust gas boilers.
15. The system or method of any one of claims 1-14, 55 or 59, wherein at least one of the second driving units is back-pressure steam turbine.
16. The system of any one of claims 1-15, or 55, wherein at least one of the N first exhaust gas boilers is coupled to an absorbing chiller that is configured to receive steam 25 to thereby drain heat from at least one of: components of the first driving units to maintain them under a selected temperature threshold, water in the system and/or an air inlet of a first or second driving unit.
17. The system of any one of claims 1-16, or 55, further comprising O chillers, in fluid communication with at least one selected from a group consisting of said M first 30 driving units, said L second, steam based, driving units and any combination thereof, adapted to, independently from the temperature in the environment, remove heat therefrom to maintain them under a selected temperature threshold to maximize the efficiency thereof. - 24 -
18. The system or method of any one of claims 1-17, 55 or 59, wherein said at least one of the first power consuming units is one of the following: water pumps for pumping water to be desalinated, first electric driving unit and any combination thereof.
19. The system or method of any one of claims 1-18, 55 or 59, wherein at least one of 5 the second power consuming units is one of the following: second water pumps for pumping water to be desalinated, second electricity generator and chillers.
20. The system of any one of claims 1-19 or 55, wherein at least one of the second driving units is coupled to the second power consuming units via a gear box for controlling the power transfer from the second driving units to the second power 10 consuming units.
21. The system of any one of claims 1-20 or 55, wherein at least one of the second driving units is coupled to the second power consuming units via a second clutch element for controllably switch between a coupled state and decoupled state between the second power consuming units and the second driving units. 15
22. The system of any one of claims 1-21 or 55, further comprising at least one second electric driving unit couplable to the second driving and configured for producing electricity upon coupling to the second driving unit.
23. The system of claim 22, comprising a second variable-frequency drive (VFD) configured to receive the generated electricity from the second electricity generator and 20 adjust the frequency thereof to a desired frequency.
24. The system of claim 22 or 23, wherein at least one of the second electric driving units is couplable to at least one second power consuming unit for driving said at least one second power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto.
25. The system of claim 24, wherein at least one of the second electric driving unit is 25 configured for driving said at least one second power consuming unit together with the respective second driving unit.
26. The system of any one of claims 22-25, wherein at least one of the second electric driving unit is selected from a group consisting of electric motor, gas engine, steam engine and any combination thereof. 30
27. The system of any one of claims 22-26, wherein at least one of the second electric driving unit is configured for coupling to said at least one second power consuming unit upon or during decoupling process of the respective second driving unit from said at least one second power consuming unit. - 25 -
28. The system of any one of claims 22-27, wherein said one or more second processing circuitries are configured for controlling the coupling profile between the first electric driving unit and said at least one second power consuming unit.
29. The system of any one of claims 22-28, wherein at least one of the second driving 5 units, at least one of the second power consuming units and at least one of the second electric driving units are operatively linked by a single shaft.
30. The system of any one of claims 1-29 or 55, comprising at least one condensing unit for receiving residual steam from at least one of said second driving units, condensing the residual steam and tunnel it to at least one exhaust boiler. 10
31. The system of any one of claims 1-30 or 55, comprising at least one flow meter disposed between at least one second driving unit and at least one first exhaust boiler for measuring the surplus steam from the respective second driving unit.
32. The system of any one of claims 1-31 or 55, wherein residual steam from at least one of the second driving units is tunneled to at least one of the N exhaust gas boilers 15 and/or to at least one of the second driving units.
33. The system of any one of claims 1-32, 55 or 59, wherein the first input data is being indicative of at least partial first energetic status in the system.
34. The system or method of claims 33, wherein said first energetic status is formed of or depends on at least one parameter selected from a group consisting of: the total 20 energy in the system, number of available first and/or second driving units, production needs, amount of water to be desalinated in a period of time, available first and/or second power consuming units and their functionalities, amount of seawater to be pumped, electricity production needs.
35. The system of any one of claims 1-33, 55 or 59, wherein the second input data is 25 being indicative of second energetic status of at least one of: at least one of the second driving units, at least one of the second power consuming units and at least one of the N exhaust boilers.
36. The system or method of claim 35, wherein said second energetic status is formed of or depends on at least one parameter selected from a group consisting of: number of 30 available second driving units, production needs, amount of water to be desalinated in a period of time, available second power consuming units and their functionalities, amount of seawater to be pumped, electricity production needs. - 26 -
37. The system of any one of claims 1-36 or 55, comprising R second exhaust boilers; at least one of which is configured for receiving residual steam from at least one of said
38. L second driving units and for generating steam at a desired pressure, the system further comprising K third driving units, at least one of which is configured for receiving residual 5 steam from at least one of said R second exhaust boilers and for driving one or more third power consuming units coupled thereto; one or more third processing circuitries configured for controlling the feed of steam from the R second exhaust boilers to the K third driving units in response to third input data. 10 38. The system or method of claim 37 or 71, wherein at least one of the third driving units is condensing steam turbines.
39. The system of claim 37 or 38, wherein at least one of the second exhaust gas boilers is further configured to receive a feed of fuel and/or air for generating additional heat to increase steam production. 15
40. The system of claim 39, wherein at least one of the one or more third processing circuitries is configured to control said feed of fuel source to the second exhaust gas boilers.
41. The system or method of any one of claims 37-40 or 71, wherein at least one of the third power consuming units is one of the following: third water pumps for pumping 20 water to be desalinated, third electricity generator and chillers.
42. The system of any one of claims 37-41, wherein at least one of the third driving units is coupled to the third power consuming units via a gear box for controlling the power transfer from the third driving units to the third power consuming units.
43. The system of any one of claims 37-42, wherein at least one of the third driving 25 units is coupled to the third power consuming units via a third clutch element for controllably switch between a coupled state and decoupled state between the third power consuming units and the third driving units.
44. The system of any one of claims 37-43, comprising a third electric driving unit couplable to at least one third driving unit and configured for generating and producing 30 electricity upon coupling to the third driving unit.
45. The system of claim 44, comprising a third variable-frequency drive (VFD) configured to receive the generated electricity from the third electric driving unit and adjust the frequency thereof to a desired frequency. - 27 -
46. The system of claim 44 or 45, wherein at least one of the third electric driving units is couplable to at least one third power consuming unit for driving said at least one third power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto.
47. The system of claim 46, wherein the third electric driving unit is configured for 5 driving said at least one third power consuming unit together with the respective third driving unit.
48. The system of claim 47, wherein the third electric driving unit is configured for coupling to said at least one third power consuming unit upon or during decoupling process of the respective third driving unit from said at least one third power consuming 10 unit.
49. The system of claim 47 or 48, wherein at least one of said one or more third processing circuitries are configured for controlling the coupling profile between the second electric driving unit and said at least one third power consuming unit.
50. The system of any one of claims 44-49, wherein at least one of the third driving 15 units, at least one of the third power consuming units and at least one of the third electric driving units are operatively linked by a single shaft.
51. The system or method of any one of claims 37-50 or 71, wherein the third input data comprises at least one of: number of available third driving units, production needs, amount of water to be desalinated in a period of time, available third power consuming 20 units and their functionalities, amount of seawater to be pumped, electricity production needs.
52. The system of any one of claims 1-51 or 55, comprising one or more electric power meters for measuring the consumption and generation of electricity by the system and generating electricity data based thereon. 25
53. The system of claim 52, wherein the electricity data further comprises electricity costs profile.
54. The system of claim 52 or 53, comprising one or more electricity resources management systems configured for receiving said electricity data and control the allocation of the electricity in the system between at least the following: first power 30 consuming units, second power consuming units, external source, selling offers of the surplus electricity power depending on the electricity selling costs range, electricity storage for full functioning of said system, and any combination thereof.
55. A system comprising, - 28 - N exhaust gas boilers, each is configured to receive (i) exhaust gas from an exhaust gas source and/or (ii) fuel source and air for generating steam at a desired pressure therefrom; L steam-based, driving units, each is configured for receiving steam from at least 5 one of said N exhaust boilers and for driving one or more second power consuming units coupled thereto; one or more processing circuitries, each is configured for controlling the feed of steam from at least one of the N exhaust gas boilers to one or more of the L steam-based driving units in response to an input data. 10
56. The system of any one of claims 1-55, being an operative system in a desalination plant.
57. The system of any one of claims 1-56, being an operative system in mining facility.
58. The system of any one of claims 1-57, being a self-operated system, when the 15 storage of electricidal power is sufficient for operation of said system without any external power provision.
59. A method for energy production and management for driving a plurality of power consuming units, comprising: receiving a first input data and controllably feeding a first driving unit with a fuel 20 source, based on said first input data, to thereby generating first driving force and exhaust gas from the fuel source; driving one or more first power consuming units by the generated first driving force; generating steam at a desired pressure from the exhaust gas of the first driving 25 unit; receiving a second input data and controllably feeding at least one second, steam- based driving units with the generated steam to thereby generating second driving force; and driving one or more second power consuming units by the generated second 30 driving force.
60. The method of claim 59, comprising controllably coupling and decoupling the first driving unit from at least one first power consuming units. - 29 -
61. The method of claim 59 or 60, comprising controllably coupling and decoupling the second driving unit from at least one second power consuming units.
62. The method of any one of claims 58-61, comprising controllably coupling at least one first electricity driving unit to the first driving unit for producing electricity. 5
63. The method of claim 61 or 62, comprising controllably coupling at least one of the first electricity driving unit to at least one first power consuming unit for driving said at least one first power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto.
64. The method of any one of claims 59-63, comprising controllably coupling at least one second electricity driving unit to the second driving unit for producing electricity. 10
65. The method of any one of claims 59-64, comprising controllably coupling at least one of the second electricity driving units to at least one second power consuming unit for driving said at least one second power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto
66. The method of claim 63 or 65, comprising adjusting the frequency of the produced electricity to a desired frequency. 15
67. The method of claim 65 or 66, comprising controllably coupling at least one of the first electricity driving unit to at least one first power consuming unit for driving said at least one first power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto.
68. The method of any one of claims 59-67, comprising controllably feeding fuel source and/or air to increase steam production in addition to the exhaust gas. 20
69. The method of any one of claims 59-68, comprising tunneling at least a portion of the generated steam to an absorbing chiller to thereby generate cooled coolant for cooling desired components.
70. The method of any one of claims 59-69, comprising condensing residual steam from at least one of said second driving units and reusing the condensed steam to generate 25 additional steam.
71. The method of any one of claims 59-70, comprising tunneling residual steam from at least one of said second driving units to be reused in generation of desired steam pressure.
72. The method of any one of claims 59-71, comprising tunneling residual steam from 30 at least one second driving unit for producing second steam force at a desired pressure therefrom and utilizing the generated second steam force to operate at least one third driving unit to thereby driving one or more third power consuming units. - 30 -
73. The method of claim 72, further comprising feeding fuel and/or air for generating additional heat to increase the second steam force production.
74. The method of claim 72 or 73, comprising controllably coupling at least one third electricity driving unit to the third driving unit for producing electricity. 5
75. The method of claim 74, comprising adjusting the frequency of the produced electricity by the at least one of the third electric driving unit to a desired frequency.
76. The method of claim 74 or 75, comprising controllably coupling at least one of the third electricity driving unit to at least one third power consuming unit for driving said at least one third power consuming unit, upon coupling thereto. 10
77. A method according to any one of claims 59-76 for using in a system according to any one of claims 1-58.
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