GB600896A - Improvements in or relating to calculating machines - Google Patents

Improvements in or relating to calculating machines

Info

Publication number
GB600896A
GB600896A GB3042/46A GB304246A GB600896A GB 600896 A GB600896 A GB 600896A GB 3042/46 A GB3042/46 A GB 3042/46A GB 304246 A GB304246 A GB 304246A GB 600896 A GB600896 A GB 600896A
Authority
GB
United Kingdom
Prior art keywords
register
registers
tape
relays
relay
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired
Application number
GB3042/46A
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
BRITISH TABULATING MACH CO Ltd
Original Assignee
BRITISH TABULATING MACH CO Ltd
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US576892A priority Critical patent/US2616626A/en
Application filed by BRITISH TABULATING MACH CO Ltd filed Critical BRITISH TABULATING MACH CO Ltd
Publication of GB600896A publication Critical patent/GB600896A/en
Expired legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F7/00Methods or arrangements for processing data by operating upon the order or content of the data handled
    • G06F7/38Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation
    • G06F7/46Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation using electromechanical counter-type accumulators
    • G06F7/468Methods or arrangements for performing computations using exclusively denominational number representation, e.g. using binary, ternary, decimal representation using electromechanical counter-type accumulators for evaluating functions by calculation

Abstract

600,896. Electrical calculating-apparatus. BRITISH TABULATING MACHINE CO., Ltd. Jan. 30, 1946, No. 3042. Convention date, Feb. 8, 1945. [Class 106 (i)] Electrical calculating apparatus for determining the value of a power series automatically, comprises a value source in which the coefficients of a plurality of terms of the series are stored, means for reading selected coefficients from the value source successively into the register of an arithmetical computing apparatus, means for setting up the argument in another register of the said computing apparatus and means for successively combining the selected coefficients with the argument to produce a total which equals the total of the selected terms of the power series. The apparatus is controlled by a programme tape and is able to add, subtract, multiply, divide, compute power series, logarithmic series, Taylor's series, square roots, logarithms, exponentials, trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions, and other functions based on these operations. The machine has several rows of dial switches D, Fig. 1, and several storage registers, most of which have a 24-column capacity while a product-quotient register PQ, Fig. 25g, has 47 orders. In all storage registers, the highest order is used to determine the sign of the number, so that computation can be effected on a 23-digit number, any product having up to 46 digits. Additionally, there are a few registers having only one or two orders used as sequence registers or calculation step counters. The coefficients of the power series may be stored in code form on a value tape which can be selected according to the nature of the series and the range of the variable, or they may be obtained from the energization of relays which close selected contacts in a complex network. Drive mechanism. A motor drives several shafts carrying a large number of cams which open and close contacts at predetermined times in each machine cycle (Figs. 20a, b, c, not shown). Register structure. All the registers in the machine have the same general structure, as described in Specification 483,021, and rotate when clutched to the motor drive by a clutch lever controlled by an advance magnet AM, being declutched at the energization of a stop magnet SPM (Figs. 12-16, not shown). The clutch lever may be rocked to declutching position by either of two knock-off pins, operative normally at cycle points " 0 " and " 13 " in each cycle, although they may be timed early or late in some of the sequence operation registers. Each register has one or more known electrical readouts for each order. When an order passes from 9 to 0, contacts are closed to prepare carry to the next order in a carry-over cycle. Record tape handling and sensing means. The apparatus is controlled by the perforations in a programme tape, Fig. 19, which is fed forward step-by-step so that the perforations can be sensed, one line at a time. The machine also has three value tape stations, Fig. 1, one of which may be operative at any time to select a portion of the value tape bearing perforations representing coefficients of terms in a power series to be evaluated. The value tape, Fig. 17, may be fed forwards or backwards one step at a time, four lines of perforations arranged in a code, Fig. 18, being sensed at one time. The tape drive, forward or reverse, as the case may be, occurs when a clutch magnet 82 (forward) or 82r (reverse) is energized to actuate pawl- and-ratchet mechanism (Figs. 3-9, not shown). Code for programme tape. The programme tape, Fig. 19, is divided into 24 columns, perforations in the first eight selecting a source from which a value is to read out for use in a computation, the second eight select the means into which a value is to be entered and the type of calculation to be performed, while the last eight columns are used to control miscellaneous functions of the machine. The tape is sensed one row at a time by a row of pins 150P, the presence of a hole in any column in the " Out," " In " and " Miscellaneous " fields energizing a corresponding relay A1-8, B1-8, C1-8. The A, B and C relays, Fig. 22a (and Figs. 22b, 22c, not shown) close contacts to establish circuit paths to different posts a1-256, b1-256, c1-256, from which the code control is passed to different points of the machine to control its functions. Dial switches. Numbers, on which calculations are to be performed, may be entered in any of 60 rows of dial switches, twenty-four denominational switches to each row, Fig. 23. The contact arm of each switch D is connected to an " out " relay contact 1D " out " 1-24... 60D " out " 1-24 controlled by relays 1D " out "-60D " out," whereby values may be read out of a selected row of switches. The corresponding digit contacts in all the switches are connected to corresponding digit lines 192-0 to 192-9 connected to the central blades of invert relay contacts D " inv." 0-9. When the relay D " inv." energizes, it shifts the central blades to connect the nine-complementarily related contacts, to read out the ninescomplement of the number set up on the operative row of switches. The contacts are connected to the usual cam contacts SC1-9 closing briefly at cycle points 1-9 to send out digit impulses through bus-bars B1-B24 to a selected valuereceiving means. The relays 1D " out " 60D " out " are controlled by the " out " field of the programme tape through the A network shown in Fig. 22a. The relay D " inv. " is energized through the C network when the " Miscellaneous " field is perforated 21. Storage registers. The machine, as described, has 72 storage registers. Parts of registers 1 and 3 are shown in Fig. 24b. The advance magnets AM of each order are connected at the energization of the corresponding relay 1S " in " -72S "in " to the bus-bars B1-24 to receive timed digital impulses from the selected reading- out means. The registers have read-outs 1SRO-72SRO connected at the energization of the corresponding relay 1S " out "-72S " out to the bus-bars to send out timed. digital impulses. The registers are selected for receiving or reading-out under control of the '' in " and " out " fields of the programme tape. The complement of the number in a storage register is read out when a relay S " inv." (not shown) is energized, Carry operations. Carry is effected in known manner, but because of the attenuation of the carry inpulse in the event of successive carry through several orders, carry from the 12th and 24th orders is boosted by special quick-acting relays TB. Advance of the registers more than one step at carry is prevented by the second knock-off pin, already referred to but not shown, which acts at time '' 13." Resetting storage register. To reset a register, the register code is punched in both the in and out fields of the programme tape to operate the related S " in " and S " out " relays (Fig. 24a, not shown) to establish a circuit at time " 14," when contacts SC16 close, to energize a coil S " res " which holds till time " 0 " in the next cycle, during which time the selected register is reset by addition of the tens complement in each order, the carry control relays being held inoperative. Multiplying and dividing section. Multiplication and division may be initiated under control of the programme tape or may occur as part of a larger operation. The operations are broadly as described in Specifications 456,367 and 497,039, but include certain additional features. A single order multiplying-dividing step register MDS, Figs. 25l, 25n, controls a column shift network and has five read-outs A-E, and is advanced only one step at a time. The dividend register DD has 45 orders while the product and quotient register PQ has 47 orders, the 47th order determining the sign and controlling direct or complemental reading-out. A register QS (not shown) evaluates the shift back of the quotient in the register PQ and has two orders connected to two dial switches DQ (not shown) set to 22-N where N is the number of operating decimal places in the quotient. Multiplication. Operation. The first line of the programme tape is sensed to select the switch row D, Fig. 1, 23, or storage register from which the multiplicand is to be read, inversion taking place if the highest order, by standing at 9, indicates a negative number. In the next cycle, timed impulses representative of the number being read out are impressed on the bus-bars B1-B24, and due to the energization of a relay I "in," the digit impulses are applied to the advance magnets AM of an intermediate register I (Fig. 25a, not shown). A relay DD-PQ " res " resets the registers PQ, DD, QS. A series of well-known steps ensues to read out the multiplicand from the register I into the build-up registers ML1-9, in which multiples of the multiplicand are built up (Figs. 25b-e, not shown). During this process, the register I is reset and the second line of the programme tape is sensed to read the multiplier from its source into the register I, and from the register I into a multiplier receiving register MP, Fig. 25f, and for each order of MP which receives a significant digit, the corresponding relay MPH energizes. The energized relays MPH operate related contacts in a column shift relay network, Fig. 25l, the network being divided into sections corresponding to the odd and even orders. Circuit is established to the lowermost column shift relays CS on the odd and even sides, the energized CS relays and the corresponding orders of the register MP coacting to energize selectively corresponding multiplication relays IX- 9X and 1XX-9XX, Fig. 25n, according to the digits standing in the lowest odd and even orders of the register MP. The energized X and XX relays select the multiples to be read out of the ML registers (Fig. 25b, not shown) simultaneously into registers PQ and DD, respectively, by closing related sets of contacts, e.g. 1X1-24, Fig. 25h (and Figs.
GB3042/46A 1945-02-08 1946-01-30 Improvements in or relating to calculating machines Expired GB600896A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US576892A US2616626A (en) 1945-02-08 1945-02-08 Calculator

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
GB600896A true GB600896A (en) 1948-04-21

Family

ID=24306442

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
GB3042/46A Expired GB600896A (en) 1945-02-08 1946-01-30 Improvements in or relating to calculating machines

Country Status (2)

Country Link
US (1) US2616626A (en)
GB (1) GB600896A (en)

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2636672A (en) * 1949-01-19 1953-04-28 Ibm Selective sequence electronic calculator
US2651457A (en) * 1949-05-13 1953-09-08 Ibm Calculating machine
US2651458A (en) * 1951-01-24 1953-09-08 Eastman Kodak Co Automatic sequence-controlled computer
US2692082A (en) * 1946-12-17 1954-10-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Automatic calculator
US2692728A (en) * 1946-12-17 1954-10-26 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Testing system
US2777634A (en) * 1949-08-17 1957-01-15 Nat Res Dev Electronic digital computing machines
US2777635A (en) * 1949-08-17 1957-01-15 Nat Res Dev Electronic digital computing machines
US2781967A (en) * 1950-01-28 1957-02-19 Emi Ltd Computing apparatus
US2810516A (en) * 1949-06-03 1957-10-22 Nat Res Dev Electronic digital computing devices
US2977048A (en) * 1946-12-17 1961-03-28 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Automatic calculator
US3120606A (en) * 1947-06-26 1964-02-04 Sperry Rand Corp Electronic numerical integrator and computer

Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2666579A (en) * 1944-12-26 1954-01-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Automatic calculator
US2782985A (en) * 1946-12-17 1957-02-26 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Tape control arrangement for computer
US2782398A (en) * 1953-08-28 1957-02-19 Raytheon Mfg Co Apparatus for photoelectrically cataloging digital data on magnetic tape
US3015442A (en) * 1954-12-24 1962-01-02 Ibm Electronic multipliers
US3069078A (en) * 1956-08-15 1962-12-18 Burroughs Corp Accounting machine with recording apparatus
US2911147A (en) * 1957-10-25 1959-11-03 Ibm Self-reproducing tape control system
US3343132A (en) * 1963-05-16 1967-09-19 Sperry Rand Corp Data processing system

Family Cites Families (32)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2194270A (en) * 1940-03-19 Computing and printing machine
US1694009A (en) * 1919-08-11 1928-12-04 Ncr Co Auditing machine
NL16401C (en) * 1923-02-06
US1761662A (en) * 1923-02-26 1930-06-03 Ncr Co Auditing machine
US1818473A (en) * 1926-09-07 1931-08-11 Ncr Co Auditing machine
US1965974A (en) * 1926-11-18 1934-07-10 Ibm Counter control
US2009021A (en) * 1930-04-01 1935-07-23 Maul Michael Record controlled printing machine
US2174683A (en) * 1930-12-31 1939-10-03 Ibm Accounting apparatus
US2176930A (en) * 1931-09-18 1939-10-24 Addressograph Multigraph Calculating and accounting machine
US2176931A (en) * 1931-10-30 1939-10-24 Addressograph Multigraph Calculating and accounting machine
FR747326A (en) * 1931-11-19 1933-06-14
BE395735A (en) * 1932-04-18
US2093529A (en) * 1932-10-11 1937-09-21 Ibm Tabulating machine
US2062119A (en) * 1932-10-15 1936-11-24 Ibm Successive discount accounting machine
GB422179A (en) * 1933-07-07 1935-01-07 British Tabulating Mach Co Ltd Improvements in or relating to record-card-controlled statistical machines
US2237149A (en) * 1934-01-30 1941-04-01 Ibm Tabulating machine
US2166928A (en) * 1934-05-10 1939-07-25 Ibm Multiplying machine
US2165230A (en) * 1935-06-04 1939-07-11 Ibm Multiplying machine
US2217196A (en) * 1935-08-07 1940-10-08 Ibm Convertible accounting machine
US2236794A (en) * 1935-10-09 1941-04-01 Furber Henry Jewett Mechanism for division
US2224774A (en) * 1936-06-24 1940-12-10 Ibm Tabulating machine
GB483578A (en) * 1936-10-21 1938-04-21 Ibm Improvements in or relating to record-controlled multiplying machines
GB497054A (en) * 1937-06-04 1938-12-05 Ibm Improvements in or relating to record-controlled statistical machines
US2244241A (en) * 1937-10-01 1941-06-03 Ibm Cross-adding accounting machine and programing means therefor
US2328610A (en) * 1938-06-10 1943-09-07 Ibm Multiplying and dividing machine
US2309069A (en) * 1938-06-17 1943-01-19 Sobisch Johannes Column adjuster for bookkeeping machines
US2258110A (en) * 1938-08-31 1941-10-07 Ibm Accounting machine
US2348535A (en) * 1939-02-09 1944-05-09 Gen Electric Accounting apparatus
US2323372A (en) * 1940-06-27 1943-07-06 Ibm Film data selecting and viewing machine
US2366913A (en) * 1941-01-03 1945-01-09 Clair Titus G Le Automatic printing and totalizing metering system
US2359631A (en) * 1941-04-15 1944-10-03 Ibm Dividing machine
US2370616A (en) * 1944-07-12 1945-03-06 Ibm Combined dividing and multiplying machine

Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2692082A (en) * 1946-12-17 1954-10-19 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Automatic calculator
US2692728A (en) * 1946-12-17 1954-10-26 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Testing system
US2977048A (en) * 1946-12-17 1961-03-28 Bell Telephone Labor Inc Automatic calculator
US3120606A (en) * 1947-06-26 1964-02-04 Sperry Rand Corp Electronic numerical integrator and computer
US2636672A (en) * 1949-01-19 1953-04-28 Ibm Selective sequence electronic calculator
US2651457A (en) * 1949-05-13 1953-09-08 Ibm Calculating machine
US2810516A (en) * 1949-06-03 1957-10-22 Nat Res Dev Electronic digital computing devices
US2777634A (en) * 1949-08-17 1957-01-15 Nat Res Dev Electronic digital computing machines
US2777635A (en) * 1949-08-17 1957-01-15 Nat Res Dev Electronic digital computing machines
US2781967A (en) * 1950-01-28 1957-02-19 Emi Ltd Computing apparatus
US2651458A (en) * 1951-01-24 1953-09-08 Eastman Kodak Co Automatic sequence-controlled computer

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US2616626A (en) 1952-11-04

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
GB600896A (en) Improvements in or relating to calculating machines
GB656139A (en) Improvements in electronic calculating machines
Burks From ENIAC to the stored-program computer: Two revolutions in computers
GB673759A (en) Improvements in calculating apparatus
US2834543A (en) Multiplying and dividing means for electronic calculators
US2805824A (en) Arrangements for checking the transcription of numbers and arithmetical operations effected in accounting machines
US2886238A (en) Plunkett
Mercer Micro-programming
US3126475A (en) Decimal computer employing coincident
US3116411A (en) Binary multiplication system utilizing a zero mode and a one mode
Bloch et al. The logical design of the Raytheon computer
US3428950A (en) Programmable calculating apparatus
US3524970A (en) Automatically controlled calculating apparatus
GB803734A (en) Improvements in or relating to programme apparatus for electronic computing machines
GB1172845A (en) Improvements in or relating to Calculating Machines
US3006548A (en) Electronic multiplying arrangements
US2912162A (en) Square root extracting circuit arrangements
US3019975A (en) Mixed-base notation for computing machines
US2138337A (en) Accounting machine
US3055587A (en) Arithmetic system
US3511974A (en) Automatically controlled calculating apparatus
GB662767A (en) Improvements in and relating to calculating machines
SU480079A1 (en) Device for implementing fast Fourier transform algorithm
GB810656A (en) Electronic multipliers
Hartree A historical survey of digital computing machines